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The Story of Prometheus

Zeus gives the task of creating humans to Prometheus and his brother
Epimetheus. Epimetheus, whose name means afterthought, grants the
animal kingdom all the joys of creationfur, wings, shells, and so onuntil
there seems to be nothing left for man. He appeals to Prometheus for help.
Prometheus takes over and devises a way to make mankind superior to
the animals. First, he gives mankind an upright shape like that of the gods.
Then, he travels to the sun, where he lights a torch and brings fire down to
the earth. Zeus resents the great advantages that Prometheus has given
man, but he cannot undo the gifts. He punishes Prometheus by binding him
to a rock and condemning him to a life of no rest, no sleep, no moments
Zeus once received a prophecy that a son of his would one day
overthrow himand that only Prometheus would know that sons name.
Despite threats, Prometheus does not cave in to Zeuss pressure, instead
choosing to endure an eagles feasting on his flesh and liver every day.
As further revenge against Prometheus and the powers he has given
man, Zeus creates a woman named Pandora. Zeus gives her a box and
forbids her from opening it. He sends her down to earth, where her insatiable
curiosity leads her to open the lid. Out fly plagues, sorrow, mischief, and all
other misfortunes that can plague mankind. Horrified, Pandora attempts to
shut the lid of the box, but it is too late. The only good element to fly out of
the box is hope.
Prometheus, tied to his rock, sees a strange visitor: a cow that speaks
like a girl. Her voice is laden with pain and sorrow, but it sounds beautiful.
This is Io, and she tells Prometheus her story. She used to be a beautiful
young woman, and Zeus fell in love with her. When Zeus's jealous
wife Hera suspected their relationship, Zeus turned Io into a heifer. The
shrewd Hera asked for the heifer as a present, and Zeus reluctantly gave Io
away. Hera put Io in the care of Argus, a monster with one thousand eyes, so
that Zeus could never get her back.
Zeus missed Io terribly and regretted her unfortunate transformation,
so he pleaded with his son Hermes, the messenger god, to find a way of
killing Argus. Hermes, known as the smartest god, disguised himself as a
country fellow and approached Argus. The thousand-eyed monster invited
Hermes to sit next to him, and Hermes started playing on a pipe of reeds as
sweetly and monotonously as possible. Eventually Argus fell asleep, Hermes
killed him, and Hera put the thousand eyes in the feathers of her favorite
bird, the peacock. It seemed that Io would be free, but Hera sent a fly to
follow her and drive her insane.
In response to the story, Prometheus reveals a prophecy that Io will
wander for a long time in the beastly body, tormented by the fly. But finally
she will reach the river Nile, where Zeus will restore her to her human form

and give her a son. From this son will be born the greatest of
heroes, Hercules, who will give Prometheus himself his freedom.

The Story of Pandora

The creation of Pandora:

All started from a gathering of the gods, where the Titans were also
invited. The gathering had been organized to decide who would be favored
with the better portion of a sacrifice. Prometheus, the Titan who later stole
the fire from the Gods and gave it to humanity, had deviously presented the
sacrifice in such a manner that Zeus chose the portion that looked more
appealing when in fact it was just bones presented in a tempting manner.
Outraged at this mockery, Zeus decided to take revenge and get even
with Prometheus. Zeus charged Hephaestus, the god of smiths and master of
crafts, with creating a dazzlingly beautiful woman, one that would appear
irresistible to either god or man. To accomplish this feat Aphrodite, the
goddess of love, posed as a model for the creation of the statue.
The woman was molded of earth and water and once the body was
ready, the Four Winds breathed life into it. She was then given gifts from all
the Olympian gods. Aphrodite gave to her unparalleled beauty, grace and
desire. Hermes, the messenger god, gave her a cunning, deceitful mind and
a crafty tongue. Athena clothed her and taught her to be deft with her hands.
Poseidon bestowed on her a pearl necklace that would prevent her from
drowning. Apollo taught her to play the lyre and to sing. Zeus gave her a
foolish, mischievous and idle nature and last but not least, Hera gave her the
wiliest gift, curiosity.
Thus, the first mortal woman was born and she descended down to
earth. Her name was Pandora, meaning all-gifted, implying all the gifts she
had received from gods. Along with her, Hermes gave a gilded and intricately
carved box, a gift from Zeus with an explicit warning that she must never
open it, come what may. Draped in raiment fit for the gods, she was
presented to Epimetheus, Prometheus' half-brother.

Opening the box:

Epimetheus had been told by his brother never to accept any gift from
Zeus. Prometheus was well aware that Zeus was still angry with him for his
effrontery at the gathering and would try to get his revenge. However, one
look at Pandora was all it took for Epimetheus to fall in crazy love with her

and marry her without thought or consideration. He was truly enchanted with
To congratulate them, Hermes came to the wedding ceremony and told
Epimetheus that Pandora was a gift from Zeus, a peace-offer signifying that
there were no more ill feelings between the chief of the gods and
Prometheus. He also told Epimetheus that the gilded box of Pandora was a
wedding gift from the Olympian King. Being a bit credulous, Epimetheus
believed the words of Hermes to be true. Unfortunately, Prometheus' advice
had fallen on deaf ears.
The days were passing quickly and the two were leading a happy,
married life but one thought was still at the back of Pandora's mind: what
was in the box that Zeus had given her? She kept thinking that maybe the
box had money in it, nice clothes or even jewelry. Without thought or reason,
she would find herself walking past the box and involuntarily reaching out to
open it.
Every time, she was reminding herself that she had vowed never to
open the box. Hera's gift of curiosity had worked and one day, unable to take
it any more, she decided to have just a brief look inside. When nobody was
around, she fitted a golden key hanging around her neck to the lock on the
box. Turning the key slowly, she unlocked the box and lifted the lid only for a
while. Before she knew it, there was a hissing sound and a horrible odor
permeated the air around her. Terrified, she slammed the lid down but it was
too late.
Pandora had released all the wickedness and malevolence that Zeus
had locked into the box. That time, she understood that she was a mere
pawn in a great game played by the gods. In that gilded box, Zeus had
hidden all everything that would plague man forever: sickness, death,
turmoil, strife, jealousy, hatred, famine, passion... everywhere the evil
Pandora felt the weight of the world on her shoulders and looked at the
gilded box that had turned rusty and hideous. As if sensing her need, a warm
and calming feeling shrouded her and she knew that not all was lost.
Unknown to her, along with the evil feelings, she had also revealed hope, the
only good thing that Zeus had trapped inside the box. From now on, hole
would live with man forever, to give him succour just when he felt that
everything was coming to an end.

