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REFERENCE LIST

AISC (1999) Load and Resistance Factor Design Specification for Structural
Steel Buildings AISC, Inc., Chicago.
Boyer J.P. (1964). Castellated Beams New Developments AISC Engineering
Journal, 2nd qtr, pp 104-108.
Chen, W.F. and Lui, E.M. (1987). Structural Stability: Theory and
Implementation New York : Elsevier.
Clark, J.W. ,and Hill, H.N. (1960). Lateral Buckling of Beams AISC
Engineering Journal Structural Division, July, No. ST7, pp 175-196.
Galambos, T. (1993). Bracing of Trussed Beams Is Your Structure Suitably
Braced?, Structural Stability Research Council Conference, April, pp 3949.
Galambos, T. (1998). Guide to Stability Design Criteria for Metal Structures
John Wiley and Sons Inc., Fifth Edition, New York, pp 192-213.
Halleux, P. (1967). Limit Analysis of Castellated Beams Acier-Stahl-Steel,
No. 3, pp 133-144.
Hosain, M.U. and Speirs, W.G. (1973). Experiments on Castellated Steel
Beams Journal of the American Welding Society, Vol. 52, pp 329-342.
Jackson, R. (2002). Vibration and Flexural Strength Characteristics of
Composite Castellated Beams. M.S. Thesis, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg,
Virginia.
Knowles, P.R. (1991). Castellated Beams Proceeding of the Institution of Civil
Engineers, Part 1, No. 90, pp 521-536.
Kerdal, D. and Nethercot, D.A. (1982). Lateral-Torsional Buckling of
Castellated Beams The Structural Engineer, Part B, No. 3 pp 53-61.
Kerdal, D. and Nethercot, D.A. (1983). Buckling of Laterally Unsupported
Castellated Beams Structural Stability Research Council Proceedings, 3rd
International Colloquium, Stability of Metal Structures, Conference
Code:03354, pp 151-171.
Kerdal, D. and Nethercot, D.A. (1984). Failure Modes for Castellated Beams
Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 4th qtr., pp 295-315.

56

Murray, T.M. Allen, D.E. and Ungar, E.E. (1997). AISC Steel Design Guide
Series 11: Floor Vibrations Due to Human Activity. American Institute of
Steel Construction, Chicago.
Pattanayak, U. and Chesson, E. (1974). Lateral Instability of Castellated Beams
AISC Engineering Journal, 3rd qtr, pp 73-79.
Salmon, C. and Johnson, E. (1996). Steel Structures Design and Behavior
Prentice Hall, 4th Edition, pp 479-559, 1008-1009.
SMI Steel Products. (2002). SMI Steel Products; Smart Beam, The Intelligent
Alternative.
Steel Joist Institute. (1994). Fortieth Edition Standard Specifications Load
Tables and Weight Tables For Steel Joist and Joist Girders
Toprac, A., Altfillisch, M. and Cooke, B. (1957). An Investigation of Open-Web
Expanded Beams Journal of the American Welding Society, Vol. 29, pp
77-88.

57

Appendix A
CB24x26 Calculations

58

A.1

Measured Dimensions of CB24x26 Specimen


bf = 4.603"

b = 4.5"
e = 6.25"

tw = 0.251"

dt = 4.125"

dg = 23.375"
ho = 15.188"

dt = 4.125"
tf = 0.344"

A.2

Tee Section Properties


ATotal = [(bf )(tf ) + ((dt tf )(tw ))](2) = 5.75 in. 2

1 bf 3 tf 3

Cw =
+ h 3 tw 3 (2) = 0.154 in. 6
36

J = bftf 3 + htw 3 (2) = 0.194 in. 4


3

( )

( )

1
1

Iy = (tf ) bf 3 + (dt tf ) tw 3 2 = 10.09 in. 4


12
12

Ix = 683.09 in. 4

Sx =

Ix
= 58.45 in.3
c

ry =

Iy
= 1.32 in
A

59

e = 6.25"

b = 4.5"
e = 6.25"

