Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 6

Contents

Section 1: Basic Laboratory Principles


1. Laboratory Equipments, Glassware, Laboratory Hazards and
General Laboratory Rules3
Laboratory Equipments 3
Laboratory Glassware 4
Laboratory Hazards 7
Laboratory Safety Procedure 7
Laboratory First Aid 10
2. Laboratory Units, Basic Calculations and Preparation of Solutions11
Units11
Preparation of Molar and Normal Solutions 13
Preparation of Percent Solutions 14
3. Acids, Bases, Alkalies, pH, Indicators and Buffers 15
Acids and Bases 15
Alkali15
Indicators15
Buffers16

Section 2: Qualitative Experiments


4. Carbohydrates21
Definition 21
Classification 21
5. Reactions of Carbohydrates23
Molischs Test 23
Iodine Test 23
Benedicts Test 24
Barfoeds Test 25
Seliwanoffs Test 25
Osazone Test 25
Reactions of Monosaccharides 26
Reactions of Disaccharides 27
Scheme for Identification of Unknown Carbohydrates 28
Reactions of Polysaccharides 28

6. Proteins30
Definition 30
Elemental Composition 30
Functions 30
Classification 30
7. Color Reactions of Proteins32
Protein and its Color Reactions 32

Laboratory Manual for Practical Biochemistry

8. Precipitation Reactions of Proteins38


Methods of Precipitation Reactions 38
Significance of the Precipitation Reactions 39
Scheme for Identification of Unknown Proteins 41
9. Reactions of Nonprotein Nitrogenous (NPN) Substances42
Nonprotein Nitrogenous Substances 42
10. Scheme for Identification of Physiologically Important Substances44
11. Urine Analysis (Normal Urine)45
Analysis of Normal Constituents in Urine 45
Determination of Specific Gravity 45
12. Analysis of Abnormal Constituents in Urine50
Physical Characteristics 50
Chemical Constituents 50
13. Inborn Errors of Metabolism54
Screening Tests for Inborn Errors of Amino Acid Metabolism 54
Screening Tests for Inborn Errors of Carbohydrate Metabolism 56
14. Analysis of Gastric Juice58
Tests for Normal Constituents 58
Tests for Abnormal Constituents 59
15. Analysis of Saliva61
Collection of Saliva 61
16. Preparation of Hemin Crystals63
Preparation of Hemin Crystals 63
17. Sample Collection and Preservation64
Blood Sample Collection and Preservation 64
Urine Collection and Preservation 65
xii

Section 3: Quantitative Experiments


18. Estimation of Blood Sugar by Folin-Wu Method69
Principle 69
Procedure 69
Calculation 70
Clinical Aignificance 71
Other Methods 71
19. Estimation of Blood Glucose by O-Toluidine Method72
Principle 72
Procedure 72
Calculation 73
20. Estimation of Blood Urea by Diacetyl Monoxime (DAM) Method74
Principle 74
Procedure 74
Calculation 75
Clinical Significance 75
Other Methods 76
Contents

21. Estimation of Serum Total Protiens, Albumin and Albumin/Globulin Ratio


by Biuret Method77
Principle 77
Procedure 77
Calculation 78
Clinical Significance 78
22. Estimation of Serum Albumin by Dye-Binding Method80
Principle 80
Procedure 80
Calculation 80
Other Methods 81
23. Estimation of Serum Inorganic Phosphate by Fiske and
Subba Row Method82
Functions of Phosphorus 82
Principle 82
Procedure 83
Calculation 83
Clinical Significance 83
Other Method 84

xiii

24. Estimation of Serum Cholesterol by Zaks Method85


Principle 85
Procedure 85
Calculation 86
Clinical Mignificance 86
Other Methods 86

Laboratory Manual for Practical Biochemistry

25. Estimation of Serum Uric Acid by Caraway Method87


Principle 87
Procedure 87
Calculation 88
Clinical Significance 88
Other Methods 88
26. Estimation of Serum Bilirubin by Malloy and Evelyn Method89
Principle 89
Procedure 89
Calculation 90
Clinical Significance 90
27. Estimation of Serum Creatinine by Jaffes Alkaline Picrate Method92
Creatine 92
Principle 92
Calculation 93
Clinical Significance 93
28. Estimation of Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid) in Plasma by
Sauberlich Method94
Principle 94
Procedure 94
Calculation 94
Clinical Sgnificance 95
29. Estimation of Vitamin A in Serum by Bessey Method96
Principle 96
Procedure 96
Calculation 96
Clinical Significance 96
30. Estimation of Serum Transaminases by Reitman and Frankel Method97
Principle 97
Procedure 97
Calculation 98
Clinical Significance 98
Other Methods 99
xiv

31. Estimation of Serum Alkaline Phosphatase by


Kind and King Method100
Principle 100
Clinical Significance 101
32. Estimation of Serum Calcium by O-Cresolphthalein
Complexone Method102
Principle 102
Calculation 103
Clinical Significance 103
Other Methods 103
33. Estimation of Urine Creatinine By Jaffe Alkaline Picrate Method104
Principle 104
Procedure 104
Calculation 104
Clinical Significance 105

Contents

34. Estimation of Urinary Proteins by Turbidimetric Method106


Principle 106
Procedure 106
Calculation 106
Other Methods 107

Section 4: Clinical Biochemistry Techniques


and Recent Aspects of Clinical
Biochemistry
35. ColorimetryGeneral Principle and Procedure 111
Principle 111
Procedure 113
Calculation 113
Applications of Colorimetric Assays 113
36. Potentiometry114
Indicator Electrodes 115
pH Meter 115
Ion-Selective Electrodes 117
37. Flame PhotometerGeneral Principle and Procedure118
Flame Photometry 118
xv

38. ElectrophoresisGeneral Principle and Procedure121


Electrophoresis 121
39. ChromatographyGeneral Principle and Procedure124
Chromatography 124
40. Automation in Clinical Biochemistry128
Types of Analyzers 128

Laboratory Manual for Practical Biochemistry

41. Quality Control in Clinical Biochemistry130


Investigation of Clinical Laboratory 130

xvi

42. Oral Glucose Tolerance Test134


Assessing the Status of Glucose Tolerance 134
43. Case Reports139
44. Normal Values of Biochemical Parameters147

Section 5: Reagent Preparations


45. Reagent Preparations153
Reagents for Qualitative Experiments 153
Reagents for Quantitative Experiments 155
Index159