The Story of Icarus and Daedalus

Daedalus was a highly respected and talented Athenian artisan

descendent from the royal family of Cecrops, the mythical first king of
Athens. He was known for his skill as an architect, sculpture, and inventor,
and he produced many famous works. Despite his self-confidence, Daedalus
once committed a crime of envy against Talus, his nephew and apprentice.
Talus, who seemed destined to become as great an artisan as his uncle
Daedalus, was inspired one day to invent the saw after having seen the way
a snake used its jaws. Daedalus, momentarily stricken with jealousy, threw
Talus off of the Acropolis. For this crime, Daedalus was exiled to Crete and
placed in the service of King Minos, where he eventually had a son, Icarus,
with the beautiful Naucrate, a mistress-slave of the King.
Minos called on Daedalus to build the famous Labyrinth in order to
imprison the dreaded Minotaur. The Minotaur was a monster with the head of
a bull and the body of a man. He was the son of Pasiphae, the wife of Minos,
and a bull that Poseidon had sent to Minos as a gift. Minos was shamed by
the birth of this horrible creature and resolved to imprison the Minotaur in
the Labyrinth where it fed on humans, which were taken as "tribute" by
Minos and sacrificed to the Minotaur in memory of his fallen son Androgenos.
Theseus, the heroic King of Athens, volunteered himself to be sent to
the Minotaur in the hopes of killing the beast and ending the "human tribute"
that his city was forced to pay Minos. When Theseus arrived to Crete,
Ariadne, Minos's daughter, fell in love with him and wished to help him
survive the Minotaur. Daedalus revealed the mystery of the Labyrinth to
Ariadne who in turn advised Theseus, thus enabling him to slay the Minotaur
and escape from the Labyrinth. When Minos found out what Daedalus had

done he was so enraged that he imprisoned Daedalus & Icarus in the

Labyrinth themselves.
Daedalus conceived to escape from the Labyrinth with Icarus from
Crete by constructing wings and then flying to safety. He built the wings from
feathers and wax, and before the two set off he warned Icarus not to fly too
low lest his wings touch the waves and get wet, and not too high lest the sun
melt the wax. But the young Icarus, overwhelmed by the thrill of flying, did
not heed his father's warning, and flew too close to the sun whereupon the
wax in his wings melted and he fell into the sea. Daedalus escaped to Sicily
and Icarus' body was carried ashore by the current to an island then without
a name. Heracles came across the body and recognized it, giving it burial
where today there still stands a small rock promontory jutting out into the
Aegean Sea, and naming the island and the sea around it after the fallen


Greek Heroes and Their Exploits

Jason was an ancient Greek mythological hero who was famous for his
role as the leader of the Argonauts and their quest for the Golden Fleece. He
was the son of Aeson, the rightful king of Iolcos. He was married to the
sorceress Medea.
The Quest for the Golden Fleece
Jason assembled a great group of heroes, known as the Argonauts after
their ship, the Argo. The group of heroes included the Boreads (sons of
Boreas, the North Wind) who could fly, Heracles, Philoctetes, Peleus,
Telamon, Orpheus, Castor and Pollux, Atalanta, and Euphemus.
The Isle of Lemnos
The isle of Lemnos is situated off the Western coast of Asia Minor
(modern day Turkey). The island was inhabited by a race of women who had
killed their husbands. The women had neglected their worship of Aphrodite,
and as a punishment the goddess made the women so foul in stench that
their husbands could not bear to be near them. The men then took
concubines from the Thracian mainland opposite, and the spurned women,
angry at Aphrodite, killed all the male inhabitants while they slept. The king,
Thoas, was saved by Hypsipyle, his daughter, who put him out to sea sealed

in a chest from which he was later rescued. The women of Lemnos lived for a
while without men, with Hypsipyle as their queen.
After Lemnos the Argonauts landed among the Doliones, whose king
Cyzicus treated them graciously. He told them about the land beyond Bear
Mountain, but forgot to mention what lived there. What lived in the land
beyond Bear Mountain were the Gegeines which are a tribe of Earthborn
giants with six arms and wore leather loincloths. While most of the crew went
into the forest to search for supplies, the Gegeines saw that few Argonauts
were guarding the ship and raided it. Heracles was among those guarding
the ship at the time and managed to kill most them before Jason and the
others returned. Once some of the other Gegeines were killed, Jason and the
Argonauts set sail.
Sometime after their fight with the Gegeines, they sent some men to find
food and water. Among these men was Heracles' servant Hylas who was
gathering water while Heracles was out finding some wood to carve a new
oar to replace the one that broke. The nymphs of the stream where Hylas
was collecting were attracted to his good looks, and pulled him into the
stream. Heracles returned to his Labors, but Hylas was lost forever. Others
say that Heracles went to Colchis with the Argonauts, got the Golden Girdle
of the Amazons and slew the Stymphalian Birds at that time.[citation
The Argonauts departed, losing their bearings and landing again at the
same spot that night. In the darkness, the Doliones took them for enemies
and they started fighting each other. The Argonauts killed many of the
Doliones, among them the king Cyzicus. Cyzicus' wife killed herself. The
Argonauts realized their horrible mistake when dawn came and held a
funeral for him.
Phineas and the Harpies
Soon Jason reached the court of Phineus of Salmydessus in Thrace. Zeus
had sent the Harpies to steal the food put out for Phineas each day. Jason
took pity on the emaciated king and killed the Harpies when they returned;
in other versions, Calais and Zetes chase the Harpies away. In return for this
favor, Phineas revealed to Jason the location of Colchis and how to pass the
Symplegades, or The Clashing Rocks, and then they parted.
The Symplegades
The only way to reach Colchis was to sail through the Symplegades
(Clashing Rocks), huge rock cliffs that came together and crushed anything
that traveled between them. Phineas told Jason to release a dove when they
approached these islands, and if the dove made it through, to row with all
their might. If the dove was crushed, he was doomed to fail. Jason released
the dove as advised, which made it through, losing only a few tail feathers.
Seeing this, they rowed strongly and made it through with minor damage at
the extreme stern of the ship. From that time on, the clashing rocks were
forever joined leaving free passage for others to pass.
The arrival in Colchis

Jason arrived in Colchis (modern Black Sea coast of Georgia) to claim the
fleece as his own. It was owned by King Aeetes of Colchis. The fleece was
given to him by Phrixus. Aeetes promised to give it to Jason only if he could
perform three certain tasks. Presented with the tasks, Jason became
discouraged and fell into depression. However, Hera had persuaded
Aphrodite to convince her son Eros to make Aeetes's daughter, Medea, fall in
love with Jason. As a result, Medea aided Jason in his tasks. First, Jason had
to plow a field with fire-breathing oxen, the Khalkotauroi, that he had to yoke
himself. Medea provided an ointment that protected him from the oxen's
flames. Then, Jason sowed the teeth of a dragon into a field. The teeth
sprouted into an army of warriors (spartoi). Medea had previously warned
Jason of this and told him how to defeat this foe. Before they attacked him,
he threw a rock into the crowd. Unable to discover where the rock had come
from, the soldiers attacked and defeated one another. His last task was to
overcome the sleepless dragon which guarded the Golden Fleece. Jason
sprayed the dragon with a potion, given by Medea, distilled from herbs. The
dragon fell asleep, and Jason was able to seize the Golden Fleece. He then
sailed away with Medea. Medea distracted her father, who chased them as
they fled, by killing her brother Apsyrtus and throwing pieces of his body into
the sea; Aeetes stopped to gather them. In another version, Medea lured
Apsyrtus into a trap. Jason killed him, chopped off his fingers and toes, and
buried the corpse. In any case, Jason and Medea escaped.
The return journey

On the way back to Iolcus, Medea prophesied to Euphemus, the Argo's

helmsman, that one day he would rule Cyrene. This came true through
Battus, a descendant of Euphemus. Zeus, as punishment for the slaughter of
Medea's own brother, sent a series of storms at the Argo and blew it off
course. The Argo then spoke and said that they should seek purification with
Circe, a nymph living on the island of Aeaea. After being cleansed, they
continued their journey home.