A.2.1 Classical Lateral-Torsional Buckling Solution


X1 =

Sx

EGJA
= 723.15
2
2

Cw Sx
X2=4
= 0.00004
Iy GJ
Mcr =
Mcr =

wLb 2 PLb
+
= 0.00325Lb 2 + 0.075Lb
8
4

CbSxX 1 2
X 12 X 2
1+
2
kyLb
kLb
2

ry
ry

0.00325 Lb 2 + 0.075Lb =

94221.89
20.28
1+
kyLb
(kLb )2

When ky = 1.0 and k = 1.0:


Lb = 25.0 ft
When ky = 1.0 and k = 0.5:

Lb = 25.0 ft
When ky = 0.8 and k = 0.5:
Lb = 27.0 ft

A.2.2 Addition of Load Location Term


Mcr =

wLb 2 PLb
+
= 0.00325Lb 2 + 0.075Lb
8
4

C 2 = 0.50

Mcr =

Cb EIyGJ
kyLb

2 ECw C 2 2 + 1 C 2

1+
GJ
kLb
(kLb )2

0.00325 Lb 2 + 0.075 Lb =

ECw

GJ

94221.89
9.87
(2.57 ) 2.25
1+
2
kyLb
kLb
(kLb )

60

When ky = 1.0 and k = 1.0:


Lb = 24.9 ft
When ky = 1.0 and k = 0.5:

Lb = 24.9 ft
When ky = 0.8 and k = 0.5:

Lb = 26.8 ft

A.2.3 Galambos Formula


x =

Abottom chord (de ~


y ) 3 Atop chord y 3
2 yo = 0
Ix

Abottom chord de
~
y=
= 10.84 in.
Atotal
yo = y +

Iy bottom chord de
=0
Iy

( 2 + 3)( 2 + 4) wLb 4 EIy 2 + 4


2 + 4

P
x a +

2 + P

192
2( KLb) 3 16
16

4 EIy 2 + 3
2 + 3
yo
2
x

2( wLb ) wL
3
2
24
2( KLb) 24
4 EIy 4 ECw 2 GJ
+
=0

3
3
KL
b
2
KL
KL
b
b
2
(
)
2
(
)

14258225325.02
[0] +
156033.05 + 300 24.17 Lb
( KLb) 3

14258225325.02
724.99 Lb 2 (26.0 )Lb
[0]
( KLb) 3

14258225325.02 217113568.93 10707392.33


+

=0
3
3
KL
b
KL
KL
b
b
(
)
(
)

61

When K = 1.0:
Lb = 20.2 ft
When K = 0.8:

Lb = 23.4 ft
When K = 0.5:

Lb = 32.1 ft

A.3

Full Section Properties


ATotal = (bf )(tf )(2 ) + (dg (2 * tf ))(tw ) = 9.55 in. 2
Cw =

h 2 Iy
= 1341.28 in. 6
4

J=

1
2bftf 3 + htw 3 = 0.273 in. 4
3

Iy =

1
(tf ) bf 3 + 1 (h tf ) tw 3 = 10.11 in. 4
6
12

( )

( )

Ix = 755.46 in. 4
Sx =

Ix
= 64.64 in. 3
c

ry =

Iy
= 1.03 in.
A

62

A.3.1 Classical Lateral-Torsional Buckling Solution


X1 =

Sx

EGJA
= 1000.88
2
2

Cw Sx
X2 =4

= 0.24
Iy GJ
Mcr =
Mcr =

wLb 2 PLb
+
= 0.00325Lb 2 + 0.075Lb
8
4

CbSxX 1 2
X 12 X 2
1+
2
kyLb
kLb
2

ry
ry

0.00325Lb 2 + 0.075 Lb =

112053.35
125347.16
1+
kyLb
(kLb )2

When ky = 1.0 and k = 1.0:


Lb = 29.8 ft
When ky = 1.0 and k = 0.5:

