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Derek Wei

CVEN3101

z3416268

Analysis of ramp metering parameters and control operations


Ramp metering strategies are defined by their approach towards controlling the traffic flow of the onramp onto the main motorway. In order to select the optimal control strategy, various factors must be
taken into consideration such as overall traffic conditions, existing infrastructure, and the constraints
and objectives of installing the ramp meter. Within these control strategies, there are parameters that
can be altered to adapt to certain traffic scenarios. Here are some specific comparisons detailing the
advantages and disadvantages of editing different parameters:
Lanes and flow release
Single lane one car per green
Most simple and cost effective method to
limit flow onto motorway.
Usually operated under a fixed cycle time
(6-7 seconds)
Highly reduced ramp capacity compared
to unmonitored ramp
Single lane two or more cars per green
Slightly improves ramp capacity compared
to one car per green
Figure 1: Metering quality vs. Ramp demand
volume comparison
Cars enter motorway in larger platoons
potentially causing mainline traffic to
brake, increasing congestion.
Dual lane dual alternating signals, single lane entry
Further increases ramp capacity compared to single lane, almost doubles capacity.
Two lanes allow more space for queued vehicles, which improves
Requires greater space and costs to install larger amounts of infrastructure
Control operations
Local Control independently operated, does not interact adjacent ramps
Most appropriately installed when traffic from the specific ramp causes bottlenecks that does
not impact other sections of the mainline.
Irrelevant to other bottlenecks down the mainline and cannot maintain optimum flow at those
points.
Coordinated Control group operated, control system over a larger road section
Improves the systems mainline free flow, with an algorithm that allows
Allows balancing the queue and wait times between ramps, allowing equity of traffic
distribution.
Fixed Time fixed cycle time based on ramp demand and time of day
Benefits mainline flow as larger platoons of traffic are split up into small ones.
The operation does not adapt to change in motorway flow conditions.
Dynamic detectors on mainline to adjust cycle time accordingly to traffic conditions
Able to adapt to change and will resort to fixed time operation if there are data issues.
Better ability to avoid flow breakdown at certain bottleneck points.
References
https://www.vicroads.vic.gov.au/business-and-industry/technical-documents/freeway-ramp-signalshandbook
http://www.civil.iitb.ac.in/tvm/1111_nptel/555_Ramp/plain/plain.html#SECTION0024310000000000
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Derek Wei

CVEN3101

z3416268