Chiron had told Jason that without the aid of Orpheus, the Argonauts
would never be able to pass the Sirensthe same Sirens encountered by
Odysseus in Homer's epic poem the Odyssey. The Sirens lived on three small,
rocky islands called Sirenum scopuli and sang beautiful songs that enticed
sailors to come to them, which resulted in the crashing of their ship into the
islands. When Orpheus heard their voices, he drew his lyre and played music
that was more beautiful and louder, drowning out the Sirens' bewitching
The Argo then came to the island of Crete, guarded by the bronze man,
Talos. As the ship approached, Talos hurled huge stones at the ship, keeping
it at bay. Talos had one blood vessel which went from his neck to his ankle,
bound shut by only one bronze nail (as in metal casting by the lost wax
method). Medea cast a spell on Talos to calm him; she removed the bronze
nail and Talos bled to death. The Argo was then able to sail on.
Jason returns

It should be noted that Thomas Bulfinch has an antecedent to the

interaction of Medea and the daughters of Pelias. Jason, celebrating his
return with the Golden Fleece, noted that his father was too aged and infirm
to participate in the celebrations. He had seen and been served by Medea's
magical powers. He asked Medea to take some years from his life and add
them to the life of his father. She did so, but at no such cost to Jason's life.
Medea withdrew the blood from Aesons body and infused it with certain
herbs; putting it back into his veins, returning vigor to him. Pelias' daughters
saw this and wanted the same service for their father.
Medea, using her sorcery, claimed to Pelias' daughters that she could
make their father smooth and vigorous as a child by chopping him up into
pieces and boiling the pieces in a cauldron of water and magical herbs. She
demonstrated this remarkable feat with the oldest ram in the flock, which
leapt out of the cauldron as a lamb. The girls, rather naively, sliced and diced
their father and put him in the cauldron. Medea did not add the magical
herbs, and Pelias was dead. Pelias' son, Acastus, drove Jason and Medea into
exile for the murder, and the couple settled in Corinth.
Treachery of Jason
In Corinth, Jason became engaged to marry Creusa (sometimes
referred to as Glauce), a daughter of the King of Corinth, to strengthen his
political ties. When Medea confronted Jason about the engagement and cited
all the help she had given him, he retorted that it was not she that he should
thank, but Aphrodite who made Medea fall in love with him. Infuriated with
Jason for breaking his vow that he would be hers forever, Medea took her
revenge by presenting to Creusa a cursed dress, as a wedding gift, that stuck
to her body and burned her to death as soon as she put it on. Creusa's
father, Creon, burned to death with his daughter as he tried to save her.
Then Medea killed the two boys that she bore to Jason, fearing that they
would be murdered or enslaved as a result of their mother's actions. When
Jason came to know of this, Medea was already gone; she fled to Athens in a
chariot of dragons sent by her grandfather, the sun-god Helios.
Later Jason and Peleus, father of the hero Achilles, attacked and
defeated Acastus, reclaiming the throne of Iolcus for himself once more.
Jason's son, Thessalus, then became king.
As a result of breaking his vow to love Medea forever, Jason lost his
favor with Hera and died lonely and unhappy. He was asleep under the stern
of the rotting Argo when it fell on him, killing him instantly.

Hercules married Megara, the daughter of Kreo, King of Thebes, and
together they had five children. Hera once more interfered and drove

Hercules insane so that he killed his wife and children. In desperate remorse
he sought the advice of Apollo via his oracle at Delphi. The advice was for
Hercules to offer his services to his cousin Eurystheus, the king of Mycenae,
Tiryns, and Argos. Hera once more influenced events by persuading
Eurystheus to set the hero difficult and dangerous tasks - the famous twelve
labours of Hercules:
1.) To kill the Nemean Lion.
A lion with a hide impervious to weapons was terrorizing the region of
Nemea, in some accounts because of a lack of piety from the inhabitants.
Hercules strangled the lion with his bare hands and forever after wore its pelt
as a protective cloak.
2.) To kill the Lernaian Hydra
A fire-breathing monster with a lions head and a body of many snakes
which dwelt in a swamp near Lerna, close to Argos, was sent by Hera to
torment Hercules home town. Hercules fought the creature but was
hampered by a giant crab which bit his foot and by the fact that every time
he cut off one of the snake heads, another two grew in its place. Helped by
his faithful companion and nephew Iolaos, who used fire to stop the heads
re-growing, Hercules eventually killed the Hydra and dipped his arrows in its
poisonous blood.
3.) To capture the Keryneian Hind
Sacred to Artemis and with golden horns, the hind took its name from the
nearby Mount Kerynea close to Argos. Hercules, having to capture this
famously swift-footed animal and present it alive to Eurystheus, was
successful only after a lengthy, perhaps one-year, chase which exhausted
the animal.
4.) To capture the Erymanthian Boar
The area of Mount Erymanthos in Arcadia was plagued by a huge,
ferocious boar and Hercules was set the task of capturing it and taking it to
Mycenae. Goading the animal into a lengthy chase, Hercules again
exhausted his prey, captured it, tied its feet, and carried it to Mycenae on his
shoulders. It was during this labour that a fight with the centaurs over a
broached wine cask resulted in Hercules accidentally killing Cheiron with one
of his poisoned arrows.
5.) To clear the Augean Stables
Augeias, the king of Elis, possessed a herd of animals given to him by his
father Helios. The herd was so vast that the excrement it produced
threatened the health of the city. Hercules seemingly impossible task was to
clear the herds stables in a single day. To accomplish the task, Hercules dug
ditches on either side of the stables, shovelled the dung into them and then
diverted the rivers Alpheios and Peneios to wash the ditches clean.
6.) To kill the Stymphalian Birds
These were aggressive (possibly even man-eating) birds which inhabited a
forest near Lake Stymphalia in northern Arcadia. Hercules used brass

castanets or clappers (krotala) given to him by Athena to startle the birds

into flight, allowing him to shoot them down with his arrows.
7.) To kill the Cretan Bull
A destructive bull was troubling the inhabitants of Knossos on Crete and
was of two possible origins: either it was the animal ridden by Europa to the
island or it was the bull which mated with Pasiphae (the wife of King Minos)
and created the Minotaur. In some versions Hercules does not kill the bull but
captures it and takes it to Mycenae.
8.) To capture the Mares of Diomedes
Diomedes, son of Ares and King of Thrace, had in his stables horses which
fed on human flesh. Hercules had to capture them and hand the horses over
to Eurystheus. In some accounts Hercules pacified the horses by feeding
them either the body of Diomedes or their groom.
9.) To steal the Girdle of Hippolyta
Hippolyta was an Amazon queen and her girdle had been given to her by
her father Ares. With his faithful companions, Hercules travelled to the home
of the Amazons in the city of Themiskyra near the Black Sea. They received a
hostile welcome from the Amazons who had been persuaded by Hera to
attack the heroes; however, ultimately Hercules secured the girdle for