Lb = 33.6 ft
When ky = 0.8 and k = 0.5:
Lb = 35.7 ft
When ky = 1.0 and Lb = 37.5ft:
k = 0.30
When ky = 0.8 and Lb = 37.5ft:
k = 0.40

A.3.2 Addition of Load Location Term


wLb 2 PLb
Mcr =
+
= 0.00325Lb 2 + 0.075Lb
8
4

63

C 2 = 0.50

Cb EIyGJ
2 ECw C 2 2 + 1 C 2

Mcr =
1+
kyLb
GJ
kLb
(kLb )2

0.00325 Lb 2 + 0.075 Lb =

ECw

GJ

112053.35
9.87
177.02
(
)

15875
.
40
1+

kyLb
kLb
(kLb )2

When ky = 1.0 and k = 1.0:


Lb = 26.8 ft
When ky = 1.0 and k = 0.5:
Lb = 30.0 ft
When ky = 0.8 and k = 0.5:

Lb = 31.9 ft
When ky = 1.0 and Lb = 37.5ft:
k = 0.18
When ky = 0.8 and Lb = 37.5ft:
k = 0.23

A.3.3 Galambos Formula


x =

Abottom chord (de ~


y ) 3 Atop chord y 3
2 yo = 0
Ix

Abottom chord de
~
= 8.03 in.
y=
Atotal
yo = y +

Iy bottom chord de
=0
Iy

64

( 2 + 3)( 2 + 4) wLb 4 EIy 2 + 4

2 + 4
P2
P
x a +
2
+

3
192
2( KLb) 16

16

4 EIy 2 + 3
2 + 3
yo
2
wL
wL
2
(
)
b
x

3
2
24
2( KLb) 24
4 EIy 4 ECw 2 GJ
+
=0

3
3
2 KLb
2( KLb) 2( KLb )

14286376906.33
156033.05 + 30024.17 Lb
[0] +
3
(
)
b
KL

14286376906.33
724.99 Lb 2 (26.0)Lb
[0]
( KLb) 3

14286376906.33 1894469871531.30 15113783.67


+

=0
KLb
( KLb) 3
( KLb) 3

When K = 1.0:
Lb = 24.8 ft
When K = 0.8:

Lb = 29.2 ft
When K = 0.5:
Lb = 41.1 ft

A.4

Weighted Average Section Properties


% Tee =

e
100 = 29%
2b + 2e

% Solid =

e
100 = 29%
2b + 2e

% Transition =

2b
100 = 42%
2b + 2e

65

ATotal = 7.65 in. 2


Cw = 670.72 in.6
J = 0.234 in. 4
Iy = 10.10 in. 4
Ix = 719.28 in. 4
Sx = 61.54 in.3
ry = 1.18 in.

A.4.1 Classical Lateral-Torsional Buckling Solution


X1 =

Sx

EGJA
= 869.68
2
2

Cw Sx
X2=4
= 0.14692
Iy GJ
Mcr =
Mcr =

wLb 2 PLb
+
= 0.00325Lb 2 + 0.075Lb
8
4

X 12 X 2
CbSxX 1 2
1+
2
kyLb
kLb
2

ry
ry

0.00325Lb 2 + 0.075 Lb =

When ky = 1.0 and k = 1.0:


Lb = 28.4 ft
When ky = 1.0 and k = 0.5:

Lb = 31.6 ft

66

106009.16
76958.01
1+
kyLb
(kLb )2

When ky = 0.8 and k = 0.5:


Lb = 33.6 ft

A.4.2 Addition of Load Location Term


Mcr =

wLb 2 PLb
+
= 0.00325Lb 2 + 0.075Lb
8
4

C 2 = 0.50

Cb EIyGJ
2 ECw C 2 2 + 1 C 2

Mcr =
1+
kyLb
GJ
kLb
(kLb )2

0.00325 Lb 2 + 0.075 Lb =

ECw

GJ

103513.55
9.87
1435.44
(
)

