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CARPETING CARPET TEST & INDOOR PROCEDURE AIR QUALITY Properties Values Table of & Insulation Other Materials

Properties Values Table of & Insulation Other Materials Mater

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Insulation Questions What insulation R-Values & answers "R" of values about materials should the insulating found be used in or properties in on a buildings building of Insulation materials R-values, rates of heat loss or gain This or calculate article provides heat loss Insulation materials R-values, rates of heat loss or gain This or calculate article provides heat loss
"R" of values about materials should the insulating found be used in or properties in on

This or calculate article provides heat loss a in Table a building, of Insulation defines Values thermal and terms Properties like BTU for and Various calorie, Insulation provides Materials measures useful of he in materials, Corning which building may insulation be visible design in this photograph data, and heat of pink loss Styrofoam in a building. insulation Page top boards photo are by registered the author. trade Form and were photographed at a Home Depot® building supply center.

InspectAPedia tolerates no conflicts of interest. We have no relationship with advertisers nor with topics or services discussed at this website.

TDW Plugging Equipment Trust The True Pioneer and Leader In Pipeline Plugging and Isolation www.tdwilliamson.com Thermal Insulation Thermal & Heat Insulations Material Manufacturers and Suppliers www.aerolaminsulations.com Insulation Industrial Flexible Electric Surface Heating Systems. Visit Now www.NicroPads.com Heat Insulating Paint COAT PC200 is a water and heat insulating paint, it is economical www.carytrad.com.tw/envircoat_e

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Table wool, of cellulose, Characteristics foam insulating of Various board, Insulating UFFI, vermiculite, Materials: fibergl othe

INFILTRATION heating Because season, no amount for or a gaining discussion of insulation un-wanted of can measuring keep heat during a air drafty leakage the building cooling in buildings. warm, season), also Also and review see see ENERGY HEAT HEAT LOSS LOSS SAVINGS INDICATORS R U & PRIORITIES. K VALUE (where CALCULATIO See is the BLOW build heat loss (or gain) rates for buildings and building insulation.

Table of Insulation & Other Building Material Properties

other Insulation Material Building 9 or

R-Value 1

Density 2

Perm 3

Absorption 4

Spread Flame

Smoke 6

Toxicity

5

Air, 3/4"

0.87

           
     

0.1457

       

Air Krete® 26

also Insulating, see Concrete, below

3.9

2.07

lbs/cuFt 26

coefficient, in/sec or 0.3407

in/sec rate at flow 68

0

26

0

26

no

degF

   

CARPETING, SELECTION & INSTALLATION CATHEDRAL CEILING INSULATION CATHEDRAL CEILING VENTILATION CEILING FINISHES INTERIOR CEILINGS, DROP or SUSPENDED PANEL CEILINGS, PLASTER TYPES CEILINGS, PLASTER, LOOSE HAZARDS CEILING TILES - Asbestos-Containing CONDENSATION or SWEATING PIPES, TANKS CRAWL SPACES

DEFINITION of Heating & Cooling Terms DEHUMIDIFICATION PROBLEMS DECK & PORCH CONSTRUCTION DEW POINT CALCULATION for WALLS DEW POINT TABLE - CONDENSATION POINT GUIDE

ENGINEERED WOOD Flooring

FIBERGLASS HAZARDS FIBERGLASS INSULATION FIBERGLASS PARTICLE CONTAMINATION TEST Fiberboard Insulation Sheathing Mold

Fiberglass Enviro-Scare FIBERGLASS INSULATION MOLD Fireproofing containing Asbestos FRAMING DETAILS for BETTER INSULATION FRAMING DETAILS for DOUBLE WALL HOUSES FRAMING METAL STUD PERFORMANCE FREEZE-PROOF A BUILDING

HEAT LOSS RATE CALCULATIONS HEAT LOSS in buildings HEAT LOSS DETECTION TOOLS HEAT LOSS INDICATORS HEAT LOSS PREVENTION PRIORITIES HEAT LOSS R U & K VALUE CALCULATION HOUSEWRAP AIR & VAPOR BARRIERS HOUSEWRAP INSTALLATION DETAILS HOUSEWRAP AIR & VAPOR BARRIERS HOUSE DOCTOR, how-to be HOUSE PARTS, DEFINITIONS HUMIDITY LEVEL TARGET

ICE DAM PREVENTION INDOOR AIR QUALITY & HOUSE TIGHTNESS INSULATION INSPECTION & IMPROVEMENT INSULATION CHOICES Insulation Air & Heat Leaks INSULATION FACT SHEET- DOE INSULATION IDENTIFICATION GUIDE INSULATION INSPECTION & IMPROVEMENT INSULATION LOCATION - WHERE TO PUT IT INSULATION LOCATION for BRICK VENEER WALLS INSULATION LOCATION for CAPES, CRAWLSPACES INSULATION LOCATION for CATHEDRAL CEILINGS INSULATION LOCATION for GREENHOUSE or SOLARIUM INSULATION MOLD INSULATION R-Values & Properties

KIT HOMES, Aladdin, Sears, Wards, Others KITCHEN & BATH DESIGN GUIDE KITCHEN VENTILATION

LEED GREEN BUILDING CERTIFICATION LEED Building Designation & IAQ LOG HOME ENERGY EFFICIENCY LOG HOME GUIDE

MOLD in FOAM INSULATION, RESISTANCE MOISTURE CONTROL in BUILDINGS MSDS Material Safety Data Sheets MVOCs & MOLDY MUSTY ODORS MYCOPHOBIA, STAINS MISTAKEN for MOLD MYCOTOXIN EFFECTS of MOLD EXPOSURE

Nanomaterials Hazards NOISE / SOUND DIAGNOSIS & CURE NOISE, AIR CONDITIONER COMPRESSOR NOISE, DUCT VIBRATION DAMPENERS

NOISE CONTROL for HEATING SYSTEMS NOISE CONTROL for FLOORS NOISE CONTROL for PLUMBING NOISE CONTROL for ROOFS NOISES COMING FROM WATER HEATER

ODORS & SMELLS DIAGNOSIS & CURE ODOR DIAGNOSIS CHECKLIST

PAINT FALURE, DIAGNOSIS, CURE, PREVENTION Paper Duct Insulation Containing Asbestos

