2.
n=
3.
1 1 10 3
10 3
PV
1
=
=
=
RT
0.082 273
22.4
22400
1
23
19
No of molecules = 6.023 10
= 2.688 10
22400
3
5
V = 1 cm ,
T = 0C,
P = 10 mm of Hg
1.36 980 10 6 1
PV
gh V
13
=
=
= 5.874 10
RT
RT
8.31 273
23
13
11
No. of moluclues = No n = 6.023 10 5.874 10 = 3.538 10
n=
4.
n=
1 1 10 3
10 3
PV
=
=
RT
0.082 273
22.4
5.
10
32
3
g = 1.428 10 g = 1.428 mg
22.4
Since mass is same
n1 = n2 = n
nR 300
nR 600
P1 =
,
P2 =
V0
2V0
mass =
2V0
2V0
P1
nR 300
1
=
= =1:1
P2
V0
nR 600 1
6.
600 K
V = 250 cc = 250 10
3
3
3
6
3
P = 10 mm = 10 10 m = 10 13600 10 pascal = 136 10 pascal
T = 27C = 300 K
136 10 3 250
PV
136 250
=
10 3 =
10 6
8.3 300
RT
8.3 300
136 250
No. of molecules =
10 6 6 10 23 = 81 1017 0.8 1015
8.3 300
5
6
P1 = 8.0 10 Pa,
P2 = 1 10 Pa,
T1 = 300 K,
Since, V1 = V2 = V
n=
7.
8.
9.
T2 = ?
P1V1
PV
8 10 5 V
1 10 6 300
1 10 6 V
= 2 2
=
T2 =
= 375 K
T1
T2
300
T2
8 10 5
3
6
3
T = 300 K,
P=?
m = 2 g, V = 0.02 m = 0.02 10 cc = 0.02 10 L,
M = 2 g,
m
2
PV = nRT PV =
RT P 20 = 0.082 300
M
2
0.082 300
5
5
P=
= 1.23 atm = 1.23 10 pa 1.23 10 pa
20
nRT
m RT
RT
P=
=
=
V
M V
M
3
3
1.25 10 g/cm
7
R 8.31 10 ert/deg/mole
T 273 K
M=
RT
1.25 10 3 8.31 10 7 273
4
=
= 0.002796 10 28 g/mol
P
13.6 980 76
24.1
V0
300 K
=
Kalka
RTSimla
PKalka M
=
=
=3:1
P2
V
nRT
72 308
= 1.013
76 288
3V
PT
PT
P2T
P1 
3RT
C=
M
C=
3 8.3 300
2 10 3
3 8 .3 T
2 10
(2 1932.6) =
2
3 8 .3 T
2 10 3
(2 1932.6)2 2 10 3
= T
3 8 .3
T = 1199.98 1200 K.
13. Vrms =
3P
P = 10 Pa = 1 atm,
1.77 10 4
10 3
3 10 5 10 3
T=
2 0.04 1.6 10 19
3 1.38 10 23
8RT
8 8.3 300
=
M
3.14 0.032
Dis tan ce
6400000 2
T=
=
= 445.25 m/s
Speed
445 .25
15. Vavg =
28747 .83
km = 7.985 8 hrs.
3600
3
16. M = 4 10 Kg
=
8 8.3 273
8RT
=
= 1201.35
M
3.14 4 10 3
27
24
24
Momentum = M Vavg = 6.64 10 1201.35 = 7.97 10 8 10 Kgm/s.
Vavg =
24.2
8RT
8 8.3 300
=
M
3.14 0.032
8RT1
8RT2
Now,
=
2
4
17. Vavg =
T1
1
=
T2
2
8RT
M
8RT
=
M
T=
VavgN2
2gr
8RT
= 2gr
M
2grM
2 9.8 6400000 3.14 2 10 3
=
= 11863.9 11800 m/s.
8R
8 8 .3
8RT
M
19. Vavg =
VavgH2
2gr
8RT
28
=
2
8RT
28
=
2
14 = 3.74
20. The left side of the container has a gas, let having molecular wt. M1
Right part has Mol. wt = M2
Temperature of both left and right chambers are equal as the separating wall is diathermic
3RT
=
M1
21. Vmean =
3RT
8RT
8RT
=
M1
M2
M2
8RT
=
M
M1
M
3
3
=
1 =
= 1.1775 1.18
M2
M2
8
8
8 8.3 273
= 1698.96
3.14 2 10 3
Total Dist = 1698.96 m
1698.96
10
= 1.23 10
No. of Collisions =
1.38 10 7
5
22. P = 1 atm = 10 Pascal
3
T = 300 K,
M = 2 g = 2 10 Kg
8RT
8 8.3 300
=
= 1781.004 1780 m/s
M
3.14 2 10 3
(b) When the molecules strike at an angle 45,
(a) Vavg =
10
2 2 10
1780
3
2 1780
Force
2mv Area
1
2
2 mV
Pr essure
2mV
6 10 23
PV
PV
23. 1 1 = 2 2
T1
T2
P1 200 KPa = 2 10 pa
T1 = 20C = 293 K
102 V1
V2 = V1 + 2% V1 =
100
5
P2 = ?
T2 = 40C = 313 K
P 102 V1
2 10 5 V1
2 10 7 313
= 2
P2 =
= 209462 Pa = 209.462 KPa
293
100 313
102 293
24.3
24. V1 = 1 10 m ,
P1V1 = n1R1T1
n=
P1 = 1.5 10 Pa,
P1V1
1.5 10 5 1 10 3
=
R1T1
8.3 400
T1 = 400 K
n=
1 .5
8 .3 4
1 .5
1 .5
M =
32 = 1.4457 1.446
8 .3 4
8 .3 4
5
3
3
V2 = 1 10 m ,
P2 = 1 10 Pa,
P2V2 = n2R2T2
m1 =
n2 =
T2 = 300 K
P2 V2
10 5 10 3
1
=
=
= 0.040
R 2 T2
8.3 300
3 8 .3
m2 = 0.04 32 = 1.285
m = m1 m2 =1.446 1.285 = 0.1608 g 0.16 g
5
5
5
25. P1 = 10 + gh = 10 + 1000 10 3.3 = 1.33 10 pa
4
5
3 3
T1 = T2 = T,
V1 = (2 10 )
P2 = 10 ,
3
4 3
V2 = r ,
r=?
3
P1V1
PV
= 2 2
T1
T2
1.33 10 5
4
4
(2 10 3 )3
10 5 r 2
3
3
=
T1
T2
1.33 8 10 10 = 10 r
5
26. P1 = 2 atm = 2 10 pa
3
T1 = 300 K
V1 = 0.002 m ,
P1V1 = n1RT1
5
n=
r=
3
10.64 10 3 = 2.19 10 2.2 mm
P1V1 2 10 5 0.002
4
=
= 0.1606
=
RT1
8.3 300
8 .3 3
5
P2 = 1 atm = 10 pa
3
V2 = 0.0005 m ,
P2V2 = n2RT2
n2 =
T2 = 300 K
P2 V2
5
1
10 5 0.0005
=
=
= 0.02
RT2
8.3 300
3 8.3 10
V12 =
V2 2
V1
V2
T1 V1 = T2 V2 = TV = T1 2V T2 =
T
2
24.4
nO2
no2 RT
PH2 =
nH2 RT
V
V
1.60
m
=
=
= 0.05
32
MO2
nO nH2
RT
Now, Pmix = 2
2.80
m
nH2 =
=
= 0.1
MH2
28
(0.05 0.1) 8.3 300
2
= 2250 N/m
0.166
30. P1 = Atmospheric pressure = 75 g
V1 = 100 A
P2 = Atmospheric pressure + Mercury pessue = 75g + hgg (if h = height of mercury)
V2 = (100 h) A
P1V1 = P2V2
75g(100A) = (75 + h)g(100 h)A
2
75 100 = (74 + h) (100 h) 7500 = 7500 75 h + 100 h h
2
2
h 25 h = 0 h = 25 h h = 25 cm
Height of mercury that can be poured = 25 cm
31. Now, Let the final pressure; Volume & Temp be
After connection = PA Partial pressure of A
PB Partial pressure of B
P 2V
P V
Now, A
= A
TA
T
Pmix =
P
P
Or A = A
T
2TA
(1)
PA
Similarly,
P
PB
= B
2TB
T
: TA
V
(2)
2TA 2TB
T
T
2 TA TB
P
P
1P
= A B
T
2 TA TB
32. V = 50 cc = 50 106 cm3
5
P = 100 KPa = 10 Pa
(a) PV = nrT1
PV =
[ PA + PB = P]
M = 28.8 g
m
PMV 10 5 28.8 50 10 6
50 28.8 10 1
RT1 m =
=
=
= 0.0635 g.
RT1
8.3 273
8.3 273
M
PVM
10 5 28.8 50 10 6
50 28.8 10 1
m
RT2 m =
=
=
= 0.0465
RT2
8.3 373
8.3 373
M
B
PB
: TB
V
=
300( 45 x )
300( 45 x )
20 cm
P 20 A
P A
=
(1)
400
T
P 10 A
P(30 x )
=
(2)
100
T
Equating (1) and (2)
1
x
=
30 x = 2x 3x = 30 x = 10 cm
2
30 x
The separator will be at a distance 10 cm from left end.
24.6
27C
P0
10
P0
Lx
L+x
P1
P2
0C
10 cm
10 cm
27C
10
0C
60
x
T P
30 x
T P
dV
= r dV = r dt
dt
Let the pumped out gas pressure dp
Volume of container = V0 At a pump dv amount of gas has been pumped out.
Pdv = V0df PV df = V0 dp
P
dp
=
p
dtr
V
0
P = P e rt / V0
Half of the gas has been pump out, Pressure will be half =
ln 2 =
38. P =
rt
V0
t = ln2
1 vt / V0
e
2
0
r
P0
V
1
V0
nRT
=
V
RT
=
V
RT
=
V0
P0
V
1
V0
P0
V
1
V0
P0
V
1
V0
[Since n = 1 mole]
[At V = V0]
P0 V0
2R
1 10 5 (5 10 2 )2
1 10 5 25 10 5
=
2
2
dN
N
Total circumference of work = 2r
=
dl
2r
N=
1 10 5 25 10 5
1 10 5 25 10 5
4
=
= 1.25 10 N/M
0.2 2r
0.2 2 5 10 5
24.7
P1V1
PV
= 2 2
T1
T2
2P0
P0
P0 V
PV
=
P = 2 P0
T0
2T0
=
h0
h2 =
g
g
g
(b) K.E. of the water = Pressure energy of the water at that layer
P
1
2
mV = m
2
V =
2
2P
2
=
P0 g(h1 h 0
1/ 2
2
V=
g
(
h
h
0
1
0
1 9 .8
1 9 .8
10 5
V
V =
3
10 3
10
2 10 4 19.6 10 2
9.8 10 3
= 2.24081 m
mg
P0 A P0 A
A
1 9. 8
10 5 0.2 = 105
10 10 4
(9.8 10 + 10 ) 0.2 = 10
3
5
109.8 10 0.2 = 10
109.8 0.2
= 0.2196 0.22 m 22 cm
=
10 2
3
24.8
h0
h1
62n 2
62n 2
=
= 31C = 304 K
n1 n 2
2n 2
Initial Temp = 0C
P = 76 cm of Hg
V1 = V2
Hence n1 = n2
P V
76 V
403 76
= 2
P2 =
= 84.630 84C
273
304
273
46. Temp is 20
Relative humidity = 100%
So the air is saturated at 20C
Dew point is the temperature at which SVP is equal to present vapour pressure
So 20C is the dew point.
47. T = 25C
P = 104 KPa
VP
[SVP = 3.2 KPa,
RH = 0.6]
SVP
3
3
3
VP = 0.6 3.2 10 = 1.92 10 2 10
When vapours are removed VP reduces to zero
Net pressure inside the room now = 104 103 2 103 = 102 103 = 102 KPa
48. Temp = 20C
Dew point = 10C
The place is saturated at 10C
Even if the temp drop dew point remains unaffected.
The air has V.P. which is the saturation VP at 10C. It (SVP) does not change on temp.
RH =
VP
SVP
The point where the vapour starts condensing, VP = SVP
We know P1V1 = P2V2
3
RH SVP 10 = SVP V2
V2 = 10RH 10 0.4 = 4 cm
50. AtmPressure = 76 cm of Hg
When water is introduced the water vapour exerts some pressure which counter acts the atm pressure.
The pressure drops to 75.4 cm
Pressure of Vapour = (76 75.4) cm = 0.6 cm
49. RH =
VP
0 .6
=
= 0.6 = 60%
SVP
1
51. From fig. 24.6, we draw r, from Y axis to meet the graphs.
Hence we find the temp. to be approximately 65C & 45C
52. The temp. of body is 98F = 37C
At 37C from the graph SVP = Just less than 50 mm
B.P. is the temp. when atmospheric pressure equals the atmospheric pressure.
Thus min. pressure to prevent boiling is 50 mm of Hg.
53. Given
SVP at the dew point = 8.9 mm
SVP at room temp = 17.5 mm
Dew point = 10C as at this temp. the condensation starts
Room temp = 20C
R. Humidity =
RH =
8 .9
SVP at dew po int
=
= 0.508 51%
SVP at room temp
17.5
24.9
54. 50 cm of saturated vapour is cooled 30 to 20. The absolute humidity of saturated H2O vapour 30 g/m
3
Absolute humidity is the mass of water vapour present in a given volume at 30C, it contains 30 g/m
3
at 50 m it contains 30 50 = 1500 g
at 20C it contains 16 50 = 800 g
Water condense = 1500 800 = 700 g.
55. Pressure is minimum when the vapour present inside are at saturation vapour pressure
As this is the max. pressure which the vapours can exert.
Hence the normal level of mercury drops down by 0.80 cm
The height of the Hg column = 76 0.80 cm = 75.2 cm of Hg.
[ Given SVP at atmospheric temp = 0.80 cm of Hg]
56. Pressure inside the tube = Atmospheric Pressure = 99.4 KPa
Pressure exerted by O2 vapour
= Atmospheric pressure V.P.
= 99.4 KPa 3.4 KPa = 96 KPa
No of moles of O2 = n
96 103 50 106 = n 8.3 300
96 50 10 3
3
3
= 1.9277 10 1.93 10
8.3 300
57. Let the barometer has a length = x
Height of air above the mercury column = (x 74 1) = (x 73)
Pressure of air = 76 74 1 = 1 cm
nd
For 2 case height of air above = (x 72.1 1 1) = (x 71.1)
Pressure of air = (74 72.1 1) = 0.99
n=
9
(x 71.1)
10(x 73) = 9 (x 71.1)
10
x = 10 73 9 71.1 = 730 639.9 = 90.1
Height of air = 90.1
Height of barometer tube above the mercury column = 90.1 + 1 = 91.1 mm
58. Relative humidity = 40%
SVP = 4.6 mm of Hg
(x 73)(1) =
VP
4 .6
P1V
PV
= 2
T1
T2
0.4 =
P
1.84
1.84
= 2 P2 =
293
273
293
273
VP
1.84 293
=
= 0.109 = 10.9%
SVP
273 10
VP
59. RH =
SVP
VP
Given, 0.50 =
3600
VP = 3600 0.5
Let the Extra pressure needed be P
m RT
m 8.3 300
So, P =
=
M V
18
1
m
Now,
8.3 300 3600 0.50 = 3600
18
=
36 18
m=
6 = 13 g
8 .3
24.10
60. T = 300 K,
Rel. humidity = 20%,
V = 50 m
3
SVP at 300 K = 3.3 KPa,
V.P. = Relative humidity SVP = 0.2 3.3 10
PV =
m
m
3
RT 0.2 3.3 10 50 =
8.3 300
M
18
0.2 3.3 50 18 10 3
= 238.55 grams 238 g
8.3 300
Mass of water present in the room = 238 g.
m=
61. RH =
VP
VP
3
0.20 =
VP = 0.2 3.3 10 = 660
SVP
3.3 10 3
nRT
m RT
500 8.3 300
=
=
= 1383.3
V
M V
18
50
2034.3
Net P = 1383.3 + 660 = 2043.3
Now, RH =
= 0.619 62%
3300
VP
VP
3
0.4 =
VP = 0.4 1.6 10
62. (a) Rel. humidity =
SVP at 15C
1.6 10 3
PV = nRT P =
The evaporation occurs as along as the atmosphere does not become saturated.
Net pressure change = 1.6 103 0.4 1.6 103 = (1.6 0.4 1.6)103 = 0.96 103
Net mass of water evaporated = m 0.96 10 50 =
3
m
8.3 288
18
0.96 50 18 10 3
= 361.45 361 g
8.3 288
(b) At 20C SVP = 2.4 KPa,
At 15C SVP = 1.6 KPa
Net pressure charge = (2.4 1.6) 103 Pa = 0.8 103 Pa
m
3
Mass of water evaporated = m = 0.8 10 50 =
8.3 293
18
m=
m =
0.8 50 18 10 3
= 296.06 296 grams
8.3 293
24.11
CHAPTER 25
CALORIMETRY
1.
1295
(T 293)
= (373 T)
94
(T 293) 14 = 373 T
4475
= 298 k
15
T = 298 273 = 25C.
The final temp = 25C.
mass of Iron = 100g
water Eq of caloriemeter = 10g
mass of water = 240g
Let the Temp. of surface = 0C
Siron = 470J/kgC
Total heat gained = Total heat lost.
100
250
So,
470 ( 60) =
4200 (60 20)
1000
1000
47 47 60 = 25 42 40
T=
2.
2820
44820
=
= 953.61C
47
47
The temp. of A = 12C
The temp. of B = 19C
The temp of A + B = 16
The temp. of C = 28C
The temp. of B + C = 23
In accordance with the principle of caloriemetry when A & B are mixed
3
MCA (16 12) = MCB (19 16) CA4 = CB3 CA = CB
(1)
4
And when B & C are mixed
= 4200 +
3.
4
CB
5
When A & c are mixed, if T is the common temperature of mixture
MCA (T 12) = MCC (28 T)
MCB (23 19)= MCC (28 23) 4CB = 5CC CC =
3
4
CB(T 12) = CB(28 T)
4
5
15T 180 = 448 16T
T=
628
= 20.258C = 20.3C
31
25.1
(2)
CHAPTER 26
LAWS OF THERMODYNAMICS
QUESTIONS FOR SHORT ANSWER
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
No in isothermal process heat is added to a system. The temperature does not increase so the internal
energy does not.
Yes, the internal energy must increase when temp. increases; as internal energy depends upon
temperature U T
Work done on the gas is 0. as the P.E. of the container si increased and not of gas. Work done by the
gas is 0. as the gas is not expanding.
The temperature of the gas is decreased.
W = F d = Fd Cos 0 = Fd
F
Change in PE is zero. Change in KE is non Zero.
1
d
1
So, there may be some internal energy.
The outer surface of the cylinder is rubbed vigorously by a polishing machine.
The energy given to the cylinder is work. The heat is produced on the cylinder which transferred to the
gas.
No. work done by rubbing the hands in converted to heat and the hands become warm.
When the bottle is shaken the liquid in it is also shaken. Thus work is done on the liquid. But heat is not
transferred to the liquid.
Final volume = Initial volume. So, the process is isobaric.
Work done in an isobaric process is necessarily zero.
No word can be done by the system without changing its volume.
Internal energy = U = nCVT
Now, since gas is continuously pumped in. So n2 = 2n1 as the p2 = 2p1. Hence the internal energy is
also doubled.
When the tyre bursts, there is adiabatic expansion of the air because the pressure of the air inside is
sufficiently higher than atmospheric pressure. In expansion air does some work against surroundings.
So the internal energy decreases. This leads to a fall in temperature.
No, work is done on the system during this process. No, because the object expands during the
process i.e. volume increases.
No, it is not a reversible process.
Total heat input = Total heat out put i.e., the total heat energy given to the system is converted to
mechanical work.
Yes, the entropy of the body decreases. But in order to cool down a body we need another external sink
which draws out the heat the entropy of object in partly transferred to the external sink. Thus once
nd
entropy is created. It is kept by universe. And it is never destroyed. This is according to the 2 law of
thermodynamics
OBJECTIVE
1.
3.
(d) Dq = DU + DW. This is the statement of law of conservation of energy. The energy provided is
utilized to do work as well as increase the molecular K.E. and P.E.
(b) Since it is an isothermal process. So temp. will remain constant as a result U or internal energy will
also remain constant. So the system has to do positive work.
AQ1
(a) In case of A W 1 > W 2 (Area under the graph is higher for A than for B).
P
Q = u + dw.
du for both the processes is same (as it is a state function)
BQ2
Q1 > Q2 as W 1 > W2
V
4.
2.
A
P
B
V
26.1
Laws of thermodynamics
5.
(a) In the process the volume of the system increases continuously. Thus, the work
done increases continuously.
P
V
6.
(c) for A In a so thermal system temp remains same although heat is added.
for B For the work done by the system volume increase as is consumes heat.
7.
(c) In this case P and T varry proportionally i.e. P/T = constant. This is possible only
when volume does not change. pdv = 0
f
T
8.
B
A
T
9.
1.
2.
(b) As the volume of the gas decreases, the temperature increases as well as the pressure. But, on
passage of time, the heat develops radiates through the metallic cylinder thus T decreases as well as
the pressure.
OBJECTIVE
(b), (c) Pressure P and Volume V both increases. Thus work done is positive (V increases). Heat must
be added to the system to follow this process. So temperature must increases.
(a) (b) Initial temp = Final Temp. Initial internal energy = Final internal energy.
i.e. U = 0, So, this is found in case of a cyclic process.
3.
4.
Q W = 0
A
B
5.
V
(a) (d) Internal energy decreases by the same amount as work done.
du = dw, dQ = 0. Thus the process is adiabatic. In adiabatic process, dU = dw. Since U decreases
nR
T1 T2 is +ve. T1 > T2 Temperature decreases.
U2 U2 is ve. dw should be +ve
1
1.
t1 = 15c t2 = 17c
t = t2 t1 = 17 15 = 2C = 2 + 273 = 275 K
mv = 100 g = 0.1 kg
mw = 200 g = 0.2 kg
cug = 420 J/kgk
W g = 4200 J/kgk
(a) The heat transferred to the liquid vessel system is 0. The internal heat is shared in between the
vessel and water.
(b) Work done on the system = Heat produced unit
dw = 100 103 420 2 + 200 103 4200 2 = 84 + 84 20 = 84 21 = 1764 J.
(c)dQ = 0, dU = dw = 1764. [since dw = ve work done on the system]
(a) Heat is not given to the liquid. Instead the mechanical work done is converted
to heat. So, heat given to liquid is z.
(b) Work done on the liquid is the PE lost by the 12 kg mass = mgh = 12 10
0.70 = 84 J
(c) Rise in temp at t
We know, 84 = mst
12 kg
EXERCISES
2.
84
= 0.02 k
4200
26.2
Laws of thermodynamics
3.
1
1
1
du = dw du = mv 2 mu 2 = 100 2 2 = 200 J
2
2
2
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Q = 100 J
We know, U = Q W
Here since the container is rigid, V = 0,
Hence the W = PV = 0,
So, U = Q = 100 J.
P1 = 10 kpa = 10 103 pa. P2 = 50 103 pa.
v1 = 200 cc.
v2 = 50 cc
1
(i) Work done on the gas = (10 50) 10 3 (50 200 ) 10 6 = 4.5 J
2
(ii) dQ = 0 0 = du + dw du = dw = 4.5 J
initial State I
Final State f
P
P
Given 1 = 2
T1
T2
where P1 Initial Pressure ; P2 Final Pressure.
T2, T1 Absolute temp. So, V = 0
Work done by gas = PV = 0
In path ACB,
W AC + WBC = 0 + pdv = 30 103 (25 10) 106 = 0.45 J
In path AB, W AB = (10 + 30) 103 15 106 = 0.30 J
In path ADB, W = W AD + WDB = 10 103 (25 10) 106 + 0 = 0.15 J
V
25 cc
10 cc
Q = U + W
In abc, Q = 80 J W = 30 J
So, U = (80 30) J = 50 J
Now in adc, W = 10 J
So, Q = 10 + 50 = 60 J [U = 50 J]
B
C
A
10 kpa
30 kpa P
In path ACB,
dQ = 50 0 50 4.2 = 210 J
3
6
dW = W AC + WCB = 50 10 200 10 = 10 J
dQ = dU + dW
dU = dQ dW = 210 10 = 200 J
In path ADB, dQ = ?
dU = 200 J (Internal energy change between 2 points is always same)
dW = W AD + WDB = 0+ 155 103 200 106 = 31 J
dQ = dU + dW = 200 + 31 = 231 J = 55 cal
P
155 kpa
50 kpa
B
C
A
200 cc
400 cc V
(cc)
300
100
100 300
26.3
(kpa)
Laws of thermodynamics
11. dQ = 2.4 cal = 2.4 J Joules
dw = WAB + WBC + W AC
3
6
3
6
= 0 + (1/2) (100 + 200) 10 200 10 100 10 200 10
3
6
= (1/2) 300 10 200 10 20 = 30 20 = 10 joules.
du = 0 (in a cyclic process)
dQ = dU +dW 2.4 J = 10
10
J=
4.17 J/Cal.
2 .4
12. Now, Q = (2625 J) J
U = 5000 J
From Graph W = 200 103 0.03 = 6000 J.
Now, Q = W + U
2625 J = 6000 + 5000 J
V
700 cc
600 cc
B
A
c
300 kpa
200 kpa
11000
= 4.19 J/Cal
2625
dQ = 70 cal = (70 4.2) J
3
6
dW = (1/2) (200 + 500) 10 150 10
3
= (1/2) 500 150 10
1
= 525 10 = 52.5 J
dU = ?
dQ = du + dw
294 = du + 52.5
du = 294 52.5 = 346.5 J
P = 1 105 Pa
U = 1.5 pV
dV = (200 100) cm3 = 100 cm3 = 104 m3
5
4
dU = 1.5 10 10 = 15
5
4
dW = 10 10 = 10
dQ = dU + dW = 10 + 15 = 25 J
dQ = 10 J
dV = A 10 cm 3 = 4 10 cm3 = 40 106 cm3
3
6
3
dw = Pdv = 100 10 40 10 = 4 cm
du = ?