To capture the Cattle of Geryones

This herd of cattle on the island of Erythia was guarded by the formidable
trio of: three-bodied Geryones; Orthros - a dog with two heads and a
serpents tail; and the herdsman Eurytion, son of Ares. However, they were
no match for Hercules who defeated them with his trusty club and captured
the herd. It was on his journey to this island in the western ocean that he set
markers in the Strait of Gades which thereafter became known as the Pillars
of Hercules.

To take the Apples of the Hesperides

The Hesperides lived in a far away garden on the outer edges of the
known world in which grew trees which bore golden apples. These sacred
fruit were protected by Hera who had set Ladon, a fearsome hundred-headed
dragon, as their guardian. Hercules first sought the advice of Nereus, the Old
Man of the Sea, as to the exact location of the garden. On his way to the
garden Hercules came across Prometheus who was bound to a rock. As
punishment for having stolen fire from Hephaistos workshop and given it to
mankind, Zeus sent an eagle everyday to eat his liver. Hercules shot down
the eagle with one of his arrows and freed Prometheus; in return, Prometheus
informed him that his brother Atlas (and in some accounts the father of the
Hesperides) would show him how to reach the sacred garden. Atlas was then
holding the heavens on his shoulders (as punishment from Zeus for
supporting the Titans in their battle against the Olympian Gods), but he
offered to get the apples himself if Hercules would support the heavens in his
absence. Hercules agreed and was assisted by Athena in bearing the
tremendous weight. Bringing back the apples, Atlas was (understandably)
reluctant to take back his place. However, Hercules, under the pretext of
getting cushions for his shoulders, tricked Atlas into temporarily taking back
the heavens. Once Hercules was free he took the apples and returned to

Mycenae. In an alternative version, Hercules subdued Ladon by giving it an

intoxicating herb and then took the apples himself.

To capture Kerberos from Hades

By this time Eurystheus was becoming increasingly frustrated with

Hercules success, and so the final task had to be impossibly difficult. This
was to descend into the underworld of Hades and capture the ferocious
three-headed dog Kerberos who guarded the gates. On his journey in Hades,
the hero encounters many souls and persuades the god Hades to allow him
to take Kerberos provided he does so without weapons. Hercules succeeds
and takes the creature back to Mycenae, causing Eurystheus to jump inside a
jar in fear.
Whilst performing his labours, Hercules is involved in many more
secondary exploits such as fighting Hades to rescue Alcestis from the
Underworld, killing Kyknos who waylaid pilgrims to Delphi, and joining the
search for the Golden Fleece with Jason and the Argonauts.
Hercules also went to Troy to save Hesione, daughter of the king,
Laomedon. Following Laomedons failure to pay homage to the deeds done
by Poseidon and Apollo for the city, the gods respectively sent a sea-monster
and a plague to wreak havoc with the city. The Delphic oracle stated that
only the sacrifice of Hesione would avert disaster for Troy. Laomedon
complied but offered his celebrated immortal horses (a gift from Zeus to
Laomedons father Troas) as a reward for anyone who could save his
daughter. Hercules took up the challenge, killed the sea-monster and
rescued Hesione. However, Laomedon reneged on his promised reward, and
years later Hercules returned with an army, sacked Troy and killed the king
(thereby making his son Priam ruler) and gave Hesione to his friend Telamon.
On the successful completion of his twelve labours, Hercules started a
new life. During his exploits in Hades he had met Meleager who told him he
should marry his sister Deianeira, daughter of Oineus, King of Kalydon. On
arrival in Kalydon, though, Hercules found that Deianeira was betrothed
against her will to Acheloos, the river god. Winning the affections of
Deianeira, Hercules wrestled Acheloos into submission and married the
princess himself. Deciding to settle in Tiryns, the couple had to cross the
River Eunos. It was here that they encountered the centaur Nessos who
carried people across the river. However, mid-crossing he unwisely molested
Deianeira and Hercules fatally shot the centaur with one of his poisoned
arrows. Unfortunately for Hercules, though, just before he died, Nessos lied
to Deianeira and told her that his blood had aphrodisiac properties and she
should collect some and keep it.
Following some years of peaceful marriage during which the couple
had a son, Hyllos, Hercules decided to enter an archery competition where
the prize was Iole, daughter of Eurytos, King of Oichalia. Naturally, Hercules

won the competition but was refused the prize because he was already
married. Piqued, Hercules then stole the horses of Eurytos and took them
back to Tiryns. Iphitos then visited Tiryns to demand his fathers horses back
but was killed by Hercules.
Forced to flee from his homeland, Hercules once more had to seek
expiation from the oracle at Delphi. However, as he was tainted with murder
the oracle refused to advise him; consequently, Hercules stole the sacred
tripod of Apollo in an attempt to set up his own oracle at Pheneos. Apollo and
Hercules then became enemies and only Zeus thunderbolt was able to
separate them.

Bellerophon or Bellerophontes is a hero of Greek mythology. He was
"the greatest hero and slayer of monsters, alongside Cadmus and Perseus,
before the days of Heracles", whose greatest feat was killing the Chimera, a
monster that Homer depicted with a lion's head, a goat's body, and a
serpent's tail: "her breath came out in terrible blasts of burning flame." He
was the son of the mortal Eurynome by either her husband Glaucus, or
Bellerophon was an exiled prince of Corinth, who King Proteus of Argos
sought to do away with. Proteus father-in-law, King Iobates therefore came
up with the task of sending Bellerophon off to face the fire breathing monster
that was the Chimera. With the assistance of Pegasus, Bellerophon used a
lump of lead and a lance to do away with the beast, giving a possible origin
for the story of St George and the Dragon. After facing the Chimera,
Bellerophon would also successfully fight off a force of Amazons.
Capturing Pegasus
The Lycian seer Polyeidos told Bellerophon that he would have need of
Pegasus. To obtain the services of the untamed winged horse, Polyeidos told
Bellerophon to sleep in the temple of Athena. While Bellerophon slept, he
dreamed that Athena set a golden bridle beside him, saying "Sleepest thou,
prince of the house of Aiolos? Come, take this charm for the steed and show
it to the Tamer thy father as thou makest sacrifice to him of a white bull." It
was there when he awoke. Bellerophon had to approach Pegasus while it
drank from a well; Polyeidos told him which wellthe never-failing Pirene on
the citadel of Corinth, the city of Bellerophon's birth. Other accounts say that
Athena brought Pegasus already tamed and bridled, or that Poseidon the
horse-tamer, secretly the father of Bellerophon, brought Pegasus, as
Pausanias understood. Bellerophon mounted his steed and flew off to where
the Chimera was said to dwell.
The Slaying of Chimera
When he arrived in Lycia, the Chimera was truly ferocious, and he could
not harm the monster even while riding on Pegasus. He felt the heat of the
breath the Chimera expelled, and was struck with an idea. He got a large
block of lead and mounted it on his spear. Then he flew head-on towards the
Chimera, holding out the spear as far as he could. Before he broke off his