H2O 27 Balsam Wool 2 - 3.5 insulation Brick 0.2 18 Brick facing, 1" 0.11
H2O 27
Balsam Wool
2
- 3.5
insulation
Brick
0.2 18
Brick facing, 1"
0.11
Building paper,
red rosin paper
0.06
Cardboard as
3
- 4 21
insulation
Ceiling Panels,
suspended or
0.4
- 6
drop ceilings
Cellulose Insulation R-Values by type
Cellulose
insulation loose
3.1
- 3.8 20,24
2.2-3.0
High
5-20%
15-40
0-45
CO
fill
Cellulose
insulation, spray-
on (wet spray)
2.8
- 3.5 20,24
Cementious
0.35
- 0.69 21
Foam
Cement
asbestos wall
0.03
shingles
Concrete Insulating R-values by type
Concrete,
0.08
18 -
uninsulated
0.3125
17
Concrete-
0.85
- 1.2
12-88
Varies
Varies
0
0
0
insulated
Concrete, air
3.90
21
entrained
0.1457
Air Krete® 26
in/sec
coefficient,
2.07
or 0.3407
also ThermalKrete
and similar air-
entraned MgO
Products
26
26
26
3.90
0
0
no
lbs/cuFt 26
in/sec flow
rate at 68
degF
H2O 27
Concrete block,
1.11
4-inch hollow
core
Concrete block,
8-inch hollow
1.70
core
Concrete block,
12-inch hollow
1.90

PASCAL CALCULATIONS PASSIVE SOLAR DESIGN METHOD PASSIVE SOLAR HEAT PERFORMANCE PASSIVE SOLAR HOME, LOW COST PHOTOVOLTAIC POWER SYSTEMS

RADIANT BARRIERS RADIANT HEAT RADIANT HEAT Floor Mistakes to Avoid RADIANT HEAT TEMPERATURES RADIANT SLAB FLOORING CHOICES RADIANT SLAB TUBING & FLUID CHOICES REFLECTIVE INSULATION RIGID FOAM USE INDOORS ROT, FUNGUS, TERMITES ROT RESISTANT LUMBER ROT, TIMBER FRAME ROT, TIMBER ASSESSMENT

SAFETY HAZARDS & INSPECTIONS SEARS KIT HOUSES SHEATHING, FOIL FACED - VENTS SLAB INSULATION, PASSIVE SOLAR SOUND CONTROL in buildings

STAIN & BIODETERIORATION AGENT CATALOG STAINS on buildings - QUICK GUIDE STAIN DIAGNOSIS on BUILDING EXTERIORS STAIN DIAGNOSIS on BUILDING INTERIORS STAIN DIAGNOSIS on ROOFS STAIN DIAGNOSIS on STONE STAINS & FINISHES, INTERIOR STAINS on INDOOR SURFACES: PHOTO GUIDE STAIRS, RAILINGS, LANDINGS, RAMPS STONE CLEANING METHODS STONE VENEER WALLS STUCCO WAll FAILURES DUE TO WEATHER STUCCO WALL METHODS & INSTALLATION STUCCO OVER FOAM INSULATION STUCCO PAINT FAILURES STRUCTURAL WOOD ASSESSMENT SUMP PUMPS GUIDE SWEATING (CONDENSATION) on PIPES, TANKS

Thermal Expansion Cracking of Brick THERMAL EXPANSION of HOT WATER

THERMAL EXPANSION of MATERIALS THERMAL IMAGING, THERMOGRAPHY THERMAL IMAGING MOLD SCANS THERMAL MASS in BUILDINGS THERMAL TRACKING Indicates Heat Loss THERMOSTATS, HEATING / COOLING TRIM, INTERIOR INSTALLATION TRUSS UPLIFT, ROOF TRUSSES, Floor & Roof

VAPOR BARRIERS & CONDENSATION in BUILDINGS VENTILATION in buildings VINYL CHLORIDE HEALTH INFO VINYL SIDING VINYL Siding or PLASTIC Window ODORS in buildings Volatile Organic Compounds VOCs

WALL SIDING TRIM & FINISHES WALL FINISHES INTERIOR WATER BARRIERS, EXTERIOR BUILDING WATER ENTRY in buildings WIND WASHING INSULATION At EAVES WINDOWS & DOORS WINTERIZE A BUILDING WOOD Burning Heaters Fireplaces Stoves

More Information

core Concrete block, lightweight 8- 2.2 inch Carpeting with 2.08 fiber padding Carpeting with 1.23
core
Concrete block,
lightweight 8-
2.2
inch
Carpeting with
2.08
fiber padding
Carpeting with
1.23
foam padding
Cotton Insulation R-Values by type
Cotton insulation
0.5
.25-10
Cotton Batts
3.7
22
0.25
- 1
0.80
typical
Dirt or Soil
at 20%
moisture
Drywall, 1/2-inch
0.45
Drywall, 3/4-inch
0.56
Fiberboard
2.8
insulating boards
Fibergoard nail
1.14
base, 1/2-inch
Fiberglass Insulation R-Values by type
Fiberglass
chopped, loose
2.5
- 3.7 20
fill
Fiberglass
chopped/blown
3.6
- 4.4
100
insulation
Fumes
Fiberglass batt
from
3.1
- 4.3 20
.6 - 1.2
100
1%
15-20
0-20
insulation
paper,
binders
Fiberglass,
batts, hight
3.6
- 5 21
density
Fiberglass
panel, rigid
2.5
21
(fiberglass
"boards")
Fiberglass,
3.7
- 2.9 20
spray-on
Flooring, sheet
resilient floors,
linoleum, or tiles
0.05
Glass
0.14 18
Gypsum board
0.6

Home®Foam 25

Spray or pour

3.9

21

0.51

lbs/ft 3

         

Icynene Foam Insulation R-Values

 

Icynene® Foam-

             

poured insulation

or pour fill insulation

4

23

.5-2 10

low

low

low

Icynene® Foam-

             

sprayed

3.6

- 3.7 23

.5-2 10

low

low

low

insulation

 

Mineral Wool

             

insulation

3.2

- 3.7 20

1.5-2.5

100

2%

0

0

0

(Rock Wool)

 

Perlite insulation

2.5 - 3.7 20

2-11

High

0

0

0

0

Plywood, A/C

1.4

 

Phenolic Foam Insulation R-Values

 

Phenolic foam

 

spray insulation

4.8 - 7 21

 

8.3

             

Phenolic foam

insulation

4.4

- 8.2 20

Phenolic rigid

4 - 5 21

panel

Plaster, 1/2"

 

lightweight

0.32

Plastic, foamed:

 

0.51

         

