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For other uses, see Society (disambiguation).

Chinese social structure of the time.

A human society is a group of people involved in persistent social interaction, or a large social grouping sharing
the same geographical or social territory, typically subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural
expectations. Human societies are characterized by patterns of relationships (social relations) between individuals who share a distinctive culture and institutions; a given
society may be described as the sum total of such relationships among its constituent members. In the social
sciences, a larger society often evinces stratication or
dominance patterns in subgroups.

The term society came from the Latin word societas,

which in turn was derived from the noun socius
("comrade, friend, ally"; adjectival form socialis) used to
describe a bond or interaction between parties that are
friendly, or at least civil. Without an article, the term
can refer to the entirety of humanity (also: society in
general, society at large, etc.), although those who are
unfriendly or uncivil to the remainder of society in this
sense may be deemed to be antisocial. Adam Smith
wrote that a society may subsist among dierent men,
as among dierent merchants, from a sense of its utility
if only they refrain
Insofar as it is collaborative, a society can enable its mem- without any mutual love or aection,
bers to benet in ways that would not otherwise be possible on an individual basis; both individual and social Used in the sense of an association, a society is a
(common) benets can thus be distinguished, or in many body of individuals outlined by the bounds of funccases found to overlap.
tional interdependence, possibly comprising characterisA society can also consist of like-minded people governed tics such as national or cultural identity, social solidarity,
language, or hierarchical structure.
by their own norms and values within a dominant, larger
society. This is sometimes referred to as a subculture, a
term used extensively within criminology.

2 Conceptions

More broadly, and especially within structuralist thought,

a society may be illustrated as an economic, social,
industrial or cultural infrastructure, made up of, yet distinct from, a varied collection of individuals. In this regard society can mean the objective relationships people
have with the material world and with other people, rather
than other people beyond the individual and their familiar social environment.

Society, in general, addresses the fact that an individual

has rather limited means as an autonomous unit. The
great apes have always been more (Bonobo, Homo, Pan)
or less (Gorilla, Pongo) social animals, so Robinson Crusoe-like situations are either ctions or unusual corner
cases to the ubiquity of social context for humans, who
fall between presocial and eusocial in the spectrum of
animal ethology.
Human societies are most often organized according to
their primary means of subsistence. Social scientists have
identied hunter-gatherer societies, nomadic pastoral societies, horticulturalist or simple farming societies, and
intensive agricultural societies, also called civilizations.
Some consider industrial and post-industrial societies to
be qualitatively dierent from traditional agricultural societies.

Etymology and usage

Today, anthropologists and many social scientists vigorously oppose the notion of cultural evolution and rigid
stages such as these. In fact, much anthropological
A half-section of the 12th-century South Tang Dynasty data has suggested that complexity (civilization, populaversion of Night Revels of Han Xizai, original by Gu tion growth and density, specialization, etc.) does not alHongzhong. The painting portrays servants, musicians, ways take the form of hierarchical social organization or
monks, children, guests, and hosts all in a single social stratication.
environment. It serves as an in-depth look into the Cultural relativism as a widespread approach or ethic has


largely replaced notions of primitive, better/worse, or

progress in relation to cultures (including their material
culture/technology and social organization).
According to anthropologist Maurice Godelier, one critical novelty in human society, in contrast to humanitys
closest biological relatives (chimpanzees and bonobos),
is the parental role assumed by the males, which supposedly would be absent in our nearest relatives for whom
paternity is not generally determinable.[2][3]


In political science

Societies may also be structured politically. In order of

increasing size and complexity, there are bands, tribes,
Canis lupus social ethology
chiefdoms, and state societies. These structures may
have varying degrees of political power, depending on the
cultural, geographical, and historical environments that the evolution of social inequality and the role of the state.
these societies must contend with. Thus, a more isolated This system of classication contains four categories:
society with the same level of technology and culture as
other societies is more likely to survive than one in closer
Hunter-gatherer bands (categorization of duties and
proximity to others that may encroach on their resources.
A society that is unable to oer an eective response to
Tribal societies in which there are some limited inother societies it competes with will usually be subsumed
stances of social rank and prestige.
into the culture of the competing society.
Stratied structures led by chieftains.