10 = du + dw 10 = du + 4 du = 6 J.
(a) P1 = 100 KPa
V1 = 2 m3
3
V1 = 0.5 m
P1 = 100 KPa
From the graph, We find that area under AC is greater than area under
than AB. So, we see that heat is extracted from the system.
(b) Amount of heat = Area under ABC.
14.
15.
16.
1 5
10 5 = 25000 J
2 10
17. n = 2 mole
dQ = 1200 J
dU = 0 (During cyclic Process)
dQ = dU + dwc
1200 = W AB + WBC + WCA
1200 = nRT + WBC + 0
1200 = 2 8.3 200 + WBC
W BC = 400 8.3 1200 = 4520 J.
a
0.02 m3
J=
13.
200 kpa P
100 kpa
0.05 m3
250 cc
100 cc
200 kpa 500 kpa
P
100 kpa
2.5 m3 V
2 m3
T
500 k
300 k
O
26.4
A
V
Laws of thermodynamics
18. Given n = 2 moles
dV = 0
in ad and bc.
Hence dW = dQ
dW = dW ab + dWcd
2V0
V0
= nRT1Ln
nRT2Ln
V0
2V0
= nR 2.303 log 2(500 300)
= 2 8.314 2.303 0.301 200 = 2305.31 J
19. Given M = 2 kg
2t = 4c
Sw = 4200 J/Kgk
3
3
5
0 = 999.9 kg/m
4 = 1000 kg/m
P = 10 Pa.
Net internal energy = dv
dQ = DU + dw msQ = dU + P(v0 v4)
5
2 4200 4 = dU + 10 (m m)
V
a
d
V0
500 k
200 k
2V0
m m
= dU + 105(0.0020002 0.002) = dU + 105 0.0000002
33600 = dU + 105
V
v
4
0
33600 = du + 0.02 du = (33600 0.02) J
20. Mass = 10g = 0.01kg.
P = 105Pa
dQ = QH2o 0 100 + QH2o steam
6
0.01 0.01
= 0.01699
0.6 1000
dW = PV = 0.01699 105 1699J
dQ = dW + dU or dU = dQ dW = 29200 1699 = 27501 = 2.75 104 J
21. (a) Since the wall can not be moved thus dU = 0 and dQ = 0.
Hence dW = 0.
(b) Let final pressure in LHS = P1
In RHS = P2
V/2
( no. of mole remains constant)
PV
P1V
= 1
2RT1
2RT
=
P1 =
P (P P2 )T1T2
P1T
= 1 1
T1
(P1 P2 )T1T2
P T (P P2 )
Simillarly P2 = 2 1 1
n2 =
P2 V
Hence dQ = 0, dW = 0, Hence dU = 0.
2RT2
In case (LHS)
RHS
u1 = 1.5n1 R(T  T1) But u1 u2 = 0
u2 = 1.5n2 R(T2 T)
1.5 n1 R(T T1) = 1.5 n2 R(T2 T)
n2 T n1 T1 = n2 T2 n2 T T(n1 + n2) = n1 T1 + n2 T2
26.5
P1 T1
P2 T2
V/2
U = 1.5nRT
Laws of thermodynamics
n1T1 n 2 T2
n1 n 2
P1 P2
PV
P1V
T1 2 T2
P1T2 P2 T1
2RT2
2RT1
P1V
PV
T1T2
2
2RT1 2RT2
(P P2 )T1T2
(P1 P2 )T1T2
1
as P1 T2 + P2 T1 =
P1T2 P2 T1
= 1.5 n2 R(T2 t)
2T2
2RT2 P1T2 P2 T1
3P1P2 (T2 T1 )V
1.5P2 V T2P1(T2 T1 )
=
2T2
22. (a) As the conducting wall is fixed the work done by the gas on the left part
during the process is Zero.
(b) For left side
For right side
Pressure = P
Let initial Temperature = T2
Volume = V
No. of moles = n(1mole)
Let initial Temperature = T1
PV
= nRT1
2
PV
= (1)RT1
2
T1 =
PV
= n2 RT2
2
PV
T2 =
1
2n 2R
PV
2(moles )R
T2 =
PV
4(moles )R
PV
PV
=
nR
3(mole )R
PV
PV
3(mole )R 4(mole )R
= 1.5 2 R
3 R PV
PV
4PV 3PV
=
=
4 3(mole
3 4R
4
(e) As, dQ = dU
dU = dQ =
PV
4
26.6
V/2
V/2
PT1
PT2
T
V = 1.5nRT
V = 3nRT
CHAPTER 27
N = 1 mole,
W = 20 g/mol, V = 50 m/s
K.E. of the vessel = Internal energy of the gas
= (1/2) mv2 = (1/2) 20 103 50 50 = 25 J
3
3
50
r(T) 25 = 1 8.31 T T=
2 k.
2
2
3 8 .3
m = 5 g,
t = 25 15 = 10C
CV = 0.172 cal/gCJ = 4.2 J/Cal.
dQ = du + dw
Now, V = 0 (for a rigid body)
So, dw = 0.
So dQ = du.
Q = msdt = 5 0.172 10 = 8.6 cal = 8.6 4.2 = 36.12 Joule.
2
= 1.4,
w or piston = 50 kg.,
A of piston = 100 cm
2
Po = 100 kpa,
g = 10 m/s ,
x = 20 cm.
25 = n
2.
3.
50 10
mg
5
4
10 5 100 10 4 20 10 2 = 1.5 10 20 10 = 300 J.
Po Adx =
dw = pdv =
4
A
100 10
300
nR
nR300
300
300 1.4
dQ = nCpdT = nCp
=
=
= 1050 J.
nR
( 1)nR
0 .4
nRdt = 300 dT =
4.
5.
CP
= 7.6, n = 1 mole,
CV
T = 50K
R
1 8 .3
50
dt =
7
1
1
6
= 8.3 50 6 = 2490 J
(c) Adiabetically dQ = 0,
du = dw
= 1
n R
T1 T2 = 1 8.3 T2 T1 = 8.3 50 6 = 2490 J
=
7
1
1
6
27.1
m = 1.18 g,
V = 1 10 cm = 1 L
T = 300 k,
P = 10 Pa
PV
5
= 10 = atm.
RT
1
PV
1
1
N=
=
=
=
2
2
RT
8 .2 3
24.6
8.2 10 3 10
PV = nRT or
n=
1 Q
= 24.6 2 = 49.2
n dt
Cp = R + Cv = 1.987 + 49.2 = 51.187
Now, Cv =
1
51.187 1 = 2.08 Cal.
24.6
3
5
V1 = 100 cm3,
V2 = 200 cm
P = 2 10 Pa, Q = 50J
5
6
(a) Q = du + dw 50 = du + 20 10 (200 100 10 ) 50 = du + 20 du = 30 J
Q = nCpdT =
7.
3
3
8.3 300 [ U = nRT for monoatomic]
2
2
2
2
n=
=
= 0.008
3 83 249
30
dndTu
(c) du = nCv dT Cv =
=
= 12.5
0.008 300
(b) 30 = n
8.
Q
,
2
Q = W + U
Q
Q
=
2
2
3
Q
3
RT =
= nT R = 3R nT
2
2
2
Again Q = n CpdT Where CP > Molar heat capacity at const. pressure.
3RnT = ndTCP CP = 3R
V=n
nRT
RT
2
= KV RT = KV R T = 2KV U
= dv
V
2KV
PRdF
dQ = du + dw mcdT = CVdT + pdv msdT = CV dT+
2KV
RKV
R
ms = CV +
CP +
2KV
2
CP
r
R
10.
= ,
CP CV = R,
CV =
,
CP =
CV
1
1
9.
P = KV
1
Rdt
b 1
1
Rdt 1 = C V
0 = CVdT +
b 1
R
b 1
CP C V
R
b+1=
=
= +1 b =
CV
CV
Pdv =
Cp1
& Cp1 Cv1 = R
Cv1
27.2
R
R
& Cp1 =
1
1
In Gas(2) we have, , Cp2 (Sp. Heat at const. P), Cv2 (Sp. Heat at const. V), n2 (No. of moles)
Cp 2
R
R
& Cp2 Cv2 = R Cv2 Cv2 = R Cv2 ( 1) = R Cv2 =
& Cp2 =
Cv 2
1
1
Given n1 : n2 = 1 :2
dU1 = nCv1 dT & dU2 = 2nCv2 dT = 3nCvdT
R
2R
Cv1 2Cv 2
3R
R
1 1
CV =
=
=
=
3
3
3( 1)
1
&Cp = Cv =
(1)
r
(2)
1
Cp
= [from (1) & (2)]
Cv
12. Cp = 2.5 RCp = 3.5 R
Cv = 1.5 R
Cv = 2.5 R
n1 = n2 = 1 mol
(n1 + n2)CVdT = n1 CvdT + n2 CvdT
n Cv n 2Cv
1.5R 2.5R
CV = 1
=
2R
n1 n 2
2
So,
CP = CV + R = 2R + R = 3R
Cp
3R
=
= 1.5
=
CV
2R
1
25
mole,
R=
J/molk,
2
3
(a) Temp at A = Ta, PaVa = nRTa
13. n =
5
3
Pa Va
5000 10 6 100 10 3
=
= 120 k.
a Ta
1 25
nR
100 KPa
2 3
Similarly temperatures at point b = 240 k at C it is 480 k and at D it is 240 k.
5000 cm3
(b) For ab process,
dQ = nCpdT
[since ab is isobaric]
35 5
1 R
1 3 3
1 125 3
Tb Ta = 5
=
120 = 1250 J
(240 120) =
2 1
2
9
2
2
1
3
For bc,
dQ = du + dw [dq = 0, Isochorie process]
25
1
nR
Tc Ta = 3 (240) = 1 25 3 240 = 1500 J
dQ = du = nCvdT =
2 5
1
2 3 2
1
3
1 nR
Td Tc = 1 125 3 240 = 2500 J
2 1
2
3
2
200 KPa
Ta =
Tc
Td
d
1 R
Ta Td = 1 25 (120 240) = 750 J
2 1
2
2
27.3
Tb
10000 cm3
P1 P2
200
100
200 300
=
T2 =
= 600 k
T1 T2
300
T2
100
150 cm3
100 cm3
V
V
150
100
600 150
=
T2 =
= 900 k
So, 1 2
T1 T2
T2
600
100
(b) Work done = Area enclosed under the graph 50 cc 200 kpa = 50 10
(c) Q Supplied = nCvdT
Now, n =
Cv =
Qbc =
[Cp=
( = 1.67)
R
]
1
PV R
200 10 3 150 10 6 1.67 8.3
300 = 24.925
dT =
RT 1
8.3 900
0.67
(d) Q = U + w
Now, U = Q w = Heat supplied Work done = (24.925 + 14.925) 1 = 29.850
15. In Jolys differential steam calorimeter
Cv =
m 2L
m1( 2 1 )
16. = 1.5
Since it is an adiabatic process, So PV = const.
(a) P1V1 = P2V2
P2
=?
P1
Given V1 = 4 L, V2 = 3 L,
1.5
V
P2
4
= 1 =
P1
V
3
2
= 1.5396 1.54
T2V21
V
T
2 = 1
T1
V2
4
=
3
0.5
= 1.154
T1 = 300 k
1.5
2.5 10 V
5
1.5
V
=
2
P2
T2 =
3000
= 424.32 k 424 k
7.07
27.4
200 10 J = 10 J
R
dT = 300 a, b.
1
Q supplied to be nCpdT
=
PV
considering at pt. b
RT
PV
R
200 10 3 100 10 6
300 = 14.925
dT =
RT 1
600 0.67
mR
T2 T1 = P1V1 T2 T1
1
T( 1)
2.5 10 5 100 10 6
2.5 10
[ 424 300] =
124 = 20.72 21 J
300(1,5 1)
300 0.5
P1 = 2 atm,
p2 = 1 atm
18. = 1.4,
T1 = 20C = 293 k,
We know for adiabatic process,
P11 T1 = P21 T2or (2)11.4 (293)1.4 = (1)11.4 T21.4
1.4
1.4
0.4
1.4
1/1.4
(2) (293) = T2 2153.78 = T2 T2 = (2153.78)
= 240.3 K
5
3
6
3
19. P1 = 100 KPa = 10 Pa,
V1 = 400 cm = 400 10 m , T1 = 300 k,
CP
=
= 1.5
CV
3
300 20
= 600 K
10
(b) Even if the container is slowly compressed the walls are adiabatic so heat transferred is 0.
Thus the values remain, P2 = 800 KPa,
T2 = 600 K.
CP
20. Given
=
P0 (Initial Pressure),
V0 (Initial Volume)
CV
T1V11 = T2V21 300 (400)
1.51
= T2 (100)
1.51
T2 =
P2 V0
P2 = 2P0
2
Vo
2
2P0
4
V0
V0
= P1
= 2 2 P0 P02+1
V
(b) (i) Adiabatic compression P1V1 = P2V2 or P0V0 = P 0 P = P02
2
(ii) Isothermal compression P1V1 = P2V2 or 2 P0
21. Initial pressure = P0
Initial Volume = V0
=
CP
CV
P0
2
P0
V1 V1 = 2 V0
2
Adiabetically to pressure =
P0
4
P0
V1 = P0 V2 P0 (2V0 ) = P0 ( V2 )
2
4
2
4
(+1)/
2+1 V0 = V2 V2 = 2
V0
(+1)/
Final Volume = 2
V0
27.5
V0
V
= P2 0 P2 = P02+1
2
4
P0
to P0
2
P0
( V )
2
P
Isothermal to pressure 0
4
P0
P
21 / V0 = 0 V V = 2(+1)/ V0
2
4
(+1)/
V0
Final Volume = 2
22. PV = nRT
Given P = 150 KPa = 150 103 Pa,
P0 (2+1 V0 ) =
PV 150 10 150 10
=
RT
8.3 300
3
(a) n =
(b)
= 9.036 10
m,
T = 300 k
= 0.009 moles.
R
CP 1
CP
R
=
=
CV
( 1)C V
CV =
V = 150 cm = 150 10
8 .3
8 .3
R
=
=
= 2R = 16.6 J/mole
1
1 .5 1
0 .5
3
P2 =?
(c) Given P1 = 150 KPa = 150 10 Pa,
V1 = 150 cm3 = 150 106 m3, = 1.5
3
6
3
V2 = 50 cm = 50 10 m ,
T1 = 300 k,
T2 = ?
150 10 6
3
P2 = 150 10
50 10 6
1. 5
= 150000 3
1.5
(d) Q = W + U or W = U
[U = 0, in adiabatic]
= nCVdT = 0.009 16.6 (520 300) = 0.009 16.6 220 = 32.8 J 33 J
(e) U = nCVdT = 0.009 16.6 220 33 J
23. VA = VB = VC
For A, the process is isothermal
PAVA = PAVA PA = PA
VA
1
= PA
2
V
A
1.5
V
P
1
PA(VB) = PA(VB) = PB = PB B = PB = 1B.5
V
2
2
B
VC
V
V
2VC
2
C C
TC =
TC
T
T
C
C
TC
TC
Final pressures are equal.
pA
P
1.5
= 1B.5 = PC PA : PB : PC = 2 : 2 : 1 = 2 : 2 2 : 1
2
2
24. P1 = Initial Pressure
V1 = Initial Volume
P2 = Final Pressure
=
V
Given, V2 = 2V1, Isothermal workdone = nRT1 Ln 2
V1
27.6
V2 = Final Volume
P1V1 P2 V2
1
V
P V P2 V2
( 1) ln
Hence nRT1 Ln 2 = 1 1
1
V1
V2
P V P2 V2
= 1 1
nRT1
V1
V
nRT1 nRT2
T T1
( 1)ln 2 =
( 1) ln 2 = 1
V
nRT
T1
1
1
(i)
[ V2 = 2V1 ]
T1 T1 21
1
( 1) ln2 = 1 2
T1
1
l
2
(a) The process is adiabatic as it is sudden,
25. = 1.5,
T = 300 k,
V = 1Lv =
1
V
P1 V1 = P2 V2 P1 (V0) = P2 0 P2 = P1
2
1/ 2
nR
5
(b) P1 = 100 KPa = 10 Pa W =
[T1 T2 ]
1
T1 V11 = P2 V21 300 (1)
T2 = 300
1.51
= T2 (0.5)
= P1 (2)
1.5
300 1 = T2
P2
1.5
=2 = 2 2
P1
0 .5
1
= 300 2 K
0 .5
P1 V1 =nRT1 n =
w=
1.51
1. 5
P1V1
10 5 10 3
1
=
=
RT1
R 300
3R
(V in m )
nR
1R
300
[T1 T2 ] =
300 300 2 =
1 2 = 82.8 J 82 J.
1
3R(1.5 1)
3 0 .5
1
R (300 300 2 )
3R
1
300 (0.414) = 41.4 J. Initial Temp = 300 2
3
V
V
V
1
1
T1
T
2
300
2
2
2
1
T1
=
Final volume = 1L
Work done in isothermal = nRTln
=
V2
V1
1
1
= 100 ln 2 2 = 100 1.039 103
R 300 ln
3R
1/ 2 2
3V
So, T1
T1
V
=
T2
4
0.5
1.5 1
V
= T2
4
3V
0.5
3V
T1
0. 5
V
= T2
4
So, T1 :T2 = 1 :
27. V = 200 cm ,
C = 12.5 J/molk,
(a) No. of moles of gas in each vessel,
T = 300 k,
0.5
P T
P T
V/4
T2
T1
3:1
P = 75 cm
10
0.008 12.5
V/2
3V/4
PV
75 13.6 980 200
=
= 0.008
RT
8.3 10 7 300
(b) Heat is supplied to the gas but dv = 0
For (B) dT =
V/2
5
for (A)
0.008 12.5
P PA
[For container A]
T TA
P 0.008 12.5
75
75 5
= A
PA =
= 12.5 cm of Hg.
300
5
300 0.008 12.5
P 0.008 12.5
75
P P
= B
PB = 2 PA = 25 cm of Hg.
B [For Container B]
T TB
300
10
0 .1 R
0 .1
R
dT =
dT
4 1
4 (1.67 1)
(i)
H2
He
m
R
m
R
dT =
H2 = nCVdT =
dT
[Where m is the rqd.
2 1
2 1 .4 1
Mass of H2]
Since equal amount of heat is given to both and T is same in both.
Equating (i) & (ii) we get
0 .1 0 .4
0 .1
R
m R
dT
dT m =
= 0.0298 0.03 g
2 0.67
4 0.67
2 0 .4
Initial Temperature = T0
29. Initial pressure = P0,
Initial Volume = V0
CP
=
CV
(a) For the diathermic vessel the temperature inside remains constant
P
Temperature = To
P1 V1 P2 V2 P0 V0 = P2 2V0 P2 = 0 ,
2
For adiabatic vessel the temperature does not remains constant. The process is adiabatic
V
T1 V11 = T2 V21 T0V01 = T2 (2V0)1 T2 = T0 0
2V0
27.8
1
= T0
2
T0
2 1
V
P1 V1 = P2 V2 P0 V0 = p1 (2V0) P1 = P0 0
2 V0
P
= 0
2
(b) When the values are opened, the temperature remains T0 through out
n RT
n RT
P1 = 1 0 , P2 = 2 0 [Total value after the expt = 2V0 + 2V0 = 4V0]
4 V0
4 V0
P = P1 + P 2 =
(n1 n 2 )RT0
2nRT0
nRT0
P
=
=
= 0
4 V0
4 V0
2V
2
V
Hence P1 0 = P(V)
2
V0/2
V0/2
P1 T1
P2 T2
V
For left P = P1 0 ( V )
2
(1)
V
V
For Right P = P2 0 ( V0 V )
2
V0V
(2)
P
V0 V
= 2
V
P1
P1
P2
=
( V )
( V0 V )
1/
1/
1/
1/
V
V0
VP
P
P
P
V = 1 / 0 1 1 /
1 = 21 / 0 = 2 1 / 1
V
V
P1
P1
P1 P2
or
1/
V0P2
1/
P1 P21 /
Similarly V0 V =
(b) Since the whole process takes place in adiabatic surroundings. The separator is adiabatic. Hence
heat given to the gas in the left part = Zero.
V
P1 0
2
(c) From (1) Final pressure P =
( V )
1/
V0P1
1/
P1 P21 /
31. A = 1 cm = 1 10 m ,
P = 1 atm = 105 pascal,
L1 = 80 cm = 0.8 m,
The process is adiabatic
P1
or P =
V0
2
V0P11 /
P 1/ P 1/
2
1
3
M = 0.03 g = 0.03 10 kg,
L= 40 cm = 0.4 m.
P = 0.355 atm
P1 V0
2
1/
1
1/
P2
V0 P1
P 1 / P21 /
= 1
1
= 2
0.355
1
= log 2 = log
= 1.4941
0.355
V=
P
=
1.4941 10 5
=
m/v
1.4941 10 5
0.03 10 3
10 4 1 0.4
27.9
1.441 10 5 4 10 5
3 10 5
P
1280 =
o
Vsound =
rR = 8.3 J/molk,
10 5
10 5
0.089 (1280 )2
2
(1280) =
=
1.458
0.089
0.089
10 5
Again,
8 .3
R
=
= 18.1 J/molk
1
1.458 1
CV =
Again,
CP
= or CP = CV = 1.458 18.1 = 26.3 J/molk
CV
V = 22400 cm = 22400 10
33. = 4g = 4 10 kg,
CP = 5 cal/molki = 5 4.2 J/molk = 21 J/molk
R
8 .3
CP =
=
1
1
3
21
12.7
21
10 5
12.7
4 10 3
V=
21 10 5 22400 10 6
12.7 4 10 3
= 962.28 m/s
22400 10 6
34. Given o = 1.7 10
= 3.0 KHz.
P = 1.5 10 Pa,
R = 8.3 J/molk,
3
= 6 cm, = 12 cm = 12 10 m
2
So, V = = 3 103 12 102 = 360 m/s
P
1.5 10 5
(360 )2 1.7
2
(360) =
=
= 1.4688
o
1 .7
1.5 10 5
8 .3
R
=
= 17.72 J/molk
1
1.488 1
CP
=
CV
2
= 3.3 cm = 6.6 10 m
2
3
2
V = = 5 10 6.6 10 = (66 5) m/s
35. = 5 10 Hz,
3
T = 300 Hz,
V=
P
P
m
RT
[Pv = nRT P =
Rt PM = oRT
=
]
o
mV
m
RT
(66 5 ) =
m
Cv=
8.3 300
32 10
(66 5) =
2
8.3 300
32 10
8 .3
R
=
= 20.7 J/molk,
1
0.3995
27.10
(66 5)2 32 10 3
= 1.3995
8.3 300
CHAPTER 27
N = 1 mole,
W = 20 g/mol, V = 50 m/s
K.E. of the vessel = Internal energy of the gas
= (1/2) mv2 = (1/2) 20 103 50 50 = 25 J
3
3
50
r(T) 25 = 1 8.31 T T=
2 k.
2
2
3 8 .3
m = 5 g,
t = 25 15 = 10C
CV = 0.172 cal/gCJ = 4.2 J/Cal.
dQ = du + dw
Now, V = 0 (for a rigid body)
So, dw = 0.
So dQ = du.
Q = msdt = 5 0.172 10 = 8.6 cal = 8.6 4.2 = 36.12 Joule.
2
= 1.4,
w or piston = 50 kg.,
A of piston = 100 cm
2
Po = 100 kpa,
g = 10 m/s ,
x = 20 cm.
25 = n
2.
3.
50 10
mg
5
4
10 5 100 10 4 20 10 2 = 1.5 10 20 10 = 300 J.
Po Adx =
dw = pdv =
4
A
100 10
300
nR
nR300
300
300 1.4
dQ = nCpdT = nCp
=
=
= 1050 J.
nR
( 1)nR
0 .4
nRdt = 300 dT =
4.
5.
CP
= 7.6, n = 1 mole,
CV
T = 50K
R
1 8 .3
50
dt =
7
1
1
6
= 8.3 50 6 = 2490 J
(c) Adiabetically dQ = 0,
du = dw
= 1
n R
T1 T2 = 1 8.3 T2 T1 = 8.3 50 6 = 2490 J
=
7
1
1
6
27.1
m = 1.18 g,
V = 1 10 cm = 1 L
T = 300 k,
P = 10 Pa
PV
5
= 10 = atm.
RT
1
PV
1
1
N=
=
=
=
2
2
RT
8 .2 3
24.6
8.2 10 3 10
PV = nRT or
n=
1 Q
= 24.6 2 = 49.2
n dt
Cp = R + Cv = 1.987 + 49.2 = 51.187
Now, Cv =
1
51.187 1 = 2.08 Cal.
24.6
3
5
V1 = 100 cm3,
V2 = 200 cm
P = 2 10 Pa, Q = 50J
5
6
(a) Q = du + dw 50 = du + 20 10 (200 100 10 ) 50 = du + 20 du = 30 J
Q = nCpdT =
7.
3
3
8.3 300 [ U = nRT for monoatomic]
2
2
2
2
n=
=
= 0.008
3 83 249
30
dndTu
(c) du = nCv dT Cv =
=
= 12.5
0.008 300
(b) 30 = n
8.
Q
,
2
Q = W + U
Q
Q
=
2
2
3
Q
3
RT =
= nT R = 3R nT
2
2
2
Again Q = n CpdT Where CP > Molar heat capacity at const. pressure.
3RnT = ndTCP CP = 3R
V=n
nRT
RT
2
= KV RT = KV R T = 2KV U
= dv
V
2KV
PRdF
dQ = du + dw mcdT = CVdT + pdv msdT = CV dT+
2KV
RKV
R
ms = CV +
CP +
2KV
2
CP
r
R
10.
= ,
CP CV = R,
CV =
,
CP =
CV
1
1
9.
