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“MAGPUYONG MALINAWON

SA YUTANG KABILIN” [To live in peace in our Ancestral Domain]

Rudy B. Rodil Mindanao Historian UP Academic Congress 2 February 10

Lumad Mindanaw

1986: Lumad Mindanaw formed

- proclaimed collective self as Lumad with

- right to self-determination and to govern

themselves

- within their respective ancestral domains

- In accordance with their customary laws

Lumad Peace Agenda

2001:

Magpuyong malinawon diha sa Yutang Kabilin katungod namong mga Lumad nga dili mahimong ikalimod ug yatakan ni bisan

kinsa [To live in peace in our Ancestral

Domain is our right as Lumad that cannot be denied nor trampled upon by anyone.]

(Lumad Peace Agenda, 67 lideres, 20 tribu, Jan 17-19, 2001)

Lumad Situation

2001:

wala kami nakabaton ug kalinaw

padayon nga hulga sa among yutang kabilin

sa pagkawala sa among kultura

continuing threat to our ancestral domain

[the absence of peace among us

the

the degradation of our culture

]

kadaghanan sa mga yutang kabilin sa mga Lumad gisudlan na sa plantasyon, logging concessions, dams, geothermals, minahan, ranchohan, gihimong eco-tourist

spots

concessions, dams, geothermals, mines, cattle ranches, or were converted to eco-

tourist spots]

[most of our ancestral lands have been penetrated by plantations, logging

diin buot isilsil sa among alimpatakan nga kini alang sa kalambuan, apan sa lalum

namong pagsusi ug pagpamalandong kini nga mga proyekto makapahanaw sa

among katungod sa malinawon namong pagpuyo sa among yutang kabilin ug

makapahuyang sa among gahum sa pagdumala sa tribu

this is for development, but from our deeper examination, these are projects that

diffuse our right to a peaceful life within our ancestral domain and weaken our authority to govern our own tribe.]

[where we are told that

ang pagpahawa kanamo gikan sa among yutang kabilin wala lamang kini naka-

apekto sa among pamuyo apan labaw sa tanan sa among pagkinabuhi isip katawhang Lumad. [Our displacement from our ancestral lands has affected not

only our lives, but especially our being Lumad communities.]

(Source: Lumad Peace Agenda, 67 lideres, 20 tribu , Jan 17-19, 2001)

Lumad the numerical minority

Lumad (35 tribes/subtribes) - - - - - - 8.9%

Moro (Muslim/ 13 ethnic groups) - 18.5%

Migrants and descendants - - - - - - - 72.5%

So unlike the situation in 1890 and previous three centuries

MINDANAO 1890

US: Institutionalized Dispossession

Regalian doctrine enshrined

Traditional system of land disposition

nullified

Non-recognition of communal customary laws

Torrens system institutionalized

Land classification: alienable and inalienable; disposable and non-disposable

Public Land law and land distribution

Adoption of resettlement programs

Public Land Law and Resettlement:

Discriminatory Policies

 

Hectarage Allowed

Year

Homesteader

Non -Christian

Corporation

1903

16 has.

(no provision)

1,024 has.

1919

24 has.

10 has.

1,024 has.

1936

16 has.

4 has.

1,024 has.

Resettlement: Case of Cotabato 1918, 1939, 1970 Census

Year

Moro Maj

Lumad Maj

Settler Maj

Towns

Towns

Towns

1918

20

5

0

1939

20

9

3

1970

10

0

38

POPULATION CHANGE IN COTABATO

1918-1970

1918

POPULATION CHANGE IN COTABATO 1918-1970 1918 Bayan ng Moro Bayan ng Lumad Bayan ng Settler 1970
POPULATION CHANGE IN COTABATO 1918-1970 1918 Bayan ng Moro Bayan ng Lumad Bayan ng Settler 1970

Bayan ng MoroBayan ng Lumad Bayan ng Settler

Bayan ng LumadBayan ng Moro Bayan ng Settler

Bayan ng SettlerBayan ng Moro Bayan ng Lumad

1970

POPULATION CHANGE IN COTABATO 1918-1970 1918 Bayan ng Moro Bayan ng Lumad Bayan ng Settler 1970

