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Variable half cell used

Iron(II) Sulphate

Potential difference of silver


1 mol dm-3
1.16

0.5 mol dm-3


1.15

Tin(II) Sulphate
Aluminium Sulphate

0.95

0.96

1.46

Lead(II) Nitrate
Zinc Sulphate

0.91

0.92

1.53

1.54

Copper(II) sulphate

0.46

0.47

Previous reading with oxidised metal


Aluminium Sulphate

1.15

1
0.5
0.25
0.1
0.01

0.5

Iron(II) Sulphate c

Potential difference/V

0.01

0.1

Concentration of cell

Aluminium Sulphate

Potential difference/V

0.01

0.1

Concentration of cell/ m

Zinc Sulphate cell

R = 0.9102124714

Potential difference/V

0.01

0.1

Concentration of cell/ m

ntial difference of silver-variable cell/ V


0.25 mol dm-3 0.1 mol dm-3 0.01 mol dm-3
1.14
1.12
1.12
0.97

0.99

1.00

1.48

1.50

1.52

0.93

0.94

0.96

1.55

1.57

1.58

0.48

0.49

0.51

1.10

1.15

1.19

0.25

0.1

0.01

(II) Sulphate cell


1.17

1.16

1.15

1.16

1.15

1.14

1.13

1.12

1.11

1.1
0.1

Concentration of cell/ mol dm-3

ium Sulphate cell


1.53
1.52
1.51
1.5
1.49
1.48
1.47
1.46
1.45
1.44

1.47
1.46
1.45
1.44
1.43
0.1

Concentration of cell/ mol dm-3

c Sulphate cell
1.59

1.58

1.57

1.56

1.55

1.54

1.53

1.52

1.51

1.5
0.1
Concentration of cell/ mol dm-3

Volume of EDTA solution added/cm3

Potential difference of silver-copper cell/


First trial

0.45

1
2

0.45
0.45

3
4

0.45
0.46

5
6
7
8
9
10
15
20
25
30

0.46
0.46
0.46
0.46
0.47
0.47
0.48
0.50
0.52
0.54

1.17

f(x) = -0.0110776458 ln(x)


1.16

1.15

f(x) = -0.0110776458 ln(x)


