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Published online 2 June 2005 in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI: 10.1002/er.1116

columns}application to the thermal design

of shell-and-tube condensers

A. Briggsn,y and H. H. Bui

Department of Engineering, Queen Mary, University of London, London E1 4NS, U.K.

SUMMARY

Energy and mass transfer to a column of condensate draining by gravity between two successive tubes

has been analysed theoretically. The results of the model agree well with previous experimental data

where the variation in condensate temperature with distance from the upper tube was measured.

The analysis provides a basic tool for the thermal analysis of inundated tubes by eliminating the need

to make assumptions about the condensate inundation temperature and mass ow rate on such tubes.

Copyright # 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

KEY WORDS:

1. INTRODUCTION

Thermal design of a shell-and-tube condenser involves interactions between vapour and falling

condensate. Previous analysis has shown some degree of success in determining the combined

eect of the vapour and condensate ows but there are still many areas of uncertainty. One such

area is condensation on the falling condensate between consecutive tube rows, which will eect

the temperature and mass ow rate of the condensate and hence have an inuence on the

thermal performance of the lower tube. Chen (1961) speculated that the falling condensate

would reach the temperature of the surrounding vapour before impinging on the lower tube,

while Jacobs and Nadig (1984) proposed that it will always be below the vapour temperature

when it reaches the lower tube and hence condensation will commence at the top of the lower

tube. In theory either of the above can be true since the condensate temperature will depend on

the initial mass ow rate of the condensate, the temperature dierence between the condensate

and the surrounding vapour and the spacing between the tubes, as conrmed experimentally by

Celata et al. (1989), Lui et al. (1989) and Karapantsios et al. (1995). In all three of these

investigations the liquid column in question was generated articially. Honda et al. (1989) on

the other hand, measured the bulk condensate temperature at various distances below active

condenser tubes. Mitovis and Ricoeur (1995) analysed the situation theoretically. They assumed

n

Correspondence to: A. Briggs, Department of Engineering, Queen Mary, University of London, London E1 4NS, U.K.

E-mail: a.briggs@qmul.ac.uk

Accepted 26 January 2005

914

the liquid velocity and temperature at the start of the liquid column were uniform and found

that the velocity remained nearly uniform even at large vertical distances from the start of

the column.

2. THEORETICAL ANALYSIS

2.1. Governing equations

In the present work we will examine the case where the subcooled condensate is assumed to

drain from the upper tube to the lower tube in continuous columns. The physical situation and

co-ordinate system are shown in Figure 1. If we consider a control volume of height dz,

condensate enters the element with a mass ow rate m and a velocity v, the later assumed

constant across the element normal to the direction of ow. (See Mitovis and Ricoeur (1995),

who found very small deviations from uniformity even for column lengths up to 150 mm, far

larger than found in practical condensers.) From continuity we have

p

m r d2 v

1

4

As the condensate accelerates due to gravity, v increases, while condensation onto the column

causes m to increase. Neglecting vapour shear at the condensatevapour interface, conservation

of momentum in the z direction gives

@v

@P

rg

2

rv

@z

@z

where P is the pressure dierence between vapour and liquid and is given by

2s

3

P

d

Substituting Equation (3) into Equation (2) and integrating will yield an expression for the

variation in d with z. The boundary condition on v (and hence d ) with respect to z is, however,

dicult to dene since the ow at z=0 is three-dimensional. Honda et al. (1987) used the

Copyright # 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

915

CONDENSATION OF VAPOUR

1 2

2s

rv rgz

2

d

m 2

2s

8r

rgz

rpd 2

d

For small values of z Equation (5) gives negative values of d but the solution develops into

reasonable values after about 1 or 2 mm for the practical range of the relevant parameters.

Honda et al. (1987) assumed the condensate mass ow rate in the column, m, was constant

(i.e. neglecting condensation on the column). In the present analysis we will include

condensation on the condensate column and calculate the resulting increase in mass ow rate

and temperature with z. The increase in mass ow rate over the element dz is given by

q

dm

pd dz

6

hfg

where q is the heat ux from vapour to condensate at the interface given by

@T

qk

@r rR

where R=d/2.