P = KV
1
Rdt
b 1
1
Rdt 1 = C V
0 = CVdT +
b 1
R
b 1
CP C V
R
b+1=
=
= +1 b =
CV
CV
Pdv =
Cp1
& Cp1 Cv1 = R
Cv1
27.2
R
R
& Cp1 =
1
1
In Gas(2) we have, , Cp2 (Sp. Heat at const. P), Cv2 (Sp. Heat at const. V), n2 (No. of moles)
Cp 2
R
R
& Cp2 Cv2 = R Cv2 Cv2 = R Cv2 ( 1) = R Cv2 =
& Cp2 =
Cv 2
1
1
Given n1 : n2 = 1 :2
dU1 = nCv1 dT & dU2 = 2nCv2 dT = 3nCvdT
R
2R
Cv1 2Cv 2
3R
R
1 1
CV =
=
=
=
3
3
3( 1)
1
&Cp = Cv =
(1)
r
(2)
1
Cp
= [from (1) & (2)]
Cv
12. Cp = 2.5 RCp = 3.5 R
Cv = 1.5 R
Cv = 2.5 R
n1 = n2 = 1 mol
(n1 + n2)CVdT = n1 CvdT + n2 CvdT
n Cv n 2Cv
1.5R 2.5R
CV = 1
=
2R
n1 n 2
2
So,
CP = CV + R = 2R + R = 3R
Cp
3R
=
= 1.5
=
CV
2R
1
25
mole,
R=
J/molk,
2
3
(a) Temp at A = Ta, PaVa = nRTa
13. n =
5
3
Pa Va
5000 10 6 100 10 3
=
= 120 k.
a Ta
1 25
nR
100 KPa
2 3
Similarly temperatures at point b = 240 k at C it is 480 k and at D it is 240 k.
5000 cm3
(b) For ab process,
dQ = nCpdT
[since ab is isobaric]
35 5
1 R
1 3 3
1 125 3
Tb Ta = 5
=
120 = 1250 J
(240 120) =
2 1
2
9
2
2
1
3
For bc,
dQ = du + dw [dq = 0, Isochorie process]
25
1
nR
Tc Ta = 3 (240) = 1 25 3 240 = 1500 J
dQ = du = nCvdT =
2 5
1
2 3 2
1
3
1 nR
Td Tc = 1 125 3 240 = 2500 J
2 1
2
3
2
200 KPa
Ta =
Tc
Td
d
1 R
Ta Td = 1 25 (120 240) = 750 J
2 1
2
2
27.3
Tb
10000 cm3
P1 P2
200
100
200 300
=
T2 =
= 600 k
T1 T2
300
T2
100
150 cm3
100 cm3
V
V
150
100
600 150
=
T2 =
= 900 k
So, 1 2
T1 T2
T2
600
100
(b) Work done = Area enclosed under the graph 50 cc 200 kpa = 50 10
(c) Q Supplied = nCvdT
Now, n =
Cv =
Qbc =
[Cp=
( = 1.67)
R
]
1
PV R
200 10 3 150 10 6 1.67 8.3
300 = 24.925
dT =
RT 1
8.3 900
0.67
(d) Q = U + w
Now, U = Q w = Heat supplied Work done = (24.925 + 14.925) 1 = 29.850
15. In Jolys differential steam calorimeter
Cv =
m 2L
m1( 2 1 )
16. = 1.5
Since it is an adiabatic process, So PV = const.
(a) P1V1 = P2V2
P2
=?
P1
Given V1 = 4 L, V2 = 3 L,
1.5
V
P2
4
= 1 =
P1
V
3
2
= 1.5396 1.54
T2V21
V
T
2 = 1
T1
V2
4
=
3
0.5
= 1.154
T1 = 300 k
1.5
2.5 10 V
5
1.5
V
=
2
P2
T2 =
3000
= 424.32 k 424 k
7.07
27.4
200 10 J = 10 J
R
dT = 300 a, b.
1
Q supplied to be nCpdT
=
PV
considering at pt. b
RT
PV
R
200 10 3 100 10 6
300 = 14.925
dT =
RT 1
600 0.67
mR
T2 T1 = P1V1 T2 T1
1
T( 1)
2.5 10 5 100 10 6
2.5 10
[ 424 300] =
124 = 20.72 21 J
300(1,5 1)
300 0.5
P1 = 2 atm,
p2 = 1 atm
18. = 1.4,
T1 = 20C = 293 k,
We know for adiabatic process,
P11 T1 = P21 T2or (2)11.4 (293)1.4 = (1)11.4 T21.4
1.4
1.4
0.4
1.4
1/1.4
(2) (293) = T2 2153.78 = T2 T2 = (2153.78)
= 240.3 K
5
3
6
3
19. P1 = 100 KPa = 10 Pa,
V1 = 400 cm = 400 10 m , T1 = 300 k,
CP
=
= 1.5
CV
3
300 20
= 600 K
10
(b) Even if the container is slowly compressed the walls are adiabatic so heat transferred is 0.
Thus the values remain, P2 = 800 KPa,
T2 = 600 K.
CP
20. Given
=
P0 (Initial Pressure),
V0 (Initial Volume)
CV
T1V11 = T2V21 300 (400)
1.51
= T2 (100)
1.51
T2 =
P2 V0
P2 = 2P0
2
Vo
2
2P0
4
V0
V0
= P1
= 2 2 P0 P02+1
V
(b) (i) Adiabatic compression P1V1 = P2V2 or P0V0 = P 0 P = P02
2
(ii) Isothermal compression P1V1 = P2V2 or 2 P0
21. Initial pressure = P0
Initial Volume = V0
=
CP
CV
P0
2
P0
V1 V1 = 2 V0
2
Adiabetically to pressure =
P0
4
P0
V1 = P0 V2 P0 (2V0 ) = P0 ( V2 )
2
4
2
4
(+1)/
2+1 V0 = V2 V2 = 2
V0
(+1)/
Final Volume = 2
V0
27.5
V0
V
= P2 0 P2 = P02+1
2
4
P0
to P0
2
P0
( V )
2
P
Isothermal to pressure 0
4
P0
P
21 / V0 = 0 V V = 2(+1)/ V0
2
4
(+1)/
V0
Final Volume = 2
22. PV = nRT
Given P = 150 KPa = 150 103 Pa,
P0 (2+1 V0 ) =
PV 150 10 150 10
=
RT
8.3 300
3
(a) n =
(b)
= 9.036 10
m,
T = 300 k
= 0.009 moles.
R
CP 1
CP
R
=
=
CV
( 1)C V
CV =
V = 150 cm = 150 10
8 .3
8 .3
R
=
=
= 2R = 16.6 J/mole
1
1 .5 1
0 .5
3
P2 =?
(c) Given P1 = 150 KPa = 150 10 Pa,
V1 = 150 cm3 = 150 106 m3, = 1.5
3
6
3
V2 = 50 cm = 50 10 m ,
T1 = 300 k,
T2 = ?
150 10 6
3
P2 = 150 10
50 10 6
1. 5
= 150000 3
1.5
(d) Q = W + U or W = U
[U = 0, in adiabatic]
= nCVdT = 0.009 16.6 (520 300) = 0.009 16.6 220 = 32.8 J 33 J
(e) U = nCVdT = 0.009 16.6 220 33 J
23. VA = VB = VC
For A, the process is isothermal
PAVA = PAVA PA = PA
VA
1
= PA
2
V
A
1.5
V
P
1
PA(VB) = PA(VB) = PB = PB B = PB = 1B.5
V
2
2
B
VC
V
V
2VC
2
C C
TC =
TC
T
T
C
C
TC
TC
Final pressures are equal.
pA
P
1.5
= 1B.5 = PC PA : PB : PC = 2 : 2 : 1 = 2 : 2 2 : 1
2
2
24. P1 = Initial Pressure
V1 = Initial Volume
P2 = Final Pressure
=
V
Given, V2 = 2V1, Isothermal workdone = nRT1 Ln 2
V1
27.6
V2 = Final Volume
P1V1 P2 V2
1
V
P V P2 V2
( 1) ln
Hence nRT1 Ln 2 = 1 1
1
V1
V2
P V P2 V2
= 1 1
nRT1
V1
V
nRT1 nRT2
T T1
( 1)ln 2 =
( 1) ln 2 = 1
V
nRT
T1
1
1
(i)
[ V2 = 2V1 ]
T1 T1 21
1
( 1) ln2 = 1 2
T1
1
l
2
(a) The process is adiabatic as it is sudden,
25. = 1.5,
T = 300 k,
V = 1Lv =
1
V
P1 V1 = P2 V2 P1 (V0) = P2 0 P2 = P1
2
1/ 2
nR
5
(b) P1 = 100 KPa = 10 Pa W =
[T1 T2 ]
1
T1 V11 = P2 V21 300 (1)
T2 = 300
1.51
= T2 (0.5)
= P1 (2)
1.5
300 1 = T2
P2
1.5
=2 = 2 2
P1
0 .5
1
= 300 2 K
0 .5
P1 V1 =nRT1 n =
w=
1.51
1. 5
P1V1
10 5 10 3
1
=
=
RT1
R 300
3R
(V in m )
nR
1R
300
[T1 T2 ] =
300 300 2 =
1 2 = 82.8 J 82 J.
1
3R(1.5 1)
3 0 .5
1
R (300 300 2 )
3R
1
300 (0.414) = 41.4 J. Initial Temp = 300 2
3
V
V
V
1
1
T1
T
2
300
2
2
2
1
T1
=
Final volume = 1L
Work done in isothermal = nRTln
=
V2
V1
1
1
= 100 ln 2 2 = 100 1.039 103
R 300 ln
3R
1/ 2 2
3V
So, T1
T1
V
=
T2
4
0.5
1.5 1
V
= T2
4
3V
0.5
3V
T1
0. 5
V
= T2
4
So, T1 :T2 = 1 :
27. V = 200 cm ,
C = 12.5 J/molk,
(a) No. of moles of gas in each vessel,
T = 300 k,
0.5
P T
P T
V/4
T2
T1
3:1
P = 75 cm
10
0.008 12.5
V/2
3V/4
PV
75 13.6 980 200
=
= 0.008
RT
8.3 10 7 300
(b) Heat is supplied to the gas but dv = 0
For (B) dT =
V/2
5
for (A)
0.008 12.5
P PA
[For container A]
T TA
P 0.008 12.5
75
75 5
= A
PA =
= 12.5 cm of Hg.
300
5
300 0.008 12.5
P 0.008 12.5
75
P P
= B
PB = 2 PA = 25 cm of Hg.
B [For Container B]
T TB
300
10
0 .1 R
0 .1
R
dT =
dT
4 1
4 (1.67 1)
(i)
H2
He
m
R
m
R
dT =
H2 = nCVdT =
dT
[Where m is the rqd.
2 1
2 1 .4 1
Mass of H2]
Since equal amount of heat is given to both and T is same in both.
Equating (i) & (ii) we get
0 .1 0 .4
0 .1
R
m R
dT
dT m =
= 0.0298 0.03 g
2 0.67
4 0.67
2 0 .4
Initial Temperature = T0
29. Initial pressure = P0,
Initial Volume = V0
CP
=
CV
(a) For the diathermic vessel the temperature inside remains constant
P
Temperature = To
P1 V1 P2 V2 P0 V0 = P2 2V0 P2 = 0 ,
2
For adiabatic vessel the temperature does not remains constant. The process is adiabatic
V
T1 V11 = T2 V21 T0V01 = T2 (2V0)1 T2 = T0 0
2V0
27.8
1
= T0
2
T0
2 1
V
P1 V1 = P2 V2 P0 V0 = p1 (2V0) P1 = P0 0
2 V0
P
= 0
2
(b) When the values are opened, the temperature remains T0 through out
n RT
n RT
P1 = 1 0 , P2 = 2 0 [Total value after the expt = 2V0 + 2V0 = 4V0]
4 V0
4 V0
P = P1 + P 2 =
(n1 n 2 )RT0
2nRT0
nRT0
P
=
=
= 0
4 V0
4 V0
2V
2
V
Hence P1 0 = P(V)
2
V0/2
V0/2
P1 T1
P2 T2
V
For left P = P1 0 ( V )
2
(1)
V
V
For Right P = P2 0 ( V0 V )
2
V0V
(2)
P
V0 V
= 2
V
P1
P1
P2
=
( V )
( V0 V )
1/
1/
1/
1/
V
V0
VP
P
P
P
V = 1 / 0 1 1 /
1 = 21 / 0 = 2 1 / 1
V
V
P1
P1
P1 P2
or
1/
V0P2
1/
P1 P21 /
Similarly V0 V =
(b) Since the whole process takes place in adiabatic surroundings. The separator is adiabatic. Hence
heat given to the gas in the left part = Zero.
V
P1 0
2
(c) From (1) Final pressure P =
( V )
1/
V0P1
1/
P1 P21 /
31. A = 1 cm = 1 10 m ,
P = 1 atm = 105 pascal,
L1 = 80 cm = 0.8 m,
The process is adiabatic
P1
or P =
V0
2
V0P11 /
P 1/ P 1/
2
1
3
M = 0.03 g = 0.03 10 kg,
L= 40 cm = 0.4 m.
P = 0.355 atm
P1 V0
2
1/
1
1/
P2
V0 P1
P 1 / P21 /
= 1
1
= 2
0.355
1
= log 2 = log
= 1.4941
0.355
V=
P
=
1.4941 10 5
=
m/v
1.4941 10 5
0.03 10 3
10 4 1 0.4
27.9
1.441 10 5 4 10 5
3 10 5
P
1280 =
o
Vsound =
rR = 8.3 J/molk,
10 5
10 5
0.089 (1280 )2
2
(1280) =
=
1.458
0.089
0.089
10 5
Again,
8 .3
R
=
= 18.1 J/molk
1
1.458 1
CV =
Again,
CP
= or CP = CV = 1.458 18.1 = 26.3 J/molk
CV
V = 22400 cm = 22400 10
33. = 4g = 4 10 kg,
CP = 5 cal/molki = 5 4.2 J/molk = 21 J/molk
R
8 .3
CP =
=
1
1
3
21
12.7
21
10 5
12.7
4 10 3
V=
21 10 5 22400 10 6
12.7 4 10 3
= 962.28 m/s
22400 10 6
34. Given o = 1.7 10
= 3.0 KHz.
P = 1.5 10 Pa,
R = 8.3 J/molk,
3
= 6 cm, = 12 cm = 12 10 m
2
So, V = = 3 103 12 102 = 360 m/s
P
1.5 10 5
(360 )2 1.7
2
(360) =
=
= 1.4688
o
1 .7
1.5 10 5
8 .3
R
=
= 17.72 J/molk
1
1.488 1
CP
=
CV
2
= 3.3 cm = 6.6 10 m
2
3
2
V = = 5 10 6.6 10 = (66 5) m/s
35. = 5 10 Hz,
3
T = 300 Hz,
V=
P
P
m
RT
[Pv = nRT P =
Rt PM = oRT
=
]
o
mV
m
RT
(66 5 ) =
m
Cv=
8.3 300
32 10
(66 5) =
2
8.3 300
32 10
8 .3
R
=
= 20.7 J/molk,
1
0.3995
27.10
(66 5)2 32 10 3
= 1.3995
8.3 300
CHAPTER 28
HEAT TRANSFER
1.
2.
3.
4.
t1 = 90C,
t2 = 10C
3
l = 1 cm = 1 10 m
2
2
2
A = 10 cm 10 cm = 0.1 0.1 m = 1 10 m
K = 0.80 w/mC
KA (1 2 )
Q
8 10 1 1 10 2 80
=
=
= 64 J/s = 64 60 3840 J.
t
l
1 10 2
2
t = 1 cm = 0.01 m,
A = 0.8 m
1 = 300,
2 = 80
K = 0.025,
KA(1 2 )
Q
0.025 0.8 (30030 )
=
=
= 440 watt.
t
l
0.01
2
K = 0.04 J/m5C,
A = 1.6 m
t1 = 97F = 36.1C
t2 = 47F = 8.33C
l = 0.5 cm = 0.005 m
10 cm
10
1 cm
KA (1 2 )
Q
4 10 2 1.6 27.78
=
=
= 356 J/s
t
l
5 10 3
A = 25 cm2 = 25 104 m2
3
l = 1 mm = 10 m
K = 50 w/mC
Q
= Rate of conversion of water into steam
t
10 1 2.26 10 6
100 10 3 2.26 10 6
4
=
= 0.376 10
=
1 min
60
KA (1 2 )
Q
50 25 10 4 ( 100 )
4
=
0.376 10 =
t
l
10 3
=
5.
6.
7.
10 3 0.376 10 4
50 25 10
10 5 0.376
= 30.1 30
50 25
K = 46 w/msC
l=1m
A = 0.04 cm2 = 4 106 m2
5
Lfussion ice = 3.36 10 j/Kg
Q
46 4 10 6 100
8
5
=
= 5.4 10 kg 5.4 10 g.
t
1
A = 2400 cm2 = 2400 104 m2
3
= 2 mm = 2 10 m
K = 0.06 w/mC
1 = 20C
2 = 0C
0C
KA(1 2 )
Q
0.06 2400 10 4 20
1
=
=
= 24 6 10 10 = 24 6 = 144 J/sec
3
t
2 10
144
144 3600
m
Q
Rate in which ice melts =
=
=
Kg/h =
Kg/s = 1.52 kg/s.
t
t L
3.4 10 5
3.4 10 5
= 1 mm = 103 m
m = 10 kg
2
2
2
A = 200 cm = 2 10 m
6
Lvap = 2.27 10 J/kg
K = 0.80 J/msC
28.1
100C
Heat Transfer
6
dQ = 2.27 10 10,
dQ
2.27 10 7
2
=
= 2.27 10 J/s
dt
10 5
Again we know
dQ
0.80 2 10 2 ( 42 T )
=
dt
1 10 3
So,
8.
= 2.27 10
10
16 42 16T = 227 T = 27.8 28C
K = 45 w/mC
2
= 60 cm = 60 10 m
2
4
2
A = 0.2 cm = 0.2 10 m
Rate of heat flow,
=
9.
8 2 10 3 ( 42 T )
Q2 = 20
Q1 = 40
KA (1 2 )
45 0.2 10 4 20
3
=
= 30 10 0.03 w
60 10 2
2
A = 10 cm ,
h = 10 cm
KA(1 2 )
Q
200 10 3 30
=
=
= 6000
t
1 10 3
Since heat goes out from both surfaces. Hence net heat coming out.
Q
Q
=
= 6000 2 = 12000,
= MS
t
t
t
3
1
6000 2 = 10 10 1000 4200
t
72000
=
= 28.57
t
420
So, in 1 Sec. 28.57C is dropped
1
Hence for drop of 1C
sec. = 0.035 sec. is required
28.57
2
10. = 20 cm = 20 10 m
2
4
2
A = 0.2 cm = 0.2 10 m
1 = 80C,
2 = 20C,
K = 385
KA(1 2 )
Q
385 0.2 10 4 (80 20)
4
3
=
=
= 385 6 10 10 = 2310 10 = 2.31
(a)
t
20 10 2
(b) Let the temp of the 11 cm point be
Q
=
20C
l
tKA
2.31
11 cm
=
l
385 0.2 10 4
20
2.31
=
2
11 10
385 0.2 10 4
2.31 10 4
11 10 2 = 33
385 0.2
= 33 + 20 = 53
11. Let the point to be touched be B
No heat will flow when, the temp at that point is also 25C
i.e. QAB = QBC
C
KA(100 25)
KA(25 0)
So,
=
100 x
x
75 x = 2500 25 x 100 x = 2500 x = 25 cm from the end with 0C
80C
20 =
28.2
100 cm
B
x
A
100x
Heat Transfer
12. V = 216 cm
a = 6 cm,
3
2
Surface area = 6 a = 6 36 m
Q
= 100 W,
t
t = 0.1 cm
KA(1 2 )
Q
=
t
100 =
K=
K 6 36 10 4 5
0.1 10 2
100
KA(1 2 )
5 10 1 5 2 1
=
= 12.5 kg.
dvg
2 10 3 10 1 10
14. K = 1.7 W/mC
w = 1000 Kg/m3
5
2
Lice = 3.36 10 J/kg
T = 10 cm = 10 10 m
KA(1 2 )
KA(1 2 )
KA (1 2 )
Q
10 cm
=
=
=
(a)
t
t
Q
mL
KA (1 2 )
1.7 [0 ( 10)]
=
=
At w L
10 10 2 1000 3.36 10 5
M=
0C
0C
17
7
7
10 7 = 5.059 10 5 10 m/sec
3.36
(b) let us assume that x length of ice has become formed to form a small strip of ice of length dx, dt time
is required.
dQ
KA ( )
dmL
KA ( )
Adx L
KA ( )
=
=
dt
x
dt
x
dt
x
xdxL
dx L
K ( )
=
dt =
x
dt
x
K ( )
=
dt =
L t
xdx
K( ) 0
Putting values
t=
L x 2
L l 2
=
K( ) 2
K 2
dx
3.36 10 6
1000 3.36 10 5 10 10 2
3.36
=
10 6 sec. =
hrs = 27.45 hrs 27.5 hrs.
1.7 10 2
2 17 3600
2 17
15. let B be the maximum level upto which ice is formed. Hence the heat conducted at that point from both
the levels is the same.
A
Let AB = x
10C
K ice A 10
K water A 4
Q
Q
x
i.e.
ice =
water
=
1 cm
x
(1 x )
t
t
t=
1.7 10
17
2
5 10 1 4
=
=
x
1 x
x
1 x
17
17 17 x = 2x 19 x = 17 x =
= 0.894 89 cm
19
28.3
1x
C
4C
Heat Transfer
16. KAB = 50 j/msc
A = 40C
B = 80C
KBC = 200 j/msc
KAC = 400 j/msc
C = 80C
2
Length = 20 cm = 20 10 m
2
4
2
A = 1 cm = 1 10 m
(a)
Q AB
K A ( B A )
50 1 10 4 40
= AB
=
= 1 W.
t
l
20 10 2
(b)
Q AC
K A(C A )
400 1 10 4 40
2
= AC
=
= 800 10 = 8
t
l
20 10 2
QBC
K A ( B C )
200 1 10 4 0
= BC
=
=0
t
l
20 10 2
KA(1 2 )
17. We know Q =
d
KA (1 2 )
KA (1 2 )
Q1 =
,
Q2 =
d1
d2
(c)
KA (1 1 )
Q1
2r
2
r
=
=
=
[d1 = r,
d2 = 2r]
KA (1 1 )
Q2
r
2r
18. The rate of heat flow per sec.
dQ A
d
=
= KA
dt
dt
The rate of heat flow per sec.
dQB
d
= KA B
=
dt
dt
This part of heat is absorbed by the red.
Q
ms
d
=
where
= Rate of net temp. variation
t
dt
dt
d
d
msd
d
d
d
= KA A KA B
ms
= KA A B
dt
dt
dt
dt
dt
dt
d
4
= 200 1 10 (5 2.5) C/cm
dt
d
4
= 200 10 2.5
0 .4
dt
0 .4
d
200 2.5 10 4
2
=
C/m = 1250 10 = 12.5 C/m
dt
0.4 10 2
19. Given
T2  T1 = 90C
Krubber = 0.15 J/msC
We know for radial conduction in a Cylinder
2Kl(T2 T1 )
Q
=
ln(R 2 / R1 )
t
=
20.
2 3.14 15 10 2 50 10 1 90
= 232.5 233 j/s.
ln(1.2 / 1)
dQ
= Rate of flow of heat
dt
Let us consider a strip at a distance r from the center of thickness dr.
dQ
K 2rd d
=
[d = Temperature diff across the thickness dr]
dt
dr
28.4
120C
50 cm
Heat Transfer
C=
K 2rd d
dr
c dr
dr
r
dr
= K2d d
r
Integrating
C
r2
r1
dr
= K2d
r
r1
r2
Clog r r2 = K2d (2 1)
r
C(log r2 log r1) = K2d (2 1) C log 2 = K2d (2 1)
r1
C=
K 2d( 2 1 )
log(r2 / r1 )
21. T1 > T2
2
2
A = (R2 R1 )
2
KA (T2 T1 )
KA (R 2 R1 )(T2 T1 )
=
l
l
Considering a concentric cylindrical shell of radius r and thickness
dr. The radial heat flow through the shell
dQ
d
= KA
[()ve because as r increases
H=
dt
dt
decreases]
d
A = 2rl
H = 2rl K
dt
So, Q =
R2
or
R1
2LK
dr
=
H
r
T2
R1
R2
T1
T2
T1
H=
dt
Loge(R 2 / R1 )
ln(R 2 / R1 )
22. Here the thermal conductivities are in series,
K 1A(1 2 ) K 2 A(1 2 )
KA (1 2 )
l1
l2
=
K 1A(1 2 ) K 2 A(1 2 )
l1 l2
l1
l2
K1 K 2
l
l2
1
K1 K 2
l1
l2
L1
L2
K
l1 l 2
K 1K 2
(K 1K 2 )(l1 l2 )
K
=
K=
K 1l 2 K 2l1
l1 l2
K 1l2 K 2l1
0C
Cu
Steel
C
100C
Heat Transfer
24. As the Aluminum rod and Copper rod joined are in parallel
Q
Q
Q
=
t
t
1 Al t Cu
40C
80C
Cu
Al
80C
KA(1 2 )
K A(1 2 ) K 2 A(1 2 )
= 1
l
l
l
K = K1 + K2 = (390 + 200) = 590
KA (1 2 )
590 1 10 4 (60 20)
Q
4
=
=
= 590 10 40 = 2.36 Watt
t
l
1
25. KAl = 200 w/mC
KCu = 400 w/mC
2
5
2
A = 0.2 cm = 2 10 m
1
l = 20 cm = 2 10 m
Heat drawn per second
K Al A(80 40) K Cu A(80 40)
2 10 5 40
=
[200 400] = 2.4 J
l
l
2 10 1
Heat drawn per min = 2.4 60 = 144 J
26. (Q/t)AB = (Q/t)BE bent + (Q/t)BE
KA (1 2 )
KA (1 2 )
(Q/t)BE bent =
(Q/t)BE =
70
60
(Q / t )BE bent
60
6
=
=
D
(Q / t )BE
70
7
= QAl + QCu =
0C
F
27.