Home Foam 25 low-density

3.9

21

 

lbs/ft 3

Polyethylene

foam

3

21

Polyisocyanurate Foam Insulation R-Values

 

Polyisocyanurate

4.3

- 8.3 21

           
 

5.5

- 6.2 to

2

2-3

0

25

55-200

CO

spray, poured, or board insulation

7.04 - 8.0

Polyisocyanurate foam board, foil faced

6.8 21 - initial, pentane expanded 5.5 21 - aged

           

5

to 10

years

Polyisocyanurate

             

composite

insulation

2.8

(5.8-6.2)

2.0

2-3

Polystyrene Foam Insulation R-Values

 

Polystyrene

             

peanuts for

not recom-

mended

building

5-25+

10-400

insulation

 

Polystyrene loose fill beads for building or window-wall insulation

2.3

     

5-25+

10-400

 

Polystyrene

             

board or

3.6

- 5.0

beadboard 8

MEPS insulation

0.8-2.0

1.2-3.0

0.7-4%

5-25

10-400

CO

molded EPS low density

3.85

21

Polystyrene

3.85

           

Expanded (EPS)

insulation

3.9

- 4.4 20

low-density

3.6

- 4.7 21

Polystyrene

             

board, extruded

5

- 5.4 21

expanded high-

density (XPS)

4.2 21

Molded

Polystyrene

 

1.5

1.2-3.0

       

board

5

Polyisocyanurate / Polyurethane Foam Insulation R-Values

 

Polyisocyanurate

5.6

- 7.0 20

 

/ Polyurethane

Polyurethane spray - closed cell foam insulation.

5.0

- 6.8

           

5.5

- 6.5 21

Thanks to Thanks to Andrew Cole for correcting our data on this product.

Initial 7.14

2.0

2-3

0

30-50

155-200

CO

Aged 6.8

 

7-8 21 - Initial

           

Polyurethane

foam insulation

rigid panels

6.25

5

years

- aged

to 10

Polyurethane

6.8 21 - Initial

           

foam insulation

5.5

- aged 5

rigid panels

to 10 years

Polyurethane spray insulation - open cell insulation

3.6 21 - 7 (est)

           

Reflective

 

insulation

2 - 17 20

Rock Wool Batts

             

Slag wool Batts

3 - 3.85 20

Rock Wool, Slag wool Loose Fill insulation R- value

2.5

- 3.7 20

           

Roofing: Asphalt

0.44

 

shingles

Roofing: built-up 3/8" thick plies

0.33

Roofing: wood

             

shingles

0.94

Silica Aerogel

10

Snow

1

Straw Bale

1.45

Stucco,

             

conventional

0.20

plaster/cement

Tectum™

             

insulated roof

2.0

panels

Thinsulate

5.75

Vacuum Powder

Insulation

25 - 30 20

 

Vacum powder

20 - 100 20

 

insulated panels

Vermiculite

2.13

19 - 3.0

         

0 (may

insulation

2.10

- 3.7 20

4-10

High

0

0

0

contain

asbestos

Urea Formaldehyde UFFI Foam Insulation R-Values & Properties

 

Urea Formaldehyde Foam Panels or in-wall spray

4

- 4.6 21

           
UFFIinsulation 0 (may 4.2 (Urea outgas 0.6-0.9 4.5-100 18% 0-25 0-30 Formaldehyde formal- 5.25 21
UFFIinsulation
0 (may
4.2
(Urea
outgas
0.6-0.9
4.5-100
18%
0-25
0-30
Formaldehyde
formal-
5.25
21
Foam)
dehyde)
Wood, Hardwood, Softwood Insulation R-Values
1.01 - 1.41
Wood R-Values
Log wall R-
Values vary 16
(softwoods)
0.71
(hardwoods)
Wood door,
solid, per inch
1.56
Wood, soft
1.25
Wood Flooring,
assume 3/4"
0.68
hardwood
Wood sheathing
panels
2.5
21
(Plywood,OSB)
Wood shingle
siding, single
0.87
course
Wood siding,
1/2-inch
0.81
clapboard or
shiplap

Notes to the Table of Building Insulation Properties

1.

R-Value is expressed as rate of heat loss per hour per square foot per inch of thickness of materia value definition at Definitions of R K U values For some building materials (such as sheet flooring) specfic thickness other than the standard 1".

2.

Insulation density is expressed in pounds per cubic foot of material

3.

Permeability is expressed as the water vapor permeability of the material per inch of thickness. Th useful to compare one insulating material to another.

4.

Absorption is the tendency of the insulation to absorb water in percent by weight. This is important mold in some materials

5.

Flame Spread is a measure of fire resistance of the material. Use these numbers to compare one another.

6.

Smoke is a measure of fire safety - that is, the relative amount of smoke produced if the insulation i combustion

7.

Toxicity is a measure of fire safety - that is, toxins given off if the insulation is exposed to flame or c

8.

Polystyrene may be in molded or extruded forms and like some other plastic or foam insulations m cell form. (Closed cell foams are more moisture resistant). Polystyrene also is referred to as molde (MEPS), expanded polystyrene (EPS), and extruded polystyrene (XPS) - the most common foam b MEPS & XPS are used in insulated structural panels and in insulating concrete forms (ICFs).

9.

Links to details: Insulation product names in the first table column include links to articles that help id properties of each insulating material listed.

10.

Open vs. closed cell: Foam insulation densities vary among closed-cell vs open cell forms. Open about 1/2 lb/cubic foot; Closed cell foams are more dense and rigid, typically about 2 lb/cu. ft.

11.

C or Thermal conductance of these materials is the reciprocal of the R-value. C is known only when conductivity of a material is known. k is the heat transmitted through a 1-inch thickness of homogen foot per hour when there is 1 degree of temperature change. k= (BTU * inch) / sq.ft. * hour * degF.

12.

Air film: This table of R-values does not consider the insulating characteristic of the air film on each effects of wind on the air film or on the material itself. Some of these materials are more resistant to transmission than others.

13.

Moisture: Closed cell foams resist moisture uptake (good) but if construction is improper they can leading to rot or mold problems in other building materials.

14.

Insects: Exterior foam board on foundations can ease attack by wood destroying insects.

15.

Fire & smoke: Foam insulation products present fire-smoke hazards and usually they must be prot (usually 1/2" drywall).

16.

