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Special Heat Transfer Coefficients

4.13C Extended Surfaces or Finned Exchangers

Nehal I. Abu-Lail

How to increase q at fixed T 1 and T 2 ?

Newton’s law of cooling states that:

q convection =hA(T 1 -T 2 )

We either increase h (forced convection) or A (using fins).

We either increase h (forced convection) or A (using fins). Examples include: • Automobile radiators •

Examples include:

Automobile radiators

Ears and nose

Finned heat exchangers

convection) or A (using fins). Examples include: • Automobile radiators • Ears and nose • Finned

Two common types of fins

For a metallic tube with h i and h o , qualitative effect of fins
For a metallic tube with h i
and h o , qualitative effect of
fins can be seen using:
1
1
1
R
R
metal
U A
h A
h A
Flow
i
i
i
i
o
o
Flow
• We can neglect R metal
as metals have high k
• Assume T to be the
same for tube wall and
fin
When we have fins, A o will increase and the outside convective R will be reduced
So what? This can affect our choice of where to place hot and cold fluids in an exchanger

arrangement.

Steam inside, h i is high

Air outside, h o is small

Fins outside, increase A o and thus decrease 1/h o A o

q will increase

Steam outside, h o is high

Air inside, h i is small

Fins outside, increase A o

Increasing A o will do little to increasing q because h o is high already and 1/h o A o is small.

What we have done so far is just an approximation.

We know that T at the base of fin is different from that at the end of the fin because of added resistance to heat flow by conduction from the fin tip to the base of the fin.

Hence, a unit area of fin surface is not efficient as a unit area of bare tube surface at the base of the fin.

A fin efficiency is derived for various geometries of fins.

We will do it here only for a 1D rectangular fin

• A fin efficiency is derived for various geometries of fins. • We will do it

Fin Efficiency

In reality, the temperature drops along the fin, and thus the heat transfer from the fin is less.

the fin , and thus the heat transfer from the fin is less. • In the

In the limiting case of zero thermal resistance or infinite thermal conductivity ( k  ), the temperature of the fin is uniform (maximized) at the base value of T b

The heat transfer from a fin is maximum and can be expressed as:

transfer from a fin is maximum and can be expressed as: . Q fin ,max 

.

Q

fin ,max

hA

fin

T T

b

A f is the total surface area of the fin.

Derivation of fin efficiency

Assumptions:

Steady state 1 dimensional (x direction), exposed to surrounding at T At any x, T =T fin The base of the fin is at T o

any x, T =T f i n The base of the fin is at T o

Let us perform heat balance

kA

dT dx
dT
dx

x

x

q

x

dT dx
dT
dx

q

 kA

q



x

x  x

c

h p x T

(

)(

q c is heat loss by convection

T

)

P is perimeter of the fin

Divide by x and take the limit as x goes to zero to get:

kA

d ( dT dx dx

)

hp T T

(

),

d

2

T

dx

2

d

2

dx

2

hp

kA

0

hp

kA

(

T T

),

T T

dT

,

d

d

2

dx

2

hp

kA

0

Call

hp

kA

d 2  dx 2  hp kA   0 Call hp kA  m

m

= constant

To solve this ODE, we need two B.C.s:

At x=0 (base of the fin), T=T o , =T o -T

If the tip of fin is insulated, then at x=L, d/dx=0 (adiabatic tip, q=0)

• If fin losses heat by convection at its tip, that has to equal conduction
• If fin losses heat by convection at its tip, that has to equal conduction at the
dT
tip,
 kA
hA T
(
T
)
,
note that A will cancel out. This is a little bit
L
L
dx
involved solution and will not go with it.

If the fin is infinitely long, T at the tip (x=L) will be = T

To solve, this is a second order, homogenous equation

d

2

dx

2

2

m 0,

(

D m

)

2

2

0,

D m Two real roots, solution will be:

A

1

mx

A

2

exp

o

2 mL

e

mx

2

mL

exp

1 e

exp

o

mx

1 e

2 mL

Apply B.C.s, solve for A 1 and A 2 to get:

exp

mx

,

T T

 

o

T

o

T

cosh[

m L x )]

(

cosh mL

Remember that:

cosh x

e

x

e

x

2

Heat lost by the fin can be expressed as:

q



kA

dT  ( x 0 dx
dT
(
x
0
dx

hpkA

)

0.5 (

T

o

T

) tanh

nL

For actual fins, T decreases as we approach fin tip

The rate of heat loss per unit area decreases with fin distance as we approach tip (distance from base increases)

To account for this, we use a fin efficiency (f )

A fin efficiency is the ratio of the actual heat transfer from the fin to the heat transfer of the fin if the entire fin was at the base Temperature T o .

f

mL    hp

kA

1

2

(

hpkA

)

0.5 (

T

o

T

) tanh

mL

hPL T

(

o

T

)

tanh mL

mL

L

h (2 w

2 t )

k ( wt

)

1

2

L

In fins which are too thin,

2t<<2w

mL

2

h

kt

1

2

L

When heat is lost from the tip of the fin (no insulation), we will correct for fin length (L c )

L c =L+(t/2)=Corrected fin length

For longitudinal and circular fins respectively, the charts below give f .

fins respectively, the charts below give  f . Longitudinal C i r c u l
fins respectively, the charts below give  f . Longitudinal C i r c u l

Longitudinal

Circular

2 2
2
2

A f

2

( L xw)

c

A

f

2

[(

L

c

r

1

)

(

r

1

)

]

Example 4.13-2 Fin efficiency and heat loss from a fin

A circular aluminum fin with k = 222 W/m.K is attached to a copper tube having an OD of 0.04 m. The length of the fin is 0.04 m and its thickness is 2 mm. The OD tube base is at T=523.2 K and the surrounding T of air is 343.2 K. Air has a convective h of 30 W/m 2 .K. Calculate f and q lost from fin?

Solution

Sketch the problem

Identify variables and assumptions

We will use charts. To do that, we need Lc

Calculate the quantities needed for chart

Read efficiency from chart=0.89

Calculate heat loss

A

f

q

f

f

hA T T

f

(

o

2

[(

L

c

r

1

)

2

(

)

r

1

)

2 ]

Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient for Finned Tubes

Fins T 1 T 2 h o q T 3 x A T 4 h
Fins
T
1
T 2
h o
q
T 3
x A
T 4
h i
r i
k A
r o

Consider a tube with outside fins

Heat transfer will occur through a series of R

The total heat loss from outside the tube is the sum of heat loss by convection from base of tube (q t ) and heat loss by convection from the fins (q f )

q

q

t

q

f

h A T

o

t

(

1

T

2

)

h A

o

f

f

(

T

1

T

2

)

These can be written in terms of resistances in // as:

q

 

T

1

T

2

 

1

h A

o

t

f

h A

o

f

T

1

T

2

R

A t : Area of tube between fins A f : Area of fins

R here can replace outside convective R (1/h o A o ) we have seen before for a finned heat tube exchanger. For U i , q=U i A i (T 1 -T 4 )

U

i

1

1

x A

A

i

h

i

k A

A

Alm

A

i

h A

o

(

t

A

f

f

)