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Assignment 1 (IE THEORY)

1. The filament of a small vacuum tube uses a power of approximately 1.5 W. Suppose that 75
million of these tubes are used to build the equivalent of a 64-Mb memory. How much power is
required for this memory? If the power is supplied from a 230V ac source, what is the current
required by this memory?
2. Determine the resistance of a cube with sides of length l cms and resistivity 10-cm, when a
pair of opposite surfaces are chosen as the terminals.
3. An 8-bit A/D converter has VFS=5V. What is the value of the LSB? If the input voltage is 2.77V,
what is the binary output code of the converter?
4. A given signal source provides an open-circuit voltage voc,and a short-circuit current isc. For the
following sources, calculate the internal resistance, Rs, the Norton current, is; and the thevenin
voltage, vs:

v oc =10 V ,i sc=100 A


v oc =0.1 V ,i sc=10 A

5. What is the fundamental frequency of the highest frequency square wave for which the fifth
harmonic is barely audible by a relatively young listener?
6. An amplifier using balanced power supplies is known to saturate for signals extending within 1.5
V of either supply. For liner operation, its gain is 500V/V. what is the rms value of the largest undistorted sine wave output available, and input needed with 5-V supplies? With 12-V supplies?
7. An amplifier has a voltage gain of 32 for frequencies above 10 kHz, and zero gain for frequencies

v s ( t )=( 0.5 sin 2500 t +0.75 cos 8000 t+0.6 cos 12000 t ) V

is applied to the amplifier.

Write the expression for the output voltage of the amplifier.

8. As illustrated in Fig 1, a capacitor and resistor can be used to filter or smooth the waveforms say
from a half-wave rectifier, to get something close to a dc voltage at the output, for use in a power
supply, for example.

Fig 1

For simplicity, assume the voltage from source

v s is a square wave. Assume that at

v o =0 that is the circuit is at rest. Now assuming that

circuit time constant much smaller than



t=0 ,

is small enough to make the

t 2 , calculate the voltage waveforms for each

half cycle of the input wave. Find the average value of the output voltage

v o for

t 1 =t 2 .

Sketch the waveform clearly.

9. A high performance microprocessor design requires 10 million logic gates and is placed in a
package that can dissipate 40W. (a) What is the average power that can be dissipated by each
logic gate on the chip? (b) If a supply voltage of 3.3V is used, how much current can be used by
each gate?
10. A logic gate in a digital circuit is described by the following voltage levels: V IH=3.5V, VOH=4.3V,
VIL=1.5V, VOL=0.9V.
(a). Draw the voltage transfer characteristics using 3-line segment approximation.
(b). What range of voltages will be treated as invalid?
(c). What are its noise margins?