Conservation of energy in the condensate column gives

2

@T

@ T 1 @T

k

rcp v

@z

@r2

r @r

The left hand side of Equation (8) represents transport of enthalpy vertically by convection

(velocities, and therefore convection in the other two directions being neglected) while the right

hand side represents conduction in the radial direction (conduction in the tangential direction

being neglected since the problem is two dimensional and in the vertical direction because the

temperature gradients in this direction are small compared to the radial direction). Equation (8)

was solved using a nite dierence method with T=Tv at r=R and @T=@r 0 at r=0. The

boundary condition on T with respect to z is somewhat dicult to dene for the same reasons as

mentioned above in connection with those on d. In the present analysis we will approximate the

temperature prole at the rst step to a quadratic of the following form:

r 2

T Tcl Tv Tcl

9

R

where Tcl is the condensate temperature at the centre line of the column for the rst step only

and is given by

Tcl 2Tbo Tv

10

where Tbo is the bulk mean temperature of the condensate. Equation (9) gives T=Tv at r=R

and T=Tcl at r=0.z

z

;Tcl 2Tbo Tv :

we

have

Tbo

RR

0

Tr dr=

RR

0

r dr

RR h

0

2 i

RR

Tcl Tv Tcl r=R r dr= 0 r dr 12Tcl Tv

916

Finally, noting that the velocity in the condensate column is independent of r, the bulk mean

condensate inundation temperature at any point z is calculated from

Z R

Z R

Tr dr

r dr

11

Tbz

0

The following iterative scheme was employed to nd the variation of m, d and Tbz with z for

predened values of m0, Tbo and Tv.

1. At z=dz, calculate the condensate column diameter d from Equation (5).

2. Calculate the centre line temperature in the condensate column, Tcl and the initial

temperature prole, using Equation (10) and Equation (9), respectively.

3. Calculate the heat ux at the condensate surface using Equation (7).

4. Calculate the subsequent increase in condensate mass ow rate over the next element dz

using Equation (6).

5. Calculate the new condensate column diameter d and velocity v using Equations (5)

and (1).

6. Calculate the new condensate temperature prole and mean condensate temperature using

Equations (8) and (11), respectively.

7. Repeat steps 36 for the next element dz until z=Z, the vertical distance between tubes.

Honda et al. (1989) reported measurements of inundation temperatures for condensation of

R-113. A small cup containing two thermocouples was used to catch the draining condensate at

various positions below the condensing tube. There was some diculty in collecting falling

condensate in the measuring cup due to vapour shear causing the condensate column to move

around randomly. It should be noted, therefore, that this method is subject to considerable

uncertainty and the resulting data should be viewed with caution.

In order to compare the results of Honda et al. (1989) with the present analysis the initial

mass ow rate in one column of condensate, m0 was calculated from

m0 Gl

12

where G is the mass ow rate of condensate draining from the bottom of the tube divided by the

tube length and l is the spacing between drainage sites, which here is assumed to be equal to the

well known Taylor instability wavelength as follows:

s

2s

l 2p

13

rg

An estimate is also needed of Tbo, the initial temperature of the draining condensate. Two

methods were used for this. In the rst Tbo was taken as the bulk mean temperature of the

condensate assuming laminar ow around the tube and using the assumptions of the Nusselt

(1916) approach, which predicts a parabolic velocity gradient and linear temperature gradient in

Copyright # 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

917

Ref = 520, T = 23.0 K

0

10

15

z / mm

Tbz / K

(a)

324

323

322

321

320

319

318

317

316

315

314

Tbz / K

Tbz / K

CONDENSATION OF VAPOUR

324

323

322

321

320

319

318

317

316

315

314

20

25

324

323

322

321

320

319

318

317

316

315

314

Ref = 660, T = 22.6 K

0

10

15

20

25

z / mm

(b)

Ref = 880, T = 20.4 K

0

10

15

20

25

z / mm

(c)

Figure 2. Comparison of present model (lines) with data of Honda et al. (1989) (points) using initial bulk

mean temperature from laminar theory: (a) Tv=323.45 K, Uv=4.3 m s1; (b) Tv=323.45 K, Uv=7.9 m s1;

and (c) Tv=323.45 K, Uv=11.9 m s1.