R-Values for wooden log walls given by the U.S. DOE are in error except for square log walls. D-

"

are given a nominal log thickness, say 6 logs are calculated by DOE as having an R-value of just o non-square logs because the cross section of the log is 6" only at the log's widest point. A correct a of a wooden log wall needs to be calculated based on the average wall thickness, considering the v over the curvature of the logs. Therefore the DOE's value is on the "high" end of the R-value of a log

17. R-Values of uninsulated concrete: Concrete Homes Magazine web search 5/18/2010

18. R-Value for concrete, glass, other materials, Wikipedia web search 5/18/2010 citing Ristinen, Rob Kraushaar. Energy and the Environment. 2nd ed. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2006.

19. E-Star Colorado. Energy Saving Calculations. Energy Living Alliance, 2008. Web 05/18/2010

20. U.S. Department of Energy, DOE Handbook, see http://buildingsdatabook.eren.doe.gov/TableView May 2010. The DOE in turn cited these sources ASHRAE, 1997 ASHRAE Handbook: Fundamentals, p. 24-4, 22-5

ASHRAE, 1997 ASHRAE Handbook: Fundamentals, p. 24-4, 22-5 DOE, Insulation Fact Sheet, Jan. 1988, p. 6
DOE, Insulation Fact Sheet, Jan. 1988, p. 6

DOE, Insulation Fact Sheet, Jan. 1988, p. 6

DOE, Insulation Fact Sheet, Jan. 1988, p. 6
DOE, Insulation Fact Sheet, Jan. 1988, p. 6
DOE, Insulation Fact Sheet, Jan. 1988, p. 6
DOE, Insulation Fact Sheet, Jan. 1988, p. 6

Journal of Thermal Insulation, 1987, p. 81-95

ORNL, ORNL/SUB/88-SA835/1, 1990

ORNL, Science and Technology for a Sustainable Energy Future, Mar. 1995, p. 17

ORNL for vacuum insulation panel

21. Wikipedia, web search 5/18/2010 R-Values per Inch

22. EcoHaus UltraTouch cotton insulation batts batts http://www.ecohaus.com/C-121/ultratouch+batts W

23. Icynene product information see http://www.icynene.com/icynene-insulation/ - Web search 5/18/201

24. ICC Legacy Report ER-2833 - Cocoon Thermal and Sound Insulation Products, ICC Evaluation Se es.org - Web search 5/18/2010

25. HomeFoam®, Home Insulation Corp. - see http://www.homefoam.ca/articles/Why_HF.htm - Web se Home Foam® does not contain formaldehyde, fibrous particulate, HFCs 1 , CFCs 2 or HCFCs 3 and i The Saskatchewan Research Council (SRC) advises that even sensitive individuals may take occu application is complete.

26. Air Krete®, Air Krete Inc., P.O. Box 380, Weedsport NY13166-0380 Keene Christopher, Principal 6609, Retrieved 05 Dec 2010, AirKrete® Green Insulation Specifications, original source: http://ww Specifications for AirKrete® can be found at http://www.airkrete.com/pdf/072101specification.pdf

27. AirKrete® Water Permeability Coefficient, 03/02/2005, letter provided by AirKrete, retrieved 05 De http://www.airkrete.com/testResults_files/PermRating.pdf

Questions & Answers regarding this article

Questions & answers about the insulating properties of various materials

Question: What is the R-value for earth, dirt, soil, backfill, or earth berms?

the R-value for earth, dirt, soil, backfill, or earth berms? A short answer to the R-Value

A short answer to the R-Value of Dirt

Sir: Does InspectApedia have an R-va as a berm on an exterior concrete hou

Reply: Earth or soil has an R-value 1.0 per inch at 20% moisture conte assumptions discussed here

But really, the insulating value of earth elaborate below. Also see "Dirt" in ou shown just above

Sketch at left, courtesy of Carson Dun the effects of soil density and moisture on a foundation wall. As we note belo soil (sketch center) will be much lower the same volume of dry soil (sketch lef level of such wet soil also will affect its as risking foundation damage as we s

Some sources we researched assert that "one inch of 'insulation' is equal to about two feet or more of soi be a bit more specific, say the most commonly-used material, fiberglass, that's about R3 /inch for fibergla soil R-value rule of thumb about dirt, that's about 24/ 3 = about R 0.8 for arbitrary "dirt" insulation value.

R 0.8 sounds pretty reasonable if we assume about 20% moisture content, and if we consider for compa that the R-value of uninsulated concrete is about R 0.8/inch.[1] Other engineering sources cite the R-value per inch. Without normalizing for soil properties and moisture content, these numbers are very arm-wavin

But really this is in my opinion a very unreliable figure given the discussion below about the effects on hea properties and soil moisture. Heck even snow does better, at about R1/inch. In addition to avoiding the co an unreliable R-value for earth (take R 0.25 if you like), discussions of earth berm housing and undergrou consider the effects of thermal mass on building comfort, not just R-values.

R-values measure resistance to heat flow or transfer between materials. But thermal mass considers the mass of soil (or concrete block or ?) or other materials that comprise and surround a building. Thermal m returns it during cooler periods, evening out swings in building temperature. So let's keep in mind that whi of soil outside of a building wall, say, may be R 0.5, that 24" of dirt has much greater thermal mass than th

equivalent R-vale) of an insulating material such as fiberglass or solid foam insulation.

What all of this means is that it is a mistake to try to equate thermal mass and insulating values, and it ma about heat flow rates in or out of a structure if you are paying to heat or cool a building.

Details about the Insulating Properties of Dirt, Soil, Backfill, or Earth Berms

The R-value of earth depends on the type of soil and its water content. Even more significant can be the m through the surrounding soil, as moving water will significantly increase the rate of heat transfer from warm

At least important to anyone asking this question will be the assumptions about

The soil temperature Ts at some depth where it is stable (such as below the frost line in a freezing climate feet. A Journal of Light Construction online forum discussion of soil insulating properties includes the obs

" [earth provides a ] huge amount of thermal mass, and that's what you'll be working with or fighting temperature at about 20' is equal to the year round ambient temperature, so that will tell you what yo with/against. If you want the room warmer or cooler than that, it's easier to install insulation and crea inside that insulated envelope, if the ambient temperature is close to what you want, well, you don't

For a more scholarly discussion of the insulating properties of soil you should consult a heat transfer engi But here are my views of some important parameters to consider when assigning an insulating value to s

Soil temperature, or average soil temperature, or stable soil temperature at some pertinent depth, below or , or average soil temperature, or stable soil temperature at some pertinent depth, below or around a structure, Ts.