attack, he managed to lodge the block of lead inside the Chimera's throat.
The beast's fire-breath melted the lead, and blocked its air passage. The
Chimera suffocated, and Bellerophon returned victorious to King Iobates.
Iobates, on Bellerophon's return, was unwilling to credit his story. A series of
daunting further quests ensued: he was sent against the warlike Solymi and
then against the Amazons who fought like men, whom Bellerophon
vanquished by dropping boulders from his winged horse; when he was sent
against a Carian pirate, Cheirmarrhus, an ambush failed, when Bellerophon
killed all sent to assassinate him; the palace guards were sent against him,
but Bellerophon called upon Poseidon, who flooded the plain of Xanthus
behind Bellerophon as he approached. In defense the palace women sent
him and the flood in retreat by rushing from the gates with their robes lifted
high, offering themselves, to which the modest hero replied by withdrawing.
Iobates relented, produced the letter, and allowed Bellerophon to marry his
daughter Philonoe, the younger sister of Anteia, and shared with him half his
kingdom, with fine vineyards and grain fields. The lady Philonoe bore him
Isander, Hippolochus and Laodamia, who lay with Zeus the Counselor and
bore Sarpedon but was slain by Artemis.
Flight to Olympus and Fall
As Bellerophon's fame grew, so did his hubris. Bellerophon felt that
because of his victory over the Chimera he deserved to fly to Mount
Olympus, the realm of the gods. However, this presumption
angered Zeus and he sent a gad-fly to sting the horse causing Bellerophon to
fall all the way back to Earth. Pegasus completed the flight to Olympus where
Zeus used him as a pack horse for his thunderbolts. On the Plain of Aleion
("Wandering"), Bellerophon (who had fallen into a thorn bush) lived out his
life in misery as a blinded crippled hermit grieving and shunning the haunts
of men until he died. In Tlos, near Fethiye, in modern-day Turkey, ancient
Lykia, there is a tomb with a carving of a man riding a winged horse. This is
claimed locally to be the tomb of Bellerophon.

Theseus was the mythical founder-king of Athens and was the son of
Aethra by two fathers: Aegeus and Poseidon.
Theseus was a founder-hero, like Perseus, Cadmus, or Heracles, all of
whom battled and overcame foes that were identified with an archaic
religious and social order.[2] As Heracles was the Dorian hero, Theseus was
a founding hero, considered by Athenians as their own great reformer: his
name comes from the same root as ("thesmos"), Greek for "The
Theseus was the offspring of Aegeus, the king of Athens, and Aethra,
although as well as sleeping with her lover, Aethra would also sleep with the
god Poseidon. Theseus grew up not knowing about his mortal father, but
would eventually travel to Athens to take his place as heir. The journey was
difficult for the hero, and he faced beast and man, although his biggest tests
would come later when he faced the Marathonian Bull and also the Minotaur.
Theseus would also abduct the young Helen (a feat later repeated by Paris),
and would also travel to the underworld, as Pirithous tried to abduct

The Six Labors

1.) At the first site, which was Epidaurus, sacred to Apollo and the healer
Asclepius, Theseus turned the tables on the chthonic bandit, Periphetes,
the Club Bearer, who beat his opponents into the Earth, and took from
him the stout staff that often identifies Theseus in vase-paintings.
2.) At the Isthmian entrance to the Underworld was a robber named Sinis,
often called "Pityokamptes" (Greek: , "he who bends
Pinetrees"). He would capture travelers, tie them between two pine trees
that were bent down to the ground, and then let the trees go, tearing his
victims apart. Theseus killed him by his own method. He then became
intimate with Sinis's daughter, Perigune, fathering the child Melanippus.
3.) In another deed north of the Isthmus, at a place called Crommyon, he
killed an enormous pig, the Crommyonian Sow, bred by an old crone
named Phaea. Some versions name the sow herself as Phaea. The
Bibliotheca described the Crommyonian sow as an offspring of Typhon
and Echidna.
4.) Near Megara, an elderly robber named Sciron forced travellers along the
narrow cliff-face pathway to wash his feet. While they knelt, he kicked
them off the cliff behind them, where they were eaten by a sea monster
(or, in some versions, a giant turtle). Theseus pushed him off the cliff.
5.) Another of these enemies was Cercyon, king at the holy site of Eleusis,
who challenged passers-by to a wrestling match and, when he had
beaten them, killed them. Theseus beat Cercyon at wrestling and then
killed him instead. In interpretations of the story that follow the formulas
of Frazer's The Golden Bough, Cercyon was a "year-King", who was
required to do an annual battle for his life, for the good of his kingdom,
and was succeeded by the victor. Theseus overturned this archaic
religious rite by refusing to be sacrificed.
6.) The last bandit was Procrustes the Stretcher, who had two beds, one of
which he offered to passers-by in the plain of Eleusis. He then made them
fit into it, either by stretching them or by cutting off their feet. Since he
had two beds of different lengths, no one would fit. Theseus turned the
tables on Procrustes, cutting off his legs and decapitating him with his
own axe.

Odysseus also known by the Roman name Ulysses, was a
legendary Greek king of Ithaca and a hero of Homer's epic
poem the Odyssey. Odysseus also plays a key role in Homer's Iliad and other
works in that same Epic Cycle.
Husband of Penelope, father of Telemachus, and son
of Lartes and Anticlea, Odysseus is renowned for his brilliance, guile, and
versatility (polytropos), and is hence known by the epithet Odysseus the
Cunning (mtis, or "cunning intelligence"). He is most famous for the ten
eventful years he took to return home after the decade-long Trojan War.

