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Raw material: Sugarcane


Process description: Manufacturing of sugar from the sugar cane also helps to
generate electricity by burning of bagasse which is the byproduct of sugar-cane.
Initially when the cane are introduced as the feed in the
plant it passes through the crushing unit. Crushing unit
consists of chopper and fibrizer.
When the canes are passed through choppers it evens out
the cane and cut into small pieces.
This small pieces of sugar cane is then converted into fibers
by putting crushed sugar canes in fibrizer.
In this unit the sugarcanes are crushed and then send to
mills to extract the juice from the crushed canes.
This process of cutting canes and converting into fibers is
called as cane preparation.
These fibers are send to mills through rake elevator type of
conveyors. There are in total 5 numbers of mills which
extract juice from the sugarcane fibers.
This mills are driven by A.C. motors having an rpm of 1000
and 750HP.
After the extraction of the juice is done then the juice is send
for further processing and the residue is send to the storage
which is adjacent to the boiler in boiler section.

This residue which is left after extracting the juice is known

as bagasse.
Bagasse is used as a fuel in the boiler to generate steam.
When the steam is generated it is having a temperature of
500C and a very high pressure of 84Kg/cm2.
Since this steam is superheated the heat transfer coefficient
of the steam is less which cant be directly used in the
evaporation sections.
Therefore we have two options available with us one is sent
the steam to a MP Saturator and another is used the high
pressure steam to rotate turbine which will help in
generating electricity.
If we use in MP Saturator then there will be no electricity
generated only the superheated steam will convert to MP
Steam which will give high heat transfer coefficient.
So the high pressure steam is used to generate the
electricity by running turbine.
This section is known as power generation section.
In this section the high pressure steam is used to rotate
turbine, this turbine is connected to a rotor through a shaft.
When the turbine rotates this shaft also rotates due to which
there is a magnetic flux generated this cause the current in
the coils of the armature, thus electricity is generated.
After the steam is passed through the turbine the high
pressure steam is converted in to mild pressure steam and
some amount of condensate is produced.
The outlet of the turbine is divided into two lines one is the
feed line which is going to the evaporation section and
another is the recycle line going to the boiler.
This MP Steam from the feed line is send to the evaporation
section at a flowrate of 17 Tons per hrs of condensate at a
temperature of 119C and 1.03Kg/cm2 pressure is reused in
the boiler.

The remaining steam which is at a temperature of 264C and

10kg/cm2 is send to the evaporators through feed line.

Products: Sugar crystals

Electricity generation


The flue gas exiting from the boiler goes to the

economiser where it preheats the entering boiler feed
water. This flue gas is then used to preheat the air
entering the boiler and then goes to the ESP.

If this flue gas exiting from the air preheater is used to

dry the Bagasse in a Rotary drum drier, before it enters
the boiler, energy can be saved. As some heat is lost in
vaporising the moisture content of the Bagasse. Hence
the efficiency of boiler increases, which leads to huge

Rotary Drier Calculations:-

1) The moisture content of bagasse is 0.44 and the
equilibrium moisture content is 0.02.

2) The flue gas temperature from the Boiler is 4500C and

this is sent to Economizer to heat the boiler feed water
before it enters the boiler. The temperature of flue gas
coming out from Economizer is 250 0C and here after the
flue gas goes to Air heater.
3) Air heater inlet is 2050C and outlet temperature of the
flue gas is 120 to 1250C.
4)The inlet temperature of flue gas entering ESP is 120 to
5) The flow rate of the bagasse entering the boiler is 42
6) The moisture content of the flue gas (Data given by
the company) is 4.3 %
7) Mass of bagasse entering: 42Mt/hr






temperature of flue gases: 120C

9) Wet bulb temperature of flue gases: 40C



10) Outlet temperature of bagasse from dryer: 60C

(Assumption) & Outlet temperature of flue gases from
dryer: 60C







experimentally), Moisture content in the dried bagasse:

2% (found experimentally)
12) Specific heat of bagasse (solid): 0.24 kcal/kgC,
Specific heat of water: 1 kcal/kgC, Specific heat of flue
gases:0.43 kcal/kgC.
Qt = amount of heat transfer, kcal/hr
Xa = kg moisture/kg dry solid (entry)
Xb = kg moisture/kg dry solid (entry)
Cps = sp.heat of solid kcal/kgCCpl=sp.heat of liquid
Cpv = sp.heat of vapour, kcal/kgC
Tsa = Inlet solid temperature , C
Tv = Vapourisation temperature, C
Tvb = Final vapour (exit) temperature, C

Mass of bone dry solid (bagasse): 420000.56= 23520 kg

Water content in dried bagasse: 840 kg
Xa = 420000.44= 0.785
Xb = 470 = 0.019
Ni = 120-40 = 4
Rate of mass transfer = ms(Xa-Xb)
= 23520(.785-.019) = 18016 kg /
Qr = Cps (Tsb-Tsa) + Xa C pl (Tv Tsa) + (Xa Xb ) +Xb

(Tsb-Tv) + (Xa-Xb ) x Cpv x ( Tvb Tv )

= .416(60-30) + .785 x 1 x ( 40-30 ) +( .785- .019 ) x

575 + .019 x 1( 60-50 ) + (.785 - .019) .43 (60-50 )
= 465 kcal/ kg

Qt = 465 x 23520 = 10936800 kcal/hr

Flow rate of air entering is found from heat balance and
Csa = humid heat
Assuming sp.heat of air as 0.23 kcal/kg0C and of humid
vapour as 0.44 kcal/kg0C we get,
= .23 + .44 x .43 = .429 kcal/kg0C
Qt = Mg ( 1 + Ha ) Csa (Tha Thb)
10936800 = Mg ( 1 + Ha ) .429 ( 120-60)
Amount of wet air = Mg ( 1 + Ha )
= 10936800

= 424895 kg air / hr
.429 ( 120-60)

Mg = 424895

= 295066 kg dry air/hr


Outlet humidity of air = H1 + 18016/295066 = 0.061 kg

water / kg dry air

T = ( 120-50 ) - ( 60-50 )/ Ln( (120-50 )/(60-50))

= 30.830C
Assuming mass velocity of 10000 kg/hr,
Area = 295066 / 10000 = 29.5 m2
A= r 2

D = 6.13 m
L = Qt / .21 x x DG.67 x

= 10936800/.21 x 3.14 x 29.5 x 10000.67 x 30.83

= 38.10m


After using the rotary drier the bagasse is drier and then
use which gives the higher generation of the steam rate
which increases the rate of generation of electricity.
Hence rotary drier is preferred.




The Roatary drier is a MS pipe

(L=2000,dia-150) provided with 2 nos handler for manual
External insulation of 25mm glass wool (mineral wool) to be
The feed hopper will have a capacity of about 100kgs of wet
shredded baggase.
Hot air is to be generated by Hair dryer/Electrical heating coils +
a small blower.

Feed the wet material (about 10kgs at a time) and observe the
dried material composition ,temp etc at different RPM of drier .
Study efficieny of drying at different T1/T2, feed rates and speed
of rotation.
Size of shredded bagasse to be noted.