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Faculty of Science, Engineering and Technology MEE20004 - STRUCTURAL MECHANICS LAB. 1 - PURE TORSION

Faculty of Science, Engineering and Technology MEE20004 - STRUCTURAL MECHANICS

LAB. 1 - PURE TORSION - 2015 Sem. 2

By writing my name below, I declare this is an individual assignment and no part of this submission has been copied from any other student's work or from any other source except where due acknowledgment is explicitly made in the text, nor has any part been written for me by another person. Refer to Unit of Study Outline for Plagiarism guidelines.

STUDENT NAME & No.: Thilan Rathnayake 100037574

Lab. Date & Time: 18/08/2015

Demonstrator: Reiza Mukhlis

INTRODUCTION:

The aim of this Laboratory is to compare experimental measurements and theoretical calculations relating to Pure Torsion of circular test specimens. Angle of Twist, Φ, is measured using a Protractor Scale on a STR6 TORSION TESTING Machine see Fig. 1 below and Fig. 2 on page 3.

PROCEDURE:

STUDENT NOTES :

[ DEMONSTRATOR : - Ensure Φ is < 0 0 before tightening chuck jaws .]

(i)

Measure rod test specimen diameter using Vernier, at three typical locations and record average value of rod diameter (why average?).

(ii)

Slide in test specimen, rotate Chuck Jaws in opposite directions and tighten both Jaws with key. Check effective length tested, L= 500 mm. Zero Protractor Scale then zero Force display.

(iii)

Rotate test specimen end using Thumbwheel, determine Torque from Digital Force Display [Moment Arm = 50 mm]. Measure Angular Deflection or Twist, Φ.

Display [Moment Arm = 50 mm]. Measure Angular Deflection or Twist , Φ . Fig. 1

Fig. 1 - STR6 TORSION TESTING Machine.

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A. Solid Steel Rod Measure up test specimen :

Measured

Diameter (mm)

Average Diameter (mm)

3.12

 

3.11

3.11

3.11

Rotate rod end until noted Torque achieved , record corresponding Angular Deflection, Φ.

Force

Applied

Observed Ang. Defl’n, φ (deg.)

Calc’d Ang. Defl’n,

Error۞

(Newtons)

Torque,T (Nm)

φ

(deg.)

(%)

0

0

0

 

0

0

1

0.05

2

 

1.92

3.88

2

0.1

4

 

3.84

4

3

0.15

6

 

5.76

4

4

0.20

8

 

7.68

4

5

0.25

10

 

9.6

4

Draw Graph (to Scale) of Applied Torque (horizontal axis) versus Observed Angular Deflection, Φ (vertical axis), draw in Line of best fit (refer BBoard – Learn’g Mat’l / Other Res. / Linear Graphs). This should demonstrate Strain is linearly proportional to Load within Elastic range.

B. Solid Brass Rod Measure up test specimen :

Measured

Diameter (mm)

Average Diameter (mm)

3.16

 

3.14

3.17

3.17

Rotate rod end until noted Torque achieved , record corresponding Angular Deflection, Φ.

Force

Applied

Observed Ang. Defl’n, φ (deg.)

Calc’d Ang. Defl’n,

Error۞

(Newtons)

Torque,T (Nm)

φ

(deg.)

(%)

0

0

0

 

0

0

1

0.05

4

 

3.76

6

2

0.1

8

 

7.52

6

3

0.15

12

 

11.28

6

4

0.20

16.5

 

15.04

8.8

5

0.25

20

 

18.8

8.2

Draw Graph (to Scale) of Applied Torque (horizontal axis) versus Angular Deflection, Φ as above.

C . Hollow Brass Tube Measure up test specimen :

Measured

Diameter (mm)

Average Diameter (mm)

3.25

 

3.20

3.27

3.24

Rotate rod end until noted Torque achieved, record corresponding Angular Deflection, Φ.

Force

Applied

Observed Ang. Defl’n, φ (deg.)

Calc’d Ang. Defl’n,

Error۞

(Newtons)

Torque,T (Nm)

φ

(deg.)

(%)

0

0

0

 

0

0

1

0.05

5

 

3.84

23.2

2

0.1

9

 

7.68

14

3

0.15

13

 

11.52

11.3

4

0.20

19

 

15.36

19.1

5

0.25

23

 

19.2

16.5

Draw Graph (to Scale) of Applied Torque (horizontal axis) versus Angular Deflection, Φ as above. Assume inner diameter is 1.85 mm.