9293
.
34
1+

kyLb
kLb
(kLb )2

When ky = 1.0 and k = 1.0:


Lb = 25.48 ft
When ky = 1.0 and k = 0.5:

Lb = 27.9 ft
When ky = 0.8 and k = 0.5:
Lb = 29.7 ft

A.4.3 Galambos Formula


Abottom chord (de ~
y ) 3 Atop chord y 3
x =
2 yo = 0
Ix
Abottom chord de
~
y=
= 9.43 in.
Atotal

67

yo = y +

Iy bottom chord de
=0
Iy

( 2 + 3)( 2 + 4) wLb 4 EIy 2 + 4

2 + 4
P2
P
x a +
2
+

3
192
2( KLb) 16

16

4 EIy 2 + 3
2 + 3
yo
2
wL
wL
2
(
b
)
x

3
2
24
2( KLb) 24
4 EIy 4 ECw 2 GJ
+
=0

3
3
2 KLb
2( KLb) 2( KLb )

114272301115.68
156033.05 + 300 24.17 Lb
[0] +
( KLb) 3

14272301115.68
724.99 Lb 2 (26.0 )Lb
[0]
( KLb) 3

14272301115.68 947343492550.11 12910588.00


+
=0

KLb
( KLb) 3
( KLb) 3

When K = 1.0:
Lb = 23.3 ft
When K = 0.8:

Lb = 27.3 ft
When K = 0.5:
Lb = 38.3 ft

68

Appendix B
CB24x26 Specimen Test Data

69

CASTELLATED BEAM TEST SUMMARY


CB24x26

TEST IDENTIFICATION:
TEST DESCRIPTION
Loading
Point of Load Application
Span
Bracing Points
Number of beams
End Condition

Gravity
Mid-span
37'-6"
None
1
Web-to-column flange
double angle connection

FAILURE MODE:
Lateral-Torsional Buckling
THEORETICAL CRITICAL UNBRACED LENGTH:
(a) Classical Lateral-Torsional Buckling Solution =
(b) Addition of Load Location
Term =
(c) Galambos Formula =
EXPERIMENTAL CRITICAL UNBRACED LENGTH:
Total Applied Load =
Unbraced Length =

35.7 ft
31.9 ft
29.2 ft

300 lb
37.5 ft

R-VALUE:
R(a) = Experimental Length/Theoretical Length =
R(b) = Experimental Length/Theoretical Length =
R(c) = Experimental Length/Theoretical Length =

1.05
1.18
1.28

DISCUSSION:
10 lb weights were loaded on a loading plate clamped to the top
flange of the castellated beam at midspan. Catch bracing was
installed to stop excessive deflections and help characterize
failure.

Concentrated Load (lb)


Test Length
Eccentricity
e=0
e = 1 1/2"
e = 2"

48.3ft

44.8ft

41.3ft

37.5ft

170
100
80

220
150
120

260
190
150

300
260
200

70

Photos of CB24x26 Testing


Support Column
Quarter Point Catch Bracing

Midspan Catch Bracing

Quarter Point Catch Bracing

Photo of CB24x26 Entire Test Set-up

71

Location of Failure

Photo of CB24x26 Specimen at failure

72

Appendix C
CB27x40 Calculations

73

C.1

Measured Dimensions of CB27x40 Specimen


bf = 6.063"

b = 6.0"
e = 7.5"

tw = 0.320"

dt = 4.188"

dg = 26.875"
ho = 18.5"

dt = 4.188"
tf = 0.524"

C.2

Tee Section Properties


ATotal = [(bf )(tf ) + ((dt tf )(tw ))](2) = 8.70 in. 2
1 bf 3 tf 3

Cw =
+ h 3 tw 3 (2) = 0.555 in.6
36

J = bftf 3 + htw 3 (2) = 0.667 in. 4


3

( )

( )