Before the Trojan War

The majority of sources for Odysseus' pre-war exploitsprincipally the

mythographers Pseudo-Apollodorus and Hyginuspostdate Homer by many
centuries. Two stories in particular are well known:
When Helen was abducted, Menelaus called upon the other suitors to
honour their oaths and help him to retrieve her, an attempt that would lead
to the Trojan War. Odysseus tried to avoid it by feigning lunacy, as an oracle
had prophesied a long-delayed return home for him if he went. He hooked a
donkey and an ox to his plough (as they have different stride lengths,
hindering the efficiency of the plough) and (some modern sources add)
started sowing his fields with salt. Palamedes, at the behest of Menelaus's
brother Agamemnon, sought to disprove Odysseus's madness, and placed
Telemachus, Odysseus's infant son, in front of the plough. Odysseus veered
the plough away from his son, thus exposing his stratagem. Odysseus held a
grudge against Palamedes during the war for dragging him away from his
Odysseus and other envoys of Agamemnon then traveled to Scyros to
recruit Achilles because of a prophecy that Troy could not be taken without
him. By most accounts, Thetis, Achilles's mother, disguised the youth as a
woman to hide him from the recruiters because an oracle had predicted that
Achilles would either live a long, uneventful life or achieve everlasting glory
while dying young. Odysseus cleverly discovered which among the women
before him was Achilles, when the youth was the only one of them showing
interest to examine the weapons hidden among an array of adornment gifts
for the daughters of their host. Odysseus arranged then further for the
sounding of a battle horn, which prompted Achilles to clutch a weapon and
show his trained disposition. With his disguise foiled, he was exposed and
joined Agamemnon's call to arms among the Hellenes.
During the Trojan War
Odysseus was one of the most influential Greek champions during the
Trojan War. Along with Nestor and Idomeneus he was one of the most trusted
counsellors and advisors. He always championed the Achaean cause,
especially when the king was in question, as in one instance
when Thersites spoke against him. When Agamemnon, to test the morale of
the Achaeans, announced his intentions to depart Troy, Odysseus restored
order to the Greek camp. Later on, after many of the heroes had left the
battlefield due to injuries (including Odysseus and Agamemnon), Odysseus
once again persuaded Agamemnon not to withdraw. Along with two other
envoys, he was chosen in the failed embassy to try to persuade Achilles to
return to combat
When Hector proposed a single combat duel, Odysseus was one of
the Danaans who reluctantly volunteered to battle him. Telamonian Ajax,
however, was the volunteer who eventually did fight Hector. Odysseus aided
Diomedes during the successful night operations in order to kill Rhesus,
because it had been foretold that if his horses drank from the Scamander
River, Troy could not be taken.
After Patroclus had been slain, it was Odysseus who counselled Achilles
to let the Achaean men eat and rest rather than follow his rage-driven desire

to go back on the offensiveand kill Trojansimmediately. Eventually (and

reluctantly), he consented.
During the funeral games for Patroclus, Odysseus became involved in a
wrestling match with Telamonian Ajax, as well as a foot race. With the help of
the goddess Athena, who favoured him, and despite Apollo's helping another
of the competitors, he won the race and managed to draw the wrestling
match, to the surprise of all.
Journey home to Ithaca
Odysseus is probably best known as the eponymous hero of the
Odyssey. This epic describes his travails, which lasted for 10 years, as he
tries to return home after the Trojan War and reassert his place as rightful
king of Ithaca.
On the way home from Troy, after a raid on Ismaros in the land of the
Cicones, he and his twelve ships were driven off course by storms. They
visited the lethargic Lotus-Eaters and were captured by the Cyclops
Polyphemus, while visiting his island. Polyphemus was eating his men, and
Odysseus took a barrel of wine and the Cyclops drank it, falling asleep.
Odysseus and his men took a wooden stake, igniting it with the remaining
wine, and blinding him. While they were escaping however, Odysseus
foolishly told Polyphemus his identity, and Polyphemus told his father
Poseidon who had blinded him. They stayed with Aeolus, the master of the
winds where he gave Odysseus a leather bag containing all the winds, except
the west wind, a gift that should have ensured a safe return home. However,
the sailors foolishly opened the bag while Odysseus slept, thinking that it
contained gold. All of the winds flew out and the resulting storm drove the
ships back the way they had come, just as Ithaca came into sight.
After pleading in vain with Aeolus to help them again, they reembarked and encountered the cannibalistic Laestrygonians. Odysseus' ship
was the only one to escape. He sailed on and visited the witch-goddess
Circe. She turned half of his men into swine after feeding them cheese and
wine. Hermes warned Odysseus about Circe and gave Odysseus a drug
called moly, a resistance to Circe's magic. Circe, being attracted to
Odysseus' resistance, fell in love with him and released his men. Odysseus
and his crew remained with her on the island for one year, while they feasted
and drank. Finally, Odysseus' men convinced Odysseus that it was time to
leave for Ithaca.
Guided by Circe's instructions, Odysseus and his crew crossed the
ocean and reached a harbor at the western edge of the world, where
Odysseus sacrificed to the dead and summoned the spirit of the old prophet
Tiresias to advise him. Next Odysseus met the spirit of his own mother, who
had died of grief during his long absence. From her, he learned for the first
time news of his own household, threatened by the greed of Penelope's
suitors. Odysseus also managed to talk to his fallen war comrades and the
mortal shade of Heracles.

Returning to Circe's island, they were advised by her on the remaining

stages of the journey. They skirted the land of the Sirens, passed between
the six-headed monster Scylla and the whirlpool Charybdis, where they
rowed directly between the two. However, Scylla dragged the boat towards
her by grabbing the oars and ate six men.
They landed on the island of Thrinacia. There, Odysseus' men ignored
the warnings of Tiresias and Circe and hunted down the sacred cattle of the
sun god Helios. Helios told Zeus what happened ordered for Odysseus' men
to be punished or else he would take the sun and shine it in the Underworld.
Zeus fulfilled Helios' demands where he caused a shipwreck during a
thunderstorm in which all but Odysseus drowned. He was washed ashore on
the island of Ogygia, where Calypso compelled him to remain as her lover for
7 years before he finally escaped upon Hermes telling Calypso to release
Odysseus departs from the Land of the Phaeacians. Painting by Claude
Odysseus finally escapes and is shipwrecked and befriended by the
Phaeacians. After telling them his story, the Phaeacians led by King Alcinous
agree to help Odysseus get home. They deliver him at night, while he is fast
asleep, to a hidden harbor on Ithaca. He finds his way to the hut of one of his
own former slaves, the swineherd Eumaeus, and also meets up with
Telemachus returning from Sparta. Athena disguises Odysseus as a
wandering beggar in order to learn how things stand in his household.
When the disguised Odysseus returns, Penelope announces in her long
interview with the disguised hero that whoever can string Odysseus's rigid
bow and shoot an arrow through twelve axe shafts may have her hand. "For
the plot of the Odyssey, of course, her decision is the turning point, the move
that makes possible the long-predicted triumph of the returning hero".[31]
Odysseus' identity is discovered by the housekeeper, Eurycleia, as she is
washing his feet and discovers an old scar Odysseus received during a boar
hunt. Odysseus swears her to secrecy, threatening to kill her if she tells
The return of Ulysses
When the contest of the bow begins, none of the suitors is able to
string the bow of Apollo, but then after all the suitors gave up the disguised
Odysseus comes along, bends the bow, shoots the arrow, and wins the
contest. Having done so, he proceeds to slaughter the suitors (beginning
with Antinous whom he finds drinking from Odysseus' cup) with help from
Telemachus and Odysseus' servants Eumaeus the swineherd and Philoetius
the cowherd. Odysseus tells the serving women who slept with the suitors to
clean up the mess of corpses and then has those women hanged in terror. He
tells Telemachus that he will replenish his stocks by raiding nearby islands.
Odysseus has now revealed himself in all his glory (with a little makeover by
Athena); yet Penelope cannot believe that her husband has really returned
she fears that it is perhaps some god in disguise, as in the story of Alcmene
and tests him by ordering her servant Euryclea to move the bed in their
wedding-chamber. Odysseus protests that this cannot be done since he