Tbo Tv 38 DT

14

where Tv is the vapour temperature and DT the vapour-side temperature dierence (vapour

temperature minus tube wall temperature). In the second method Tbo was estimated by

extrapolating the experimental data of Honda et al. (1989) back to z=0.

Figures 2 and 3 compare the experimental data of Honda et al. (1989) with the present

analysis using the above two methods of estimating the initial bulk temperature of the draining

condensate. From Figure 2 it can be seen that the bulk mean temperature calculated using the

laminar lm model (Equation (14)) gives relatively good agreement with the measurements at

low to moderate mass ow rates (i.e. low to moderate lm Reynolds numbers) but

underestimates the temperature of the draining condensate by up to 6 K at the higher mass

ow rates (i.e. lm Reynolds numbers above about 600). The disagreement between theory and

experiment is greatest when both condensate mass ow rate and vapour velocity are high. Both

these factors would tend to induce turbulence in the condensate lm and hence Equation (14)

would be increasingly invalid as both condensate ow rate and vapour velocity increase.

The results in Figure 3 show better agreement with the higher mass ow rate data than those

shown in Figure 2, but slightly worse agreement at lower mass ow rates. Overall, however, the

agreement between experiment and theory is much better, although this might be expected since

the theoretical curves are eectively anchored to the experimental data at z=0 due to the use of

Copyright # 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

324

323

322

321

320

319

318

317

316

315

314

Ref = 520, T = 23.0 K

0

10

15

z / mm

Tbz / K

(a)

Tbz / K

Tbz / K

918

(c)

20

25

324

323

322

321

320

319

318

317

316

315

314

Ref = 660, T = 22.6 K

0

10

324

323

322

321

320

319

318

317

316

315

314

15

20

25

z / mm

(b)

Ref = 880, T = 20.4 K

0

10

15

z / mm

20

25

Figure 3. Comparison of present model (lines) with data of Honda et al. (1989) (points) using initial bulk

mean temperature from extrapolation of experimental data: (a) Tv=323.45 K, Uv=4.3 m s1; (b)

Tv=323.45 K, Uv=7.9 m s1; and (c) Tv=323.45 K, Uv=11.9 m s1.

the extrapolated value of Tbo. The theory does however continue to show good agreement for

increasing values of z for all the data sets.

Given the uncertainties in the measured condensate temperature mentioned above, and

considering the additional problem of estimating the initial bulk mean temperature of the

condensate, the agreement between theory and experiment can be considered satisfactory.

4. PARAMETRIC STUDY

The analytical model developed and validated above will now be used to investigate the eect of

initial mass ow rate and initial bulk mean temperature on the variation of condensate

temperature and mass ow rate for a practically relevant range of the controlling parameters.

Figure 4 shows the variation of condensate temperature with distance from the upper tube for

steam and R-123, for a single initial condensate mass ow rate and a range of initial condensate

temperatures. The value of the mass ow rate per length, G, draining from the upper tube for

each uid was chosen as the lowest value for which column drainage might be expected based on

the experimental observations of Briggs et al. (2000) for refrigerant and Briggs and Bui (2003)

for steam. The values are nominally equivalent to the condensation rate on one tube for R-123

and three tubes for steam. The initial mass ow rate in the condensate column, m0, was

calculated from G using Equation (12).