۞ Note : Take % Error as =

Observed

inner diameter is 1.85 mm. ۞ Note : Take % Error as = Observed  -

- Calculated

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Observed

100%

LABORATORY REPORT :

Type and edit your report using Microsoft Word (hand-written is not acceptable except for the sample calculation). Email your individual Lab. Report to your demonstrator by due Date 1 week after conducting Lab. Please scan your report and save whole report as one PDF file with a name of Surname_Initial_Student ID_Lab1.pdf. Please see the Study Guide or Blackboard for your demonstrators Email address. Also please refer to Unit of Study Outline for penalties etc.

The Report must include (in order):

(i)

This 3 page handout as cover sheet /results for your report (1 mark).

(ii)

Three (3) scale Graphs (for parts A, B, C) of Observed Angular Deflection, versus Torque (including line of best fit). Use graph paper or computer software to plot these graphs. (1 mark).

(iii) Discussion: Compare theoretical results with those measured (error/difference in percentage); comment on potential sources of errors and possible solutions. Compare performance of test-pieces B and C. Address other points raised in the experiment. The expected length of the Discussion is between half and one full page using 12 font size with 1.5 line space (200-400 words) (1 mark).

(iv) Conclusion: Please state whether the Laboratory Objective has been achieved (e.g. the relation between angle of twist and torque) and summarise your experimental observations and comments (1 mark).

(v) Sample Calculations should be included in an Appendix, attached at the end. Only this part can be hand-written neatly (1 mark).

DATA : Brass : G = 38 GPa;

THEORY : Refer to Beer et. al. - Mechanics of

Steel :

G = 80 GPa.

Materials Global Ed. 6E Chapter 3.

of Steel : G = 80 GPa. Materials – Global Ed. 6E – Chapter 3. Fig.

Fig. 2 - STR6 TORSION TESTING Machine.

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Graphs for observations

Observations

 

Angle of deflection vs torque for steel rod

 
 

12

10

  12 10

8

Angle of twist

6

4

 

2

0

 

0

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

0.25

0.3

 

torque

 

Angle of deflection vs torque for brass rod

 
 

25

20

0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25
0
0.05
0.1
0.15
0.2
0.25

0.3

15

Angle of twist

10

5

 

0

 
 

-5

 

torque

 

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Angle of deflection vs torque for hallow brass tube 25 20 15 10 5 0
Angle of deflection vs torque for hallow brass tube
25
20
15
10
5
0
0
0.05
0.1
0.15
0.2
0.25
0.3
torque
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Angle of twist

Discussion

For the solid steel rod, the percentage error between the measured angle of twist and observed angle of twist is only under 4%, but for the solid brass rod the percentage error is between 6% to 8.8%. However this percentage for hallow brass rod went up to 23%. For the solid steel rod the angle of twist is very less but this value increased for the solid brass rod and hallow brass rod. Percentage error for solid brass rod started with 6% for the torque 0.05 Nm and it has increased up to 8.8% for the torque 0.2 Nm. But error percentage for the hallow brass rod started with 23% (the maximum percentage all time for the experiment) for the minimum torque and decreased to 11.3% for the torque 0.15%. In comparison solid steel rog has given consistent results while other two gave fluctuating results.

In solid brass rod the measured angle of deflection for the minimum torque is 4 degrees while hallow brass rod had 5 degrees. For all torque values there is no significant difference between angle of deflection, even hallow shaft had hallow with 1.85mm inner diameter. So we can conclude that there is no significant difference in angle of twist, even the rod has hallow with half of its outer diameter. In practical view by using hallow rods we can save big amounts of material and they also give almost the same strength as solid rods.

The errors of this experiment may occur due to several reasons. The first reason for the error is there will be a slight slip in the grip, due to the material not feeling the torque we observe, so the angle of twist will be slightly less than expected. The second reason is when we measure the effective length it will always be less than the actual effective length because we cannot mark the actual effective length after we tighten the chuck. The third reason is, the rod may be bended while we apply torque, and because of that torque may not be transferred accurately. The fourth reason is protractor scale may be tightened too much, if this happens protractor will not move as it should and will result in a less angle than the actual. The fifth reason is that we are taking measurement for the forces 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 N and least measurement in scale is one newton. So even if we observed the force as 1N it may be between 1N and 2N but we are using 1N for the calculations. The sixth reason is that the diameter is not constant throughout rod so we took the average diameter, but still a slight error is occurring due to this. The last type of error is human errors.

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Conclusion

The aim of this experiment was to compare experiment observations and calculated results of pure torsion. By looking at the results we can say the experiment is successful, the results observed and calculated are not much different and error percentages are also less. By looking at the results we can conclude that the angle of twist is linearly proportional to the torque.

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Sample calculations

For solid steel rod

Sample calculations  For solid steel rod 8 of 9
Sample calculations  For solid steel rod 8 of 9

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