In sociology

Civilizations, with complex social hierarchies and

organized, institutional governments.
In addition to this there are:
Humanity, mankind, upon which rest all the elements of society, including societys beliefs.
Virtual society, a society based on online identity,
which is evolving in the information age.

The social group enables its members to benet in ways that

would not otherwise be possible on an individual basis. Both
individual and social (common) goals can thus be distinguished
and considered. Ant (formicidae) social ethology.

Sociologist Gerhard Lenski dierentiates societies based

on their level of technology, communication, and economy: (1) hunters and gatherers, (2) simple agricultural,
(3) advanced agricultural, (4) industrial, and (5) special
(e.g. shing societies or maritime societies).[4] This is
similar to the system earlier developed by anthropologists
Morton H. Fried, a conict theorist, and Elman Service,
an integration theorist, who have produced a system of
classication for societies in all human cultures based on

Over time, some cultures have progressed toward more

complex forms of organization and control. This cultural
evolution has a profound eect on patterns of community. Hunter-gatherer tribes settled around seasonal food
stocks to become agrarian villages. Villages grew to become towns and cities. Cities turned into city-states and
Many societies distribute largess at the behest of some
individual or some larger group of people. This type of
generosity can be seen in all known cultures; typically,
prestige accrues to the generous individual or group.
Conversely, members of a society may also shun or
scapegoat members of the society who violate its norms.
Mechanisms such as gift-giving, joking relationships and
scapegoating, which may be seen in various types of human groupings, tend to be institutionalized within a society. Social evolution as a phenomenon carries with it
certain elements that could be detrimental to the population it serves.



Some societies bestow status on an individual or group

of people when that individual or group performs an admired or desired action. This type of recognition is bestowed in the form of a name, title, manner of dress, or
monetary reward. In many societies, adult male or female
status is subject to a ritual or process of this type. Altruistic action in the interests of the larger group is seen in
virtually all societies. The phenomena of community action, shunning, scapegoating, generosity, shared risk, and
reward are common to many forms of society.


Societies are social groups that dier according to

subsistence strategies, the ways that humans use technology to provide needs for themselves. Although humans
have established many types of societies throughout history, anthropologists tend to classify dierent societies
according to the degree to which dierent groups within
a society have unequal access to advantages such as resources, prestige, or power. Virtually all societies have
developed some degree of inequality among their people through the process of social stratication, the division of members of a society into levels with unequal
wealth, prestige, or power. Sociologists place societies
in three broad categories: pre-industrial, industrial, and


San people in Botswana start a re by hand.

the tribe are relatively equal, and decisions are reached

through general agreement. The ties that bind the tribe
are more complex than those of the bands. Leadership
is personalcharismaticand used for special purposes
only in tribal society. There are no political oces containing real power, and a chief is merely a person of inuence, a sort of adviser; therefore, tribal consolidations for
collective action are not governmental. The family forms
the main social unit, with most societal members being
related by birth or marriage. This type of organization
requires the family to carry out most social functions, including production and education.


Main article: Pre-industrial society

3.1.2 Pastoral
In a pre-industrial society, food production, which is carried out through the use of human and animal labor, is
the main economic activity. These societies can be subdivided according to their level of technology and their
method of producing food. These subdivisions are hunting and gathering, pastoral, horticultural, agricultural,
and feudal.

Hunting and gathering

Main article: Hunter-gatherer society

The main form of food production in such societies is
the daily collection of wild plants and the hunting of
wild animals. Hunter-gatherers move around constantly
in search of food. As a result, they do not build permanent
villages or create a wide variety of artifacts, and usually
only form small groups such as bands and tribes. However, some hunting and gathering societies in areas with
abundant resources (such as the Tlingit) lived in larger
groups and formed complex hierarchical social structures
such as chiefdoms. The need for mobility also limits the
size of these societies. They generally consist of fewer
than 60 people and rarely exceed 100. Statuses within