Copyright # 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

919

CONDENSATION OF VAPOUR

330

380

Tv = 373.15 K

Tv = 320 K

320

Tbo = 370 K

Tbo = 360 K

360

Tbz / K

Tbz / K

370

Tbo = 350 K

Tbo = 340 K

350

310

300

340

330

(a)

Tbo = 315 K

Tbo = 310 K

Tbo = 305 K

Tbo = 300 K

Tbo = 295 K

10

20

30

40

290

50

z / mm

(b)

10

20

30

40

50

z / mm

Figure 4. Variation of condensate temperature with distance from upper tube}eect of initial condensate

temperature: (a) steam, G=0.03 kg m1 s1; and (b) R-123, G=0.01 kg m1 s1.

330

380

Tv = 320 K

Tv = 373.15 K

320

360

= 0.2 kg/m s

= 0.1 kg/m s

= 0.05 kg/m s

= 0.03 kg/m s

350

340

330

(a)

Tbz / K

Tbz / K

370

10

20

30

z / mm

310

= 0.15 kg/m s

= 0.10 kg/m s

= 0.05 kg/m s

= 0.03 kg/m s

= 0.01 kg/m s

300

40

50

290

(b)

10

20

z / mm

30

40

50

Figure 5. Variation of condensate temperature with distance from upper tube}eect of initial condensate

mass ow rate: (a) steam, Tbo=350 K; and (b) R-123, Tbo=300 K.

For both uids and all initial condensate temperatures there is a rapid increase in condensate

temperature just below the upper tube as expected, as vapour condenses on the subcooled liquid

in the condensate column. The rate of temperature rise falls o as the liquid temperature

approaches that of the vapour and condensation decreases. For a typical shell-and-tube

condenser, with 19 mm tubes in an equilateral triangular arrangement of 25 mm pitch the

vertical distance between a given tube and the one immediately below it (i.e. two rows down)

would be 36 mm. It can be seen from Figure 4 that for both uids the condensate column

temperature would be very close to the vapour temperature when the condensate impinged on

the next tube regardless of the degree of subcooling of the condensate as it leaves the upper tube.

Figure 5 shows the change in condensate temperature for steam and R-123 for a single initial

temperature and a range of mass ow rates. The maximum ow rate chosen for each uid is

equivalent to approximately 15 rows for refrigerant and 25 rows for steam. For the low ow

rates the condensate temperature quickly approaches that of the vapour while at the higher ow

rates the rate of increase is much smaller as expected and the condensate would still be

signicantly subcooled when it reached the next tube row.

Figure 6 shows the percentage increase in the mass ow rate in the condensate column against

initial mass ow rate for a range of initial condensate temperatures. The calculations are based

Copyright # 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

920

120

R-123

Tv = 320 K

m (z = 50 mm) / mo (%)

m (z = 50 mm) / mo (%)

103

102

101

Tbo = 340 K

Tbo = 350 K

115

110

Tbo = 295 K

Tbo = 300 K

Tbo = 305 K

Tbo = 310 K

Tbo = 315 K

105

Tbo = 360 K

100

(a)

Tbo = 370 K

50

100

150

/ (g /m s)

200

100

250

(b)

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

160

/ (g /m s)

(a) steam, Tv=373.15 K; and (b) R-123, Tv=320 K.

on a column length (i.e. vertical spacing between tubes) of 50 mm. For steam the increase in

mass ow rate of condensate in the column never exceeds 4%, even for large initial subcooling

of the condensate. For R-123, however, up to an additional 15% of vapour, by mass, condenses

on the column compared to that draining from the upper tube.

5. CONCLUSIONS

In the present work the temperature distribution, condensate mass ow rate and diameter of a

column of condensate draining between two successive tubes has been calculated. The results of

the model are in satisfactory agreement with previous experimental data where the variation in

temperature was measured. There is some uncertainty, however, in the appropriate method of

estimating the initial bulk mean temperature of the condensate as it drains from the upper tube.