made the bed himself and knows that one of its legs is a living olive tree.
Penelope finally accepts that he truly is her husband, a moment that
highlights their homophrosn (like-mindedness).
The next day Odysseus and Telemachus visit the country farm of his
old father Laertes. The citizens of Ithaca follow Odysseus on the road,
planning to avenge the killing of the Suitors, their sons. The goddess Athena
intervenes and persuades both sides to make peace.

Perseus was the foremost mythical hero in Greek Mythology who was
known for his brave exploits such as beheading Medusa whose head could
turn people into statues. He is also known for rescuing Andromeda from a
sea monster. Perseus is the son of God Zeus and the mortal Danae. Perseus
is the founder of Mycenae and the legendary Perseid dynasty. Perseus
marries Andromeda and has nine children together which includes seven
sons and two daughters. After their death, both Perseus and Andromeda get
a place in the sky as heavenly constellations.
Perseus was another demi-god from Greek mythology, the son of Zeus
and Danae. King Polydectus would subsequently try and marry Danae, and
so sent Perseus off on an impossible mission to get him out of the way. The
mission was to retrieve the head of Medusa, the Gorgon who could turn man
to stone. Perseus though was aided in his quest by Athena and Hermes, and
would eventually return to Polydectus court with the head, and would turn
everyone, aside from his mother, to stone with it. Perseus was said to be the
grandfather of Heracles.

Peleus was a long lived hero who is today primarily famed for being the
father of Achilles and the grandfather of Neoptolemus. Peleus though was
also a famous Greek hero in his own right as he was present on board the
Argo on its journey to and from Colchis, and would also take part in the hunt
for the Calydonian Boar.

There were many other heroes talked of in this period of Greek

mythology including; Orpheus, who was an Argonaut but also travelled to the
underworld; Oedipus, who faced the Sphinx; and Telamon, who was an
Argonaut and companion of Heracles.

A second generation of Greek heroes would fight at Troy, and the war
was said to bring the heroic age of Greek mythology to an end. Many heroes
including the likes of Achilles, Ajax and Hector would die during the war,
and others like Agamemnon would die shortly afterwards. Some heroes, like
Aeneas and Diomedes, would find their stories extended when Roman
writers took up their tales, and transferred the heroes to the Italian

& Creatures


Usually represented as a serpent, he presided over the Delphic oracle.

Unfortunately he became enemies with the Olympian deity Apollos who
ended up killing him and taking the oracle for himself.


A two headed dog tasked with guarding a huge herd of red cattle, he
was killed by Hercules who then kept all the cattle as proof of his victory.


These were a pair of centaurine sea-gods with the upper body of a man, the
lower front of a horse, and the tail of a fish. They were set in the sky as the
astronomical constellation Pisces.

Scylla was a monster that lived on one side of a narrow channel of water,
opposite its counterpart Charybdis. The two sides of the strait were within an
arrows range of each otherso close that sailors attempting to avoid
Charybdis would pass too close to Scylla with disastrous results.

Known as the Father of All Monsters, Typhon was believed to be the most
deadly monster of Greek mythology. His human upper half supposedly
reached as high as the stars, and his hands reached east and west. Instead
of a human head, a hundred dragon heads erupted from his neck and


Ophiotaurus was a creature that was part bull and part serpent. Its entrails
were said to grant the power to defeat the gods to whoever burned them.


Lamia was apparently a beautiful queen of Libya who became a child-eating

daemon. In the myth, she is a mistress of the god Zeus, causing Zeus
jealous wife, Hera, to kill all of Lamias children (except for Scylla, who is
herself cursed) and transform her into a monster that hunts and devours the
children of others.


The Graeae were three sisters who shared one eye and one tooth among
them. Not surprisingly they werent known for their beauty.

Half woman half snake, Echidna known as the Mother of All Monsters
because most of the monsters in Greek mythology were her offspring.
Nemean Lion

The Nemean lion was a vicious monster in Greek mythology that lived at
Nemea. It was eventually killed by Heracles. It could not be killed with mortal
weapons because its golden fur was impervious to attack. Its claws were
sharper than mortal swords and could cut through any armor.

With the haunches of a lion, the wings of a great bird, and the face of a
woman, she is mythicised as treacherous and merciless. Those who cannot
answer her riddle suffer a fate typical in such mythological stories, as they
are killed and eaten by this ravenous monster.


Literally translated to thethe avengers from Greek, these were known as

the female deities of vengeance. A formulaic oath in the Iliad invokes them
as those who beneath the earth punish whosoever has sworn a false oath.

The daughter of Poseidon and Gaia; Charybdis is a huge bladder of a

creature whose face is all mouth and whose arms and legs are flippers. She
swallows huge amounts of water three times a day, before belching it back
out again, creating large whirlpools capable of sinking large ships.


These winged spirits whose name literally means: that which snatches are
known for their proclivity for stealing food. In fact, Zeus used them to punish
a king called Phineus by trapping him on an island with a bunch of food and a
large group of harpies. Phineus was constantly tortured by a buffet he could
never eat because it always got stolen away.


Satyrs have goat-like features such as hindquarters and horns and are often
depicted playing flutes and holding cups of wine. They epitomize the essence
of having a carefree life as they make music and drink all they want.

Dangerous and beautiful creatures, they were often portrayed as femme

fatales who lured nearby sailors with their enchanting voices to shipwreck on
the rocky coast of their island.


The Griffin is a legendary creature with the body, tail, and back legs of a lion;
the head and wings of an eagle; and an eagles talons as its front feet. As the
lion was traditionally considered the king of the beasts and the eagle was the
king of the birds, the griffin was thought to be an especially powerful and
majestic creature.


The Chimera was a monstrous fire-breathing female creature of Lycia in Asia

Minor who was composed of the parts of three animals; a lion, a snake and a
goat. The term chimera has come to describe any mythical or fictional
animal with parts taken from various animals, or to describe concepts
perceived as wildly imaginative or implausible.