(Q/t)BE bent =
20 cm
A
100C
B
60 cm
20 cm
130 6
= 60
13
Q
780 A 100
bent =
t
70
Q
390 A 100
str =
t
60
(Q / t ) bent
780 A 100
60
12
=
=
(Q / t ) str
70
390 A 100
7
28. (a)
KA(1 2 )
Q
1 2 1( 40 32)
=
=
= 8000 J/sec.
t
2 10 3
60 cm
5 cm
20 cm
5 cm
20 cm
1 mm
ak g ak g
Resistance of air =
Net resistance =
ak a
ak g ak g ak a
=
2
1
2k a k g
=
a kg ka
a K gk a
1 10 3 2 0.025 1
2
0.025
1 10 3 1.05
0.05
8 0.05
=
= 380.9 381 W
1 10 3 1.05
=
2
Q
= 1
t
R
28.6
Heat Transfer
29. Now; Q/t remains same in both cases
K A (100 70)
K A (70 0)
= B
In Case : A
30 KA = 70 KB
K A (100 )
K A ( 0)
In Case : B
= A
100KB KB = KA
70
KB
100KB KB =
30
300
7
=
= 30C
100 =
10
3
30. 1 2 = 100
2
Q
0C
= 1
t
R
2
1
R = R1 + R2 +R3 =
=
=
a 200 400
aK Al aK Cu aK Al
70C
100C
A
0C
C
100C
B
Al
0C
Al
Cu
100C
1
4 1
=
a 400
a 80
100
Q
a
=
40 = 80 100
/ a 1 / 80
t
a
1
=
200
For (b)
l
l
l
R CuR Al
R CuR Al
AK Al AK Cu AK Al
R = R1 + R2 = R1 +
= RAl +
=
l
l
R Cu R Al
R Cu R Al
A Cu A Al
=
R2
l
l
l
l
4
l 1
1
=
A 200 200 400 A 600
AK Al A K Al K Cu
2
Q
100 600 A
100 600
1
100
= 1
=
=
=
= 75
l / A 4 / 600
t
R
4
l
4
200
For (c)
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
=
=
l
l
l
R
R1 R 2 R 3
aK Al
aK Cu aK Al
Al
T T3 T T2
T1 T
=
l
3l / 2
3l / 2
Al
Al
0C
a
a
a
(K Al K Cu K Al ) = 2 200 400 = 800
l
l
l
l
1
R=
a 800
2
Q
100 800 a
= 1
=
t
R
l
100 800
=
= 400 W
200
31. Let the temp. at B be T
Q
QA
Q
KA(T1 T )
KA(T T3 ) KA(T T2 )
= B C
=
t
t
t
l
l (l / 2)
l (l / 2)
=
R 100C
Cu
R1
Cu
100C
Al
T2
T3
F
QB
QC
B
C
D
QA
T1
T2
T3
F
QB
3T1 2(T2 T3 )
T=
7
28.7
QC
C
D
QA
T1
Heat Transfer
32. The temp at the both ends of bar F is same
Rate of Heat flow to right = Rate of heat flow through left
(Q/t)A + (Q/t)C = (Q/t)B + (Q/t)D
K (T T )A K C (T1 T )A
K (T T2 )A K D (T T2 )A
A 1
= B
l
l
l
l
2K0(T1 T) = 2 2K0(T T2)
T1 T = 2T 2T2
T 2T2
T= 1
3
y r1
r2 r1
33. Tan =
=
L
x
xr2 xr1 = yL r1L
Differentiating wr to x
Ldy
0
r 2 r1 =
dx
r r
dyL
dy
= 2 1 dx =
(1)
r2 r1
dx
L
dx
(r2 r1) r2
y
r1
Ky 2 d
Q
dx
2
=
= ky d
T
dx
T
Ldy
2
= Ky d
from(1)
r2r1
Now
QLdy
(r2 r1 )Ky 2
d =
QL
r2 r1 k
r2
r1
dy
y
r
1 2
QL
(2 1) =
r2 r1 K y r
1
1 1
QL
(2 1) =
r2 r1 K r1 r2
(2 1) =
r r
QL
2 1
r2 r1 K r1 r2
Kr1r2 ( 2 1 )
L
d
60
=
= 0.1C/sec
dt
10 60
dQ
KA
1 2
=
dt
d
KA 0.1 KA 0.2
KA 60
.......
=
d
d
d
KA
KA 600
=
(0.1 0.2 ........ 60) =
Q=
34.
200 1 10 4
20 10 2
= 3 10 60.1 = 1803 w 1800 w
28.8
Heat Transfer
35. a = r1 = 5 cm = 0.05 m
b = r2 = 20 cm = 0.2 m
2 = T2 = 10C
1 = T1 = 50C
Now, considering a small strip of thickness dr at a distance r.
2
A = 4 r
d
2
H = 4 r K
[()ve because with increase of r, decreases]
dr
b dr
4K 2
=
On integration,
=
d
2
a r
H 1
4ab(1 2 )
dQ
H=
= K
dt
(b a)
Putting the values we get
20
cm
K 4 3.14 5 20 40 10 3
K=
15 10 2
15
dr
= 100
b
r
= 2.985 3 w/mC
4 3.14 4 10 1
KA (T1 T2 )
KA (T1 T2 )
Q
36.
=
Rise in Temp. in T2
t
L
Lms
KA (T1 T2 )
KA(T1 T2 )
Fall in Temp in T1 =
Final Temp. T1 T1
Lms
Lms
KA (T1 T2 )
Final Temp. T2 = T2
Lms
KA(T1 T2 )
KA (T1 T2 )
T
Final
= T1
T2
dt
Lms
Lms
= T1 T2
Ln
37.
2KA(T1 T2 )
2KA(T1 T2 )
dT
=
=
Lms
dt
Lms
(T1 T2 ) / 2
2KAt
=
(T1 T2 )
Lms
ln (1/2) =
KA(T1 T2 )
Q
=
t
L
Fall in Temp in T1
( T1 T2 )
( T1 T2 )
2KAt
Lms
Rise in Temp. in T2
KA (T1 T2 )
Lm 2 s 2
Final Temp. T2 = T2
Final Temp. T1 = T1
2KA
dt
=
dt
(T1 T2 )
Lms
ln2 =
2KAt
Lms
t = ln2
KA (T1 T2 )
Lm1s1
KA(T1 T2 )
Lm1s1
KA (T1 T2 )
Lm1s1
KA(T1 T2 ) KA (T1 T2 )
KA(T1 T2 )
KA (T1 T2 )
T
T2
= T1
= T1 T2
dt
Lm1s1
Lm 2 s 2
Lm 2 s 2
Lm1s1
KA T1 T2 1
1
dT
dt
L
m1s1 m 2 s 2
lnt =
KA m 2 s 2 m1s1
dT
dt
=
T1 T2
L m1s1m 2 s 2
KA m2 s 2 m1s1
t C
L m1s1m2 s 2
At time t = 0, T = T0,
ln
5 cm
T = T0
T
T
KA m 2 s 2 m1s1
t
=
= e
T0
T0
L m1s1m 2 s 2
T = T0 e
KA m1s1 m2s2
t
L m1s1m2s2
= T2 T1 e
C = lnT0
KA m1s1 m2s2
L m1s1m2s2
KA m1s1 m2s2
t
L m1s1m2s2
28.9
Lms
2KA
Heat Transfer
38.
KA(Ts T0 )
nCP dT KA(Ts T0 )
Q
=
=
t
x
dt
x
KA(Ts T0 )
n(5 / 2)RdT
dT
2LA
=
(TS T0 )
dt
x
dt
5nRx
dT
2KAdt
2KAdt
=
ln(TS T0 )TT0 =
(TS T0 )
5nRx
5nRx
2KAt
ln
TS T
2KAdt
=
TS T = (TS T0 )e 5nRx
TS T0
5nRx
T = TS ( TS T0 )e
2KAt
5nRx
= TS (TS T0 )e
T = T T0 = (TS T0 ) (TS T0 )e
2KAt
5nRx
2KAt
5nRx
2KAt
= (TS T0 ) 1 e 5nRx
2KAt
Pa AL
P AL
= (TS T0 ) 1 e 5nRx
[padv = nRdt
PaAl = nRdt
dT = a
]
nR
nR
2KAt
nR
L=
(TS T0 ) 1 e 5nRx
Pa A
2
8
2
4
T = 37C = 310 K,
= 6.0 10 w/m K
39. A = 1.6 m ,
Energy radiated per second
4
8
4
4
= AT = 1.6 6 10 (310) = 8865801 10 = 886.58 887 J
2
4
2
T = 20C = 293 K
40. A = 12 cm = 12 10 m
e = 0.8
= 6 108 w/m2k4
Q
4
4
8
4
12
13
= Ae T = 12 10 0.8 6 10 (293) = 4.245 10 10 = 0.4245 0.42
t
41. E Energy radiated per unit area per unit time
Rate of heat flow Energy radiated
(a) Per time = E A
So, EAl =
eT 4 A
4r 2
4(2r )
eT A
(b) Emissivity of both are same
m1S1dT1
=1
=
m 2S 2 dT2
1
4
1:4
s 4r 3 S 2
dT1
m S
1 900
= 2 2 = 1 13
=
=1:2:9
dT2
m1S1
3
.
4 8 390
s 2 4r2 S1
Q
4
= Ae T
t
100
4
4
T =
T =
teA
0.8 2 3.14 4 10 5 1 6 10 8
T = 1697.0 1700 K
2
4
2
T = 57C = 330 K
43. (a) A = 20 cm = 20 10 m ,
4
4
8
4
4
E = A T = 20 10 6 10 (330) 10 = 1.42 J
E
4
4
2
4
2
(b)
= Ae(T1 T2 ),
A = 20 cm = 20 10 m
t
8
= 6 10
T1 = 473 K,
T2 = 330 K
4
8
4
4
= 20 10 6 10 1[(473) (330) ]
10
10
= 20 6 [5.005 10 1.185 10 ]
2
from the ball.
= 20 6 3.82 10 = 4.58 w
42.
28.10
Heat Transfer
3
44. r = 1 cm = 1 10 m
A = 4(102)2 = 4 104 m2
8
E = 0.3,
= 6 10
E
4
4
= Ae(T1 T2 )
t
8
4
4
4
= 0.3 6 10 4 10 [(100) (300) ]
12
12
= 0.3 6 4 10 [1 0.0081] 10
4
= 0.3 6 4 3.14 9919 10
5
= 4 18 3.14 9919 10 = 22.4 22 W
45. Since the Cube can be assumed as black body
e=
= 6 108 w/m2k4
4
2
A = 6 25 10 m
m = 1 kg
s = 400 J/kgK
T1 = 227C = 500 K
T2 = 27C = 300 K
d
4
4
ms
= eA(T1 T2 )
dt
eA T1 T2
d
=
dt
ms
1 6 10 8 6 25 10 4 [(500 ) 4 (300) 4 ]
1 400
36 25 544
4
=
10 4 = 1224 10 = 0.1224C/s 0.12C/s.
400
4
4
46. Q = eA(T2 T1 )
For any body, 210 = eA[(500)4 (300)4]
For black body, 700 = 1 A[(500)4 (300)4]
210
e
Dividing
=
e = 0.3
700
1
2
2
AB = 80 cm
47. AA = 20 cm ,
(mS)A = 42 J/C,
(mS)B = 82 J/C,
TA = 100C,
TB = 20C
KB is low thus it is a poor conducter and KA is high.
Thus A will absorb no heat and conduct all
=
E
4
4
= AA [(373) (293) ]
t
A
d
mS A =
dt A
B
A
AA [(373) (293) ]
4
A a (373 ) 4 (293 ) 4
6 10 8 (373 ) 4 (293 ) 4
d
=
= 0.03 C/S
=
(mS ) A
42
dt A
d
Similarly = 0.043 C/S
dt B
48.
Q
4
4
= eAe(T2 T1 )
t
Q
8
4
4
8
8
8
= 1 6 10 [(300) (290) ]
= 6 10 (81 10 70.7 10 ) = 6 10.3
At
KA (1 2 )
Q
=
t
l
K(1 2 )
Q
K 17
K 17
6 10.3 0.5
=
=
= 6 10.3 =
K=
= 1.8
tA
l
0 .5
0 .5
17
28.11
Heat Transfer
49. = 6 10 w/m k
L = 20 cm = 0.2 m,
K=?
KA(1 2 )
4
4
= A(T1 T2 )
E=
d
s(T1 T2 ) d
6 10 8 (750 4 300 4 ) 2 10 1
K=
=
1 2
50
8
K = 73.993 74.
50. v = 100 cc
= 5C
t = 5 min
For water
mS
KA
=
dt
l
KA
100 10 3 800 2100
=
t
l
8
( 47.5 T )
By C & D [Componendo & Dividendo method]
We find, T = 34.1C
28.12
300 K
750 K
800 K
20 cm
Heat Transfer
52. Let the water eq. of calorimeter = m
(m 50 10 3 ) 4200 5
= Rate of heat flow
10
(m 100 10 3 ) 4200 5
= Rate of flow
18
(m 50 10 3 ) 4200 5
(m 100 10 3 ) 4200 5
=
10
18
3
3
(m + 50 10 )18 = 10m + 1000 10
3
3
18m + 18 50 10 = 10m + 1000 10
3
8m = 100 10 kg
3
m = 12.5 10 kg = 12.5 g
53. In steady state condition as no heat is absorbed, the rate of loss of heat by
conduction is equal to that of the supplied.
i.e. H = P
m = 1Kg, Power of Heater = 20 W, Room Temp. = 20C
d
= P = 20 watt
(a) H =
dt
(b) by Newtons law of cooling
d
= K( 0)
dt
20 = K(50 20) K = 2/3
d
20
2
= K( 0) = (30 20) =
w
Again,
dt
3
3
20
10
dQ
dQ
dQ
=
(c)
= 0,
=
3
3
dt 20
dt 30
dt avg
T = 5 min = 300
10
300 = 1000 J
3
Net Heat absorbed = Heat supplied Heat Radiated = 6000 1000 = 5000 J
Now, m = 5000
5000
5000
1
1
S=
=
= 500 J Kg C
m
1 10
54. Given:
Heat capacity = m s = 80 J/C
Heat liberated =
d
= 2 C/s
dt increase
d
= 0.2 C/s
dt decrease
d
(a) Power of heater = mS
= 80 2 = 160 W
dt increa sin g
d
= 80 0.2 = 16 W
(b) Power radiated = mS
dt decrea sin g
d
(c) Now mS
= K(T T0)
dt decrea sin g
16 = K(30 20)
K=
16
= 1.6
10
d
= K(T T0) = 1.6 (30 25) = 1.6 5 = 8 W
dt
(d) P.t = H 8 t
Now,
28.13
30C
T
20C
t
Heat Transfer
55.
d
= K(T T0)
dt
Temp. at t = 0 is 1
(a) Max. Heat that the body can loose = Qm = ms(1 0)
( as, t = 1 0)
(b) if the body loses 90% of the max heat the decrease in its temp. will be
( 0 ) 9
Q m 9
= 1
10ms
10
If it takes time t1, for this process, the temp. at t1
101 91 90
9 0
9
= 1 (1 0 )
=
= 1
1
10
10
10
d
Now,
= K( 1)
dt
Let = 1 at t = 0; & be temp. at time t
d
K dt
o
0
or, ln
= Kt
1 0
(2)
or, 0 = (1 0) e
Putting value in the Eq (1) and Eq (2)
1 90
kt
0 (1 0) e
10
ln 10
t1 =
k
kt
28.14
CHAPTER 29
Coulomb 2
0 =
Newton m
F=
2.
1 3 4
=l M L T
kq1q2
r2
3
q1 = q2 = q = 1.0 C distance between = 2 km = 1 10 m
kq1q2
so, force =
F=
(9 10 9 ) 1 1
(2 10 )
3 2
9 10 9
2 2 10 6
= 2,25 10 N
2.25 10 3
wt of body
=
4 10 2
force between ch arg es
So,
3.
= (5.6)
1
5 .6
Kq 2
F=
9 10 9 12
490 =
or =
2
9 10 9
6
= 18.36 10
490
= 4.29 10 m
charges q each, AB = 1 m
wt, of 50 kg person = 50 g = 50 9.8 = 490 N
3
4.
FC =
kq1q2
r
490 r 2
q =
2
9 10
r2
= 490 N
490 1 1
9 10 9
5
coulomb 2.3 10
coulomb
19
6.
kq2
54.4 10 9 = 23.323 10
q=
5.
kq2
9 10 9 1.6 1.6 10 38
(0.1 )2
=
9.9 2 10 6 10 9 q
2
kq1q
2
(0.1 )2
2(0.1 ) =
2
f 1 = f2
kqq 2
0 .1 2
1 2
2 (0.1 ) =
29.1
q
xm
(0.1x) m
10 cm
q2
q1 = 2 10 c
q2 = 1 10 c
r = 10 cm = 10 10
Let the third charge be a so, FAC = FBC
kQq1
KQq2
r12
r2
(10 )
m
10 1010 m
1 10 6
C
B 1 106 c
A
2 106 c
2 = 10 + ( 2  1) = 10 =
10
= 24.14 cm
1.414 1
9.
2 10 6
2 = (10 + )
8.
kq1q2
r2
9 10 9 1.6 1.6 10 19 10 19
10 2 10 2
38+9+2+2
= 23.04 10
25
= 23.04 10
24
= 2.3 10
10 100
= 55.5 Nos
Total charge = 55.5
18
23
24
No. of electrons in 18 g of H2O = 6.023 10 10 = 6.023 10
6.023 10 24 100
26
25
= 0.334 10 = 3.334 10
18
25
19
6
Total charge = 3.34 10 1.6 10 = 5.34 10 c
10. Molecular weight of H2O = 2 1 16 = 16
No. of electrons present in one molecule of H2O = 10
23
18 gm of H2O has 6.023 10 molecule
23
18 gm of H2O has 6.023 10 10 electrons
No. of electrons in 100 g of H2O =
6.023 10 24
100 electrons
18
So number of protons =
Charge of protons =
6.023 10 26
protons (since atom is electrically neutral)
18
1.6 10 19 6.023 10 26
1.6 6.023 10 7
coulomb =
coulomb
18
18
Charge of electrons = =
1.6 6.023 10 7
coulomb
18
9 10 9
18
18
Hence Electrical force =
2 2
(10 10 )
8 6.023
25
1.6 6.023 10 25 = 2.56 10 Newton
18
11. Let two protons be at a distance be 13.8 femi
=
F=
9 10 9 1.6 10 38
(14.8)2 10 30
+ +
+ +
+
= 1.2 N
12. F = 0.1 N
2
r = 1 cm = 10 (As they rubbed with each other. So the charge on each sphere are equal)
So, F =
1.6 10
kq1q2
r
19
0.33 10
0.1 =
kq 2
(10
q =
2
2 2
Carries by 1 electron
c carries by
1
1.6 10 19
0.1 10 4
9 10 9
q =
2
1 c carried by
1
1
10 14 q = 10 7
9
3
1
1.6 10 19
12
11
0.33 10 7 = 0.208 10 = 2.08 10
29.2
kq1q2
r
9 10 9 1.6 1.6 10 19 10 19
(2.75 10
10 2
23.04 10 29
7.56 10 20
= 3.04 10
27
14. Given:
mass of proton = 1.67 10 kg = Mp
9
19
k = 9 10
Charge of proton = 1.6 10 c = Cp
11
G = 6.67 10
Let the separation be r
Fe =
k(C p ) 2
r2
G(Mp )2
fg=
Now, Fe : Fg =
K (C p ) 2
r
r2
r2
G(Mp )
9 10 9 (1.6 1`0 19 )2
Since e
= 9 2.56 10 1,24 10
38
kr
r2
38
6.67 10 11 (1.67 10 27 )2
3 2
1
1
= [L ]
dim entional formulae of r
Unit of k = m
kq 2
9 10 9 2 2 2 10 12
F2
A
36
10 = 14.4
25
0.05 m
0.05 m
5 5 10 4
Now, force on A = 2 F cos 30 since it is equilateral .
r2
F1
60
B
3
= 24.94 N.
2
6
17. q1 = q2 = q3 = q4 = 2 10 C
2
v = 5 cm = 5 10 m
0.05 m
Force on A = 2 1.44
k(2 10 )
(5 10
2 2
6 2
k(2 10 )
(5 10
2 2
1
2 2
9 10 9 4 10 12
1
1
4
24 10
2 2
So, Resultant R =
1
1
= kq 2
4
50 2 10 4
25 10
FCD
FCB
Fx 2 Fy 2 = 19.49 2 = 27.56
Kq1q2
9 10 9 1.6 1.6 10 38
9
= 82.02 10 N
r
0.53 0.53 10 10 10 10
8
Ve = ?
19. Fe from previous problem No. 18 = 8.2 10 N
31
10
Now, Me = 9.12 10 kg
r = 0.53 10 m
F=
Now, Fe =
Me v 2
Fe r
8.2 10 8 0.53 10 10
2
13
12
2 2
v =
=
= 0.4775 10 = 4.775 10 m /s
r
me
9.1 10 31
v = 2.18 10 m/s
6
29.3
FCA
k 1 10
(10 10
6
= k 10 N.
2 2
k 8 10 8 1
Similarly F3 =
k 27 10 8 1
(30 10
2 2
= 3k 10
(1 + 2 + 3 ++10) N
So, F = F1 + F2 + F3 + + F10 = k 10
6
= k 10
c.
k 8 10 8 10 2
28k 10 6
6
=
= 2k 10 N.
9
4
(23 10 2 )2
c.
10 11
6
9
6
3
= 55k 10 = 55 9 10 10 N = 4.95 10 N
2
2
9 10 2 2 10
9
r=1m
kq1
= 3.6 10
12
7
22. q1 = q2 = 2 10 c
2
l = 50 cm = 5 10 m
(a) Now Electric force
F= K
m = 100 g
2
d = 5 10 m
T
9 10 9 4 10 14
q2
q1
q1
16
T Cos
=
N = 14.4 10 N = 0.144 N
r2
25 10 4
(b) The components of Resultant force along it is zero,
because mg balances T cos and so also.
F = mg = T sin
(c) Tension on the string
T cos = mg
T sin = F
T Sin
90
90
T Sin
T Cos
F
0.144
=
= 0.14693
mg
100 10 3 9.8
2
3
But T cos = 10 10 10 = 1 N
Tan =
T=
1
= sec
cos
T=
F
,
sin
n= ?
T=?
Sin =
1
20
20 cm
Kq1q2
r
9 10 9 2 10 8 2 10 8
mg sin = F m =
Cos =
(3 10 2 )2
= 4 10
F
4 10 3
3
=
= 8 10 = 8 gm
g sin
10 (1 / 20)
1 Sin 2 =
1
=
400
400 1
= 0.99 1
400
So, T = mg cos
Or T = 8 103 10 0.99 = 8 102 M
5 cm
1 cm
mg
29.4
20
T
1 cm
0
T 20
1 cm
(1)
(2)
1596
q =
2
q=
9 10 q
9
40 cm
Fe
kq2
1
=
mg
r
mg
1596
20 g
20 g
4 cm
17 10
16
9 10 9 39.95
= 4.123 10
kq
6.27 10 4
( sin Q sin Q)
16 2
EF
kq2
2
2
= 17 10
v2
4 sin
mg
sin
T Sin
EF
Ef
mg
Or tan =
mg
mg = Ef cot =
or m =
kq2
4 2 sin2
q2 cot
16E 0 2 Sin2 g
cot =
q2 cot
2 sin2 16E 0
unit.
kq1q2
T mg + F = 0 T = mg f
r2
0.98 =
9 10 9 2 10 4 q2
(0.01)2
q2 =
10 cm
2 104 C
T = mg
0.98 1 10 2
9 2 10 5
= 0.054 10 N
2x = (d x)
2
x=
2 1
kqQ
x2
mg
k 2qQ
(d x ) 2
2q
dx
2x=dx
d
( 2 1)
( 2 1)
( 2 1)
= d( 2 1)
(2.414)2
kqQ
d2
kq(2q)
d2
=0
kq
d2
[(2.414 )2 Q 2q] = 0
2q = (2.414) Q
2
Q=
2
q = (0.343) q = (6 4 2 )
q =
( 2 1)
32 2
2
= 10 cm = 101 m
kq1q2
r
q = 2.0 10
9 10 2 10
9
10
2 10
c Find = ?
= 36 10
36 10 5
F
7
6
=
= 36 10 cm = 3.6 10 m
So, F = kx or x =
K
100
29.5
K
q1
q2
Kq A qB
10 cm
R
= R = m g
r2
mg = R
9 10 9 2 10 6 qB
= 0.2 0.08 9.8
0.01
0.2 0.08 9.8 0.01
8
qB =
= 8.7 10 C
9 10 9 2 10 6
6
Let the distance be r unit
30. q1 = 2 10 c
kq1q2
Frepulsion =
r2
kq1q2
For equilibrium
= mg sin
r2
Fe
9 10 4 10
9
12
= m 9.8
mg
Range = 8.7 10 C
8
q2
x
1
2
30
q1
18 4 10 3
72 10 3
2
=
= 7.34 10 metre
1
m 9 .8
9.8 10
1
r = 2.70924 10 metre from the bottom.
