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TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY OF CIVIL ENGINEERING BUCHAREST SOIL MECHANICS AND FOUNDATIONS DEPARTMENT 2013 - 2014 STUDENT’S

TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY OF CIVIL ENGINEERING BUCHAREST SOIL MECHANICS AND FOUNDATIONS DEPARTMENT

2013 - 2014

STUDENT’S BOOK FOR GEOTECHNICAL TESTS

STUDENT:

FACULTY:

YEAR:

GROUP:

Page 1 din 21

Contents 1 Week 2: Determination of the particle size distribution. Screening method 3 1.1 Graphical

Contents

1 Week 2: Determination of the particle size distribution. Screening method

3

1.1

Graphical representations: histogram, frequency curve, particle size distribution curve

4

2 Week 3: Determination of the particle size distribution. Hydrometer method

5

2.1 Particle size distribution curve

6

2.2 Ternary diagram representation

7

3 Week 4: Geotechnical indices

8

3.1 Obtaining the density of the solid skeleton

8

3.2 Obtaining the soil density using the mould method

8

3.3 Obtaining the density ratio of the sand

9

4 Week 5: Plasticity Limits

10

5 Week 6: Determination of the permeability coefficient

11

5.1 Constant head method

11

5.2 Falling head method

11

6 Week 8: Oedometer test. Performing the test

12

7 Week 9: Oedometer test. Results interpretation

13

7.1 Compression settlement diagram

13

7.2 Compression porosity diagram

14

7.3 Consolidation diagram

15

8 Week 10: Direct shear test

16

8.1 Test results

16

8.2 Failure line

17

8.3 Mobilization curve

18

9 Week 11: Triaxial test. Performing an u.u. (unconsolidated undrained) test

19

10 Week 12: Triaxial test. Results interpretation

20

10.1 Failure line using Mohr’s circle

20

10.2 Representation of the stress paths in MIT coordinates (s-t)

21

Page 2 din 21

1 Week 2: Determination of the particle size distribution. Screening method   m i [g]

1 Week 2: Determination of the particle size distribution. Screening method

 

m i [g]

d [mm]

ai [%]

mp [%]

 

20

   
 

10

   
 

8

   
 

6.3

   
 

5

   
 

4

   
 

2

   
 

1.4

   
 

1

   
 

0.85

   
 

0.63

   
 

0.5

   
 

0.315

   
 

0.25

   
 

0.18

   
 

0.125

   
 

0.09

   
 

0.063

   

rest:

   

Total:

 

m- the mass of dry soil after washing

Total:   m- the mass of dry soil after washing m 1 a 1 =m 1
Total:   m- the mass of dry soil after washing m 1 a 1 =m 1
Total:   m- the mass of dry soil after washing m 1 a 1 =m 1
Total:   m- the mass of dry soil after washing m 1 a 1 =m 1
Total:   m- the mass of dry soil after washing m 1 a 1 =m 1
Total:   m- the mass of dry soil after washing m 1 a 1 =m 1
Total:   m- the mass of dry soil after washing m 1 a 1 =m 1

m 1

a

1

=m 1 /m*100

m 2

a

2

=m 2 /m*100

m 3

a

3

=m 3 /m*100

m i

m j

a i =m i /m*100

a j =m j /m*100

Page 3 din 21

m

p1

=100%-a 1

m p2 =100%-(a 1 + a 2 )=m p1 -a 2

m p3 =m p2 -a 3

m

m

pi

pj

=m

=m

p(i-1)

p(j-1)

-a

-a

i

j

1.1 Graphical representations: histogram, frequency curve, particle size distribution curve Page 4 din 21

1.1 Graphical representations: histogram, frequency curve, particle size distribution curve

1.1 Graphical representations: histogram, frequency curve, particle size distribution curve Page 4 din 21

Page 4 din 21

R 1.4 2 Week 3: Determination of the particle size distribution. Hydrometer method material mass:
R 1.4
2 Week 3: Determination of the particle size distribution. Hydrometer method
material mass: m= 50g
specific gravity of the soil:  s =2.72g/cm 3
water density:  w =1g/cm 3
the hydrometer rod length: L t =16.5cm
hydrometer division: div=1mm
the distance between the last reading and the bulb: L sb =1.2cm
bulb volume: V b =100cm 3
cross section area of the cylinder: d c =30cm 2
bulb height: h b =16.8cm
V s =100 cm 3
R
R