1
1

Iy = (tf ) bf 3 + (dt tf ) tw 3 (2) = 19.48 in. 4


12
12

Ix = 1393.66 in. 4
Sx =

Ix
= 103.71 in.3
c

ry =

Iy
= 1.50 in.
A

74

e = 7.5"

b = 6.0"
e = 7.5"

C.2.1 Classical Lateral-Torsional Buckling Solution


X1 =

Sx

EGJA
= 929.99
2
2

Cw Sx
X2=4
= 0.00002
Iy GJ
Mcr =
Mcr =

wLb 2 PLb
+
= 0.005Lb 2 + 0.075Lb
8
4

CbSxX 1 2
X 12 X 2
1+
2
kyLb
kLb
2

ry
ry

0.005 Lb 2 + 0.075Lb =

242910.78
21.27
1+
kyLb
(kLb )2

When ky = 1.0 and k = 1.0:


Lb = 30.0 ft
When ky = 1.0 and k = 0.5:

Lb = 30.0 ft
When ky = 0.8 and k = 0.5:
Lb = 32.4 ft

C.2.2 Addition of Load Location Term


Mcr =

wLb 2 PLb
+
= 0.005Lb 2 + 0.075Lb
8
4

C 2 = 0.50

Mcr =

Cb EIyGJ
kyLb

2 ECw C 2 2 + 1 C 2

1+
GJ
kLb
(kLb )2

0.005 Lb 2 + 0.075 Lb =

ECw

GJ

242910.78
9.87
(2.69) 2.31
1+
2
kyLb
kLb
(kLb )

75

When ky = 1.0 and k = 1.0:


Lb = 29.9 ft
When ky = 1.0 and k = 0.5:

Lb = 29.9 ft
When ky = 0.8 and k = 0.5:

Lb = 32.2 ft

C.2.3 Galambos Formula


x =

Abottom chord (de ~


y ) 3 Atop chord y 3
2 yo = 0
Ix

Abottom chord de
~
y=
= 12.61 in.
Atotal
yo = y +

Iy bottom chord de
=0
Iy

( 2 + 3)( 2 + 4) wLb 4 EIy 2 + 4

2 + 4
P

x a +

2 + P
192
2( KLb) 3 16

16

4 EIy 2 + 3
2 + 3
yo
2
x
2( wLb ) wL

3
2
24
2( KLb) 24
4 EIy 4 ECw 2 GJ
+
=0

3
3
KL
b
2
b
b
KL
KL
2
(
)
2
(
)

27513708959.94
156033.05 + 300 37.19 Lb
[0] +
( KLb) 3

27513708959.94
1715.95 Lb 2 (40.0 )Lb
[0]
( KLb) 3

27513708959.94 784498707.30 36879923.59


+
=0

3
3
KL
b
KL
KL
b
b
(
)
(
)

76

When K = 1.0:
Lb = 24.1 ft
When K = 0.8:

Lb = 27.9 ft
When K = 0.5:

Lb = 38.2 ft

C.3

Full Section Properties


ATotal = (bf )(tf )(2) + (dg (2 * tf ))(tw ) = 14.62 in. 2
Cw =

h 2 Iy
= 3390.32 in.6
4

J=

1
2bftf 3 + htw 3 = 0.869 in. 4
3

Iy =

1
(tf ) bf 3 + 1 (h tf ) tw 3 = 19.53 in. 4
6
12

( )

( )

Ix = 1562.47 in. 4
Sx =

Ix
= 116.28 in.3
c

ry =

Iy
= 1.16 in.
A

77

C.3.1 Classical Lateral-Torsional Buckling Solution


X1 =

Sx

EGJA
= 1227.40
2
2

Cw Sx
X2=4
= 0.10
Iy GJ
Mcr =
Mcr =

wLb 2 PLb
+
= 0.005Lb 2 + 0.075Lb
8
4

CbSxX 1 2
X 12 X 2
1+
2
kyLb
kLb
2

ry
ry

0.005Lb 2 + 0.075Lb =

277619.67
99663.46
1+
kyLb
(kLb )2

When ky = 1.0 and k = 1.0:


Lb = 34.0 ft
When ky = 1.0 and k = 0.5:

Lb = 37.7 ft
When ky = 0.8 and k = 0.5:
Lb = 40.1 ft
When ky = 1.0 and Lb = 42.5ft:
k = 0.28
When ky = 0.8 and Lb = 42.5ft:
k = 0.37

C.3.2 Addition of Load Location Term


wLb 2 PLb
Mcr =
+
= 0.005Lb 2 + 0.075Lb
8
4

78

C 2 = 0.50

Cb EIyGJ
2 ECw C 2 2 + 1 C 2

Mcr =
1+
kyLb
GJ
kLb
(kLb )2

0.005 Lb 2 + 0.075 Lb =

ECw

GJ

277619.67
9.87
157.85
(
)

12622
.
52
1+

kyLb
kLb
(kLb )2

When ky = 1.0 and k = 1.0:

Lb = 30.9 ft
When ky = 1.0 and k = 0.5:
Lb = 33.7 ft
When ky = 0.8 and k = 0.5:
Lb = 35.9 ft
When ky = 1.0 and Lb = 42.5ft:
k = 0.16
When ky = 0.8 and Lb = 42.5ft:
k = 0.231

C.3.3 Galambos Formula


x =

Abottom chord (de ~


y ) 3 Atop chord y 3
2 yo = 0
Ix

Abottom chord de
~
y=
= 9.38 in.
Atotal
yo = y +

Iy bottom chord de
=0
Iy

79

( 2 + 3)( 2 + 4) wLb 4 EIy 2 + 4

2 + 4
P2
P
x a +
2
+

3
192
2( KLb) 16

16

4 EIy 2 + 3
2 + 3
yo
2
wL
wL
2
(
b
)
x

3
2
24
2( KLb) 24
4 EIy 4 ECw 2 GJ
+
=0

3
3
2 KLb
2( KLb) 2( KLb )

27585057392.12
156033.05 + 300 37.19 Lb
[0] +
3
KL
(
)
b

27585057392.12
1715.95 Lb 2 (40.0 )Lb
[0]
( KLb) 3

27585057392.12 4788594942811.77 48047648.43


+
=0

KLb
( KLb) 3
( KLb) 3

When K = 1.0:
Lb = 28.0 ft
When K = 0.8:

Lb = 32.8 ft
When K = 0.5:

Lb = 46.0 ft

C.4

Weighted Average Section Properties


% Tee =

e
100 = 28%
2b + 2e

% Solid =

e
100 = 28%
2b + 2e

% Transition =

2b
100 = 44%
2b + 2e

80

ATotal = 11.66 in. 2


Cw = 1695.44 in.6
J = 0.768 in. 4
Iy = 19.50 in. 4
Ix = 1478.07 in. 4
Sx = 110.00 in.3
ry = 1.33 in.

C.4.1 Classical Lateral-Torsional Buckling Solution


X1 =

Sx

EGJA
= 1089.31
2
2

Cw Sx
X2=4
= 0.05681
Iy GJ
wLb 2 PLb
Mcr =
+
= 0.005Lb 2 + 0.075Lb
8
4
Mcr =

X 12 X 2
CbSxX 1 2
1+
2
kyLb
kLb
2

ry
ry

0.005 Lb 2 + 0.075 Lb =

When ky = 1.0 and k = 1.0:

Lb = 32.7 ft
When ky = 1.0 and k = 0.5:
Lb = 35.7 ft
When ky = 0.8 and k = 0.5:
Lb = 38.0 ft

81

267415.91
59281.61
1+
kyLb
(kLb )2

C.4.2 Addition of Load Location Term


Mcr =

wLb 2 PLb
+
= 0.005Lb 2 + 0.075Lb
8
4

C 2 = 0.50

Mcr =

Cb EIyGJ
kyLb

2 ECw C 2 2 + 1 C 2

1+
GJ
kLb
(kLb )2

0.005 Lb 2 + 0.075 Lb =

ECw

GJ

260820.97
9.87
118.74
(
)