Main article: Pastoral society

Pastoralism is a slightly more ecient form of subsistence. Rather than searching for food on a daily basis,
members of a pastoral society rely on domesticated herd
animals to meet their food needs. Pastoralists live a nomadic life, moving their herds from one pasture to another. Because their food supply is far more reliable, pastoral societies can support larger populations. Since there
are food surpluses, fewer people are needed to produce
food. As a result, the division of labor (the specialization
by individuals or groups in the performance of specic
economic activities) becomes more complex. For example, some people become craftworkers, producing tools,
weapons, and jewelry. The production of goods encourages trade. This trade helps to create inequality, as some
families acquire more goods than others do. These families often gain power through their increased wealth. The
passing on of property from one generation to another
helps to centralize wealth and power. Over time emerge
hereditary chieftainships, the typical form of government
in pastoral societies.



Main article: Horticulturalist society

Fruits and vegetables grown in garden plots that have been
cleared from the jungle or forest provide the main source
of food in a horticultural society. These societies have
a level of technology and complexity similar to pastoral
societies. Some horticultural groups use the slash-andburn method to raise crops. The wild vegetation is cut and
burned, and ashes are used as fertilizers. Horticulturists
use human labor and simple tools to cultivate the land for
one or more seasons. When the land becomes barren,
horticulturists clear a new plot and leave the old plot to
revert to its natural state. They may return to the original
land several years later and begin the process again. By
rotating their garden plots, horticulturists can stay in one
area for a fairly long period of time. This allows them
to build semipermanent or permanent villages. The size
of a villages population depends on the amount of land
available for farming; thus villages can range from as few
as 30 people to as many as 2000.


ters of trade supporting various rulers, educators, craftspeople, merchants, and religious leaders who did not have
to worry about locating nourishment.
Greater degrees of social stratication appeared in agrarian societies. For example, women previously had higher
social status because they shared labor more equally with
men. In hunting and gathering societies, women even
gathered more food than men. However, as food stores
improved and women took on lesser roles in providing
food for the family, they increasingly became subordinate
to men. As villages and towns expanded into neighboring areas, conicts with other communities inevitably occurred. Farmers provided warriors with food in exchange
for protection against invasion by enemies. A system of
rulers with high social status also appeared. This nobility
organized warriors to protect the society from invasion.
In this way, the nobility managed to extract goods from
lesser members of society.

As with pastoral societies, surplus food leads to a more

complex division of labor. Specialized roles in horticultural societies include craftspeople, shamans (religious
leaders), and traders. This role specialization allows people to create a wide variety of artifacts. As in pastoral
societies, surplus food can lead to inequalities in wealth
and power within horticultural political systems, developed because of the settled nature of horticultural life.


Main article: Agrarian society

Agrarian societies use agricultural technological ad-

Cleric, knight and peasant; an example of feudal societies

3.1.5 Feudal
Main article: Feudal society
Ploughing with oxen in the 15th century

vances to cultivate crops over a large area. Sociologists use the phrase Agricultural Revolution to refer to
the technological changes that occurred as long as 8,500
years ago that led to cultivating crops and raising farm
animals. Increases in food supplies then led to larger
populations than in earlier communities. This meant a
greater surplus, which resulted in towns that became cen-

Feudalism was a form of society based on ownership of

land. Unlike todays farmers, vassals under feudalism
were bound to cultivating their lords land. In exchange
for military protection, the lords exploited the peasants
into providing food, crops, crafts, homage, and other services to the landowner. The estates of the realm system
of feudalism was often multigenerational; the families of
peasants may have cultivated their lords land for generations.





