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TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY OF CIVIL ENGINEERING BUCHAREST SOIL MECHANICS AND FOUNDATIONS DEPARTMENT

2013 - 2014

STUDENT’S BOOK FOR GEOTECHNICAL TESTS

 STUDENT: FACULTY: YEAR: GROUP:

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Contents

 1 Week 2: Determination of the particle size distribution. Screening method 3 1.1 Graphical representations: histogram, frequency curve, particle size distribution curve 4 2 Week 3: Determination of the particle size distribution. Hydrometer method 5 2.1 Particle size distribution curve 6 2.2 Ternary diagram representation 7 3 Week 4: Geotechnical indices 8 3.1 Obtaining the density of the solid skeleton 8 3.2 Obtaining the soil density using the mould method 8 3.3 Obtaining the density ratio of the sand 9 4 Week 5: Plasticity Limits 10 5 Week 6: Determination of the permeability coefficient 11 5.1 Constant head method 11 5.2 Falling head method 11 6 Week 8: Oedometer test. Performing the test 12 7 Week 9: Oedometer test. Results interpretation 13 7.1 Compression – settlement diagram 13 7.2 Compression – porosity diagram 14 7.3 Consolidation diagram 15 8 Week 10: Direct shear test 16 8.1 Test results 16 8.2 Failure line 17 8.3 Mobilization curve 18 9 Week 11: Triaxial test. Performing an u.u. (unconsolidated undrained) test 19 10 Week 12: Triaxial test. Results interpretation 20 10.1 Failure line using Mohr’s circle 20 10.2 Representation of the stress paths in MIT coordinates (s-t) 21

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1 Week 2: Determination of the particle size distribution. Screening method

 m i [g] d [mm] ai [%] mp [%] 20 10 8 6.3 5 4 2 1.4 1 0.85 0.63 0.5 0.315 0.25 0.18 0.125 0.09 0.063 rest: Total:

m- the mass of dry soil after washing

 m 1 a 1 =m 1 /m*100 m 2 a 2 =m 2 /m*100 m 3 a 3 =m 3 /m*100

m i

m j

a i =m i /m*100

a j =m j /m*100

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m

p1

=100%-a 1

m p2 =100%-(a 1 + a 2 )=m p1 -a 2

m p3 =m p2 -a 3

m

m

pi

pj

=m

=m

p(i-1)

p(j-1)

-a

-a

i

j

1.1 Graphical representations: histogram, frequency curve, particle size distribution curve

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R 1.4
2 Week 3: Determination of the particle size distribution. Hydrometer method
material mass: m= 50g
specific gravity of the soil:  s =2.72g/cm 3
water density:  w =1g/cm 3
the hydrometer rod length: L t =16.5cm
hydrometer division: div=1mm
the distance between the last reading and the bulb: L sb =1.2cm
bulb volume: V b =100cm 3
cross section area of the cylinder: d c =30cm 2
bulb height: h b =16.8cm
V s =100 cm 3
R
R

R
C t 
cor
9 10
T
-5
3
9 10
 4
T
2
0.1118 T
2.5443
 R
 C
R cortemp
cor
t
1000 
div
V 
cortemp
18 0.01005
H
100
H
L
2
  R
1
H
H
0.5
 h
s
d
10
r
m
s
 R
t
10
r
b
p
cortemp
d
 
 
t 1000
 
m
c
s
w
s
w
Corrected
Time
meniscus
temperature
corrected
Temperature
meniscus

H
Hr
d
m
p
Time
t
correction
correction
T
R
(kN/m 3 )
(cm)
(cm)
(mm)
(%)
(s)
R
C
R
(ºC)
t
cortemp
R
cor
15''
15
1.4
30''
30
1.4
1'
60
1.4
2'
120
1.4
4'
240
1.4
8'
480
1.4
15'
900
1.4
30'
1800
1.4
1h
3600
1.4
2h
7200
1.4
4h
14400
1.4
8h
36000
1.4
24h
86400
1.4
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R cortemp



 

1

 

10

2.1 Particle size distribution curve

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2.2 Ternary diagram representation