1939

POPULATION CHANGE IN COTABATO 1918-1970 1918 Bayan ng Moro Bayan ng Lumad Bayan ng Settler 1970
POPULATION CHANGE IN COTABATO 1918-1970 1918 Bayan ng Moro Bayan ng Lumad Bayan ng Settler 1970

Fruit of Displacement: Mindanao Towns with Majority Lumad

1970 Census

Esperanza 66.35%

Impasugong 75.97%

San Fernando 61.43%

Sumilao 78.26%

Talakag 56.93%

Jose Abad Santos 60.57%

Malita 61.90%

Lapuyan 60.25%

2000 Census

Add:

South Upi 62.39%

Lake Sebu 58.52%

T’boli – 67.69%

Mindanao Provinces with Majority Moro 1970 Census

Maguindanao --- (part of Cotabato) Lanao del Sur - - - 91.97%

Basilan - - - - - - - -63.29% Sulu - - - - - - - - - -97.23% Tawi-Tawi - - - (part of Sulu)

At 15 municipalities in other provinces:

Palawan (1), Zamboanga Norte (2), Lanao Norte

(9),

Sultan Kudarat (2), Cotabato (1)

In sum, 1913 to 1970…

They have been marginalized, meaning:

Displaced and dispossessed in their own

traditional territories Transformed into numerical minority

Voiceless in governance Their culture fast slipping away before their eyes

Proactive Moves: Aug 2008 Declaration

affirms that Mindanao is inhabited by Bangsamoro

people, by Indigenous peoples and by migrant

settlers

Calls for respect for the right to self-determination of the Indigenous Peoples, the right to use their

traditional governance systems, their ownership of

their ancestral domains and their ownership of the

resources therein

Seeks the promotion and accords the highest respect

to various traditional peace pacts done through

diyandi, sapa, tampuda hu balagun, pakang and

khandugo/ sandugo between ancestors of indigenous

peoples and the Bangsamoro peoples

Source: The CAGAYAN DE ORO DECLARATION ON THE MEMORANDUM OF AGREEMENT ON ANCESTRAL DOMAIN OF THE GRP -MILF PEACE PANEL, by 200+ Lumad leaders, August 27, 2008. (Bisaya-English version)

Lumad View of Their Development

Demand from Government:

To fast track the delineation and approval of titles

of their ancestral domains

Enforce NCIP's mandatory role in promoting and upholding the Indigenous Peoples' cultures

Respect their traditional governance over ancestral domains, its utilization and maximization

To stop calling or associating the Indigenous

Peoples in Mindanao and Palawan as Bangsamoro peoples.

Source: The CAGAYAN DE ORO DECLARATION ON THE MEMORANDUM OF AGREEMENT ON ANCESTRAL DOMAIN OF THE GRP -MILF PEACE PANEL, by 200+ Lumad leaders, August 27, 2008. (Bisaya-English version)

Appeal to the MILF

propose the immediate revival and

institutionalization of the traditional peace

pact agreements between our respective communities and the Magindanao and

Maranao groups of the MILFs, in order to

establish lasting peace and build strong

cooperation with them in the quest for peace and development in our territories;

Source: Letter Panagtagbo to the Moro Islamic Liberation Front, 22 Oct 2003

Kalamboan sa Yutang Kabilin [Development in Ancestral Domain]  Ang Lumad malipay sa kalamboan nga

Kalamboan sa Yutang Kabilin [Development in Ancestral Domain]

Ang Lumad malipay sa kalamboan nga wala

makadaot sa kultura ug kinaiyanhan ug haum sa

panginahanglan sa Lumad: (a) ekonomiya; (b)

kultura; (c) edukasyon, (d) pulitika. [Development. The Lumad are happy with development that is not

destructive of culture and environment, and

responsive to the needs of the Lumad in the sphere

of: (a) economy; (b) culture; (c) education, and (d)

politics.]

Source: Lumad Peace Agenda, 67 lideres, 20 tribu , Jan 17-19, 2001.

- END -

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