Soil properties, such as average soil density and moisture levels and, as we cite above, the , such as average soil density and moisture levels and, as we cite above, the prese moving water through the soil

Target indoor temperature in the conditioned space, that is, the anticipated or target temperature conditioned space, Ti in the conditioned space, that is, the anticipated or target temperature conditioned space, Ti

Building shell: the insulating value of the building shell or its resistance to heat flow from : the insulating value of the building shell or its resistance to heat flow from the warm building exterior walls - R. Also, the air leakiness of compared building shells; an earth-bermed stru than a similar structure whose exterior walls are exposed

Temperature differences: the difference between surrounding soils and the building interior, or sli between Ts and : the difference between surrounding soils and the building interior, or sli between Ts and Ti. If for a given climate those temperatures are close, then the heat flow into or out may be slow enough to give a workable design. If the difference between those two is great, then in design would be wise to include building shell insulation of sufficient R-vale. The temperature differe conditioned and unconditioned space is in my opinion a most critical figure since the larger that diff faster heat will flow from warm to cool materials.

Material I've reviewed about earth sheltered homes and schemes that use electric radiant heated floors o (where electricity is dirt cheap), but I'd prefer to evaluate that "design" with comments by heat transfer exp that any system that pumps heat into uninsulated ground in a cold climate is spending a significant portio return heat to Mother Earth rather than to Mommy upstairs.

The claim that "heat you pump into the ground under or around a home doesn't really go anywhere" is in v of thermodynamics and is simply not so. Heat flows from warmer to cooler materials. Sure we can expect temperature gradient in cool soil beneath or against a heated building, but heat flows from warmer to coo magically stop dead at some arbitrary distance. Just where energy costs are very low and are expected t plausible to use uninsulated earth for heat storage under or around a building.

References for the insulating properties of soil or dirt or earth

[1] Building Envelope, Basement, Kansas State University engineering extension, Energy Extensio Engineering Extension 133 Ward Hall Manhattan, KS 66506 Phone: 785.532.6026 Fax: 785.532.6 08/16/11, original source: www.engext.ksu.edu/ees/henergy/envelope/basement.htmlfor the insulating properties of soil or dirt or earth [2] "R-value of Dirt", Journal of

[2] "R-value of Dirt", Journal of Light Construction Forum, archive, web search 08/16/11, original sowww.engext.ksu.edu/ees/henergy/envelope/basement.html forums.jlconline.com/forums/archive/index.php/t-42036.html

forums.jlconline.com/forums/archive/index.php/t-42036.html

National Research Council, Canada, NRC Institute for Research in Construction, web search 08/16forums.jlconline.com/forums/archive/index.php/t-42036.html http://irc.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/fulltext/nrcc43093/ Hait, John,

http://irc.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/fulltext/nrcc43093/

Hait, John, Passive Annual Heat Storage (PAHS) , Rocky Mountain Research Center; 1st ed(1983) ISBN-13: 978-0915207008 "Passive Passive Annual Heat Storage (PAHS), Rocky Mountain Research Center; 1st ed(1983) ISBN-13: 978-0915207008 "Passive annual heat storage: Improving the design of earth shelters, o sunshine to keep your wigwam warm all winter "

Hait, John, Passive Annual Heat Storage: Improving the Design of Earth Shelter s, quoting Amazon approach to Passive Annual Heat Storage: Improving the Design of Earth Shelters, quoting Amazon approach to using the earth as a low cost heat storage media which surrounds one's house. Techni this physicists point of view a correct assessment of the laws of nature involved and how to use the

Hait, John, RMRC earth sheltered vaulted-roof modular building system , Rocky Mountain Research RMRC earth sheltered vaulted-roof modular building system, Rocky Mountain Research

B000736VRG

"Earth Thermal Storage Systems, [radiant floor heating], ", Therma-Ray Inc. 670 Wilsey Road, Unit Brunswick Canada E3B 7K4 Tel: 866-457-4600 (toll free) or 506-457-4600 Email: info@thermaray 08/16/11, original source: http://www.thermaray.com/solutions/earth.htmlmodular building system , Rocky Mountain Research B000736VRG CanGEA Canadian Geothermal Energy Association, PO Box 1462

CanGEA Canadian Geothermal Energy Association, PO Box 1462 Station M Calgary, Alberta, Casource: http://www.thermaray.com/solutions/earth.html inspectapedia.com/interiors/Insulation-Values-Table.htm

801 6805 Email: info@cangea.ca web search 08/16/11, original source: http://www.cangea.ca/

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(Nov 2, 2011) Darrel said:

The R value of soil varies significantly depending on the type of soil, density and moisture content. The and frozen Engineers clay, state sands Cold and and Regions varying gravels moisture Research and peat. content, Lab The has can thermal done be found a conductivity, great in amount UFC 3-310-06, the of reciprocal research Figures and of the 2.1 have R thru value, identified 2.6. for these three s

(Oct 27, 2011) DanJoeFriedman (mod) said:

GFCIcircuit). where consumer Great question there or is armchair a MBM. risk of Soil scientist moisture R-values could and are a try short the out purview is circuit interesting or of even heat and death transfer worth by engineers. pursuing. electrocution But Ithink Iwouldn't (though the idea you bury of could a a light simp red Soil testing for heat transfer rates is significantly complicated by - - variations variations in in soil soil moisture particles and - more density wet, the - more heat coarse, transfer more rate increases entrained air, enormously more heat movement resista I'll posted look further here and to see I'll also what follow-up scientists here have as done other so readers far by will way also of models be interested. and tests; you may want to do th

Daniel Thanks

(Oct 27, 2011) MBM said:

Is foot distance, there away, a field making to the test side the for math or soil above R-value? trickier depending than For Ican example, on handle. situation? bury a 100W In that instance bulb in a the 1 gallon volume can being and monitor heated goes the gr

the 1 gallon volume can being and monitor heated goes the gr Recommend / Share this

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Asbestos pipe insulation in buildingsis a past president of ASHI, the American Society of Home Brick "Insulation" in Building Walls

Brick "Insulation" in Building WallsSociety of Home Asbestos pipe insulation in buildings HEAT LOSS CALCULATIONS, Insulation Properties, Definitions

HEAT LOSS CALCULATIONS, Insulation Properties, Definitions of R, K, U values, Insulation Desigin buildings Brick "Insulation" in Building Walls How to Choose an Air Conditioner - BTU Chart