31. Force on the charge particle q at c is only the x component of 2 forces
r =
2
KQq
x ( d / 2)
2
x
2
d /4
2
1/ 2
2kqx
( x d / 4)
2
2
2
2
2
( 4 x d ) x 3 / 2 4 x d
= 0 K
[ 4 x 2 d2 ] 3
K( 4 x 2 d2 )1 / 2 ( 4 x 2 d2 )3 12x 2
( 4 x 2 d 2 )3
= 0 (4x
d +8x d =0
d =0
d =8x d=
2 2
16kQq
( 4 x 2 d 2 )3 / 2
d +8x =0
FCB
8x
=0
2 3
16 x + d + 8x d = 12 x
4
1/ 2
+d ) = 12 x
3/2
dF
=0
dx
d 16kQqx
dx ( 4 x 2 d2 )3 / 2
FAC
C
2 2
FBO
= 2
=
(d / 2 x )
2
4 2 kQq
( d2 4 x 2 )
F=
x
[(d / 2)2 x 2 ]1 / 2
( d / 2) x
2kQq
[(d / 2)2 x 2 ]3 / 2
2KQq
2
FAO FBO
Sin
FOA
KQq
d/2
Sin
d/2
Q
x = Electric force F x
29.6
C
d
F=
2kQq
F=
( d / 4)
KQq
( x )
[(d / 2)2 x 2 ]3 / 2
x Fx
3/2
FCA =
a=
x x<<d
1 2kQqx
F
=
m
m [(d2 / 4) 2
= 2
g
a
So time period T = 2
33. FAC =
2kQq
KQq
( x )2
1
1
Net force = KQq
2
( x )2
( x )
+x
( x ) 2 ( x )2
4 x
= KQq
= KQq 2
2
2
2 2
( x ) ( x )
( x )
x<<< l = d/2 neglecting x w.r.t.
KQq4x
net F =
Time period = 2
KQq4 x
acceleration =
4KQqx
m 3
xm 3
m 3
displaceme nt
= 2
= 2
4KQqx
4KQq
accelerati on
4 2m 3 4 0
=
4Qq
34. Fe = 1.5 10
We get
3md3 0
43md 3 0 8Qq =
2Qq
4 3m 3 0
=
Qq
N,
q = 1 10
1/ 2
C, Fe = q E
Fe
1.5 10
3
=
= 1.5 10 N/C
q
1 10 6
2
6
6
q1 = 4 10 C,
r = 20 cm = 0.2 m
35. q2 = 2 10 C,
(E1 = electric field due to q1,
E2 = electric field due to q2)
E=
(r x )2
x2
q 2
q 2
(r 1)2
1
4 10 6
=
=
=
6
q1
x
q1
2
2 10
1
r
1
r
1 =
=
= 1.414 +1 = 2.414
1.414
x
2
x
x=
36. EF =
r
20
=
= 8.285 cm
2.414
2.414
KQ
r2
30 2F Cos 30
9 10 Q
9
5 N/C =
42
4 20 10 2
= Q Q = 8.88 10
11
9 10
3
3
6
37. m = 10,
mg = 10 10 g 10 kg,
q = 1.5 10 C
6
6
But qE = mg (1.5 10 ) E = 10 10 10
9
E=
=
10 10 4 10
1.5 10 6
60
qE
100
= 66.6 N/C
1 .5
100 10 3
10 5 1
3
=
= 6.6 10
1 .5
15
mg
29.7
38. q = 1.0 10 C, = 20 cm
E=?
V=?
Since it forms an equipotential surface.
So the electric field at the centre is Zero.
1.0 108
2 101 m
2
2
(2 10 1 )2 (10 1 )2 =
4 10 2 10 2
3
3
2
2
=
10 2 ( 4 1) = 10 2 1.732 = 1.15 101
3
3
r=
V=
3 9 10 91 10 8
= 23 10 = 2.3 10 V
1 10 1
39. We know : Electric field E at P due to the charged ring
KQx
KQx
=
=
2
2 3/2
(R x )
R3
Force experienced F = Q E =
1.0 108 C
1.0 108
Q
R
P
q K Qx
O
m, q
R3
Now, amplitude = x
So, T = 2
x
KQqx / mR
16 3 0mR 3
T=
4 0mR 3
mR 3 x
= 2
=
KQqx
Qq
= 2
4 2 4 0mR 3
qQ
1/ 2
Q
L
dq
r2
The horizontal Components of the Electric field balances each other. Only the
vertical components remain.
Net Electric field along vertical
2kCos
=
dl
r2
r2
2k
2k
2 Cos rd
Cos d
r
r
Kdq cos
dE = 2 E cos =
/2
or E =
2k
Cos d =
r
but L = R r =
So E =
d
= d = rd]
r
2kl
2K
2k
Sin =
=
r
r
Lr
2k
2k
=
=
=
4 0 L2
L (L / )
L2
2 0L2
41. G = 50 C = 50 10
We have, E =
E=
/2
[but d =
2KQ
for a charged cylinder.
r
2 9 10 50 10
9
5 3
9 10
5 3
= 1.03 10
29.8
+
+
+
+
+
10
xQ
4 0 (R 2 x 2 )3 / 2
KxQ
(R 2 x 2 )3 / 2
dE
KQ(R 2 x 2 )3 / 2 KxQ(3 / 2)(R 2 x 2 )11 / 2 2x
=
dx
(r 2 x 2 )3
R
R2
x=
2
2
43. Since it is a regular hexagon. So, it forms an equipotential surface. Hence the charge at
each point is equal. Hence the net entire field at the centre is Zero.
Q
Qd
= Charge of d =
C
2a
2a
Initially the electric field was 0 at the centre. Since the element d is removed so, net electric field must
Kq
Where q = charge of element d
a2
E=
Kq
a
1
Qd 1
Qd
=
4 0 2a a 2
8 2 0 a 3
45. We know,
Electric field at a point due to a given charge
E =
Kq
r2
So, E =
1
q
2
4 0 d
m = 80 10
kg,
c = 20 10
2 10 8 20 10 3
tan =
80 10 6 10
1 + tan =
[ r = d here]
3
qE
tan =
mg
5
1
1 =
4
4
T Sin = mg T
2
5
1
=
2
[Cos =
= 80 10
qE
1
5
, Sin =
2
5
]
T
qE
10
8 10 4 5
4
T=
= 4 5 10 4 = 8.9 10
2
47. Given
mg
mg
q
m
qE
m
u 2m
qE
S S =
units
2qE
m
C ; E = 1.2 10 N/c ; S = 40 cm = 4 10
F
3
3
=
= 3 10
3
m
10
3
3
Eq = mg = 10 9.8 = 9.8 10 N
So, a =
b) S =
2
1 2
at or t =
2
2 4 10 1
2a
=
g
3 10 3
v = u + 2as = 0 + 2 3 10 4 10
= 1.63 10
= 24 10 v =
2
4
E = 2 10 N/C
So, the particle moves due to the et resultant R
R=
=
Fg 2 Fe 2 =
Fg
Fe
24 10 2 = 4.9 10 = 49 m/sec
= 12 10
= 1.2 J
0.9604 96.04 10 2 =
tan =
sec
mg
=
=1
qE
1.9208 = 1.3859 N
qE
45
So, = 45
mg
1 qE 2
1 0.98
Disp. Horizontal = S = (1/2) at =
t =
2 2 = 19.6 m
2 m
2 0 .1
2
Net Dispt. =
(19.6)2 (19.6)2 =
6
50. m = 40 g, q = 4 10
768.32 = 27.7 m
45
sec
20
45
= 2
g
20
10
qE
m
1
( 45)2 10
45
=
= 1.2836
2 =
10
4
(20)2 4 2
20
mg
qE
1.2836
[a=
= 2.5] = 2
= 2.598
ga
m
10 2.5
qE
K
E
K
q
29.10
2dm
t =
t=
qE
2
2md
qE
Total time taken for to reach the wall and com back (Time period)
= 2t = 2
2md
=
qE
8md
qE
r
r
9 10 9 (2 10 7 )2 9 10 9 (2 10 7 )2
=
0 .1
0 .1
2 107
20 cm
2
20 cm
14
2 9 10 4 10
4
= 72 10 J
0 .1
When charge is placed at B,
9
2 107
Kq1q2 Kq3 q 4
2 9 10 9 4 10 14
4
=
= 36 10 J
r
r
0 .2
4
4
3
Work done = E1 E2 = (72 36) 10 = 36 10 J = 3.6 10 J
56. (a) A = (0, 0)
B = (4, 2)
E2 =
y
B
VB VA = E d = 20 16 = 80 V
(b) A(4m, 2m),
B = (6m, 5m)
VB VA = E d = 20 (6 4)2 = 20 2 = 40 V
(c) A(0, 0) B = (6m, 5m)
VB VA = E d = 20 (6 0)2 = 20 6 = 120 V.
57. (a) The Electric field is along xdirection
Thus potential difference between (0, 0) and (4, 2) is,
V = E x = 20 (40) = 80 V
Potential energy (UB UA) between the points = V q
4
4
= 80 (2) 10 = 160 10 = 0.016 J.
(b) A = (4m, 2m) B = (6m, 5m)
V = E x = 20 2 = 40 V
Potential energy (UB UA) between the points = V q
4
4
= 40 (2 10 ) = 80 10 = 0.008 J
(c) A = (0, 0)
B = (6m, 5m)
V = E x = 20 6 = 120 V
Potential energy (UB UA) between the points A and B
4
4
= V q = 120 (2 10 ) = 240 10 = 0.024 J
29.11
x
E = 20 N/C
59. E = i Ax = 100 i
0
dv
10
V = 10 x dx =
= E d
10
1
10 x 2
2
P(10, 20)
20
Volt
10
ML2 T 2
= [MT ]
TL2
V i Vj Vk
(b) E =
= [ A( xy yz zx )
[ A( xy yz zx )
[ A( xy yz zx )
z
y
x
y
z
x
= ( Ay Az )i ( Ax Az )j ( Ay Ax )k = A( y z)i A( x z)j A( y x )k
(a) A =
3 1
2o 2 20 2 20 2 =
61. q1 = q2 = 2 10 C
Each are brought from infinity to 10 cm a part d = 10 102 m
So work done = negative of work done. (Potential E)
10
P.E =
F ds
P.E. = K
q1q2
9 10 9 4 10 10
=
= 36 J
r
10 10 2
dV
10 10 2 Cos120
10
10 1 ( 1 / 2)
10 v 20 v 30 v 40 v
90
30
10 20
So, E =
kq
r2
kq
r =
=
kq
kq
= 60 v
r
r
6k
v.m =
q=
40
30 v
20 v
30
10 v
6
K
60 v
30 v
20 v
v.m
r2
k r2
r2
63. Radius = r So, 2r = Circumference
Total charge = 2r
Charge density =
Kq
1
2r
r
Electric potential =
=
=
2
2
1
/
2
2
r
4 0 ( x r )
2 0 ( x r 2 )1 / 2
So, Electric field =
=
=
r
2 0 ( x 2 r 2 )1 / 2
r
2 0 ( x 2 r 2 )1 / 2
V
Cos
r
(r 2 x 2 )
1
( x 2 r 2 )1 / 2
x
( x 2 r 2 )1 / 2
rx
2 0 ( x 2 r 2 )3 / 2
29.12
E = 1000,
(b) u = ?
a=
2
= 20 V
100
2 cm
= 2/100 m
F
qE
1.6 10 19 1000
14
2
=
=
= 1.75 10 m/s
m
m
9.1 10 31
14
14
u = 2.64 10 m/s.
6
u cos 60
E
60
6
2.64 10
2
uCos60
2
1.75 1012
2
s=
=
=
= 0.497 10 0.005 m 0.50 cm
14
2a
2 1.75 10
3.5 1014
65. E = 2 N/C in xdirection
(a) Potential aat the origin is O. dV = Ex dx Ey dy Ez dz
V 0 = 2x V = 2x
(b) (25 0) = 2x x = 12.5 m
v 100 = 2x V = 2x + 100 = 100 2x
(c) If potential at origin is 100 v,
(d) Potential at IS 0,
V V = 2x V = V + 2x = 0 + 2 V =
Potential at origin is . No, it is not practical to take potential at to be zero.
66. Amount of work done is assembling the charges is equal to the net
5
2 10 C
potential energy
2
So, P.E. = U12 + U13 + U23
10 cm
[ 4 2 4 3 3 2]
=
=
r12
r13
r23
r
9 10 10
9
(8 12 6) = 9 26 = 234 J
10 1
67. K.C. decreases by 10 J.
Potential = 100 v to 200 v.
So, change in K.E = amount of work done
10J = (200 100) v q0 100 q0 = 10 v
=
q0 =
3
5
3 10 C
10
= 0.1 C
100
68. m = 10 g; F =
KQ
9 10 9 2 10 4
=
r
10 10 2
F=maa=
1.8 10 7
= 1.8 10
10 10 3
2
2
2
2
V u = 2as V = u + 2as
V=
60
5
4 10 C
10
10 cm
0 2 1.8 10 3 10 10 2 =
F = 1.8 10
m/s
O
2 104 c
10 cm
O
2 104 c
2
3
3.6 10 4 = 0.6 10 = 6 10 m/s.
q2
r
9 10 9 ( 4 10 5 )2
12
A
+4 105
= 14.4 N
F
14.4
2
=
= 2880 m/s
m
0.005
2
Now u = 0,
s = 50 cm = 0.5 m,
a = 2880 m/s , V =?
2
2
2
V = u + 2as V = = 2 2880 0.5
Acceleration a =
V=
B
4 105
1m
2KP
r
2 9 10 9 2 10 8
(1 10
2 3
= 36 10 N/C
1 cm
O
1 cm
KP
9 10 9 2 10 8
3
1/2
A q
60
q
2 2 1/2
= [3 q d ]
2q
3 qd =
Kqp
a 2 d2
so E =
When a << d
B
O
E1 =
1m
= 180 N/C
r
1
72. Let q & q are placed at A & C
Where 2q on B
So length of A = d
So the dipole moment = (q d) = P
So, Resultant dipole moment
2
B
2 106
C
2KPQ
a 2 d2 (a 2 d2 )1 / 2
2Kqa
(d 2 )3 / 2
PK
d3
d
q
3P
E2
2Kq a
E1
(a 2 d2 )3 / 2
1 P
=
4 0 d3
B
q
d
+q
T = 2 / g ( = length, q = acceleration)
m
q
F
Eq
Now, acceleration =
=
m
m
Hence length = a
a
ma
= 2
(Eq / m)
Eq
29.14
m
a
CHAPTER 30
GAUSSS LAW
Y
1.
2.
/2
4.
Given: E =
E0
i
= 2 cm,
a = 1cm.
5.
E0
5 10 3 a3
5 10 3 a
5 103 (0.01)3
1
a2 =
Area =
=
= 2.5 10
2
L
2 10
Flux =
q
so, q = 0 Flux
0
1
2.5 10
= 2.2125 10
12
Flux =
12
o,a,o
E0 = 5 10 N/C. From fig. We see that flux passes mainly through surface
areas. ABDC & EFGH. As the AEFB & CHGD are paralled to the Flux. Again in
ABDC a = 0; hence the Flux only passes through the surface are EFGH.
E x
E = c i
= 8.85 10
D
o
B o,o,a
a,o,o
F
q
According to Gausss Law Flux =
0
Since the charge is placed at the centre of the cube. Hence the flux passing through the
Q
Q
six surfaces =
6=
0
6 0
2
6.
Given A charge is placed o a plain surface with area = a , about a/2 from its centre.
Assumption : let us assume that the given plain forms a surface of an imaginary cube. Then the charge
is found to be at the centre of the cube.
Q 1
Q
Hence flux through the surface =
=
6 0
0 6
7.
We know: from Gausss law that the flux experienced by the sphere is only due to
the internal charge and not by the external one.
Q
10 7
4
2
Now E.ds
=
= 1.1 10 Nm /C.
0
8.85 10 12
30.1
R
+
+
Q
P
2R
Gausss Law
8.
q
Flux = E.ds
[by Gauss law]
0
q 1
q
=
2 0
0 2
c/m
E.ds
4 cm
q
But =
4 / 3 R 3
so, q = 4/3 R
4 / 3 22 / 7 ( 4 10 2 )3
1
0
4 22 / 7 ( 4 10 2 )2
Hence =
1
5
= 3.0 10 N/C
12
8.85 10
19
10. Charge present in a gold nucleus = 79 1.6 10 C
Since the surface encloses all the charges we have:
q 79 1.6 10 19
(a) E.ds
0
8.85 10 12
= 2.0 10
1/3 4 10
E=
q
79 1.6 10 19
1
2
=
[area = 4r ]
0 ds
8.85 10 12
4 3.14 (7 10 15 )2
= 2.3195131 10
21
N/C
(b) For the middle part of the radius. Now here r = 7/2 10
15
48 22 343
3
Volume = 4/3 r =
10 45
3
7
8
Charge enclosed = volume [ : volume charge density]
But =
Net ch arg e
7.9 1.6 10 19 c
=
Net volume
4
45
343 10
3
Eds =
E=
7.9 1.6 10 19
4
343
7.9 1.6 10 19
10 45 =
8
3
8
4
45
343 10
3
q enclosed
0
7.9 1.6 10 19
=
8 0 S
7.9 1.6 10 19
21
= 1.159 10 N/C
49
12
30
8 8.85 10 4
10
4
3Q
3
4 r2 r1
Q
4
r2 3 r13
3
4
Again volume of sphere having radius x = x 3
3
30.2
O
r1
r2
Gausss Law
Now charge enclosed by the sphere having radius
3 r 3
Q
4
4
= 3 r13
= Q 3 13
r r
3
4 r 3 4 r 3
3
1
2
2
1
3
3
q enclosed
0
Q
0
3 r13
Q
1 =
r 3 r 3 42
4 0 2
1
2
3 r13
r 3 r 3
1
2
ch arg e
total surface area
+q
Q
a
Q
Q
=
and
respectively.
4a 2
4a 2
(b) Again if another charge q is added to the surface. We have inner surface charge density =
Q
,
4a 2
q
as the q gets added up.
4a 2
(c) For electric field let us assume an imaginary surface area inside the sphere at a distance x from
centre. This is same in both the cases as the q in ineffective.
Q
Q
1
Q
So, E =
=
Now, E.ds
2
0 4x
0
40 x 2
On the other hand the external surface charge density = Q
13. (a) Let the three orbits be considered as three concentric spheres A, B & C.
Now, Charge of A = 4 1.6 1016 c
16
As the point P is just inside 1s, so its distance from centre = 1.3 10
Electric field =
Q
40 x 2
5.21011 m
1.31011 m
10
11
15
Charge of B = 2 1.6 10 c
Charge of C = 2 1.6 1016 c
2S
1S
A B C
P
4 1.6 10 19
13
= 3.4 10 N/C
4 3.14 8.85 10 12 (1.3 10 11 )2
2 1.6 10 19
12
12
= 1.065 10 N/C 1.1 10 N/C
E =
12
11 2
4 3.14 8.85 10
(5.2 10 )
14. Drawing an electric field around the line charge we find a cylinder of radius 4 10
m.
We know
c/m
Q
E.dl
0 0
E 2 r =
For, r = 2 10
E=
E=
0
0 2r
2
m & = 2 10
2106 c/m
4 cm
c/m
2 10 6
5
5
= 8.99 10 N/C 9 10 N/C
12
2
8.85 10 2 3.14 2 10
30.3
Gausss Law
15. Given :
= 2 106 c/m
For the previous problem.
E=
for a cylindrical electricfield.
0 2r
Now, For experienced by the electron due to the electric filed in wire = centripetal
force.
Eq = mv
v e ?, r assumed radius
1
1 mv
Eq =
2
2 r
KE = 1/2 E q r =
1
19
17
1.6 10 = 2.88 10 J.
2 0 2r
E=
17.
Q
4 2 h
2
=
=
0
0 ds
0 2 h
Q
E.dA
Q
dA =
=
E=
0 A
0
0
x
0<x<d
4 10 6 2 10 6
= 0.452N
q=
2 0
2 8 10 12
q
, T cos= mg
T sin =
2 0
Tan =
=
10 cm
60
q
2mg 0
2mg 0 tan
2 8.85 10 12 10 10 3 9.8 1.732
7
2
=
= 7.5 10 C/m
q
4 10 6
30.4
T Cos
T Sin
mg
Gausss Law
20. (a) Tension in the string in Equilibrium
T cos 60 = mg
T=
10 10 3 10
mg
1
=
= 10 2 = 0.20 N
cos 60
1/ 2
= 2
g
g2 q
2 m
= 2
3
100 0.2
2 10 2
= 2 3.1416
20
= 2
(100 300 )1/ 2
= 2
1/ 2
u = 0,
a=?
1/ 2
10 10 2
= 0.45 sec.
20
6
t = 2s = 2 10 s
s= (1/2) at
2 2 10 2
10
2
a = 10 m/s
12
4 10
6 2
2 cm
q = acceleration =
0
0 me
q
10
= 10
0 me
1010 0 m e
1010 8.85 10 12 9.1 10 31
=
q
1.6 10 19
= 50.334 10
14
12
= 0.50334 10
c/m
22. Given:
Surface density =
(a) & (c) For any point to the left & right of the dual plater, the electric field is zero.
As there are no electric flux outside the system.
(b) For a test charge put in the middle.
It experiences a fore
10
q
towards the (ve) plate.
2 0
q
1 q
Hence net electric field
q 2 0 2 0
60
60
Eq
m
= 1 & 2
2 0 2 0
Eq
60
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
& 2
2 0 2 0
1 = 2 So, q1 = q2 = Q/2
Net surface charge density = Q/2A
30.5
Gausss Law
(b) Electric field to the left of the plates =
Since = Q/2A
Q/2
Q/2
2 A 0
24. Consider the Gaussian surface the induced charge be as shown in figure.
+Q
2Q
C
+q9
Q9
= 2Q + 9 = 2Q + 3/2 Q = Q/2
30.6
D
+q9
2Q+9
CHAPTER 31
CAPACITOR
1.
Given that
Number of electron = 1 1012
12
19
7
Net charge Q
= 1 10 1.6 10 = 1.6 10 C
The net potential difference = 10 L.
Capacitance C =
2.
A = r = 25 cm
d = 0.1 cm
2
q
1.6 10 7
8
=
= 1.6 10 F.
v
10
5 cm
0.1 cm
0 A
8.854 10 12 25 3.14
5
=
= 6.95 10 F.
d
0 .1
Let the radius of the disc = R
2
Area = R
C = 1
3
D = 1 mm = 10 m
A
C= 0
d
c=
3.
1 mm
10 3 1012
10 9
8.85 10 12 r 2
2
r
=
=
= 5998.5 m = 6 Km
8.85
27.784
10 3
A = 25 cm2 = 2.5 103 cm2
d = 1 mm = 0.01 m
V = 6V
Q=?
1=
4.
C=
0 A
8.854 10 12 2.5 10 3
=
d
0.01
8.854 10 12 2.5 10 3
10
6 = 1.32810 10 C
0.01
10
10
W = Q V = 1.32810 10 6 = 8 10 J.
2
3
Plate area A = 25 cm = 2.5 10 m
Separation d = 2 mm = 2 103 m
Potential v = 12 v
Q = CV =
5.
(a) We know C =
0 A
8.85 10 12 2.5 10 3
12
=
= 11.06 10 F
3
d
2 10
q
q
12
11.06 10 =
v
12
10
q1 = 1.32 10 C.
(b) Then d = decreased to 1 mm
3
d = 1 mm = 1 10 m
C=
C=
0 A
q
2
8.85 10 12 2.5 10 3
=
=
=
d
v
12
1 10 3
6.
10
31.1
C1
C2
C3
Capacitor
7.
30 F
20 F
40 F
V = 12 V
q
q = C V = 9.23 12 = 110 C on each.
V
As this is a series combination, the charge on each capacitor is same as the equivalent charge
which is 110 C.
(b) Let the work done by the battery = W
C=
V=
8.
W
6
3
W = Vq = 110 12 10 = 1.33 10 J.
q
C1 = 8 F,
C2 = 4 F ,
C3 = 4 F
(C2 C3 ) C1
Ceq =
C1 C 2 C3
8 F
88
= 4 F
16
Since B & C are parallel & are in series with A
q2 = 4 6 = 24 C
So, q1 = 8 6 = 48 C
(a)
4 F
12 V
4 F
9.
C1
q3 = 4 6 = 24 C
C1
C2
C2
C1 = 4
C2 = 6
C1, C1 are series & C2, C2 are series as the V is same at p & q. So no current pass through p & q.
1
1
1
1
1 1
C C1 C 2
C C1C 2
C1
4
=
= 2 F
2
2
C
6
And Cq = 2 =
= 3 F
2
2
C = Cp + Cq = 2 + 3 = 5 F
C2 = 6 F,
(b) C1 = 4 F,
In case of p & q, q = 0
C
4
Cp = 1 =
= 2 F
2
2
Cp=
C1
C2
B
C1
Cq =
31.2
C2
q
C2
6
=
= 3 F
2
2
& C = 2 + 3 = 5 F
C & C = 5 F
The equation of capacitor C = C + C = 5 + 5 = 10 F
C1
C1
C2
C2
S
Capacitor
10. V = 10 v
Ceq = C1 +C2
[ They are parallel]
= 5 + 6 = 11 F
q = CV = 11 10 110 C
11. The capacitance of the outer sphere = 2.2 F
C = 2.2 F
Potential, V = 10 v
Let the charge given to individual cylinder = q.
5 F
B
6 F
A5
10 V
B6
q
V
q = CV = 2.2 10 = 22 F
The total charge given to the inner cylinder = 22 + 22 = 44 F
C=
q
Kq
, Now V =
V
R
q
R
So, C1 =
= 1 = 4 0R1
Kq / R1 K
12. C =
Similarly c2 = 4 0R2
The combination is necessarily parallel.
Hence Ceq = 4 0R1 +4 0R2 = 4 0(R1 + R2)
13.
A
C = 2 F
In this system the capacitance are arranged in series. Then the capacitance is parallel to each other.
(a) The equation of capacitance in one row
C=
C
3
C
are connected in parallel
3
C C C
= C = 2 F
3 3 3
As the volt capacitance on each row are same and the individual is
C=
60
Total
=
= 20 V
3
No. of capaci tan ce
10
4
10
y = 10
4
y = 4 capacitor.
So, the combinations of four rows each of 4 capacitors.
So,
31.3
Capacitor
15.
C
4 F
4 F
8 F
8 F
B
4 F
8 F
3 F
6 F
A
B
3 F
6 F
3 F
6 F
D
50
50
(a) Capacitor =
and
(i)
48
8
=
48
3
63
= 2 F
63
Q=
8
F
3
8
400
50 =
3
3
The potential at 4 F =
at 8 F =
400
100
=
34
3
400
100
=
38
6
100 100
50
=
V
3
6
3
(ii) Hence the effective charge at 2 F = 50 2 = 100 F
The Potential difference =
100
100
; Potential at 6 F =
3
6
100 100
50
Difference =
=
V
3
6
3
Potential at 3 F =
50
V
3
P R
1
1
=
=
= It is balanced. So from it is cleared that the wheat star bridge balanced. So
2
2
q S
the potential at the point C & D are same. So no current flow through the point C & D. So if we connect
another capacitor at the point C & D the charge on the capacitor is zero.