100
0
Pietris (2
90
10
mm)
85
Sa
80 20
70
30
si.Sa
63
60
40
cl.Sa
gr.Sa
2
50
50
gr.si.Sa
gr.cl.Sa
40
sa.Si
60
gr.sa.si.S
sa.cl.Si
gr.sa.cl.S
sa.si.Cl
sa.Gr
sa.Cl
gr.sa.Si
sa.gr.si.S
30
70
gr.sa.Cl
sa.si.Gr
sa.gr.cl.S
sa.cl.Gr
sa.gr.Si
sa.gr.Cl
20
80
10
Si
gr.Si
si.Gr
90
Gr
cl.Si
gr.cl.Si
cl.Gr
si.Cl
gr.si.Cl
Cl
gr.Cl
100
0
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
15
10
0
Nisip (0.063
mm)

Argila si Praf

(<0.063mm)
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
15
10
0
0
Si
Si
Legenda:
10
Si - Silt - Praf
cl.Si
Cl - Clay - Argila
Cl
S - Soil - Pamant
Sa - Sand - Nisip
20
Gr - Gravel - Pietris
si.Cl
cl.Si - clayey Silt - Praf argilos
si.Sa - silty Sand - Nisip prafos
30
si.Cl - silty Clay - Argila prafoasa
cl.Sa - clayey Sand - Nisip argilos
si.Gr - silty Gravel - Pietris prafos
sa.Gr - sandy Gravel - Pietris nisipos
40
gr.Sa - gravely Sand - Nisip cu pietris
cl.Gr - clayey Gravel - Pietris argilos
gr.Si - gravely Silt - Praf cu pietris
50
gr.Cl - gravely Clay - Argila cu pietris
sa.si.Gr - sandy silty Gravel - Pietris prafos cu nisip
Cl
sa.cl.Gr - sandy clayey Gravel - Pietris argilos cu nisip
gr.si.Sa - silty Sand with gravel - Nisip prafos cu pietris
60
gr.cl.Sa - clayey Sand with gravel - Nisip argilos cu pietris
sa.cl.Si - silty Clay with sand - argila prafoasa cu nisip
gr.sa.Si - sandy Silt with gravel - Praf nisipos cu pietris
70
gr.sa.Cl - sandy Clay with gravel - Argila nisipoasa cu pietris
gr.sa.si.S - gravely sandy silty Soil - Pamant prafos nisipos cu pietris
gr.sa.cl.S - gravely sandy clay Soil - Pamant argilos nisipos cu pietris
sa.gr.si.S - sandy gravely silty Soil - Pamant prafos cu pietris si nisip
80
sa.gr.cl.S - sandy gravely clayey Soil - Pamant argilos cu pietris si nisip
sa.gr.si.S - sandy gravely silty Soil - Pamant prafos cu pietris si nisip
sa.gr.cl.S - sandy gravely clayey Soil - Pamant argilos cu pietris si nisip
90
sa.gr.Si - gravely Silt with sand - Praf cu pietris si nisip
sa.gr.Cl - gravely Clay with sand - Argila cu pietris si nisip
gr.cl.Si -clayey Silt with gravel - Praf argilos cu pietris
gr.si.Cl - silty Clay with gravel - Argila prafoasa cu pietris
100
Argila(<0.002mm)

sa.Si - sandy Silt - Praf nisipos

sa.Cl - sandy Clay - Argila nisipoasa

sa.cl.Si - clayey Silt with sand - Praf argilos cu nisip

sa.si.Cl - silty Clay with sand - Argila prafoasa cu nisip

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3 Week 4: Geotechnical indices

3.1 Obtaining the density of the solid skeleton

 COMPUTATION DATA Measurement Picnometer No. Unit 1 2 3 Mass of the picnometer + the material g Mass of the picnometer m 0 g Mass of the material m 1 g Mass of the picnometer + the liquid m 2 g Mass of the picnometer + the liquid + the material m 3 g TEMPERATURE o C o C LIQUID DENSITY ρ L t g/cm 3 CORRECTION FACTOR ψ L - g/cm 3 AVERAGE g/cm 3 γ s =9.81ρ s kN/m 3