How to Choose an Air Conditioner - BTU ChartProperties, Definitions of R, K, U values, Insulation Desig How to Detect and Correct Attic Condensation

How to Detect and Correct Attic Condensation & Prevent Ice Dam Leaks in buildingsDesig How to Choose an Air Conditioner - BTU Chart How to Inspect Building Interiors and

How to Inspect Building Interiors and Building Insulation/Ventilation list of articles about building ins defects, design, and ventilation requirements list of articles about building ins defects, design, and ventilation requirements

Indoor Air Quality Investigations: Fiberglass in Indoor Air, HVAC ducts, and Building Insulationbuilding ins defects, design, and ventilation requirements Insulation Identification Photographs - Cellulose

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Insulation Identification Photographs - Vermiculite insulation photos - Vermiculite insulation photos

Insulation Materials as Indicators of Building AgeIdentification Photographs - Vermiculite insulation photos Insulation Properties, Table of R-Values , density, moisture

Insulation Properties, Table of R-Values, density, moisture permeability, fire safety, aging effects on materials , density, moisture permeability, fire safety, aging effects on materials

Insulation Types, table of common building insulation properties from U.S. DOE. , table of common building insulation properties from U.S. DOE.

"Insulation: Adding Insulation to an Existing Home ," U.S. Department of Energy - tips on Insulation: Adding Insulation to an Existing Home," U.S. Department of Energy - tips on how to do y presence of absence of insulation in a home

LP or Natural Gas Pressures & BTUH per Cubic Footon how to do y presence of absence of insulation in a home Mold in Fiberglass

Mold in Fiberglass in Insulationa home LP or Natural Gas Pressures & BTUH per Cubic Foot Radiant Heat Floor Mistakes

Radiant Heat Floor Mistakes to Avoid& BTUH per Cubic Foot Mold in Fiberglass in Insulation Rated Cooling Capacity - How to

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"The Elimination of Unsafe Guardrails, a Progress Report," Elliott O. Stephenson, Building Standa Building Standa

"Are Functional Handrails Within Our Grasp" Jake Pauls, Building Standards , January-February 19 Building Standards, January-February 19

Access Ramp building codes:Jake Pauls, Building Standards , January-February 19 UBC 1003.3.4.3 BOCA 1016.3 ADA 4.8.2 IBC 1010.2

UBC 1003.3.4.3

UBC 1003.3.4.3

BOCA 1016.3

BOCA 1016.3

BOCA 1016.3
BOCA 1016.3

ADA 4.8.2

IBC 1010.2

Access Ramp Standards:UBC 1003.3.4.3 BOCA 1016.3 ADA 4.8.2 IBC 1010.2 ADA (Americans with Disabilities Act), Public Law 101-336.

1016.3 ADA 4.8.2 IBC 1010.2 Access Ramp Standards: ADA (Americans with Disabilities Act), Public Law 101-336.

ADA (Americans with Disabilities Act), Public Law 101-336. 7/26/90 is very often cited by oth design of stairs and ramps etc. even where disabled individuals are not the design target.

ANSIA117.4 Accessible and Usable buildings and Facilities (earlier version was incorporate

ANSIA117.4 Accessible and Usable buildings and Facilities (earlier version was incorporate

ASTM F 1637, Standard Practice for Safe Walking Surfaces, (Similar to the above standards

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America's Favorite Homes, mail-order catalogues as a guide to popular early 20th-century houses, Michael W.R. Davis, 1990, Wayne State University Press ISBN 0814320066 (may be available fro , Michael W.R. Davis, 1990, Wayne State University Press ISBN 0814320066 (may be available fro Press)

American Plywood Association, APA, "Portland Manufacturing Company, No. 1, a series of monog plywood manufacturing",Plywood Pioneers Association, 31 March, 1967, www.apawood.orgPress ISBN 0814320066 (may be available fro Press) Animal Allergens: Dog, Cat, and Other Animal Dander

Animal Allergens: Dog, Cat, and Other Animal Dander - Cleanup & Prevention Information for Asth Indoor Air Dog, Cat, and Other Animal Dander - Cleanup & Prevention Information for Asth Indoor Air Quality.

Asbestos: How to find and recognize asbestos in buildings - visual inspection methods, list of com How to find and recognize asbestos in buildings - visual inspection methods, list of com materials

Asbestos HVAC Ducts and Flues field identification photos and guide field identification photos and guide

Asbestos products and their history and use in various building materials such as asphalt and vinyl discussion which draws on Asbestos, Its Industrial Applications , D.V. Rosato, engineering consulta Publishing, 1959 Library of Congress Catalog Asbestos, Its Industrial Applications, D.V. Rosato, engineering consulta Publishing, 1959 Library of Congress Catalog Card No.: 59-12535 (out of print).

Asbestos Identification and Testing References Asbestos Identification , Walter C.McCrone, McCrone Research Institute, Chicago, IL.1987 IS McCrone literally "wrote Asbestos Identification, Walter C.McCrone, McCrone Research Institute, Chicago, IL.1987 IS McCrone literally "wrote the book" on asbestos identification procedures which formed the ba asbestos identification laboratories.

which formed the ba asbestos identification laboratories. Stanton, .F., et al., National Bureau of Standards Special
Stanton, .F., et al., National Bureau of Standards Special Publication 506: 143-151

Stanton, .F., et al., National Bureau of Standards Special Publication 506: 143-151

Stanton, .F., et al., National Bureau of Standards Special Publication 506: 143-151

Pott, F., Staub-Reinhalf Luft 38, 486-490 (1978) cited by McCrone

Brick nogging used as soundproofing is mentioned in this article on Popular Forest is mentioned in this article on Popular Forest

Brick Nogging, Historical Investigation and Contemporary Repair, Construction Specifier , April 200 in timber-framed buildings, drawing on the investigations of the , Construction Specifier, April 200 in timber-framed buildings, drawing on the investigations of the Kent Tavern in Calais, VT. "Brick no method of construction which was brought to the new world in the early-nineteenth century. It was a c method that employed masonry as infill between the vertical uprights of wood framing." -- quoting th

Photo of very rough in-wall brick nogging at an architects website at an architects website

Building Research Council, BRC, nee Small Homes Council, SHC, School of Architecture, Universivery rough in-wall brick nogging at an architects website Champaign, brc.arch.uiuc.edu. "The Small Homes Council