7142
.
32
1+

kyLb
kLb
(kLb )2

When ky = 1.0 and k = 1.0:

Lb = 29.8 ft
When ky = 1.0 and k = 0.5:
Lb = 31.7 ft
When ky = 0.8 and k = 0.5:
Lb = 33.8 ft

C.4.3 Galambos Formula


x =

Abottom chord (de ~


y ) 3 Atop chord y 3
2 yo = 0
Ix

Abottom chord de
~
y=
= 10.99 in.
Atotal
yo = y +

Iy bottom chord de
=0
Iy

82

( 2 + 3)( 2 + 4) wLb 4 EIy 2 + 4

2 + 4
P2
P
x a +
2
+

3
192
2( KLb) 16

16

4 EIy 2 + 3
2 + 3
yo
2
wL
wL
2
(
b
)
x

3
2
24
2( KLb) 24
4 EIy 4 ECw 2 GJ
+
=0

3
3
2 KLb
2( KLb) 2( KLb )

27549383176.03
156033.05 + 300 37.19 Lb
[0] +
3
KL
(
)
b

27549383176.03
1715.95 Lb 2 (40.0 )Lb
[0]
( KLb) 3

27549383176.03 2394689720759.53 42463786.01


+
=0

KLb
( KLb) 3
( KLb) 3

When K = 1.0:
Lb = 26.5 ft
When K = 0.8:

Lb = 31.0 ft
When K = 0.5:

Lb = 43.3 ft

83

Appendix D
CB24x26 Specimen Test Data

84

CASTELLATED BEAM TEST SUMMARY


CB27x40

TEST IDENTIFICATION:
TEST DESCRIPTION
Loading
Point of Load Application
Span
Bracing Points
Number of beams
End Condition

Gravity
Mid-span
42.5"
None
1
Web to column flange
double angle connection

FAILURE MODE:
Lateral Torsional Buckling
THEORETICAL CRITICAL UNBRACED LENGTH:
(a) Classical Lateral-Torsional Buckling Solution =
(b) Addition of Load Location
Term =
(c) Galambos Formula =

40.1 ft
35.9 ft
32.8 ft

EXPERIMENTAL CRITICAL UNBRACED LENGTH:


Total Applied Load =
Unbraced Length =

300 lb
42.5 ft

R-VALUE:
R(a) = Experimental Length/Theoretical Length =
R(b) = Experimental Length/Theoretical Length =
R(c) = Experimental Length/Theoretical Length =

1.06
1.18
1.30

DISCUSSION:
10 lb weights were loaded on a loading plate clamped to the top
flange of the castellated beam at midspan. Catch bracing was
installed to stop excessive deflections and help characterize failure.

Concentrated Load (lb)


Test Length
Eccentricity
e=0
e = 1 1/2"
e = 2"

51.8ft

47.3ft

44.5ft

42.5ft

self wt.
self wt.
self wt.

120
60
40

270
210
160

300
250
190

85

Photos of CB27x40 Testing

Support Column

Quarter Point Catch Bracing


Midspan Catch Bracing

Quarter Point Catch Bracing

Photo of CB27x40 Entire Test Set-up

86

Location of Failure

Photo of CB27x40 Specimen at failure

87

VITA
T. Patrick Bradley was born on July 14, 1977 in Clemmons, North
Carolina. He graduated from West Forsyth high school in Lewisville, North
Carolina.

He received his Associate in Applied Science in Architectural

Technology from Guilford Technical Community College in May 1998. He


received his Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineering from North Carolina
Agricultural and Technical State University in Greensboro, North Carolina in
May of 2001. He enrolled in the graduate program at Virginia Tech in the fall of
2001 and plans to work for a metal building manufacturer in North Carolina after
completion.

_______________________
T. Patrick Bradley

88