The development of the Western world has brought with

it the emerging concepts of Western culture, politics, and
ideas, often referred to simply as Western society. GeMain article: Industrial societies
ographically, it covers at the very least the countries of
Western Europe, North America, Australia, and New
Between the 15th and 16th centuries, a new ecoZealand. It sometimes also includes Eastern Europe,
nomic system emerged that began to replace feudalSouth America, and Israel.
ism. Capitalism is marked by open competition in a free
market, in which the means of production are privately The cultures and lifestyles of all of these stem from Westowned. Europes exploration of the Americas served as ern Europe. They all enjoy relatively strong economies
one impetus for the development of capitalism. The in- and stable governments, allow freedom of religion, have
troduction of foreign metals, silks, and spices stimulated chosen democracy as a form of governance, favor capitalism and international trade, are heavily inuenced by
great commercial activity in European societies.
Judeo-Christian values, and have some form of political
Industrial societies rely heavily on machines powered by
and military alliance or cooperation.[6]
fuels for the production of goods. This produced further
dramatic increases in eciency. The increased eciency
of production of the industrial revolution produced an
4.2 Information
even greater surplus than before. Now the surplus was
not just agricultural goods, but also manufactured goods.
This larger surplus caused all of the changes discussed
earlier in the domestication revolution to become even
more pronounced.
Once again, the population boomed. Increased productivity made more goods available to everyone. However,
inequality became even greater than before. The breakup
of agricultural-based feudal societies caused many people
to leave the land and seek employment in cities. This created a great surplus of labor and gave capitalists plenty of
laborers who could be hired for extremely low wages.



Main article: Post-industrial society

Post-industrial societies are societies dominated by information, services, and high technology more than the production of goods. Advanced industrial societies are now
seeing a shift toward an increase in service sectors over
manufacturing and production. The United States is the
rst country to have over half of its work force employed
in service industries. Service industries include government, research, education, health, sales, law, and banking.

World Summit on the Information Society, Geneva

Main article: Information society

Although the concept of information society has been under discussion since the 1930s, in the modern world it is
almost always applied to the manner in which information
technologies have impacted society and culture. It therefore covers the eects of computers and telecommunications on the home, the workplace, schools, government,
and various communities and organizations, as well as the
emergence of new social forms in cyberspace.[7]

One of the European Union's areas of interest is the information society. Here policies are directed towards
4 Contemporary usage
promoting an open and competitive digital economy, research into information and communication technologies,
The term society is currently used to cover both a num- as well as their application to improve social inclusion,
ber of political and scientic connotations as well as a public services, and quality of life.[8]
variety of associations.
The International Telecommunications Union's World
Summit on the Information Society in Geneva and Tunis
(2003 and 2005) has led to a number of policy and appli4.1 Western
cation areas where action is required.[9] These include:
Main article: Western world
promotion of ICTs for development;

information and communication infrastructure;

technology-enhanced learning;

access to information and knowledge;

social and humanistic computing;

capacity building;

culture, tourism and technology;

building condence and security in the use of ICTs;

e-government and e-democracy;

enabling environment;

innovation, sustainable development, and strategic


ICT applications in the areas of government, business, learning, health, employment, environment,
agriculture and science;
cultural and linguistic diversity and local content;
ethical dimensions of the information society; and
international and regional cooperation.



service science, management, and engineering;

intellectual and human capital development;
ICTs for ecology and the green economy;
future prospects for the knowledge society; and
technologies and business models for the creative industries.

4.4 Other uses

Main article: Knowledge society

People of many nations united by common political and
As access to electronic information resources increased
cultural traditions, beliefs, or values are sometimes also
said to form a society (such as Judeo-Christian, Eastern,
and Western). When used in this context, the term is
employed as a means of contrasting two or more societies whose members represent alternative conicting
and competing worldviews.
Some academic, professional, and scientic associations
describe themselves as societies (for example, the
American Mathematical Society, the American Society
of Civil Engineers, or the Royal Society).

The Seoul Cyworld control room

at the beginning of the 21st century, special attention was

extended from the information society to the knowledge
society. An analysis by the Irish government stated, The
capacity to manipulate, store and transmit large quantities
of information cheaply has increased at a staggering rate
over recent years. The digitisation of information and the
associated pervasiveness of the Internet are facilitating a
new intensity in the application of knowledge to economic
activity, to the extent that it has become the predominant
factor in the creation of wealth. As much as 70 to 80
percent of economic growth is now said to be due to new
and better knowledge.[10]
The Second World Summit on the Knowledge Society,
held in Chania, Crete, in September 2009, gave special
attention to the following topics:[11]
business and enterprise computing;

In some countries, e.g. the United States, France, and

Latin America, the term society' is used in commerce
to denote a partnership between investors or the start of
a business. In the United Kingdom, partnerships are not
called societies, but co-operatives or mutuals are often
known as societies (such as friendly societies and building

5 See also
Civil society
Consumer society
Community (outline)
Culture (outline)
High society (group)
Mass society
Open society
Outline of society

7 Further reading

Professional society
Religion (outline)

Eand, R. 1998. The Cultural Evolution of Civilizations Mesa Community College.