R
C t 
cor
9 10
T
-5
3
9 10
 4
T
2
0.1118 T
2.5443
 R
 C
R cortemp
cor
t
1000 
div
V 
cortemp
18 0.01005
H
100
H
L
2
  R
1
H
H
0.5
 h
s
d
10
r
m
s
 R
t
10
r
b
p
cortemp
d
 
 
t 1000
 
m
c
s
w
s
w
Corrected
Time
meniscus
temperature
corrected
Temperature
reading
meniscus

H
Hr
d
m
p
Time
t
correction
correction
reading
T
R
reading
(kN/m 3 )
(cm)
(cm)
(mm)
(%)
(s)
R
C
R
(ºC)
t
cortemp
R
cor
15''
15
1.4
30''
30
1.4
1'
60
1.4
2'
120
1.4
4'
240
1.4
8'
480
1.4
15'
900
1.4
30'
1800
1.4
1h
3600
1.4
2h
7200
1.4
4h
14400
1.4
8h
36000
1.4
24h
86400
1.4
Page 5 din 21

R cortemp



 

1

 

10

2.1 Particle size distribution curve Page 6 din 21

2.1 Particle size distribution curve

2.1 Particle size distribution curve Page 6 din 21

Page 6 din 21

2.2 Ternary diagram representation 100 0 Pietris (2 90 10 mm) 85 Sa 80 20

2.2 Ternary diagram representation

100 0 Pietris (2 90 10 mm) 85 Sa 80 20 70 30 si.Sa 63
100
0
Pietris (2
90
10
mm)
85
Sa
80 20
70
30
si.Sa
63
60
40
cl.Sa
gr.Sa
2
50
50
gr.si.Sa
gr.cl.Sa
40
sa.Si
60
gr.sa.si.S
sa.cl.Si
gr.sa.cl.S
sa.si.Cl
sa.Gr
sa.Cl
gr.sa.Si
sa.gr.si.S
30
70
gr.sa.Cl
sa.si.Gr
sa.gr.cl.S
sa.cl.Gr
sa.gr.Si
sa.gr.Cl
20
80
10
Si
gr.Si
si.Gr
90
Gr
cl.Si
gr.cl.Si
cl.Gr
si.Cl
gr.si.Cl
Cl
gr.Cl
100
0
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
15
10
0
Nisip (0.063
mm)

Argila si Praf

(<0.063mm) 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 15 10 0 0 Si
(<0.063mm)
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
15
10
0
0
Si
Si
Legenda:
10
Si - Silt - Praf
cl.Si
Cl - Clay - Argila
Cl
S - Soil - Pamant
Sa - Sand - Nisip
20
Gr - Gravel - Pietris
si.Cl
cl.Si - clayey Silt - Praf argilos
si.Sa - silty Sand - Nisip prafos
30
si.Cl - silty Clay - Argila prafoasa
cl.Sa - clayey Sand - Nisip argilos
si.Gr - silty Gravel - Pietris prafos
sa.Gr - sandy Gravel - Pietris nisipos
40
gr.Sa - gravely Sand - Nisip cu pietris
cl.Gr - clayey Gravel - Pietris argilos
gr.Si - gravely Silt - Praf cu pietris
50
gr.Cl - gravely Clay - Argila cu pietris
sa.si.Gr - sandy silty Gravel - Pietris prafos cu nisip
Cl
sa.cl.Gr - sandy clayey Gravel - Pietris argilos cu nisip
gr.si.Sa - silty Sand with gravel - Nisip prafos cu pietris
60
gr.cl.Sa - clayey Sand with gravel - Nisip argilos cu pietris
sa.cl.Si - silty Clay with sand - argila prafoasa cu nisip
gr.sa.Si - sandy Silt with gravel - Praf nisipos cu pietris
70
gr.sa.Cl - sandy Clay with gravel - Argila nisipoasa cu pietris
gr.sa.si.S - gravely sandy silty Soil - Pamant prafos nisipos cu pietris
gr.sa.cl.S - gravely sandy clay Soil - Pamant argilos nisipos cu pietris
sa.gr.si.S - sandy gravely silty Soil - Pamant prafos cu pietris si nisip
80
sa.gr.cl.S - sandy gravely clayey Soil - Pamant argilos cu pietris si nisip
sa.gr.si.S - sandy gravely silty Soil - Pamant prafos cu pietris si nisip
sa.gr.cl.S - sandy gravely clayey Soil - Pamant argilos cu pietris si nisip
90
sa.gr.Si - gravely Silt with sand - Praf cu pietris si nisip
sa.gr.Cl - gravely Clay with sand - Argila cu pietris si nisip
gr.cl.Si -clayey Silt with gravel - Praf argilos cu pietris
gr.si.Cl - silty Clay with gravel - Argila prafoasa cu pietris
100
Argila(<0.002mm)