C1C2/C1+C2
16. Ceq between a & b
(b)
C2
a
C1C 2
CC
C3 1 2
C1 C2
C1 C 2
= C3
2C1C 2
(The three are parallel)
C1 C2
C1
C3
C2
b
C1C2/C1+C2
A
A
All have same surface area = a =
3
0 A
First capacitance C1 =
3d
0 A
nd
2 capacitance C2 =
3(b d)
rd
C3
C1
3 capacitance C3 =
a
b
a
b
a
0 A
3(2b d)
Ceq = C1 + C2 +C3
31.4
Capacitor
=
A1
0 A
0 A
0 A
1
1
+
+
= 0
3d
3 d b d 2b d
3(b d)
3(2b d)
3
d(b d)(2b d)
0 A 3d2 6bd 2b 2
3d(b d)(2b d)
18. (a) C =
2 0L
e 3.14 8.85 10 2 10 1
=
In2
In(R 2 / R1 )
[In2 = 0.6932]
= 80.17 10 8 PF
(b) Same as R2/R1 will be same.
19. Given that
12
12
C = 100 PF = 100 10 F
Ccq = 20 PF = 20 10 F
12
10
V = 24 V
q = 24 100 10 = 24 10
q2 = ?
Let q1 = The new charge 100 PF
V1 = The Voltage.
Let the new potential is V1
After the flow of charge, potential is same in the two capacitor
13
V1 =
q2
q
= 1
C2
C1
q q1
q
= 1
C2
C1
q1
24 10 10 q1
=
24 10 12
100 10 12
q1 = q1
5
10
= 6q1 = 120 10
= 24 10
= q1 =
10
120
10
10
10 = 20 10
6
V1 = q1
C1
20 10 10 = 20 V
100 10 12
20.
S/
2C
2C
5
4
q =
50 = 10 4 = 1.66 10 C
3
3
2
After the switch is made on,
5
Then Ceff = 2C = 10
5
4
Q = 10 50 = 5 10
Now, the initial charge will remain stored in the stored in the short capacitor
Hence net charge flowing
4
4
4
= 5 10 1.66 10 = 3.3 10 C.
Ceff =
31.5
Capacitor
21.
0.04 F
V
0.04 F
0.04
= 0.02 F
2
The particle may be in equilibrium, so that the wt. of the particle acting down ward, must be balanced by
the electric force acting up ward.
qE = Mg
V
d
A
C= 0
q
Electric force = qE = q
= q
VC
0 A
0 A
C
qE = mg
=
=
QVC
= mg
0 A
0.01 0.02 V
8.85 10 12 100
= 0.1 980
y=
1qE x
2m
d1
,
2
E=
V
qd1
q
=
=
,
R
0a 2 d1
0a 2
B
d2
x = a,
=?
q
0a 2
qd1
=
as
C
=
1
C1
d1
0a2
d1
me
For capacitor A
V1 =
0a2
V
d1 d2
31.6
0a 2
d1 d2
Capacitor
Hence E =
q
0a
0a2 V
(d1 d2 ) 0 a2
V
(d1 d2 )
u =
2
d1
1
e V
a2
2
=
2 (d1 d2 )m u
2
1/ 2
Vea 2
d m(d d )
1
2
1
Vea 2
u=
d1m(d1 d2 )
qeme
Me
+
+
+
+
+
+
qpe
= ap
Mp
1
2
(1)
The distance travelled by proton X = apt
2
The distance travelled by electron
(2)
1 2
1 2
x = act
From (1) and (2) 2 X = act
2
2
ap
x
2 x ac
2 cm
qe
ep
ex
E
qp E
qpE
Mp
=
qc F
Mc
9 .1
9.1 10 31
x
M
4
=
10 4 = 5.449 10
c =
27
1
.
67
2 x Mp
1.67 10
x = 10.898 10
x=
5.449 10 x
10.898 10 4
= 0.001089226
1.0005449
24. (a)
3 F
1 F
A
5 F
2 F
1
B
6 F
1 3 2 6
3 12
6 12
=
=
= 2.25 F
48 8
8
1 3 2 6
25. (a) By loop method application in the closed circuit ABCabDA
1 F
3 F
5 F
6 F
2 F
Ceq =
12 +
2Q
Q
Q
1 1 =0
2F 2F 4F
B
Q
(1)
2 F
Q
Q Q1
=0
2F
4F
4 F
(Q Q1)
(2)
(3)
From (1) and (2) 2Q + 3Q1 = 48
And 3Q q1 = 48 and subtracting Q = 4Q1, and substitution in equation
31.7
2 F
4 F
b
Capacitor
2Q + 3Q1 = 48 8 Q1 + 3Q1 = 48 11Q1 = 48, q1 =
48
11
Q1
48
12
=
=
V
4F
11 4
11
Vab =
(b)
12 V
4 F
12 V
2 F
2 F
4 F
b
b
24 V
24 V
The potential = 24 12 = 12
(2 0 12 4)
48
=
=8V
2 4
6
Potential difference V =
The Va Vb = 8 V
Left
Right
(c)
2 V
2 F
F
2 V
B
a
2 F
b
E
From the figure it is cleared that the left and right branch are symmetry and reversed, so the current go
towards BE from BAFEB same as the current from EDCBE.
The net charge Q = 0
V=
Q
0
=
=0
C
C
Vab = 0
2 F
24 V
1 F
24 24 24
72
Net ch arg e
=
=
10.3 V
7
7
Net capaci tan ce
Va Vb = 10.3 V
26. (a)
3/8
1 F
4 F
3 F
12/8
3/8
3/8
4/8
3 F
1 F
4/8
12/8
1/2
3/2
3 F
1 F
1 F
3 F
1 3
3 1
3 35
9 35
11
3
2 2
Ceff =
=
=
=
F
1 3
8 24
24
6
8
3
1
2 2
31.8
Capacitor
(b)
1 F
2 F
3 F
2 F
4 F
4 F
1 F
3 F
3/8 f
3/8 f
4/8 f
12/8 f
1/2 f
3/2 f
2 f
2 f
3/2 f
1/2 f
2 f
2 f
4/8 f
12/8 f
3/8 f
3/8 f
3/8 f
4 f
4 f
3 16 3
11
=
f
8 8 8
4
3/8 f
(c)
2 F
4/3 F
4 F
8/3 F
5 F
8 F
4 F
4 F
4 F
Cef =
(d)
4 8
4 = 8 F
3 3
4 f
2 f
2 f
4 f
6 f
4 f
6 f
4 f
8 f
4 f
8 f
8 f
4 f
8 f
6 f
2 f
2 f
4 f
4 f
8/6 f
32/12 f
32/12 f
8/6 f
Cef =
3 32 32 8
16 32
=
= 8 f
8 12 12 6
6
31.9
Capacitor
27.
2 f
2 f
2 f
2 f
8
B
22
=1
22
This is parallel to C6 = 1 + 1 = 2
Ceq =
22
=1
22
Which is parallel to C7 = 1 + 1 = 2
22
Which is series to C3 =
=1
22
Which is parallel to C8 = 1 + 1 = 2
Which is series to C2 =
This is series to C4 =
28.
22
=1
22
A
A
Fig 
B
1 F
2 f
Fig
Let the equivalent capacitance be C. Since it is an infinite series. So, there will be negligible change if
the arrangement is done an in Fig
2C
2C 2 C
+1C=
2C
2C
(2 + C) C = 3C + 2
C2 C 2 = 0
(C 2) (C + 1) = 0
C = 1 (Impossible)
So, C = 2 F
Ceq =
29.
A
4 f
2 f
4 f
2 f
4 f
2 f
4 f
A
c
2 f
4C
4C
Then C1 and 2 f are parallel
C = C1 + 2 f
4C
4C 8 2C
2
=C
4C
4C
2
2
4C + 8 + 2C = 4C + C = C 2C 8 = 0
So, C1 =
2 4 4 1 8
2 36
26
=
=
2
2
2
26
C=
= 4 f
2
The value of C is 4 f
C=
31.10
Capacitor
8
30. q1 = +2.0 10 c
q2 = 1.0 10
C = 1.2 103 F = 1.2 109 F
net q =
q1 q2
3.0 10 8
=
2
2
q
3 10 8
1
=
= 12.5 V
c
2
1.2 10 9
31. Given that
Capacitance = 10 F
Charge = 20 c
20 0
= 10 F
The effective charge =
2
q
q
10
C=
V=
=
= 1 V
C
10
V
7
32. q1 = 1 C = 1 106 C
C = 0.1 F = 1 10 F
6
q2 = 2 C = 2 10 C
V=
net q =
+20c
+ +
+ +
x 10 + + 10
+
+ + 0
+ +
+ +
x 10 
 x

q1 q2
(1 2) 10 6
6
=
= 0.5 10 C
2
2
q
1 10 7
=
=5V
c
5 10 7
But potential can never be ()ve. So, V = 5 V
33. Here three capacitors are formed
And each of
Potential V =
A=
96
10 12 f.m.
0
d = 4 mm = 4 10 m
Capacitance of a capacitor
C=
0 A
=
d
96 10 12
0
4 10 3
= 24 10
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
F.
C
24 10 9
9
=
= 8 10
q
3
q
5 10 7 C
=
= 10 V
V=
C
C
5 10 8 F
35. Here given,
Capacitance of each capacitor, C = 50 f = 0.05 f
Charge Q = 1 F which is given to upper plate = 0.5 c charge appear on outer
and inner side of upper plate and 0.5 c of charge also see on the middle.
(a) Charge of each plate = 0.5 c
Capacitance = 0.5 f
+++++++++
1 C
1.0 C
0.5 C
0.5 C
0.5 C
0.5 C
0.5 C
0.5 C
31.11
Capacitor
q
q
0 .5
V=
=
= 10 v
V
C
0.05
(b) The charge on lower plate also = 0.5 c
Capacitance = 0.5 F
C=
q
q
0 .5
V=
=
= 10 V
V
C
0.05
The potential in 10 V
12
12
36. C1 = 20 PF = 20 10 F,
C2 = 50 PF = 50 10 F
C=
Effective C =
C1C 2
2 10 11 5 10 11
11
=
= 1.428 10 F
C1 C 2
2 10 11 5 10 11
Charge q = 1.428 10
11
6 = 8.568 10
11
11
V1 =
q
8.568 10
=
C1
2 10 11
V2 =
q
8.568 10 11
=
= 1.71 V
C2
5 10 11
= 4.284 V
1 q2
1 4 10 4
=
2 10 5
2 c
For b & c
4
q = 4 10 c
5
Ceq = 2c = 2 10 F
E=
= 8 10
20 V
a
c
cd
c
c
J = 8 mJ
100 V
4 10 4
= 20 V
2 10 5
2
5
2
3
E = (1/2) cv = (1/2) 10 (20) = 2 10 J = 2 mJ
39. Stored energy of capacitor C1 = 4.0 J
V=
6 f
4 f
1 q2
= 4.0 J
2 c2
2
2
2 c
2 c
So that the energy should divided.
The total energy stored in the two capacitors each is 2 J.
31.12
Capacitor
6
q
q1
q
q
= 2 1 = 2 q2 = 2q1 .
C1 C 2
2
4
6
or q1 + q2 = 24 10 C
q1 = 8 106 c
6
6
q2 = 2q1 = 2 8 10 = 16 10 c
2
8
2
E1 = (1/2) C1 V1 = (1/2) 2 = 16 J
2
2
8
2
E2 = (1/2) C2 V2 = (1/2) 4 = 8 J
4
41. Charge = Q
Radius of sphere = R
Capacitance of the sphere = C = 40R
2
Energy =
1Q
1 Q
Q
=
=
2 4 0R
80R
2 C
42. Q = CV = 40R V
E=
1 q2
2 C
E=
1 16 2 0 R 2 V 2
2
= 2 0RV
2
40 2R
43. = 1 10 c/m
2
a = 1 cm = 1 10 m
4
a = 10
4 2
10 4
1
1 (1 10 )
=
=
= 564.97
12
2 0
17.7
2 8.85 10
2
The necessary electro static energy stored in a cubical volume of edge 1 cm infront of the plane
=
1 2 3
a
2 0
= 265 10
= 5.65 10
2
44. area = a = 20 cm = 2 10 m
3
d = separation = 1 mm = 10 m
0 2 10 3
0 2 10 3
= 0
2 10 3
qi = 24 0
q = 12 0
So, q flown out 12 0. ie, qi qf.
(a) So, q = 12 8.85 1012 = 106.2 1012 C = 1.06 1010 C
(b) Energy absorbed by battery during the process
= q v = 1.06 1010 C 12 = 12.7 1010 J
(c) Before the process
Ei = (1/2) Ci v2 = (1/2) 2 8.85 1012 144 = 12.7 1010 J
After the force
Ei = (1/2) Cf v2 = (1/2) 8.85 1012 144 = 6.35 1010 J
(d) Workdone = Force Distance
Ci =
10 3
= 20
1 q2
3
= 1 10
2 0 A
C =
1 12 12 0 0 10 3
2
0 2 10 3
(e) From (c) and (d) we have calculated, the energy loss by the separation of plates is equal to the
work done by the man on plate. Hence no heat is produced in transformer.
31.13
Capacitor
45. (a) Before reconnection
C = 100 f
V = 24 V
q = CV = 2400 c (Before reconnection)
After connection
When C = 100 f
V = 12 V
q = CV = 1200 c (After connection)
(b) C = 100,
V = 12 V
q = CV = 1200 v
W
(c) We know V =
q
W = vq = 12 1200 = 14400 J = 14.4 mJ
The work done on the battery.
(d) Initial electrostatic field energy Ui = (1/2) CV12
2
Final Electrostatic field energy U = (1/2) CV2
Decrease in Electrostatic
2
2
Field energy = (1/2) CV1 (1/2) CV2
2
2
= (1/2) C(V1 V2 ) = (1/2) 100(576 144) = 21600J
Energy = 21600 j = 21.6 mJ
(e)After reconnection
C = 100 c,
V = 12 v
The energy appeared = (1/2) CV2 = (1/2) 100 144 = 7200 J = 7.2 mJ
This amount of energy is developed as heat when the charge flow through the capacitor.
46. (a) Since the switch was open for a long time, hence the charge flown must be due to the both, when
the switch is closed.
Cef = C/2
C
EC
So q =
2
(b) Workdone = q v =
(c) Ei =
EC
E 2C
E =
2
2
E 2C
1 C
E2 =
4
2 2
2
Ef = (1/2) C E =
E 2C
2
E 2C
4
(d) The net charge in the energy is wasted as heat.
V1 = 24 V
47. C1 = 5 f
q1 = C1V1 = 5 24 = 120 c
V2 = R
and C2 = 6 f
q2 = C2V2 = 6 12 = 72
Energy stored on first capacitor
Ei Ef =
Ei =
2
1 (120)2
1 q1
=
= 1440 J = 1.44 mJ
2 C1
2
2
Energy stored on 2
nd
capacitor
E2 =
1 (72)2
1 q2
=
= 432 J = 4.32 mJ
2 C2
2
6
31.14
Capacitor
(b) C1V1
Let the effective potential = V
V=
C2V2
5 f 24 v
C1V1 C 2 V2
120 72
=
= 4.36
C1 C 2
56
6 f 12 v
48.
(i)
(ii)
+
When the capacitor is connected to the battery, a charge Q = CE appears on one plate and Q on
the other. When the polarity is reversed, a charge Q appears on the first plate and +Q on the
second. A charge 2Q, therefore passes through the battery from the negative to the positive
terminal.
The battery does a work.
2
W = Q E = 2QE = 2CE
In this process. The energy stored in the capacitor is the same in the two cases. Thus the workdone
by battery appears as heat in the connecting wires. The heat produced is therefore,
2
6
5
2CE = 2 5 10 144 = 144 10 J = 1.44 mJ
[have C = 5 f V = E = 12V]
2
49. A = 20 cm 20 cm = 4 10 m
3
d = 1 m = 1 10 m
k=4
t=d
Ak
0 A
0 A
C=
=
= 0
20 cm
t
d
d
dt
dd
k
k
=
8.85 10 12 4 10 2 4
1 mm
9
= 141.6 10 F = 1.42 nf
1 10 3
50. Dielectric const. = 4
F = 1.42 nf,
V=6V
Charge supplied = q = CV = 1.42 109 6 = 8.52 109 C
Charge Induced = q(1 1/k) = 8.52 109 (1 0.25) = 6.39 109 = 6.4 nc
Net charge appearing on one coated surface =
8.52c
= 2.13 nc
4
51. Here
2
2
2
Plate area = 100 cm = 10 m
3
Separation d = .5 cm = 5 10 m
3
Thickness of metal t = .4 cm = 4 10 m
12
20 cm
A = 100 cm2
d = 0.5 cm
2
t = 0.4 cm
A
8.585 10
10
= 0 =
= 88 pF
t
dt
(5 4) 10 3
dt
k
Here the capacitance is independent of the position of metal. At any position the net separation is d t.
As d is the separation and t is the thickness.
C=
0 A
31.15
Capacitor
52. Initial charge stored = 50 c
Let the dielectric constant of the material induced be k.
Now, when the extra charge flown through battery is 100.
So, net charge stored in capacitor = 150 c
A
A
q
Now C1 = 0
or 1 0
(1)
d
V
d
Ak
Ak
q
C2 = 0
or, 2 0
(2)
d
d
V
q
1
Deviding (1) and (2) we get 1
q2 k
50 c
50
1
k=3
150 k
3
53. C = 5 f
V=6V
d = 2 mm = 2 10 m.
(a) the charge on the +ve plate
q = CV = 5 f 6 V = 30 c
V
6V
3
(b) E =
=
= 3 10 V/M
d
2 10 3 m
(c) d = 2 10 m
3
t = 1 10 m
k = 5 or C =
0 A
d
5 10
8.85 A 10 12
2 10
10 9 A =
10 4
8.85
10 4
12
0 A
10 4 5 5
8.85 = 10
=
= 10 5 = 0.00000833 = 8.33 F.
C1 =
3
3
t
6
6
10
10
dt
10 3
k
5
6
(d) C = 5 10 f.
V=6V
5
Q = CV = 3 10 f = 30 f
C = 8.3 106 f
V=6V
Q = CV = 8.3 106 6 50 F
charge flown = Q Q = 20 F
C1C 2
54. Let the capacitances be C1 & C2 net capacitance C =
C1 C 2
1 cm2
8.85 10 12
Ak
Now C1 = 0 1
d1
Ak
C2 = 0 2
d2
k k
0 Ak 1 0 Ak 2
0 A 1 2
d1
d2
8.85 10 12 10 2 24
d1d2
C=
=
=
0 Ak 1 0 Ak 2
k d k 2 d1
6 4 10 3 4 6 10 3
0 A 1 2
d1
d2
d1d2
11
C1
6 mm
C2 k=4
4 mm
Capacitor
0 A
C=
dt
t
k
8.85 10 12 4 10 2
10 3 5 10 4
C=
C1C 2
C1 C 2
C2 =
5 10
5
35.4 10 4
10 3 0.5
0 Ak 2
d/2
K1
(2 0 A )2 k 1k 2
2 0 Ak 1 2 0 Ak 2
2k 1k 2 0 A
d2
d
d
=
=
=
k 1d k 2 d
2 0 Ak 1 2 0 Ak 2
d(k 1 k 2 )
(2 0 A )
d
d
d2
K2
(b) similarly
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
=
3 0 Ak 1 3 0 Ak 2
3 0 Ak 3
C C1 C 2 C 3
d
d
d
d 1
1
1
d k 2k 3 k 1k 3 k 1k 2
3 0 A k 1 k 2 k 3
3 0 A
k 1k 2k 3
C=
3 0 Ak 1k 2k 3
d(k 1k 2 k 2k 3 k 1k 3 )
(c) C = C1 + C2
A
A
0 k1 0 k 2
A
2
2
=
= 0 (k 1 k 2 )
d
2d
d
57.
dx
A
k1 d
dc
d x tan
dc1
k2
x tan
Consider an elemental capacitor of with dx our at a distance x from one end. It is constituted of two
capacitor elements of dielectric constants k1 and k2 with plate separation xtan and d xtan
respectively in series
1
1
1
x tan
d x tan
dcR dc 1 dc 2
0k 2 (bdx ) 0k 1(bdx )
dcR =
0bdx
x tan (d x tan )
k2
k1
or CR = 0bk1k2
k d (k
2
dx
1 k 2 )x tan
0bk 1k 2
=
[logek2d+ (k 1 k2) x tan]a
tan (k 1 k 2 )
=
0bk 1k 2
[logek2d+ (k 1 k2) a tan loge k2d]
tan (k 1 k 2 )
tan =
d
and A = a a
a
31.17
Capacitor
0 ak 1k 2
d
(k 1 k 2 )
a
k 1
loge
k 2
CR =
0 a 2k 1k 2
d(k 1 k 2 )
k 1
loge
k 2
CR =
0 a 2k 1k 2
d(k 1 k 2 )
CR =
In
58.
/
V
k1
k2
1 q2
1 c 2v 2
cv 2
=
=
2 c
2
3c
6
In case of A
Ceff = 3c
1
3
1
E = C eff v 2 = 3c v2 = cv2
2
2
2
E=
cv 2 3cv 2
10cv 2
=
6
2
6
Initial Energy
cv 2
=
=3
Final Energy
10cv 2
6
59. Before inserting
A
AV
C= 0 C
Q= 0
C
d
d
After inserting
Ak
Ak
A
C= 0 = 0
Q1 = 0
V
d
d
d
k
The charge flown through the power supply
Q = Q1 Q
AV
AkV 0 AV
= 0
= 0
(k 1)
d
d
d
Workdone = Charge in emf
Now,
1q
1
=
=
2 C
2
+
+
+
02 A 2 V 2
(k 1)2
AV 2
d2
= 0
(k 1)
0 A
2d
(k 1)
d
31.18
Capacitor
60. Capacitance = 100 F = 10 F
P.d = 30 V
(a) q = CV = 104 50 = 5 103 c = 5 mc
Dielectric constant = 2.5
(b) New C = C = 2.5 C = 2.5 104 F
4
New p.d =
c1
5 10 3
= 20 V.
2.5 10 4
(c) In the absence of the dielectric slab, the charge that must have produced
C V = 104 20 = 2 103 c = 2 mc
(d) Charge induced at a surface of the dielectric slab
= q (1 1/k)
(where k = dielectric constant, q = charge of plate)
=
= 5 10
3
1
3
3
= 3 10 = 3 mc.
1
= 5 10
2 .5
5
40bc
(b c )
(c a )
(b c )
b(c a) ka(b c )
=
4 0 ack 40 bc
k 4 0 abc
C=
C
b
1
1
1
C Cac Cbc
=
40kabc
ka(b c ) b(c a)
a
C
62. These three metallic hollow spheres form two spherical capacitors, which are connected in series.
Solving them individually, for (1) and (2)
4 0 ab
C1 =
( for a spherical capacitor formed by two spheres of radii R2 > R1 )
ba
4 0R 2R1
C=
R2 R2
Similarly for (2) and (3)
4 0bc
C2 =
c b
Ceff =
C1C 2
C1 C 2
( 40 )2 ab 2 c
(b a)(c a)
ab(c b) bc(b a)
4 0
(b a)(c b)
4 0 ab 2 c
abc ab b c abc
2
4 0 ab 2 c
b 2 (c a )
4 0 ac
ca
Capacitor
(b a)
(c b)
c(b a) ka(c b)
1
1
1
=
=
4 0 abk 4 0bc
k 4 0 abc
C Cab Cbc
C=
40kabc
c(b a) ka(c b)
64. Q = 12 c
V = 1200 V
v
106 v
=3
d
m
1200
V
4
d=
=
= 4 10 m
( v / d) 3 10 6
12 10 6
Q
8
=
= 10 f
v
1200
A
8
C = 0 = 10 f
d
c=
A=
10 8 d
10 8 4 10 4
2
=
0.45 m
0
8.854 10 4
2
65. A = 100 cm = 10
2
d = 1 cm = 10 m
V = 24 V0
The capacitance C =
0 A
8.85 10 12 10 2
12
=
= 8.85 10
d
10 2
12
12
(24) = 2548.8 10
C1
2548 .8 10 12
7
=
= 2.54 10 N.
d
10 2
66.
K
We knows
In this particular case the electricfield attracts the dielectric into the capacitor with a force
Where
b Width of plates
k Dielectric constant
d Separation between plates
V = E = Potential difference.
Hence in this case the surfaces are frictionless, this force is counteracted by the weight.
So,
0bE 2 (k 1)
= Mg
2d
M=
0bE 2 (k 1)
2dg
31.20
0bV 2 (k 1)
2d
Capacitor
67.
l1
l2
K2
K1
0bv 1
L1 x(k 1) (1)
2d
Suppose dielectric slab is attracted by electric field and an external force F consider the part dx
which makes inside further, As the potential difference remains constant at V.
The charge supply, dq = (dc) v to the capacitor
The work done by the battery is dwb = v.dq = (dc) v2
The external force F does a work dwe = (f.dx)
during a small displacement
The total work done in the capacitor is dwb + dwe = (dc) v2 fdx
This should be equal to the increase dv in the stored energy.
Thus (1/2) (dk)v2 = (dc) v2 fdx
2
U = (1/2) CV1 =
1 2 dc
v
2
dx
from equation (1)
f=
F=
0bv 2
(k 1 1)
2d
V1 =
2
F 2d
V1 =
0b(k 1 1)
V1
=
V2
V1
=
V2
F 2d
0b(k 1 1)
F 2d
0b(k 2 1)
F 2d
0b(k 1 1)
F 2d
0b(k 2 1)
k2 1
k1 1
The ratio of the emf of the left battery to the right battery =
31.21
k2 1
k1 1
Capacitor
68. Capacitance of the portion with dielectrics,
k 0 A
l
C1 =
d
Capacitance of the portion without dielectrics,
( a )A
C2 = 0
E
d
0 A
ka ( a)
Net capacitance C = C1 + C2 =
d
A
C = 0 a(k 1)
d
Consider the motion of dielectric in the capacitor.