Scientic society

Jenkins, R. 2002. Foundations of Sociology. London: Palgrave MacMillan. ISBN 0-333-96050-5.

Secret societies

Lenski, G. 1974. Human Societies: An Introduction

to Macrosociology. New York: McGraw- Hill, Inc.

Social actions
Social capital

Raymond Williams, "www.flpmihai.blogspot.

com", in: Williams, Key Words: A Vocabulary of
Culture and Society. Fontana, 1976.

Social cohesion
Societal collapse

Althusser, Louis and Balibar, tienne.

Capital. London: Verso, 2009.

Social contract

Bottomore, Tom (ed). A Dictionary of Marxist

Thought, 2nd ed. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing, 1991. 4548.

Social disintegration
Social order
Social solidarity

Calhoun, Craig (ed), Dictionary of the Social Sciences Oxford University Press (2002)

Social structure

Hall, Stuart. Rethinking the Base and Superstructure Metaphor. Papers on Class, Hegemony and
Party. Bloomeld, J., ed. London: Lawrence &
Wishart, 1977.

Social work
Structure and agency


Chris Harman. "Base and Superstructure". International Socialism 2:32, Summer 1986, pp. 344.


[1] Briggs, Asa (2000). The Age of Improvement (2nd ed.).

Longman. p. 9. ISBN 0-582-36959-2.

Harvey, David. A Companion to Marxs Capital.

London: Verso, 2010.

[2] Maurice Godelier, Mtamorphoses de la parent, 2004

Larrain, Jorge. Marxism and Ideology. Atlantic

Highlands, NJ: Humanities Press, 1983.

[3] Jack Goody. The Labyrinth of Kinship. New Left Review. Retrieved 24 July 2007.
[4] Lenski, G. 1974. Human Societies: An Introduction to
[5] Eand, R. 1998. The Cultural Evolution of Civilizations.
[6] John P McKay, Bennett D Hill, John Buckler, Clare Haru
Crowston and Merry E Wiesner-Hanks: Western Society:
A Brief History. Palgrave Macmillan, 2009.
[7] The Information Society. Indiana University. Retrieved 20
October 2009.
[8] Information Society Policies at a Glance.
ropa.eu. Retrieved 20 October 2009.

From Eu-

[9] WSIS Implementation by Action Line. From ITU.int.

Retrieved 20 October 2009.

Lukcs, Georg. History and Class Consciousness.

Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1972.
Postone, Moishe. Time, Labour, and Social Domination: A Reinterpretation of Marxs Critical Theory.
Cambridge [England]: Cambridge University Press,
Williams, Raymond. Marxism and Literature. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1977.

8 External links
Society at DMOZ
Denition of Society from the OED.

[10] Building the Knowledge Society. Report to Government,

December 2002. Information Society Commission, Ireland. Retrieved 20 October 2009.

Lecture notes on Dening Society from East Carolina University.

[11] Second World Summit on the Knowledge Society. Retrieved 20 October 2009.

Internet Modern History Sourcebook: Industrial


The Day the World Took O Six part video series
from the University of Cambridge tracing the question Why did the Industrial Revolution begin when
and where it did.
BBC History Home Page: Industrial Revolution
National Museum of Science and Industry website:
machines and personalities
Industrial Revolution and the Standard of Living by
Clark Nardinelli - the debate over whether standards
of living rose or fell.
Cli Notes on Types of Societies
Perceptions of Knowledge, Knowledge Society, and
Knowledge Management


Text and image sources, contributors, and licenses



Society Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Society?oldid=681561510 Contributors: The Anome, Slrubenstein, Malcolm Farmer, Chato,
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