1.16

1.15

1.14
Potential difference/V
1.13

1.12

1.11

1.1
1

0.01

1.53
1.52

R = 0.9835466661

1.51
1.5
1.49
1.48
1.47
1.46
1.45
1.44

Potential difference/V

1.47
1.46
1.45
1.44
1.43
1

0.01

1.59

1.58

R = 0.9835466661

1.57

1.56

1.55
Potential difference/V

1.54

1.53

1.52

1.51

1.5
1

0.01

ntial difference of silver-copper cell/V


Second trial

Average

0.45

0.45

0.45
0.45

0.45
0.46

0.46
0.46
0.48
0.51
0.53
0.54

0.46
0.46
0.46
0.46
0.47
0.47
0.48
0.51
0.53
0.54

Tin(II) Sulphate cell

f(x) = -0.0110776458 ln(x) + 0.9540886033

f(x) = -0.0110776458 ln(x) + 0.9540886033

fference/V

fference/V

0.01

0.1
Concentration of cell/ mol dm-3

Lead(II) Nitrate cell

R = 0.9835466661

0.01

0.1
Concentration of cell/ mol dm-3

Copper(II) Sulphate cell

R = 0.9835466661

ifference/V

0.01

0.1
Concentration of cell/ mol dm-3

Volume of Ammonia solution added/cm3

Potential difference of silver-copper cell/V


First trial

Second trial

0.45

0.45

1
2

0.46
0.46

0.46
0.47

3
4

0.47
0.47

0.48
0.48

5
6
7
8
9
10

0.49
0.50
0.50
0.51
0.51
0.51

0.50
0.51
0.51
0.52
0.52
0.53

Sulphate cell
1.01

0.99

0.98

0.99

0.98

0.97

0.96

0.95

0.94

0.93

0.92
0.1

oncentration of cell/ mol dm-3

I) Nitrate cell
0.97

0.96

0.95

0.94

0.93

0.92

0.91

0.9

0.89

0.91

0.9

0.89

0.88
0.1

oncentration of cell/ mol dm-3

II) Sulphate cell


0.52

0.51

0.5

0.49

0.48

0.47

0.46

0.45

0.44

0.43
0.1

oncentration of cell/ mol dm-3

silver-copper cell/V
Average

Volume of distilled water added/cm3

0.45

0.46
0.47

10
20

0.48
0.48

30
40

0.50
0.51
0.51
0.52
0.52
0.52

50

Iron(II) Sulp
1.24

1.22

Iron(II) Sulp
1.24

1.22

1.2

1.18

1.16
Potential difference/V
1.14

1.12

1.1

1.08

1.06
0

0.2

0.4

Concentr

Zinc Sulph
1.6
1.59
1.58
1.57
1.56

Potential difference/V

1.55
1.54
1.53

Potential difference/V

1.55
1.54
1.53
1.52
1.51
1.5
0.00

0.20

0.40

Concentr

Aluminium Su
1.53
1.52
1.51
1.5
1.49

Potential difference/V

1.48
1.47
1.46
1.45
1.44
1.43
0

0.2

0.4

Concentr

1.43
0

0.2

0.4

Concentr

Copper(II) Su
0.53
0.52
0.51
0.5
0.49

Potential difference/V

0.48
0.47
0.46
0.45
0.44
0.43
0

0.2

0.4

Concentr

Potential difference of silver-copper cell/V


First trial

Second trial

Average

0.40

0.40

0.40

0.42
0.43

0.41
0.42

0.42
0.43

0.45
0.45

0.44
0.45

0.45
0.45

0.46

0.46

0.46

Iron(II) Sulphate cell

Iron(II) Sulphate cell

0.2

0.4

0.6

Concentration of cell/ mol dm-3

Zinc Sulphate cell

0.8

1.2

0.20

0.40

0.60

0.80

1.00

1.20

Concentration of cell/ mol dm-3

Aluminium Sulphate cell

0.2

0.4

0.6

Concentration of cell/ mol dm-3

0.8

1.2

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.2

0.8

1.2

Concentration of cell/ mol dm-3

Copper(II) Sulphate cell

0.2

0.4

0.6

Concentration of cell/ mol dm-3

Temperature of cells/C
19.5
32.0
41.0
50.5
61.0
70.5
81.5

1.2

1.00

1.20

1.2

1.2

1.2

Potential difference of silver-copper cell/V


0.45
0.44
0.44

White text
Blue text

0.43
0.43

Black text
Yellow text

0.42
0.41

Red text

1
0.5
0.25
0.1
0.01

Tin(II) Sulphate cell


1.02
1.01
1
0.99

1.01
1
0.99
0.98

Potential difference/V

0.97
0.96
0.95
0.94
0.93
0.92
0

0.2

0.4

0.6

Concentration of cell/ mol dm-

Lead(II) Nitrate cell


0.98
0.97
0.96
0.95
0.94

Potential difference/V

0.93
0.92
0.91
0.9
0.89

0.91
0.9
0.89
0.88
0

0.2

0.4

0.6

Concentration of cell/ mol dm-

=Reading that is increasing


=Reading that is decreasing
=Stable reading
20.0C
21.5C
22.0C
22.5C
24.0C

Sulphate cell

0.4

0.6

oncentration of cell/ mol dm-3

I) Nitrate cell

0.8

1.2

0.4

0.6

oncentration of cell/ mol dm-3

0.8

1.2

Variable half cell used

Potential difference of silver-variable cell/ V

Iron(II) Sulphate

1.16

Tin(II) Sulphate
Aluminium Sulphate

0.95
1.45 (extrapolated)

Lead(II) Nitrate
Zinc Sulphate

0.91

Copper(II) sulphate

0.46

1.53

R = NaN

f(x) = - 0.012708386x + 1.16

f(x) = - 0.012708386x + 1.16

f(x) = 0.0088768529x + 1.1539556047

Potential difference/V

1.2

-5

-4.5

-4

-3.

f(x) = - 0.012708386x + 1.53


f(x) = - 0.0110776458x + 1.534088603

Potential difference/V

1.2

-5

-4.5

-4

-3.

8386x + 1.16

Potential difference of silver-variable


Variable half cell used
-3
1 mol dm-30.5 mol dm
0.25
mol dm-3
1.16
1.15
1.14
Iron(II) S
0.95
Tin(II) Su
Aluminium

0.96

0.97

1.46

1.48

Lead(II) N
Zinc Sulp

0.91

0.92

0.93

1.53

1.54

1.55

Copper(II)