Champaign, brc.arch.uiuc.edu. "The Small Homes Council (our original name) was organized in 19 request of the President of the University of Illinois to consider the role of the university in meeting th the United States. Soldiers would be coming home after the war and would be needing good low-c the Council became part of the School of Architecture, and since then has been known as the Scho

Building Research

nation's housing stock. How could homes be designed and built more efficiently? What kinds of construction and production techniques worked well and which did not? How did people use different kinds of spaces in their homes? What roles did community planning, zoning, and interior design play in how neighborhoods wo

The Council's researchers answered many critical questions that wou

researchers answered many critical questions that wou The Circular Staircase , Mary Roberts Rinehart Construction
researchers answered many critical questions that wou The Circular Staircase , Mary Roberts Rinehart Construction
researchers answered many critical questions that wou The Circular Staircase , Mary Roberts Rinehart Construction
researchers answered many critical questions that wou The Circular Staircase , Mary Roberts Rinehart Construction

The Circular Staircase, Mary Roberts Rinehart , Mary Roberts Rinehart

Construction Drawings and Details, Rosemary Kilmer , Rosemary Kilmer

"An Example of Colonial Paneling", Norman Morrison Isham, The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulle 1911), pp. 112-116, available by JSTOR.Rinehart Construction Drawings and Details , Rosemary Kilmer Dust from the World Trade Center collapse following

Dust from the World Trade Center collapse following the 9/11/01 attack: the lower floors of this build fire-proofing asbestos materials. collapse following the 9/11/01 attack: the lower floors of this build fire-proofing asbestos materials.

"Energy Savers: Whole-House Supply Ventilation Systems [copy on file as /interiors/Energy_Saver House_Supply_Vent.pdf ] - ", U.S. Department of Energylower floors of this build fire-proofing asbestos materials.

energysavers.gov/your_home/insulation_airsealing/index.cfm/mytopic=11880?print

"Energy Savers: Whole-House Exhaust Ventilation Systems [copy on file as /interiors/Energy_Save House_Exhaust.pdf ] - ", U.S. Department of Energy

energysavers.gov/your_home/insulation_airsealing/index.cfm/mytopic=11870

"Energy Savers: Ventilation [copy on file as /interiors/Energy_Savers_Ventilation.pdf ] - ", U.S. Dep"Energy Savers: Natural Ventilation [copy on file as

"Energy Savers: Natural Ventilation [copy on file as /interiors/Energy_Savers_Natural_Ventilation.p of Energy/interiors/Energy_Savers_Ventilation.pdf ] - ", U.S. Dep "Energy Savers: Energy Recovery Ventilation Systems

"Energy Savers: Energy Recovery Ventilation Systems [copy on file as /interiors/Energy_Savers_Energy_Recovery_Venting.pdf ] - ", U.S. Department of Energyas /interiors/Energy_Savers_Natural_Ventilation.p of Energy

energysavers.gov/your_home/insulation_airsealing/index.cfm/mytopic=11900

"Energy Savers: Detecting Air Leaks [copy on file as /interiors/Energy_Savers_Detect_Air_Leaks. of Energy"Energy Savers: Air Sealing [copy on file as

"Energy Savers: Air Sealing [copy on file as /interiors/Energy_Savers_Air_Sealing_1.pdf ] - ", U.S.file as /interiors/Energy_Savers_Detect_Air_Leaks. of Energy Falls and Related Injuries: Slips, Trips, Missteps, and

Falls and Related Injuries: Slips, Trips, Missteps, and Their Consequences, Lawyers & Judges Pub ISBN-10: 0913875430 ISBN-13: 978-0913875438 , Lawyers & Judges Pub ISBN-10: 0913875430 ISBN-13: 978-0913875438

"Falls in the home and public places are the second leading cause of unintentional injury deaths in the United States, literature. This book is unique in that it is entirely devoted to falls. Of use to primary care physicians, nurses, insuranc writers of building codes, attorneys, or anyone who cares for the elderly, this book will tell you how, why, and when peo likely will be injured, and how such injuries come about. "

Fiberglass: Indoor Air Quality Investigations: Health Concerns About Airborne Fiberglass: Fiberglas HVAC ducts, and Building : Indoor Air Quality Investigations: Health Concerns About Airborne Fiberglass: Fiberglas HVAC ducts, and Building Insulation

Humidity: What indoor humidity should we maintain in order to avoid a mold problem? What indoor humidity should we maintain in order to avoid a mold problem?

Lighting, proper use of: proper aiming of a good flashlight can disclose hard to see but toxic light or proper aiming of a good flashlight can disclose hard to see but toxic light or walls.

Nogging: See this photo of exposed bricks on a building exterior on a building exterior in Canada. [ photo of exposed bricks on a building exterior on a building exterior in Canada. [ Dunlop, Toronto - see References below].

Pergo AB, division of Perstorp AB, is a Swedish manufacturer or modern laminate flooring product U.S. company can be found at http://www.pergo.com where we obtained historical data used in our flooring materials in buildings.in Canada. [ Dunlop, Toronto - see References below]. Piquet Wall Construction: See this photo of

Piquet Wall Construction: See this photo of piquet wall construction - involving timber-framed wall c t photo of piquet wall construction - involving timber-framed wall c t

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Plank House Construction: weblog from plankhouse.wordpress.com/2009/01/25/plank-house-cons houses were built by native

Plank House Construction: weblog from plankhouse.wordpress.com/2009/01/25/plank-house-cons houses were built by native Americans, see Large 1:6 Scale Plank House Construction / P8094228, Photographer: Mike Meuser 06/12/2007 documented at yurokplankhouse.com where scale model Museum quality Yurok Plank raise money for the Blue Creek - Ah Pah Traditional Yurok Village project.

Re-Bath, tub lining products is a bath tub relining manufacturer and distributor located in Tempe,

Re-Bath, tub lining products is a bath tub relining manufacturer and distributor located in Tempe, Ar

Rubblestone Wall Filler: See this Lartigue House using exterior-exposed rubblestone filler between and beam-framed

Rubblestone Wall Filler: See this Lartigue House using exterior-exposed rubblestone filler between and beam-framed Canadian building.