3.2 Obtaining the soil density using the mould method

 COMPUTATION DATA Measurement Sample No. Unit 1 2 3 4 Mass of the ring m 2 g Mass of the ring + the soil sample m 1 g Interior volume of the ring (soil sample's volume) V 0 cm3 g/cm3 Average density ρ av g/cm3 Volumic weight γ=9.81ρ kN/cm3

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3.3 Obtaining the density ratio of the sand

 COMPUTATION DATA Measurement Natural state Loosest state Most dense state Unit Mould no. Volume of the mould V cm 3 Mass of the mould m g Mass of the dry sample and the mould m 1 g m 1 -m g % Average n % n= n max = n min = - e= e max = e min =

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4 Week 5: Plasticity Limits

 Units Natural Moisture Content W [%] Plastic Limit W p [%] Liquid Limit W L [%] 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 Sample number - Weight of the wet sample A g Weight of the dry sample B g W% % W% average %
Obs:
40.0
35.0
30.0
25.0
20.0
15.0
10.0
0 2
4
6
8
10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64 66 68 70 72 74 76 78 80
W[%]
[%]
Penetration – Cone method [mm]

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5 Week 6: Determination of the permeability coefficient

5.1 Constant head method

Sample
Permeability
Sample
Hydraulic
Total
Correction
Time
cross-
coefficient for
length
discharge
coefficient
section
Permeability
coefficient for
temperature t
[ o C]
20
o C
T
h
l
A
i
V
c
k
k
t
[s]
[cm]
[cm]
[cm
2 ]
[-]
[cm
3 ]
[-]
[cm/s]
[cm/s]
Average:
5.2
c =
Initial
Final
Permeability
Time
coefficient for 20 o C
1/T
h
1 /h 2
log(h 1 /h 2)
T
h
h
k
1
2
[s]
[1/s]
[cm]
[cm]
[-]
[-]
[cm/s]
Average:

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 6 Week 8: Oedometer test. Performing the test d ring =………cm A ring =………cm h 0 =………cm
 Sample t ζ Δh [kPa] [mm] [%] [kPa] [kPa -1 ] 12.5 25 50 SAND 100 200 300 500 12.5 12.5 25 LOESS 50 100 200 300 300 i 10'' 20'' 30'' 40'' 1' 2' 4' CLAY 8' 15' 200 30' 1h 2h 4h 8h 15h 24h

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7 Week 9: Oedometer test. Results interpretation

7.1 Compression settlement diagram

-2
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
10
100
1000
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ζ [kPa]
ε [%]

7.2 Compression porosity diagram

10
100
1000
e [-]

ζ [kPa]

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 e 0 =……… ζ ε a v [kPa] [%] [kPa -1 ] 12.5 25 50 100 200 300 500

7.3 Consolidation diagram

C v =
cm 2 /s
ε [%]

time

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8 Week 10: Direct shear test

Sample
Sample 1
Sample 3
n - horizontal force
δ - horizontal displacement
2
ζ=
100
200
300
(kPa)
η - tangential stress = T/A
η
(kPa)
fmax =
ϕ=
°
c=
(kPa)
Shear Box Cross-Section
60
mm
δ
8.1
Test results
Input data for the direct shear box
Sample 1
Sample 2
Sample 3
T


T


T


(kN)
(mm)
(kPa)
(div)
(mm)
(kPa)
(div)
(mm)
(kPa)
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mm
60

8.2 Failure line

200
180
160
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
η [kPa]

ζ [kPa]

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8.3 Mobilization curve

200
180
160
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
η [kPa]

δ [cm]

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9 Week 11: Triaxial test. Performing an u.u. (unconsolidated undrained) test

 Sample Sample Sample 1 2 3 ζ 3 = 100 200 300  75 110 150 ζ 1 =ζ 3 +
  ° kPa - radial stress kPa - deviator stress kPa - vertical stress c= kPa
3



1
3

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10 Week 12: Triaxial test. Results interpretation

10.1 Failure line using Mohr’s circle

400
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
η [kPa]

ζ [kPa]

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10.2 Representation of the stress paths in MIT coordinates (s-t)

s=  1  3
2
t=  1  3
2

Sample

1

Sample

2

Sample 3

s=

t=

kPa

kPa

  ° d= kPa
500
450
400
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
t [kPa]

s [kPa]

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