Let it further move a distance dx, which causes an increase of capacitance by dc
dQ = (dc) E
The work done by the battery dw = Vdg = E (dc) E = E2 dc
Let force acting on it be f
Work done by the force during the displacement, dx = fdx
Increase in energy stored in the capacitor
2
2
(1/2) (dc) E = (dc) E fdx
fdx = (1/2) (dc) E2 f =
C=
1 E 2 dc
2 dx
0 A
a(k 1)
d
(here x = a)
dc
d 0 A
a(k 1)
=
da d
da
0 A
dc
(k 1) =
dx
d
f=
1 2 dc
1 A
E
= E 2 0 (k 1)
2 d
2
dx
ad =
E 2 0 A(k 1)
f
=
m
2dm
t=
2( a)
=
ad
Time period = 2t =
2( a)2dm
E 0 A(k 1)
2
( a) =
=
1
adt 2
2
4md( a)
0 AE 2 (k 1)
8md( a)
0 AE 2 (k 1)
31.22
Q(t) = At + Bt + c
a) At2 = Q
A=
Q
t2
A 'T'
T 2
A1T 1
b) Bt = Q
B=
Q A 'T'
A
t
T
c) C = [Q]
C = AT
2.
3.
4.
q=
t
10 10
10 10 4
2
2
= 100 + 200 = 300 C.
2
6
2
i = 1 A, A = 1 mm = 1 10 m
3
f cu = 9000 kg/m
Molecular mass has N0 atoms
N AI9000
= m Kg has (N0/M m) atoms = 0
63.5 10 3
No.of atoms = No.of electrons
No.of electrons N0 Af N0 f
n=
Unit volume
mAI
M
= i0t +
5.
dQ d
At 2 Bt C
dt
dt
= 2At + B = 2 5 5 + 3 = 53 A.
16
No. of electrons per second = 2 10 electrons / sec.
coulomb
Charge passing per second = 2 1016 1.6 109
sec
9
= 3.2 10 Coulomb/sec
Current = 3.2 103 A.
i = 2 A, t = 5 min = 5 60 sec.
6
q = i t = 2 10 5 60
= 10 60 106 c = 6 104 c
i = i0 + t, t = 10 sec, i0 = 10 A, = 4 A/sec.
d) Current t =
6 1023 9000
63.5 10 3
i = Vd n A e.
i
1
Vd =
63.5 10 3
6 10
23
9000 10
1.6 10
19
63.5 10 3
6 9 1.6 1026 10 19 10 6
32.1
63.5 10 3
63.5 10 3
6 9 1.6 10
6 9 16
3
= 0.074 10 m/s = 0.074 mm/s.
= 1 m, r = 0.1 mm = 0.1 103 m
R = 100 , f = ?
R = f/ a
=
6.
6
6
= 3.14 10 = 10 m.
= 2
volume of the wire remains constant.
A = A
A = A 2
A = A/2
f = Specific resistance
f
f '
R=
; R =
A
A'
f 2
4f
100 =
= 4R
A/2
A
4 100 = 400
2
6
2
= 4 m, A = 1 mm = 1 10 m
29
I = 2 A, n/V = 10 , t = ?
i = n A Vd e
29
6
19
e = 10 1 10 Vd 1.6 10
f=
7.
8.
Vd
1.6 10 19
1
=
4
8000
0.8 10
4
4 8000
t=
Vd 1/ 8000
10
1
29
10
9.
R=
f
a
10 =
3
1.7 10 8
10 6
103
3
= 0.58 10 m = 0.6 km.
1.7
fdx
y 2
(1)
dx
ya ba
x
L
ya ba
x
L
L(y a) = x(b a)
tan =
32.2
ba
y
Ya
dy
0 b a (diff. w.r.t. x)
dx
dy
ba
dx
Ldy
(2)
ba
Putting the value of dx in equation (1)
fLdy
dR =
2
y (b a)
dx =
fI
dy
(b a) y 2
dR =
R
fI
dy
dR
(b a) y 2
0
a
R=
fI
(b a)
fl
.
(b a) ab
ab
4
11. r = 0.1 mm = 10 m
R = 1 K = 103 , V = 20 V
a) No.of electrons transferred
V
20
3
2
= 20 10 = 2 10 A
R 103
2
2
q = i t = 2 10 1 = 2 10 C.
i=
2 102
1.6 10 19
2 10 17
17
= 1.25 10 .
1.6
i
2 10 2
2
10 6
8
A 10
3.14
+6
5
2
= 0.6369 10 = 6.37 10 A/m .
6
2
12. A = 2 10 m , I = 1 A
8
f = 1.7 10 m
E=?
=
R=
f 1.7 10 8
A
2 10 6
V = IR =
1 1.7 10 8
2 10 6
10 2 V / m
dL
I
2
2 10 6
= 8.5 mV/m.
13. I = 2 m, R = 5 , i = 10 A, E = ?
V = iR = 10 5 = 50 V
V 50
E=
= 25 V/m.
I
2
14. RFe = RFe (1 + Fe ), RCu = RCu (1 + Cu)
RFe = RCu
RFe (1 + Fe ), = RCu (1 + Cu)
E=
32.3
I1R V1
I2R V2
1.75 14.4 V
0.35 14.4 V
2.75 22.4 V
0.55 22.4 V
0.07 14.4 V
7 14.4 V
0.11 22.4 V
11 22.4 V
7(22.4 V) = 11(14.4 V) 156.8 7V = 158.4 11V
(7 11)V = 156.8 158.4 4V = 1.6
V = 0.4 V.
a) When switch is open, no current passes through the ammeter. In the upper part of
the circuit the Voltmenter has resistance. Thus current in it is 0.
Voltmeter read the emf. (There is not Pot. Drop across the resistor).
b) When switch is closed current passes through the circuit and if its value of i.
The voltmeter reads
ir = 1.45
1.52 ir = 1.45
ir = 0.07
1 r = 0.07 r = 0.07 .
E = 6 V, r = 1 , V = 5.8 V, R = ?
E
6
I=
, V = E Ir
R r R 1
6
6
5.8 = 6
1
= 0.2
R 1
R 1
R + 1 = 30 R = 29 .
V = + ir
7.2 = 6 + 2 r
1.2 = 2r r = 0.6 .
a) net emf while charging
9 6 = 3V
Current = 3/10 = 0.3 A
b) When completely charged.
Internal resistance r = 1
Current = 3/1 = 3 A
a) 0.1i1 + 1 i1 6 + 1i1 6 = 0
1
0.1 i1 + 1i1 + 1i1 = 12
6
12
i1 =
2.1
ABCDA
0.1i2 + 1i 6 = 0
0.1i2 + 1i
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
32.4
r
2
1
6
0.1
i1
F
A
B
b) 1i1 + 1 i1 6 + 1i1 = 0
3i1 = 12 i1 = 4
DCFED
i2 + i 6 = 0 i2 + i = 6
ABCDA,
i2 + (i2 i) 6 = 0
i2 + i2 i = 6 2i2 i = 6
2i2 2i = 6 i = 2
i2 + i = 6
i2 2 = 6 i2 = 8
i1 4 1
.
i2 8 2
b) I =
A
E
A
E
D
1
6
i1
B
i2i
i
i2
it is min, when
n1r n2R
n1r = n2R
I is max when n1r = n2R.
32.5
F
C
1
6
i1
B
i2i
i
i2
F
C
10
n1
r
2 n1rn2R = min
D
C
0.1
n1r
+R
n2
i2
n1E
n1n2E
n1r n2R
i2i
i
n1n2E
n1r n2R
for I = max,
n1r + n2R = min
Current =
Net resistance =
E
100
0.001Amp
R 100000
When R = 1
100
100
i=
0.0009A
100000 1 100001
When R = 100
i=
100
100
0.000999 A .
100000 100 100100
Upto R = 100 the current does not upto 2 significant digits. Thus it proved.
23. A1 = 2.4 A
Since A1 and A2 are in parallel,
20 2.4 = 30 X
i=
20 2.4
X=
= 1.6 A.
30
Reading in Ammeter A2 is 1.6 A.
A3 = A1 + A2 = 2.4 + 1.6 = 4.0 A.
24.
20
A
10 B
30
5.5V
10
i
20
30
5.5V
5.5V
10
20
imin =
20/3
30
30
5.5 3
= 0.15
110
5.5V
5.5V
10
i
imax
20
20/3
5.5 3 16.5
= 0.825.
20
20
180
= 60
3
i = 60 / 60 = 1 A
180
b) Reff =
= 90
2
i = 60 / 90 = 0.67 A
c) Reff = 180 i = 60 / 180 = 0.33 A
25. a) Reff =
180
180
180
60
32.6
1
100
=
= 12.5 .
1
1
8
1
20 50 100
V2
P
20
i2 20 2
Resistances are
i1 = 4 mA, i2 = 8 mA
Current in 20 K resistor = 4 mA
Current in 10 K resistor = 8 mA
Current in 100 K resistor = 12 mA
V = V1 + V2 + V3
= 5 K 12 mA + 10 K 8 mA + 100 K 12 mA
= 60 + 80 + 1200 = 1340 volts.
29. R1 = R, i1 = 5 A
i1
5K
A i=12mA
i=12mA
i2
B
100K
10
10R
, i2 = 6A
10 R
Since potential constant,
i1R1 = i2R2
R2 =
6 10R
10 R
(10 + R)5 = 60
5R = 10 R = 2 .
5R=
30.
r
a
r
b
6
6
66
31. a) Reff =
15 5 15
75 15
6
6
6
E
F
15/6
15 5 15 25
= 2.08 .
6 90
12
b) Across AC,
15 4 15 2 15 4 15 2
6
6
66
Reff =
15 4 15 2
60 30
6
6
6
15 4 15 2 10
= 3.33 .
6 90
3
32.7
6
6
6 6
Reff =
15 3 15 3
60 30
6
6
6
15 3 15 3 15
= 3.75 .
6 90
4
32. a) When S is open
Req = (10 + 20) = 30 .
i = When S is closed,
Req = 10
i = (3/10) = 0.3 .
33. a) Current through (1) 4 resistor = 0
b) Current through (2) and (3)
net E = 4V 2V = 2V
(2) and (3) are in series,
Reff = 4 + 6 = 10
i = 2/10 = 0.2 A
Current through (2) and (3) are 0.2 A.
34. Let potential at the point be xV.
(30 x) = 10 i1
(x 12) = 20 i2
(x 2) = 30 i3
i1 = i2 + i3
=
20
10
S
6
4V
2V
20
i2
a
30 x x 12 x 2
10
20
30
30 x
3V
10
30
12
x
i1 O
30
i3
2
i
x 12 x 2
2
3
3x 36 2x 4
6
180 6x = 5x 40
11x = 220 x = 220 / 11 = 20 V.
30 x =
i1 =
30 20
=1A
10
i2 =
20 12
= 0.4 A
20
20 2 6
= 0.6 A.
30
10
35. a) Potential difference between terminals of a is 10 V.
i through a = 10 / 10 = 1A
Potential different between terminals of b is 10 10 = 0 V
i through b = 0/10 = 0 A
i3 =
32.8
10V
10V
a
10
10
b
b
10
10V
10
a
10
c
10V
= E2R1
iR2R1 + i1R3R1
iR2R1 i1R2 (R1 + R3)
= E1 R2
E1 E2
R R
E1R2R3 E2R1R3
1
2
1
1
R3R1 R 2R1 R 2R3 1
2 R1 R3
b) Same as a
b
E1
R1
D
E1
R2
R 3
R3
i1
E2
R1
E2
a
R2
R1
E1
R3
i1
E2
R2
C
b
B
E1=3
r1
E1=2
A
i1
F
r2
E1=1
r3
i i1
3V
10
i i1
D
32.9
4
4.5V
2 G i1 2
ii1
i
A
i1i2
i 2 B
F i2
i2
2 i1 C
(1)
(2)
R
10
41. a) Reff =
(2r / 2) r
(2r / 2) r
r2 r
2r 2
r
a
2r.r
2r 8r
r 3r r 2r 3 3
Reff =
42.
10
10
10
50 10
50 10
10
20
10
20
10
E
8r/3
2r
10
20
20
10
6
10
50
6
2
0.4 A .
15 5
32.10
10
A
15
30
b
D
=r
30
8r/3
10
2r
(8r / 6) 2r 8r 2 / 3
8r 2 6
8r
=
= 4r.
(8r / 6) 2r 20r / 6
3 20 10
10
12V
10
6V
12V
10
6V
i
i
i
V
3r 6r 3r
B
i/3
2i i
r V
3 6
V
i/6
i/6
i/6
i/3
i/3
i/6
5i
r
6
i/3
V 5
Reff =
i
6r
i/3
i/6
i/3
i/6 F
E
2r/3
45. Reff
2r
3 r r
5r
2r
8
3 r r
r
r
r
r
Reff
Reff
r
4r
r
3
3
2r
r
2
Reff
r
4
32.11
Reff r
r
a
r
b
2R
R 2 1 R
6V
1
2
2R R 2
2
R 3R + 2 = R + 2R
R2
2
R R2=0
1
R
1 1 4.1.2 1 9 1 3
= 2 .
2.1
2
2
6
6
b) Total current sent by battery =
3
Reff 2
R=
47. a)
4.3
3i
4 0.1
= 0.08 A.
5
Ammeter reads a current = i = 0.1 A.
Voltmeter reads a potential difference equal to i1 50 = 0.08 50 = 4 V.
In circuit ABEFA,
50i1 + 2i1 + 1i 4.3 = 0
52i1 + i = 4.3
(1)
200 52i1 + 200 i = 4.3 200
In circuit BCDEB,
(i i1)200 i12 i150 = 0
200i 200i1 2i1 50i1 = 0
(2)
200i 252i1 = 0
From (1) and (2)
i1(10652) = 4.3 2 100
4.3 2 100
i1 =
= 0.08
10652
i = 4.3 52 0.08 = 0.14
Reading of the ammeter = 0.08 a
Reading of the voltmeter = (i i1)200 = (0.14 0.08) 200 = 12 V.
5i1 = 4 i = 4 0.1
b)
i1
50
i i2
200
2
E A
i1 =
32.12
4.3
i1
i i2
F
2
50
200
100 400
200 280
500
84V
84
0.3
i=
280
100i = (0.3 i) 400
i = 1.2 4i
5i = 1.2 i = 0.24.
0.3
100
i1
0.3i
200
V
400
0.24 100
24V
84
= 0.28 A
300
Voltage across 100 = (0.28 100) = 28 V.
49. Let resistance of the voltmeter be R .
i=
50R
, R2 = 24
50 R
Both are in series.
30 = V1 + V2
30 = iR1 + iR2
30 iR2 = iR1
30
iR1 = 30
R2
R1 R2
R1 =
30
50
24
R2
V1 = 30 1
1 R2
R1
V1 = 30
R1 R2
50R
18 = 30
50R
50
24
50 R
50R (50 R)
30(50R)
18 = 30
S=
25 10
10mA
25
575
103
25
B
25 10
1.999
210 3
2 10
3
2
= 12.5 10 = 1.25 10 .
32.13
50
1.15K
12
0.01
50
0.01 50
50
R=
= 0.251 .
1.99
199
20.01=1.99
R AD
8
12
G
A
40 3
= 24 cm.
5
IAB = (40 24) cm = 16 cm.
54. The deflections does not occur in galvanometer if the condition is a balanced
wheatstone bridge.
Let Resistance / unit length = r.
Resistance of 30 m length = 30 r.
Resistance of 20 m length = 20 r.
5/3 IDB = 40 LDB =
6 30r
R 20r
30
20 6
= 4 .
30
55. a) Potential difference between A and B is 6 V.
B is at 0 potential.
Thus potential of A point is 6 V.
The potential difference between Ac is 4 V.
VA VC = 0.4
VC = VA 4 = 6 4 = 2 V.
b) The potential at D = 2V, VAD = 4 V ; VBD = OV
Current through the resisters R1 and R2 are equal.
4
2
Thus,
R1 R2
20
30 R = 20 6 R =
R1
=2
R2
I1
= 2 (Acc. to the law of potentiometer)
I2
I1 + I2 = 100 cm
I
3I
I1 + 1 = 100 cm 1 = 100 cm
2
2
200
I1 =
cm = 66.67 cm.
3
AD = 66.67 cm
32.14
6V
R1
4V
R2
6V
d) Potential at A = 6 v
Potential at C = 6 7.5 = 1.5 V
For length x, Rx =
15r
6
i1
15r
x
6
i2
Vr
R=15r M
i2
i1
i2
E/2
(1)
15
rx (i1 + i2) = E/2
6
15
r (i1 + i2) = E/2
6
(2)
15
15
rx +
(6 x)i1 + i1R = E
a) For the loop PASQ (i1 + i2)
6
6
C
7.5
15
E
rx . i1 = E/2 = i1 =
6
5x r
E
and i2 = 0 in equation (1), we get x = 320 cm.
5x r
3E
.
22r
57. In steady stage condition no current flows through the capacitor.
b) Putting x = 5.6 and solving equation (1) and (2) we get i2 =
Reff = 10 + 20 = 30
i=
6F
2
1
A
30 15
10
20
2V
1
10 2
10
V
15
15 3
2/3 = 4 10
C = 4 C.
i
5V
(1)
10
(2)
10
i
20
ii1
B
5V
36
= 2 .
36
1F
2
Since current is divided in the inverse ratio of the resistance in each
branch, thus 2 will pass through 1, 2 branch and 1 through 3, 3
branch
VAB = 2 1 = 2V.
Q on 1 F capacitor = 2 1 c = 2 C
VBC = 2 2 = 4V.
Q on 2 F capacitor = 4 2 c = 8 C
VDE = 1 3 = 2V.
Q on 4 F capacitor = 3 4 c = 12 C
VFE = 3 1 = V.
Q across 3 F capacitor = 3 3 c = 9 C.
60. Ceq = [(3 f p 3 f) s (1 f p 1 f)] p (1 f)
= [(3 + 3)f s (2f)] p 1 f
= 3/2 + 1 = 5/2 f
V = 100 V
Q = CV = 5/2 100 = 250 c
Charge stored across 1 f capacitor = 100 c
Ceq between A and B is 6 f = C
Potential drop across AB = V = Q/C = 25 V
Potential drop across BC = 75 V.
61. a) Potential difference = E across resistor
b) Current in the circuit = E/R
c) Pd. Across capacitor = E/R
1
d) Energy stored in capacitor = CE2
2
i=
E E2
R R
E2
R
62. A = 20 cm = 20 10 m
3
d = 1 mm = 1 10 m ; R = 10 K
2
C=
=
E0 A 8.85 10 12 20 10 4
d
1 10 3
8.85 10 12 2 10 3
= 17.7 10
Farad.
10
2
3
Time constant = CR = 17.7 10 10 10
8
6
= 17.7 10 = 0.177 10 s = 0.18 s.
5
63. C = 10 F = 10 F, emf = 2 V
2
t/RC
)
t = 50 ms = 5 10 s, q = Q(1 e
5
Q = CV = 10 2
q = 12.6 106 F
12.6 10
= 2 10
(1 e 510
/ R105
)
32.16
A
2
1
2F
1
6V
E
3F
4F
3f
3f
3f
1f
1f
100V
10
20
12.6 10 6
2 10 5
1 e 510
1 0.63 = e 510
/ R105
/R
5000
ln0.37
R
5000
3
R=
= 5028 = 5.028 10 = 5 K.
0.9942
6
64. C = 20 10 F, E = 6 V, R = 100
3
t = 2 10 sec
t/RC
q = EC (1 e
)
1 e
210 3
100 2010 6
= 6 20 10
5
1
5
5
= 12 x 10 (1 e ) = 7.12 0.63 10 = 7.56 10
6
= 75.6 10 = 76 c.
65. C = 10 F, Q = 60 C, R = 10
a) at t = 0, q = 60 c
b) at t = 30 s, q = Qet/RC
6
0.3
= 60 10 e
= 44 c
6
1.2
= 18 c
c) at t = 120 s, q = 60 10 e
6
10
d) at t = 1.0 ms, q = 60 10 e = 0.00272 = 0.003 c.
66. C = 8 F, E = 6V, R = 24
V
6
0.25A
R 24
t/RC
b) q = Q(1 e
)
6
1
6
5
= (8 10 6) [1 c ] = 48 10 0.63 = 3.024 10
a) I =
Q 3.024 10 5
3.78
C
8 10 6
E = V + iR
6 = 3.78 + i24
i = 0.09
2
4
67. A = 40 m = 40 10
4
d = 0.1 mm = 1 10 m
R = 16 ; emf = 2 V
V=
C=
E0 A 8.85 1012 40 10 4
11
= 35.4 10 F
d
1 10 4
Now, E =
Q
CV
(1 e t / RC )
(1 e t / RC )
AE0
AE0
35.4 10 11 2
(1 e 1.76 )
40 10 4 8.85 10 12
4
4
= 1.655 10 = 1.7 10 V/m.
2
68. A = 20 cm , d = 1 mm, K = 5, e = 6 V
R = 100 103 , t = 8.9 105 s
=
C=
=
KE0 A 5 8.85 10 12 20 10 4
d
1 10 3
10 8.85 10 3 10 12
10 3
= 88.5 10
12
32.17
q = EC(1 e
8910 6
12
104
= 530.97
1 500.97 530
2 88.5 10 12
Energy =
530.97 530.97
1012
88.5 2
6
6
69. Time constant RC = 1 10 100 10 = 100 sec
t/CR
a) q = VC(1 e
)
t/RC
I = Current = dq/dt = VC.() e
, (1)/RC
=
I(in Amp )
V t / RC
V
24
1
e
6 t / 100
t / RC
R
Re
10 e
6
t/100
= 24 10 1/e
t = 10 min, 600 sec.
Q = 24 10+4 (1 e6) = 23.99 104
I=
1
6
23.9410 C
4
t
log2 n = 0.69.
RC
t/RC
71. q = Qe
q = 0.1 % Q
RC Time constant
3
= 1 10 Q
So, 1 103 Q = Q et/RC
t/RC
3
e
= ln 10
t/RC = (6.9) = 6.9
72. q = Q(1 en)
1 Q2
1 q2
Initial value ;
Final value
2 C
2 c
1 q2
1 Q2
2=
2 c
2 C
Q
2
1
2
Q2
Q
q
2
2
Q(1 e n )
n
1 e n e = 1
10 e
b) q = VC(1 et/CR)
70. Q/2 = Q(1 et/CR)
1
t/CR
(1 e
)
2
t/CR
e
=
q2
Q(in C )
24
5.9xx108amp
O
V/R
1
2
2
n = log
= 1.22
2 1
73. Power = CV = Q V
QV
Now,
QV et/RC
2
2
32.18
t/RC
t
ln 0.5
RC
(0.69) = 0.69
74. Let at any time t, q = EC (1 et/CR)
E = Energy stored =
q2 E2C2
E2 C
(1 e t / CR )2
(1 e t / CR )2
2c
2c
2
2
dE E2C 1
E2 t / RC
t / RC
)e t / RC
e
1 e t / CR
(1 e
dt
2 RC
CR
dR E2 1 t / CR
(1 e t / CR ) ( ) e t / CR(1 / RC) e t / CR
dt
2R RC
E2 2
E2 e t / CR e2t / CR
1
e t / CR
e 2t / CR
e 2t / CR
2R RC
RC
RC
RC
2R RC
t/RC
t/CR
1 = 0 e
= 1/2
For Rmax dR/dt = 0 2.e
2
t/RC = ln t = RC ln 2
Putting t = RC ln 2 in equation (1) We get
(1)
dR E2
.
dt
4R
75. C = 12.0 F = 12 10
emf = 6.00 V, R = 1
t/RC
t = 12 c, i = i0 e
CV
12 10 6 6
e t / RC
e1
T
12 106
= 2.207 = 2.1 A
b) Power delivered by battery
t/RC
We known, V = V0 e
(where V and V0 are potential VI)
t/RC
VI = V0I e
1
1
VI = V0I e = 6 6 e = 13.24 W
=
c) U =
=
CV 2 t / RC 2
(e
)
T
12 106 36
12 10
CV 2
= energy drawing per unit time]
T
e 1 = 4.872.
2
1
CV 2 (e t / RC )2
2
i Rdt i
2
2t / RC
0 Re
dt i02R e2t / RC dt
1 2 2 2t / RC 1
Ci0R e
CV 2 (Proved).
2
2
78. Equation of discharging capacitor
= i02R(RC / 2)e2t / RC
= q0 e
t / RC
K 0 AV (dK0 A ) / Ad K 0 AV t / K0
e
d
d
= K 0
Time constant is K 0 is independent of plate area or separation between the plate.
32.19
79. q = q0(1 e
0.2103
6
e 25410
25
= 25(2 + 2) 106 1
6
2
= 24 10 (1 e ) = 20.75
Charge on each capacitor = 20.75/2 = 10.3
80. In steady state condition, no current passes through the 25 F capacitor,
10
Net resistance =
5 .
2
12
Net current =
5
Potential difference across the capacitor = 5
Potential difference across the 10 resistor
= 12/5 10 = 24 V
2F
2F
6V
25F
10
12
10
t/RC
t/RC
6
q = Q(e
) = V C(e
) = 24 25 10 e 110 / 102510
6 4
6
6
= 24 25 10 e = 24 25 10 0.0183 = 10.9 10 C
Charge given by the capacitor after time t.
3
10.9 10 6 C
11mA .
1 10 3 sec
81. C = 100 F, emf = 6 V, R = 20 K, t = 4 S.
4
t
t/RC
)
Charging : Q = CV(1 e
RC
4
4
2 10 10
4
2
4
= 6 10 (1 e ) = 5.187 10 C = Q
t/RC
4
2
Discharging : q = Q(e
) = 5.184 10 e
4
= 0.7 10 C = 70 c.