Slips, Trips, Missteps and Their Consequences , Second Edition, Gary M. Bakken, H. Harvey Cohe

Slips, Trips, Missteps and Their Consequences, Second Edition, Gary M. Bakken, H. Harvey Cohe Abele, ISBN-13: 978-1-933264-01-1 or ISBN 10: 1-933264-01-2, available from the publisher, Law Company,Inc., www.lawyersandjudges.com sales@lawyersandjudges.com and also from the Inspe (Amazon.com)

The Stairway Manufacturers' Association, (877) 500-5759, provides a pictorial guide to the stair an International

The Stairway Manufacturers' Association, (877) 500-5759, provides a pictorial guide to the stair an International Residential Code. [copy on file as http://www.stairways.org/pdf/2006%20Stair%20IRC

What Mold and Allergens Look Like: mold identification photos to help identify mold - choosing

What Mold and Allergens Look Like: mold identification photos to help identify mold - choosing wha

How to Clean Moldy Wood Framing & Sheathing How to clean/seal mold from/on exposed lumber

How to Clean Moldy Wood Framing & Sheathing How to clean/seal mold from/on exposed lumber roof sheathing indoors - some suggestions based on our field and laboratory research

Lighting, proper use of: proper aiming of a good flashlight can disclose hard to see

Lighting, proper use of: proper aiming of a good flashlight can disclose hard to see but toxic light or walls.

Manufactured & Modular Homes: Modular Building Systems Association, MBSA, modularhousing.c association promoting and

Manufactured & Modular Homes: Modular Building Systems Association, MBSA, modularhousing.c association promoting and providing links to contact modular builders in North America. Also see t Owners Association, MHOAA, at www.mhoaa.us. The Manufactured Home Owners Association of Organization dedicated to the protection of the rights of all people living in Manufactured Housing in

Mold spores in the Home - a Photo ID Library for detection and identification of

Mold spores in the Home - a Photo ID Library for detection and identification of mold allergens.

How to Find and Test For Mold in buildings A "how to" photo and text

How to Find and Test For Mold in buildings A "how to" photo and text primer on finding and choosin for mold in buildings

Stuff that is not mold but is often mistaken for it - things you may

Stuff that is not mold but is often mistaken for it - things you may not want to test. Also, not all "black examples of harmless black mold.

Simple Adhesive Tape Sampling of Moldy Surfaces - how to send a mold sample to

Simple Adhesive Tape Sampling of Moldy Surfaces - how to send a mold sample to our lab

Mold Sampling Methods in the Indoor Environment - In-depth article: detailed critique of popular mo

Mold Sampling Methods in the Indoor Environment - In-depth article: detailed critique of popular mo your mold test kit worth the bother?

Mold-Resistant Building Practices, advice from an expert on how to prevent mold after a building

Mold-Resistant Building Practices, advice from an expert on how to prevent mold after a building flo mold growth in buildings by selection of building materials and by anti-mold construction details.

Slips, Trips, Missteps and Their Consequences , Gary M. Bakken, H. Harvey Cohen, Jon R.

Slips, Trips, Missteps and Their Consequences, Gary M. Bakken, H. Harvey Cohen, Jon R. Abele, LaRue, Lawyers and Judges Publishing; ISBN-10: 1933264012 ISBN-13: 978-1933264011

Slips, Trips, Missteps and Their Consequences , Second Edition, Gary M. Bakken, H. Harvey Cohe

Slips, Trips, Missteps and Their Consequences, Second Edition, Gary M. Bakken, H. Harvey Cohe Abele, ISBN-13: 978-1-933264-01-1 or ISBN 10: 1-933264-01-2, available from the publisher, Law Publishing Company,Inc., www.lawyersandjudges.com sales@lawyersandjudges.com and also fro

Bookstore (Amazon.com)

Steps and Stairways , Cleo Baldon & Ib Melchior, Rizzoli, 1989.

Steps and Stairways, Cleo Baldon & Ib Melchior, Rizzoli, 1989.

The Staircase , Ann Rinaldi

The Staircase, Ann Rinaldi

Common Sense Stairbuilding and Handrailing , Fred T. Hodgson

Common Sense Stairbuilding and Handrailing, Fred T. Hodgson

The Art of Staircases , Pilar Chueca

The Art of Staircases, Pilar Chueca

Building Stairs, by pros for pros , Andy Engel

Building Stairs, by pros for pros, Andy Engel

A Simplified Guide to Custom Stairbuilding , George R. Christina

A Simplified Guide to Custom Stairbuilding, George R. Christina

Basic Stairbuilding , Scott Schuttner

Basic Stairbuilding, Scott Schuttner

The Staircase (two volumes), John Templar, Cambridge: the MIT Press, 1992

The Staircase (two volumes), John Templar, Cambridge: the MIT Press, 1992

The Staircase: History and Theories , John Templar, MIT Press 1995

The Staircase: History and Theories, John Templar, MIT Press 1995

Steps and Stairways , Cleo Baldon & Ib Melchior, Rizzoli, 1989.

Steps and Stairways, Cleo Baldon & Ib Melchior, Rizzoli, 1989.

"The Dimensions of Stairs", J. M. Fitch et al., Scientific American , October 1974.

"The Dimensions of Stairs", J. M. Fitch et al., Scientific American, October 1974.

"The Elimination of Unsafe Guardrails, a Progress Report," Elliott O. Stephenson, Building Standa

"The Elimination of Unsafe Guardrails, a Progress Report," Elliott O. Stephenson, Building Standa

"Are Functional Handrails Within Our Grasp" Jake Pauls, Building Standards , January-February 19

"Are Functional Handrails Within Our Grasp" Jake Pauls, Building Standards, January-February 19

"Weather-Resistive Barriers [copy on file as /interiors/Weather_Resistant_Barriers_DOE.pdf ] - ", h housewrap and

"Weather-Resistive Barriers [copy on file as /interiors/Weather_Resistant_Barriers_DOE.pdf ] - ", h housewrap and other types of weather resistive barriers, U.S. DOE

Weaver: Beaver Board and Upson Board: Beaver Board and Upson Board: History and Conservat Shelby

Weaver: Beaver Board and Upson Board: Beaver Board and Upson Board: History and Conservat Shelby Weaver, APT Bulletin, Vol. 28, No. 2/3 (1997), pp. 71-78, Association for Preservation Tech (APT), available online at JSTOR.

What Style Is It?: A Guide to American Architecture , Rev., John C. Poppeliers, S.

What Style Is It?: A Guide to American Architecture, Rev., John C. Poppeliers, S. Allen Chambers, (October 6, 2003), ISBN-10: 0471250368, ISBN-13: 978-0471250364

, Rev., John C. Poppeliers, S. Allen Chambers, (October 6, 2003), ISBN-10: 0471250368, ISBN-13: 978-0471250364

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