A parametric study using the model shows that for steam and refrigerant at low condensate

ow rates, i.e. equivalent to the condensation rate on 13 tubes, the draining condensate will be

close to the vapour temperature when it impinges onto the next tube in the bank. For higher

mass ow rates, however, the condensate will still be signicantly subcooled when it reaches the

next tube row.

The analysis provides a tool for studying the heat transfer to inundated tubes by eliminating

the need to make assumptions about the condensate inundation temperature and mass ow rate

on such tubes.

NOMENCLATURE

cp

d

g

hfg

k

m

=diameter of condensate column (m)

=specic force of gravity (N kg1)

=specic enthalpy of evaporation (J kg1)

=thermal conductivity of condensate (W m1 K1)

=mass ow rate in condensate column (kg s1)

921

CONDENSATION OF VAPOUR

m0

P

q

R

Ref

r

T

Tbo

Tbz

Tcl

Tv

Tw

v

Uv

Z

z

=pressure dierence between liquid column and vapour (Pa)

=heat ux to condensate column (W m2)

=radius of condensate column (m)

=lm Reynolds number at bottom of tube (=4G/m) (dimensionless)

=radial co-ordinate (see Figure 1) (m)

=temperature (K)

=bulk mean temperature of condensate for rst step (K)

=bulk mean temperature of condensate at z (K)

=temperature at centreline of condensate column for rst step (K)

=vapour temperature (K)

=tube wall temperature (K)

=velocity in condensate column (m s1)

=vapour velocity (m s1)

=distance between two tubes (m)

=vertical coordinate measured from bottom of tube (see Figure 1) (m)

Greek letters

G

DT

l

m

r

s

length (kg m1 s1)

=temperature dierence across condensate lm (=TvTw) (K)

=distance between drainage sites (m)

=dynamic viscosity of condensate (kg m1 s1)

=density of condensate (kg m3)

=surface tension (N m1)

REFERENCES

Briggs A, Bui HH. 2003. Condensation of steam on banks of tubes}new experimental data and an evaluation of

predictive methods. Proceedings of the 4th Baltic Heat Transfer Conference, Kaunas, 499508.

Briggs A, Bui HH, Rose JW. 2000. Condensation of refrigerant on banks of smooth and nned tubes. Proceedings of the

20th IIR International Congress of Refrigeration, Sydney, vol. 2, Paper No. 518, 26202626.

Celata GP, Cumo M, Farello GE, Focardi G. 1989. A comprehensive analysis of direct contact condensation of

saturated steam on sub-cooled liquid jets. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 32:639654.

Chen MM. 1961. An analytical study of laminar lm condensation, Part 2: single and multiple horizontal tubes.

Transactions of the ASME, Journal of Heat Transfer 83C:5560.

Honda H, Nozu S, Takeda Y. 1987. Flow characteristics of condensation on a vertical column of horizontal low nned

tubes. Thermal Engineering Joint Conference (ASME-JSME) 1:517524.

Honda H, Fujii T, Uchima B, Nozu S, Nakata S. 1989. Condensation of downward owing R-113 vapour on bundles of

horizontal smooth tubes. Heat Transfer}Japanese Research 18(6):3152.

Jacobs HR, Nadig R. 1984. Condensation on a lm owing over single and multiple isothermal horizontal tubes.

Proceedings of ASME 38:115121.

Karapantsios TD, Kostoglou M, Karabelas AJ. 1995. Local condensation rates of steam-air mixtures in direct contact

with a falling lm. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 38:779794.

Lui TL, Jacobs HR, Chen K. 1989. An experimental study of direct condensation on a fragmenting circular jet.

Transactions of the ASME, Journal of Heat Transfer 111:585588.

Mitovis J, Ricoeur A. 1995. Fluid dynamics and condensation-heating of capillary liquid jets. International Journal of

Heat and Mass Transfer 38:14831494.

Nusselt W. 1916. Die Oblerachenkondensation des wasserdamfes. Z. Vereines Deutsch. Ing. 60:541549.

Copyright # 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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