sa.Si - sandy Silt - Praf nisipos

sa.Cl - sandy Clay - Argila nisipoasa

sa.cl.Si - clayey Silt with sand - Praf argilos cu nisip

sa.si.Cl - silty Clay with sand - Argila prafoasa cu nisip

Page 7 din 21

3 Week 4: Geotechnical indices 3.1 Obtaining the density of the solid skeleton   COMPUTATION

3 Week 4: Geotechnical indices

3.1 Obtaining the density of the solid skeleton

 

COMPUTATION DATA

 

Measurement

Picnometer No.

Unit

1

2

3

Mass of the picnometer + the material

   

g

     

Mass of the picnometer

 

m 0

 

g

     

Mass of the material

 

m 1

 

g

     

Mass of the picnometer + the liquid

m 2

 

g

     

Mass of the picnometer + the liquid + the material

m

3

 

g

     

TEMPERATURE

 

o C

o

C

     

LIQUID DENSITY

 

ρ L

t

g/cm 3

     

CORRECTION FACTOR

 

ψ L

 

-

     
 

g/cm 3

     

AVERAGE

 

g/cm 3

 

γ

s =9.81ρ s

kN/m 3

 

3.2 Obtaining the soil density using the mould method

COMPUTATION DATA

 

Measurement

 

Sample No.

 

Unit

1

2

3

4

Mass of the ring

m 2

g

       

Mass of the ring + the soil sample

m 1

g

       

Interior volume of the ring (soil sample's volume)

V

0

cm3

       
 

g/cm3

       

Average density

ρ av

g/cm3

       

Volumic weight

γ=9.81ρ

kN/cm3

       

Page 8 din 21

3.3 Obtaining the density ratio of the sand   COMPUTATION DATA   Measurement Natural state

3.3 Obtaining the density ratio of the sand

 

COMPUTATION DATA

 

Measurement

Natural state

Loosest state

Most dense state

 

Unit

Mould no.

               

Volume of the mould

V

cm

3

           

Mass of the mould

m

g

             

Mass of the dry sample and the mould

m

1

g

             

m

1 -m

g

             
 

%

             

Average n

 

%

 

n=

n

max =

n

min =

 

-

e=

e

max =

e

min =

Page 9 din 21

4 Week 5: Plasticity Limits   Units Natural Moisture Content W [%] Plastic Limit W

4 Week 5: Plasticity Limits

 

Units

Natural Moisture Content W [%]

Plastic Limit W p [%]

Liquid Limit W L [%]

1

2

3

1

2

3

1

2

3

Sample number

-

                 

Weight of the wet sample A

g

                 

Weight of the dry sample B

g

                 

W%

%

                 

W% average

%

     
Obs: 40.0 35.0 30.0 25.0 20.0 15.0 10.0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12
Obs:
40.0
35.0
30.0
25.0
20.0
15.0
10.0
0 2
4
6
8
10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64 66 68 70 72 74 76 78 80
W[%]
[%]
Penetration – Cone method [mm]

Page 10 din 21

5 Week 6: Determination of the permeability coefficient 5.1 Constant head method Sample Permeability Sample

5 Week 6: Determination of the permeability coefficient

5.1 Constant head method

Sample Permeability Sample Hydraulic Total Correction Time Head cross- coefficient for length gradient
Sample
Permeability
Sample
Hydraulic
Total
Correction
Time
Head
cross-
coefficient for
length
gradient
discharge
coefficient
section
Permeability
coefficient for
temperature t
[ o C]
20
o C
T
h
l
A
i
V
c
k
k
t
[s]
[cm]
[cm]
[cm
2 ]
[-]
[cm
3 ]
[-]
[cm/s]
[cm/s]
Average:
5.2
Falling head method
c =
Initial
Final
Permeability
Time
head
head
coefficient for 20 o C
1/T
h
1 /h 2
log(h 1 /h 2)
T
h
h
k
1
2
[s]
[1/s]
[cm]
[cm]
[-]
[-]
[cm/s]
Average:

Page 11 din 21

  6 Week 8: Oedometer test. Performing the test d r i n g =………cm
 

6

Week 8: Oedometer test. Performing the test

d

ring =………cm

A ring =………cm

h 0 =………cm

Sample

t

ζ

Δh

     

[kPa]

[mm]

[%]

[kPa]

[kPa -1 ]

 
  12.5        

12.5

       

25

   

50

       

SAND

100

       

200

       
 

300

       

500

       

12.5

       
 
  12.5        

12.5

       

25

       

LOESS

50

       

100

       

200

       
 

300

       

300 i

       
 

10''

     

20''

   

30''

   

40''

   

1'

   

2'

   

4'

   

CLAY

8'

   

15'

200

   
 

30'

   

1h

   

2h

   

4h

   

8h

   

15h

   

24h

   

Page 12 din 21

7 Week 9: Oedometer test. Results interpretation 7.1 Compression – settlement diagram -2 0 2

7 Week 9: Oedometer test. Results interpretation

7.1 Compression settlement diagram

-2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 10 100 1000 Page 13 din
-2
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
10
100
1000
Page 13 din 21
ζ [kPa]
ε [%]
7.2 Compression – porosity diagram 10 100 1000 e [-] ζ [ kPa] Page 14

7.2 Compression porosity diagram

10 100 1000 e [-]
10
100
1000
e [-]

ζ [kPa]

Page 14 din 21

e

0 =………

 
 

ζ

ε

a

v

 

[kPa]

[%]

[kPa -1 ]

 

12.5

   
 

25

   
 

50

   
 

100

   
 

200

   
 

300

   
 

500

   
7.3 Consolidation diagram C v = cm 2 /s ε [%] time Page 15 din

7.3 Consolidation diagram

C v = cm 2 /s ε [%]
C v =
cm 2 /s
ε [%]

time

Page 15 din 21

8 Week 10: Direct shear test Sample Sample 1 Sample 3 n - horizontal force

8 Week 10: Direct shear test

Sample Sample 1 Sample 3 n - horizontal force δ - horizontal displacement 2 ζ=
Sample
Sample 1
Sample 3
n - horizontal force
δ - horizontal displacement
2
ζ=
100
200
300
(kPa)
η - tangential stress = T/A
η
(kPa)
fmax =
ϕ=
°
c=
(kPa)
Shear Box Cross-Section
60
mm
δ
8.1
Test results
Input data for the direct shear box
Sample 1
Sample 2
Sample 3
T


T


T


(kN)
(mm)
(kPa)
(div)
(mm)
(kPa)
(div)
(mm)
(kPa)
Page 16 din 21
mm
60
8.2 Failure line 200 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 0
8.2 Failure line 200 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 0

8.2 Failure line

200 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 50 100 150
200
180
160
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
η [kPa]

ζ [kPa]

Page 17 din 21

8.3 Mobilization curve 200 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 0

8.3 Mobilization curve

200 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 2 4 6
200
180
160
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
η [kPa]

δ [cm]

Page 18 din 21

9 Week 11: Triaxial test. Performing an u.u. (unconsolidated undrained) test   Sample Sample Sample

9 Week 11: Triaxial test. Performing an u.u. (unconsolidated undrained) test

 

Sample

Sample

Sample

1

2

3

 

ζ

3 =

100

200

300



75

110

150

ζ

1 3 +

     
 



°

kPa - radial stress kPa - deviator stress kPa - vertical stress

c=

kPa

 
 3 
3

  3   1  3 

 3    1  3 
 3    1  3 
 1  3 
1
3

Page 19 din 21

10 Week 12: Triaxial test. Results interpretation 10.1 Failure line using Mohr’s circle 400 350

10 Week 12: Triaxial test. Results interpretation

10.1 Failure line using Mohr’s circle

400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 0 50 100 150 200 250
400
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
η [kPa]

ζ [kPa]

Page 20 din 21

10.2 Representation of the stress paths in MIT coordinates (s-t) s=  1  3

10.2 Representation of the stress paths in MIT coordinates (s-t)

s=  1  3 2 t=  1  3 2
s=  1  3
2
t=  1  3
2

Sample

1

Sample

2

Sample 3

s=

t=

kPa

kPa



°

d=

kPa

500 450 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 0 50 100 150
500
450
400
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
t [kPa]

s [kPa]

Page 21 din 21