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The Subject of Transport

Phenomena
EME5363 Transport Phenomena II
L. Liu <lliu1@ltu.edu>

What are the transport phenomena?


End states (equilibrium)

State 1

How? How fast?


2

W? Q?

State 2

Basic Introduction
Momentum
Transport

Energy
Transport

Mass Transport

EME5363 Transport Phenomena II


Notes

Diffusion Equation
(1D)

Three Levels of Study

Molecular scale
(fundamental
mechanisms)

Microscopic scale
(what happens at a
small region)

Macroscopic scale
(system representation,
no attempt to solve
details)
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Momentum
Transport

Energy
Transport

Viscosity,
Momentum- flux
(stress tensor)

Thermal
conductivity, k
Heat-flux vector

Mass Transport
Diffusivity, DAB
Mass-flux vector

Equation of energy
Equation of
motion

Macroscopic
momentum
balance

Equation of species
diffusion
Macroscopic
energy balance

Macroscopic
species mass
balances

Overview
Momentum
Transport

Energy Transport

Mass Transport

Chaps 1 8
Flow of pure fluids @
constant temperature
Chap 9 16
Flow of pure fluids with varying temperature
Chap 17 24
Mixtures with varying composition (diffusive & convective mass transfer)
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Mechanisms of Energy Transport


EME5363 Transport Phenomena II
L. Liu <lliu1@ltu.edu>

Mechanisms of Energy Transport

Molecular energy transport:


- motion of the molecules

conduction

Convective energy transport:


- by the bulk motion of a fluid

convection

Radiative energy transport:


- does not require a material medium

Chapter 9

radiation

Diffusive energy transport:


- occurs in mixtures that are interdiffusing

Objective: To learn the calculation of energy flux vector


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Cartesian Coordinate System


z
3
Origin O

The three axes are labeled x, y, and z.


Three unit vectors are labeled as , and . The
direction of each vector is along one of the coordinate
axes. They are unit vectors orthogonal to each other.

Molecular Transport of Energy


Fouriers Law

T
qx A
x
(from experiments)

dT
qx k
dx

Heat flux

dT
Qx kA
Heat rate
dx

The conductive heat flux vector:

T
T
T

x k y k z
q k
x
y
z

Assumed isotropic medium (k is


the same in all directions)

Example

At a given instant of time the temperature distribution within an


infinite homogeneous body is given by the function:
T(x, y, z) = x2 2y2 + z2 xy +2yz
Assuming constant thermal conductivity
k, please calculate the

conductive heat flux vector q.

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Convective Transport of Energy

Energy transported by the bulk flow of the fluid.


- mass flux rate across x-face : vx
- energy flux carried:

1 2
v U vx
2

mass flux

kinetic energy
per unit mass
1
vx2 v y2 vz2
2

- Similarly, energy flux across y-face and z-face:


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internal energy
per unit mass

Convective Transport of Energy - Cont

The convective energy flux vector:


1 2
v U v
2

Or

1 2
1 2
1 2

v
U

v
U

v
U

x x
y y
z z
2
2
2

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Work Associated with Molecular Motions


Work: W F r

dW
dr

Rate of work (power):


F
F v
dt
dt

yx

dvx
dy

Negative sign: lesser y to


greater y

yx
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- shear stress on y-face in x direction


- flux of x-momentum in the positive y direction

Tensor

A vector can be viewed as 1st order tensor with 31


components:

v vx

vy

vz

Stress or momentum transport is represented by 2nd


order tensor with 32 components:
xx xy xz

yx yy yz

zx
zy
zz

Tensors can be higher orders.


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