0.46

0.47

0.48

Iron(II) Sulphate cell

8386x + 1.16

529x + 1.1539556047

-4

-3.5

8386x + 1.53
76458x + 1.5340886033

-3

-2.5

Concentration of cell/ mol dm-3

Zinc Sulphate cell

-2

-1.5

-1

-4

-3.5

-3

-2.5

Concentration of cell/ mol dm-3

-2

-1.5

-1

e of silver-variable cell/ V
-3
0.1 mol dm
0.01
mol dm-3
1.12
1.12

0.14842 0.139762 0.131028 0.113329 0.113329

0.99

1.00

1.50

1.52

0.94

0.96

1.57

1.58

-0.094311 -0.083382 -0.07257 -0.061875 -0.040822


0.425268 0.431782 0.438255 0.451076 0.457425

0.49

0.51

-0.776529 -0.755023 -0.73397 -0.71335 -0.673345

-0.051293 -0.040822 -0.03046 -0.01005


0.378436 0.392042 0.405465

1
0.5
0.25
0.1
0.01

0
-0.69315
-1.38629
-2.30259
-4.60517

0
0.41871

1.48

1.24

1.22

1.2

1.18

f(x) = f(x) = -

1.22

f(x) = f(x) = -

1.2

1.18

1.16
Potential difference/V
1.14

1.12

1.1

1.08

1.06
-1

-0.5

-5

-4.5

1.6
1.59

f(x) = - 0

f(x) = - 0

1.58
1.57
1.56
1.55
1.54
1.53
1.52
1.51

Potential difference/V

1.54
1.53
1.52
1.51
1.5
-1

-0.5

-5

-4.5

f(x) = f(x) = -

f(x) = -

Potential difference/V

-5

-4.5

f(x) = f(x) = -

Potential difference/V

-5

-4.5

Variable half cell Gradient of silver/variable cell


Iron(II) Sulphate
0.0089

1.48

1.50

Tin(II) Sulphate
Copper(II) sulphate

-0.0111
-0.0107

Lead(II) Nitrate
Zinc Sulphate

-0.0107
-0.0111

Aluminium Sulphate

-0.0145

1.52

Tin(II) Sulphate cell

f(x) = - 0.012708386x + 0.95


f(x) = - 0.0110776458x + 0.9540886033

-5

f(x) = - 0.012708386x + 0.95


f(x) = - 0.0110776458x + 0.9540886033

-4.5

-4

-3.5

-3

-2.5

-2

Natural log of Concentration of cell/ mol dm-3

Lead(II) Nitrate cell

f(x) = - 0.012708386x + 0.91


f(x) = - 0.0106816958x + 0.9128002995

-4.5

-4

-3.5

-3

-2.5

-2

Concentration of cell/ mol dm-3

Aluminium Sulphate cell

f(x) = - 0.0145107035x + 1.4573973628


f(x) = - 0.0109470072x + 1.4704042729

f(x) = - 0.0084722573x + 1.46

-4.5

-4

-3.5

-3

-2.5

Concentration of cell/ mol dm-3

Copper(II) Sulphate cell

-2

Copper(II) Sulphate cell

f(x) = - 0.012708386x + 0.46


f(x) = - 0.0106816958x + 0.4628002995

-4.5

-4

-3.5

-3

-2.5

Concentration of cell/ mol dm-3

-2

ated expected gradient using Nernst equation


Difference between calculated and actual
-0.0127
0.0216
-0.0127
-0.0127

0.0016
0.0020

-0.0127
-0.0127

0.0020
0.0016

-0.0085

-0.0060

te cell
1.02
1.01
1
0.99

1.01
1
0.99
0.98
0.97
0.96
0.95
0.94
0.93
0.92
-2.5

-2

-1.5

-1

-0.5

ncentration of cell/ mol dm-3

te cell
0.98

0.97

0.96

0.95

0.94

0.93

0.92

0.91

0.9

0.89

0.91

0.9

0.89

0.88
-2.5

-2

-1.5

-1

-0.5

cell/ mol dm-3

hate cell
1.53
1.52
1.51
1.5
1.49
1.48
1.47
1.46
1.45
1.44
1.43
-2.5

-2

-1.5

-1

-0.5

cell/ mol dm-3

hate cell
0.53

hate cell
0.53
0.52
0.51
0.5
0.49
0.48
0.47
0.46
0.45
0.44
0.43
-2.5

cell/ mol dm-3

-2

-1.5

-1

-0.5

Variable half cell used


1
Iron(II) Sulphate
Tin(II) Sulphate
Aluminium Sulphate
Lead(II) Nitrate
Zinc Sulphate
Copper(II) sulphate

1 mol dm-3
2
3
Mean

0.5 mol
1

1.16

1.16

1.15

0.96

0.95

0.95

0.95

0.96

1.45

0.91

0.91

0.91

0.91

1.53

1.52

1.53

1.54

0.46

0.47

0.46

0.46

0.47

Potential difference of silver-variable cell/ V


0.5 mol dm-3
2
3
Mean

0.25 mol dm-3


2
3
Mean

0.1 mol dm-3


2
3

1.15

1.14

1.14

1.12

0.96

0.96

0.96

0.96

0.97

0.97

0.97

0.98

0.99

1.00

1.47

1.46

1.48

1.48

1.48

1.49

1.50

0.92

0.92

0.93

0.93

0.93

0.95

0.93

1.54

1.54

1.54

1.55

1.55

1.56

1.58

0.46

0.47

0.47

0.47

0.48

0.48

0.48

0.49

0.50

0.48

.1 mol dm-3

0.01 mol dm-3


2
3
Mean

Mean

1.12

1.12

1.12

0.99

1.00

1.01

1.00

1.00

1.50

1.52

1.51

1.52

0.94

0.96

0.95

0.96

1.57

1.58

1.58

1.58

0.49

0.50

0.51

0.51

0.51

Potential difference of silver-variable cell/

Variable half cell used

1.00

Iron(II) Sulphate

1.16

0.50
0.25
1.1688087819 1.1776175639

Tin(II) Sulphate
Aluminium Sulphate

0.95

0.9588087819

0.9676175639

1.46

1.4658725213

1.4717450426

Lead(II) Nitrate
Zinc Sulphate

0.91

0.9188087819

0.9276175639

1.53

1.5388087819

1.5476175639

Copper(II) sulphate

0.46

0.4688087819

0.4776175639

f silver-variable cell/ V
0.10
0.01
1.1892621402 1.2185242804
0.9792621402 1.0085242804
1.4795080935 1.4990161869
0.9392621402 0.9685242804
1.5592621402 1.5885242804
0.4892621402 0.5185242804