A multi-headed dog, or hellhound, Cerberus guards the gates of the

Underworld to prevent those who have crossed the river Styx from ever


A member of a primordial race of giants, each with a single eye in the middle
of his forehead, the name is widely thought to mean circle-eyed.


The Hydra was an ancient serpent-like water beast with reptilian traits that
possessed many heads the poets mention more heads than the vasepainters could paint, and for each head cut off it grew two more. It also had
poisonous breath and blood so virulent even its tracks were deadly.

Perhaps the most popular gorgon in Greek mythology is Medusa, the only
mortal among the three sisters who had snakes for hair and whos gaze
would turn anyone into stone. She was famously decapitated by Perseus who
was armed with a mirror and scythe.


The centaur is a mythological creature with the head, arms, and torso of a
human and the body and legs of a horse. Perhaps one of the most popular
centaurs in Greek mythology is Chiron. He stands in contrast to the typical
depiction of centaurs being indulgent and violent drinkers with his
intelligence and enviable medical skills.


One of the best known creatures in Greek mythology, he is a winged divine

stallion usually depicted as pure white in color. He is the offspring of
Poseidon and Medusa and legend says every time his hoof hit the earth, a
spring of water bubbled forth.


The Minotaur was a creature with the head of a bull on the body of a man. He
dwelt at the center of the Cretan Labyrinth, which was an elaborate maze
designed by the architect Daedalus and his son Icarus. The bull-man was
eventually slain by the Athenian hero Theseus.





Titan of time and

the ages

Harpe, Scythe or a

Titan of
intelligence and





Titan of heavenly



Titan of light


Titan of mortal life



Titaness of
memory and



Titan of saltwater
on earth

Titaness of
brightness and


Titaness of fertility
and motherhood

Rhea's symbol is a
pair of lions, the
ones that pulled
her celestial chariot


Titanes of shining


Titaness of divine
law and order

Themis is often
shown blind
folded holding
the scales of


Titaness of all
freshwater on


Titan of endurance

Titaness of the


Titan of

Titan of

Titan of the sun






God of sky and


eagle, sceptre,
scales, and oak

God of sea, floods

and earthquakes

Sea, trident,
horse, dolphin

God of death and

the dead

Pomegranate, cap
of invisibilty





Goddess of
marriage and

crown, cuckoo,
lion, cow, and
wedding ring

Goddess of
harvest and

poppy, wheat,
torch, and pig

Goddess of the
hearth and of the
right ordering of
domesticity and
the family


God of light,

sun, lyre, bow and




healing, plague
and darkness, the
arts, music,
poetry, prophecy,
archery, the sun,
manly youth, and

arrow, raven,
dolphin, wolf,
swan, and mouse

God of war,
violence and

boar, serpent vulture,

dog, vulture, spear, and

Goddess of wisdom,
handicrafts, defense,
and strategic warfare

Owl, olive, tee,

plow, loom




Goddess of the
hunt, virginity,
archery, the
moon, and all

moon, deer,
hound, she-bear,
snake, cypress
tree, and bow and

God of wine,
festivals and

grapevine, ivy,
cup, tiger,
panther, leopard,
dolphin, goat and

God of
blacksmiths and

fire, anvil, axe, donkey,

hammer, tongs, and




God of travel,
trade, diplomacy,
writings and

Symbols include
the caduceus
(staff entwined
with two snakes),
winged sandals
and cap, stork,
and tortoise
(whose shell he
used to invent the

Goddess of love,
beauty, pleasure

dove, bird, apple,

bee, swan, myrtle,
and rose




Persephone is the goddess of springtime. Her parents are Demeter

and Zeus. Hades is her husband. She became to be his wife when one day
she came to the Underworld and ate one pomegranate seed there. When you
eat something from the Underworld, you cannot go back above ground.
When her mother, Demeter, found out she was devastated. She stopped
helping plants grow and winter came. Hades agreed that he would let
Persephone go above ground for six months every year. During those six
months where Persephone is above ground, it is spring and summer. Then
when she must go back to Hades in the Underworld Demeter gets sad and it
becomes winter and fall. The mint and pomegranate is sacred to her.

Eros is the god of love. He is the son of Aphrodite in some accounts.

Other sources say that he was there way before Aphrodite. They say that he
was there in the creation. He supposedly brought Gaea and Uranus, the
earth and sky, together. They then bore the Cyclopes, the hundred-handed
ones, and the Titans and created the world as we know it. Eros's "weapon" is
darts or arrows. In either case the tips have been magically treated to
produce either uncontrollable love or insurmountable disinterested in the
first person seen be Eros's victim after wounding.


Hebe is the goddess of youth and cup bearer to the gods. She is Zeus and
Hera's daughter. She is Hercules's wife.

Eris is the goddess of strife, discord, contention, and rivalry. She is the
daughter of Zeus and Hera. She is also the reason of the Trojan War. She
wasn't invited to Peleus and Thetis's wedding so she sent an apple that said
"to the fairest". Three goddesses laid claim it, and in their rivalry brought
about the events which led to the Trojan War.


Selene was the goddess of the moon. She is the son of Hyperion. She
became overshadowed by Artemis later. She was depicted as a woman either
riding side saddle on a horse or in a chariot drawn by a pair of winged
steeds. Her lunar sphere or crescent was represented as either a crown set
upon her head or as the fold of a raised, shining cloak. Sometimes she was
said to drive a team of oxen and her lunar crescent was likened to the horns
of a bull. Selene's great love was the shepherd prince Endymion. The
beautiful boy was granted eternal youth and immortality by Zeus and placed
in a state of eternal slumber in a cave near the peak of Lydian Mount Latmos.
There his heavenly bride descended to consort with him in the night.

Thanatos is the god of non-violent death. He guards the Doors of

Death. If the Doors of Death aren't guarded then the dead can escape back
to the world from the Underworld. Thanatos plays a prominent role in two
myths. Once when he was sent to fetch Alkestis to the underworld, he was
driven off by Herakles in a fight. Another time he was captured by the
criminal Sisyphos who trapped him in a sack so as to avoid death.

Iris is the goddes of the rainbow and the personal messenger for Hera. Her
father is Thaumas "the wondrous" a marine-god, and her mother Elektra "the
amber" a cloud-nymph. For the coastal-dwelling Greeks, the rainbow's arc

was most often seen spanning the distance between cloud and sea, and so
the goddess was believed to replenish the rain-clouds with water from the
sea. Iris had no distinctive mythology of her own. In myth she appears only
as an errand-running messenger and was usually described as a virgin
goddess. Her name contains a double meaning, being connected both
with iris, "the rainbow," and eiris, "messenger."

Pan is the god of flocks and shepherds, of mountain wilds, hunting and rustic
music. He is a satyr, he has the torso of a human and the legs of a goat. His
dad is Hermes and his mom is different in different myths.

(Litt 115)
Saturday (1:00 4:00 pm)

Submitted By:
Rose Lynn F. Tobias

December 13, 2014

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