C1C2
82. Ceff
C1 C2
t/RC
Q = Ceff E(1 e
)=
dq
1
dt
Q 2q RC
C2
C1
C1C2
t/RC
E(1 e
)
C1 C2
R
CR
dq Q 2q
Current =
dt
CR
A VA
VB
dq
1
dt
Q 2q RC
1
1
Q 2q 2
[ln(Q 2q) lnQ]
t ln
t
2
RC
Q
RC
2t/RC
2t/RC
Q 2q = Q e
2q = Q(1 e
)
Q
q = (1 e2t / RC )
2
84. The capacitor is given a charge Q. It will discharge and the capacitor will be charged up when
connected with battery.
Net charge at time t = Qe t / RC Q(1 e t / RC ) .
32.20
CHAPTER 33
2.
i = 2 A,
r = 25 ,
t = 1 min = 60 sec
2
Heat developed = i RT = 2 2 25 60 = 6000 J
R = 100 ,
E=6v
T = 15c
Heat capacity of the coil = 4 J/k
Heat liberate
3.
E2
= 4 J/K 15
Rt
66
t = 60 t = 166.67 sec = 2.8 min
100
(a) The power consumed by a coil of resistance R when connected across a supply v is P =
The resistance of the heater coil is, therefore R =
(b) If P = 1000 w
4.
= 1 10
then
v2
R
v2
(250)2
=
= 125
P
500
v2
(250 )2
=
= 62.5
P
1000
P = 500 W
E = 250 v
R=
V
250 250
=
= 125
P
500
2
6
2
7
2
(b) A = 0.5 mm = 0.5 10 m = 5 10 m
2
(a) R =
l
RA
125 5 10 7
1
=l=
=
= 625 10 = 62.5 m
A
1 10 6
3
(c) 62.5 = 2r n,
62.5 = 3 3.14 4 10 n
R=
62.5
n=
5.
n=
2 3.14 4 10
V = 250 V
P = 100 w
3
62.5 10 3
2500 turns
8 3.14
v2
(250)2
=
= 625
P
100
10
l
8
= 1.7 10
= 0.034
Resistance of wire R =
A
5 10 6
The effect in resistance = 625.034
R=
10 cm
V
220
=
A
R
625.034
2
220
The power supplied by one side of connecting wire =
0.034
625.034
2
220
The total power supplied =
0.034 2 = 0.0084 w = 8.4 mw
625.034
6.
E = 220 v
P = 60 w
V
220 220
220 11
=
=
P
60
3
2
R=
(a) E = 180 v
P=
180 180 3
V2
=
= 40.16 40 w
R
220 11
33.1
P=
240 240 3
V2
=
= 71.4 71 w
R
220 11
1% of 220 V = 2.2 v
7.
8.
V2
(220 )2
=
= 484
P
100
(a) For minimum power consumed V1 = 220 1% = 220 2.2 = 217.8
V
217.8
= 0.45 A
i= 1 =
R
484
Power consumed = i V1 = 0.45 217.8 = 98.01 W
(b) for maximum power consumed V2 = 220 + 1% = 220 + 2.2 = 222.2
V
222.2
i= 2 =
= 0.459
R
484
Power consumed = i V2 = 0.459 222.2 = 102 W
V = 220 v
P = 100 w
The resistance of bulb R =
R=
9.
220 220
V2
=
= 484
P
100
P = 150 w
V=
P = 1000
V = 220 v
Mass of water =
PR =
48400
V2
=
= 48.4
P
1000
1
1000 = 10 kg
100
Heat required to raise the temp. of given amount of water = mst = 10 4200 25 = 1050000
Now heat liberated is only 60%. So
V2
T 60% = 1050000
R
(220 )2 60
10500 1
T = 1050000 T =
nub = 29.16 min.
48.4 100
6
60
10. Volume of water boiled = 4 200 cc = 800 cc
T2 = 100C
T2 T1 = 75C
T1 = 25C
Mass of water boiled = 800 1 = 800 gm = 0.8 kg
Q(heat req.) = MS = 0.8 4200 75 = 252000 J.
1000 watt hour = 1000 3600 wattsec = 1000 3600 J
252000
No. of units =
= 0.07 = 7 paise
1000 3600
(b) Q = mST = 0.8 4200 95 J
0.8 4200 95
= 0.0886 0.09
1000 3600
Money consumed = 0.09 Rs = 9 paise.
11. P = 100 w
V = 220 v
Case I : Excess power = 100 40 = 60 w
60 60
Power converted to light =
= 36 w
100
No. of units =
(220)2
= 82.64 w
484
Excess power = 82.64 40 = 42.64 w
Case II : Power =
60
= 25.584 w
100
33.2
1
6
12
2 2i
5
24
24
3
8i =
i =
=
Amp
5
58
5
12 3
9
i i =
Amp
=
5 5
5
i 6 = (i i)2 i 6 =
i
2
ii
9 9
2 15 60 = 5832
5 5
2000 J of heat raises the temp. by 1K
5832 J of heat raises the temp. by 2.916K.
(b) When 6 resistor get burnt Reff = 1 + 2 = 3
2
(a) Heat = i RT =
6
= 2 Amp.
3
Heat = 2 2 2 15 60 = 7200 J
2000 J raises the temp. by 1K
7200 J raises the temp by 3.6k
6
2
13. = 0.001C
a = 46 106 v/deg,
b = 0. 48 10 v/deg
2
6
6
2
Emf = aBlAg +(1/2) bBlAg = 46 10 0.001 (1/2) 0.48 10 (0.001)
9
12
9
8
= 46 10 0.24 10 = 46.00024 10 = 4.6 10 V
2
aCuAg = aCuPb bAgPb = 2.76 2.5 = 0.26 v/C
14. E = aAB + bAB
bCuAg = bCuPb bAgPb = 0.012 0.012 vc = 0
5
E = aAB = (0.26 40) V = 1.04 10 V
15. = 0C
aCu,Fe = aCu,Pb aFe,Pb = 2.76 16.6 = 13.8 v/C
2
BCu,Fe = bCu,Pb bFe,Pb = 0.012 + 0.030 = 0.042 v/C
i=
a
13.8
=
C = 328.57C
b
0.042
16. (a) 1eq. mass of the substance requires 96500 coulombs
Since the element is monoatomic, thus eq. mass = mol. Mass
6.023 1023 atoms require 96500 C
Neutral temp. on
96500
19
C = 1.6 10 C
6.023 10 23
(b) Since the element is diatomic eq.mass = (1/2) mol.mass
23
(1/2) 6.023 10 atoms 2eq. 96500 C
1 atoms require
96500 2
19
= 3.2 10 C
6.023 10 23
17. At Wt. At = 107.9 g/mole
I = 0.500 A
EAg = 107.9 g
[As Ag is monoatomic]
1 atom require =
E
107.9
=
= 0.001118
f
96500
M = Zit = 0.001118 0.5 3600 = 2.01
ZAg =
33.3
3 10 3
1.12 10 6 180
1
10 2 15 Amp.
6.72
H2
2g
22.4L
m = Zit
20. w1 = Zit
E1
w
= 1
E2
w2
1L
2
22.4
2
2
96500
1
=
= 1732.21 sec 28.7 min 29 min.
5T T =
22.4
22.4
5
96500
3 96500
mm
1=
2 1.5 3600 mm =
= 26.8 g/mole
2 1.5 3600
3 96500
w
107.9 3
107.9
= 1 w1 =
= 12.1 gm
1
26.8
mm
3
2
Thickness = 0.1 mm
21. I = 15 A
Surface area = 200 cm ,
Volume of Ag deposited = 200 0.01 = 2 cm3 for one side
For both sides, Mass of Ag = 4 10.5 = 42 g
E
107.9
=
m = ZIT
F 96500
42 96500
107.9
42 =
= 2504.17 sec = 41.73 min 42 min
15 T T =
107.9 15
96500
22. w = Zit
107 .9
2.68 =
i 10 60
96500
2.68 965
I=
= 3.99 4 Amp
107.9 6
Heat developed in the 20 resister = (4)2 20 10 60 = 192000 J = 192 KJ
23. For potential drop, t = 30 min = 180 sec
Vi = Vf + iR 12 = 10 + 2i i = 1 Amp
ZAg =
107.9
1 30 60 = 2.01 g 2 g
96500
2
4
2
24. A= 10 cm 10 cm
6
t = 10m = 10 10
4
6
2
10
8
3
Volume = A(2t) = 10 10 2 10 10 = 2 10 10 = 2 10 m
8
5
Mass = 2 10 9000 = 18 10 kg
5
7
W = Z C 18 10 = 3 10 C
m = Zit =
q=
V=
18 10 5
3 10 7
= 6 10
W
2
2
= W = Vq = 12 6 10 = 76 10 = 7.6 KJ
q
33.4
20
<>
CHAPTER 34
MAGNETIC FIELD
1.
2.
q = 2 1.6 10 C,
= 3 10 km/s = 3 10 m/s
19
7
12
B = 1 T, F = qB = 2 1.6 10 3 10 1 = 9.6 10 N. towards west.
15
7
KE = 10 Kev = 1.6 10 J,
B = 1 10 T
(a) The electron will be deflected towards left
19
(b) (1/2) mv = KE V =
2
Applying s = ut + (1/2) at =
=
qBx 2
2m e
3.
KE 2
m
KE 2
m
qVB
me
B
qBx 2
1 qVB x 2
2 =
2m e V
2 me
V
1.6 10 19 1 10 7 12
9.1 10
31
1.6 10 15 2
9.1 10 31
2
By solving we get, s = 0.0148 1.5 10 cm
B = 4 103 T (K )
10
F = [4 i + 3 j 10 ] N.
FX = 4 10
10
FY = 3 10
10
Q = 1 10 C.
Considering the motion along xaxis :
FX = quVYB VY =
F
4 10 10
=
= 100 m/s
qB
1 10 9 4 10 3
Along yaxis
F
3 10 10
=
= 75 m/s
qB
1 10 9 4 10 3
Velocity = (75 i + 100 j ) m/s
3
B = (7.0 i 3.0 j) 10 T
6
2
a = acceleration = (i + 7j) 10 m/s
Let the gap be x.
4.
5.
= 3.7 10
s=
2
27 27
34.1
100
a
Magnetic Field
6.
qP= e,
mp = m,
F = qP E
ma 0
or, E =
towards west
or ma0 = eE
e
The acceleration changes from a0 to 3a0
a0
W
B=
7.
2ma 0
eV0
downwards
3
l = 10 cm = 10 10 m = 10 m
i = 10 A,
B = 0.1 T,
= 53
1
F = iL B Sin = 10 10 0.1 0.79 = 0.0798 0.08
For F = il B
So, For
da & cb l B = l B sin 90 towards left
towards left
Hence F 0.02 N
For
dc & ab F = 0.02 N
downward
9. F = ilB Sin
= ilB Sin 90
= i 2RB
2
= 2 (8 10 ) 1
2
= 16 10
= 0.16 N.
10. Length = l, Current = l i
B = B0 ( i j k )T = B 0i B 0 j B 0kT
F = l B = l i B i B j B k
0
53
2A
lA
N
2R
i
S
= l B0 i i + lB0 i j + lB0 i k = l B0 K l B0 j
2
or, F = 2 2l2B 0 = 2 l B0
11. i = 5 A,
l = 50 cm = 0.5 m
5A
B = 0.2 T,
F = ilB Sin = ilB Sin 90
x
x
x
x
x Px
x
x
= 5 0.5 0.2
= 0.05 N
( j )
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
xQ x
x
x
x
0.2 T
l =50 cm
12. l = 2a
Current i
F = i l B
= i (2a B )
= 2ai B perpendicular to the plane of the figure going inside.
34.2
Magnetic Field
13. B = B0 er
e r = Unit vector along radial direction
F = i( I B ) = ilB Sin
=
i(2a)B 0 a
i2a 2B 0
d a 2 d2
a 2 d2
a 2 d2
14. Current anticlockwise
Since the horizontal Forces have no effect.
dl
Let us check the forces for current along AD & BC [Since there is no B ]
In AD, F = 0
For BC
F = iaB upward
Current clockwise
Similarly, F = iaB downwards
Hence change in force = change in tension
= iaB (iaB) = 2 iaB
15. F1 = Force on AD = iB inwards
F2 = Force on BC = iB inwards
They cancel each other
F3 = Force on CD = iB inwards
F4 = Force on AB = iB inwards
They also cancel each other.
So the net force on the body is 0.
16. For force on a current carrying wire in an uniform magnetic field
We need, l length of wire
i Current
B Magnitude of magnetic field
Since F = iB
Now, since the length of the wire is fixed from A to B, so force is independent of the
17. Force on a semicircular wire
= 2iRB
= 2 5 0.05 0.5
= 0.25 N
18. Here the displacement vector dI =
So magnetic for i t dl B = i B
19. Force due to the wire AB and force due to wire CD are equal and opposite to each
other. Thus they cancel each other.
Net force is the force due to the semicircular loop = 2iRB
20. Mass = 10 mg = 105 kg
Length = 1 m
= 2 A,
B=?
Now, Mg = ilB
10 5 9.8
mg
5
=
= 4.9 10 T
iI
2 1
21. (a) When switch S is open
2T Cos 30 = mg
mg
T=
2Cos30
x
x
Bx
x
A
x
x
x
x
B
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
a
D
x x
x x
x x
x x
C
D
B
B
a
5A
5 cm
X
A
B =
200 10
9.8
O
T
Q
P
20 cm
= 1.13
2 ( 3 / 2)
34.3
X
X
X
X
R X
Magnetic Field
(b) When the switch is closed and a current passes through the circuit = 2 A
Then
2T Cos 30 = mg + ilB
= 200 103 9.8 + 2 0.2 0.5 = 1.96 + 0.2 = 2.16
2.16 2
2T =
= 2.49
2.49
= 1.245 1.25
2
22. Let F be the force applied due to magnetic field on the wire and x be
the dist covered.
So, F l = mg x
ibBl = mgx
T=
S
b
ibBl
mg
x=
23. R = F
m g = ilB
10 10
Q X
6
2
9.8 =
4.9 10 0.8
20
0.3 0.8 10 2
P X
2 10 2
= 0.12
24. Mass = m
length = l
Current = i
Magnetic field = B = ?
friction Coefficient =
iBl = mg
6 V
mg
il
25. (a) Fdl = i dl B towards centre. (By cross product rule)
(b) Let the length of subtends an small angle of 20 at the centre.
Here 2T sin = i dl B
2T = i a 2 B
[As 0, Sin 0]
T=iaB
dl = a 2
Force of compression on the wire = i a B
B=
F
2
Stress
r
26. Y =
=
Strain
dl
L
F
L
F
dl
Y =
dl =
2
2
Y
L
r
r
iaB
r
2a
2a 2iB
=
Y
r 2 Y
So, dp =
dr =
2a 2iB
r 2 Y
2a 2iB
r 2 Y
a 2iB
1
=
2 r 2 Y
34.4
Magnetic Field
27. B = B0 1 x K
l
eE = eB
or, E = B
dV
V
=
(c) E =
dr
l
V = lE = lB
29. (a) i = V0nAe
i
V0 =
nae
iBl
iB
(b) F = ilB =
=
(upwards)
nA
nA
(c) Let the electric field be E
iB
iB
E=
Ee =
An
Aen
dv
(d)
= E dV = Edr
dr
iB
d
= Ed =
Aen
8
30. q = 2.0 10 C
B = 0.10 T
10
13
m = 2.0 10 g = 2 10 g
3
= 2.0 10 m/
R=
D
l
B
A
2m
2 3.14 2 10 13
4
=
= 6.28 10 s
8
1
qB
2 10 10
mv
31. r =
qB
mv
(1)
e0.1
4m V
(2)
r=
2e 0.1
(2) (1)
r
4mVe 0.1
4
=
=
= 2 r = 0.02 m = 2 cm.
0.01
2e 0.1 mv
2
17
32. KE = 100ev = 1.6 10 J
31
2
17
(1/2) 9.1 10 V = 1.6 10 J
0.01 =
1.6 10 17 2
9.1 10 31
= 0.35 10
T=
m
2 10 13 2 10 3
=
= 0.2 m = 20 cm
qB
2 10 8 10 1
V =
14
34.5
V
X
Magnetic Field
7
m
10
9.1 10 31 0.591 10 7
=
qB
100
1.6 10 19 B
9.1 0.591 10 23
19 = 3.3613 104 T 3.4 104 T
1 .6
10
2m
2 3.14 9.1 10 31
=
qB
1.6 10 19 3.4 10 4
1
No. of Cycles per Second f =
T
T=
1 .6 3 .4
10 19 10 4
8
6
= 0.0951 10 9.51 10
31
2 3.14 9.1
10
4
6
Note: Puttig B 3.361 10 T We get f = 9.4 10
33. Radius = l,
K.E = K
=
L=
mV
l=
qB
B=
2mk
qB
2mk
ql
34. V = 12 KV
E=
V
qV
Now, F = qE =
l
l
or, a =
F
qV
=
m
ml
= 1 10 m/s
6
or V =
qV
l =
ml
q
12 10 3
m
q
12 10 3
m
q
12
3
10 = 24 10
m
6
or 1 10 =
m
24 10 3
9
=
= 24 10
q
1012
r=
mV
24 10 9 1 10 6
2
=
= 12 10 m = 12 cm
qB
2 10 1
4
mV
4 1.6 10 27 10 4
10 23
4
=
=
2
= 2 10 m
qB
2 1.6 10 19 1
10 19
2mv
2r
2 4 1.6 10 27
=
=
V
qB v
2 1.6 10 19 1
8
8
8
7
= 4 10 = 4 3.14 10 = 12.56 10 = 1.256 10 sex.
6
27
36. = 3 10 m/s,
B = 0.6 T,
m = 1.67 10 kg
19
F = qB
qP = 1.6 10 C
F
qB
=
or, a =
m
m
(c)Time taken =
1.6 10 19 3 10 6 10 1
1.67 10 27
13
4
2
= 17.245 10 = 1.724 10 m/s
34.6
Magnetic Field
37. (a) R = 1 n,
1=
=
B= 0.5 T,
r=
m
qB
9.1 10 31
1.6 10 19 0.5
1.6 0.5 10 19
10
10
1.6 10 27 v
1.6 10 19 0.5
1.6 10 19 0.5
1.6 10 27
= 0.5 10 = 5 10 m/s.
m
qB
(b) Since MA is tangent to are ABC, described by the particle.
Hence MAO = 90
Now, NAC = 90 [ NA is r]
OAC = OCA = [By geometry]
Then AOC = 180 ( + ) = 2
m
(c) Dist. Covered l = r =
( 2)
qB
X
A
X
X BX
m
l
t=
=
( 2)
qB
m
(i) Radius of Circular arc =
X X
X
X
qB
(ii) In such a case the centre of the arc will lie with in the magnetic field, as seen X X X X
in the fig. Hence the angle subtended by the major arc = + 2
X X
X
X
m
( 2)
(iii) Similarly the time taken by the particle to cover the same path =
qB
39. Mass of the particle = m, Charge = q,
Width = d
d
X
X X X
X
mV
r
(a) If d =
V
qB
X
d
VX
VY = uY + aYt =
(1)
0 qu XBt
qu XBt
=
m
m
qu XBd
mVX
34.7
C
X
X
B
X
V
VY
VX
Magnetic Field
Tan =
VY
qBmV X
qBd
1
=
=
=
VX
mVX
2qBmV X
2
= tan
(c) d
1
= 26.4 30 = /6
2
2mu
qB
Looking into the figure, the angle between the initial direction and final direction of velocity is .
4
B = 0.5 T,
r1 = 3/2 = 1.5 cm,
r2 = 3.5/2 cm
40. u = 6 10 m/s,
r1 =
mv
A (1.6 10 27 ) 6 10 4
=
qB
1.6 10 19 0.5
1.5 = A 12 10
15000
1 .5
A=
=
4
12
12 10
4
27
r2 =
3 .5
mu
A (1.6 10 ) 6 10
=
qB
2
1.6 10 19 0.5
A =
3.5 0.5 10 19
2 6 10 4 10 27
3.5 0.5 10 4
12
A
6
1 .5
12 10 4
=
=
4
A
3 .5 0 .5
7
12 10
12
14
Taking common ration = 2 (For Carbon). The isotopes used are C and C
3
41. V = 500 V
B = 20 mT = (2 10 ) T
V
500
q500
q500
=
F=
a=
E=
d
d
dm
d
u = 2ad = 2
2
r1 =
r1 =
q500
1000 q
2
du =
u=
dm
m
m1 1000 q1
q1 m1B
m 2 1000 q2
m1 1000
q1 B
m 2 1000
57 1.6 10 27 10 3
1.6 10
19
2 10
= 1.19 10
1000 58 1.6 10 27
q2 B
19
= 1.20 10
m = 119 cm
m = 120 cm
1.6 10
20 10
27
1
19
B = 5 10 T, q = 1.6 10 C,
K.E = 32 KeV.
42. For K 39 : m = 39 1.6 10 kg,
27
2
3
27
5
Velocity of projection : = (1/2) 39 (1.6 10 ) v = 32 10 1.6 10 v = 4.050957468 10
Through out ht emotion the horizontal velocity remains constant.
0.01
19
= 24 10 sec. [Time taken to cross the magnetic field]
t=
40.5095746 8 10 5
qvB
Accln. In the region having magnetic field =
m
q2 m 2 B
1000 q
m
= 5193.535216 10 m/s
39 1.6 10 27
8
9
V(in vertical direction) = at = 5193.535216 10 24 10 = 12464.48452 m/s.
0 .965
= 0.000002382 sec.
Total time taken to reach the screen =
40.5095746 8 10 5
9
9
9
Time gap = 2383 10 24 10 = 2358 10 sec.
9
Distance moved vertically (in the time) = 12464.48452 2358 10 = 0.0293912545 m
2
2
8
3
V = 2as (12464.48452) = 2 5193.535216 10 S S = 0.1495738143 10 m.
Net displacement from line = 0.0001495738143 + 0.0293912545 = 0.0295408283143 m
27
3
19
For K 41 : (1/2) 41 1.6 10
v = 32 10 1.6 10 v = 39.50918387 m/s.
34.8
Magnetic Field
a=
qvB
1.6 10 19 395091 .8387 0.5
8
2
=
= 4818.193154 10 m/s
m
41 1.6 10 27
00.1
9
= 25 10 sec.
39501.8387
V = at (Vertical velocity) = 4818.193154 108 108 25 109 = 12045.48289 m/s.
0.965
= 0.000002442
(Time total to reach the screen) =
395091 .8387
9
9
9
Time gap = 2442 10 25 10 = 2417 10
9
Distance moved vertically = 12045.48289 2417 10 = 0.02911393215
2
2
Now, V = 2as (12045.48289) = 2 4818.193151 S S = 0.0001505685363 m
Net distance travelled = 0.0001505685363 + 0.02911393215 = 0.0292645006862
Net gap between K 39 and K 41 = 0.0295408283143 0.0292645006862
= 0.0001763276281 m 0.176 mm
43. The object will make a circular path, perpendicular to the plance of paper
Let the radius of the object be r
t = (time taken for coming outside from magnetic field) =
mv 2
mV
= qvB r =
r
qB
1 1 1
1 1 1
(lens eqn.)
v = 36 cm.
v u f
v 18 12
Let the radius of the circular path of image = r
image height
v r
v
36
(magnetic path =
So magnification =
) r = r r =
4 = 8 cm.
u r
object height
u
18
Hence radius of the circular path in which the image moves is 8 cm.
44. Given magnetic field = B, Pd = V, mass of electron = m, Charge =q,
V
Let electric field be E E =
,
Force Experienced = eE
R
eE
eE
2
=
Now, V = 2 a S
[ x = 0]
Acceleration =
m
Rm
V=
2 e V R
=
Rm
2eV
m
2m
2m
=
qB
eB
2em 2m
=
m
eB
8 2mV
eB 2
qB
qB
d=
(b) V =
X
X
m V
2mVm
qBd
Vm =
qB
2m
Vm
2
r1
m qBd
d
=
d1 = r1 + r2 = 2
(min. dist.)
2
2
2
m
qB
r2
d1
d
d
34.9
X
q
Magnetic Field
Max. distance d2 = d + 2r = d +
d
3d
=
2
2
(c) V = 2Vm
m V
m 2 qBd
r1 = 2 m =
,
qB
2n qB
r2 = d
qBd
2m
The particles will collide at point P. At point p, both the particles will have motion m in upward direction.
Since the particles collide inelastically the stick together.
l
Distance l between centres = d, Sin =
2r
/2
r
Vl
90
Velocity upward = v cos 90 = V sin =
2r
(d) Vm =
mv 2
mv
= qvB r =
r
qB
vl
=
2r
V sin =
qBd
vl
=
= Vm
mv
2m
2
qb
9.8 10 5
= 49 m/s.
2 10 6
2
47. r = 0.5 cm = 0.5 10 m
B = 0.4 T,
E = 200 V/m
The path will straighten, if qE = quB E =
rqB B
m
[ r =
mv
]
qB
rqB 2
200
q
E
5
= 2 =
= 2.5 10 c/kg
m
m
B r
0.4 0.4 0.5 10 2
27
48. MP = 1.6 10 Kg
5
2
r = 4 cm = 4 10 m
= 2 10 m/s
Since the proton is undeflected in the combined magnetic and electric field. Hence force due to both the
fields must be same.
i.e. qE = qB E = B
Won, when the electricfield is stopped, then if forms a circle due to force of magnetic field
m
We know r =
qB
E=
4 10 =
2
1.6 1019 B
= 0.005 T
E = B = 2 10 0.05 = 1 10 N/C
6
12
49. q = 5 F = 5 10 C,
m = 5 10 kg,
1
3
= Sin (0.9),
B = 5 10 T
5
We have mv = qvB
r=
V = 1 km/s = 10 m/
mv
mv sin
5 10 12 10 3 9
=
=
= 0.18 metre
qB
qB
5 10 6 5 10 3 10
34.10
Magnetic Field
Hence dimeter = 36 cm.,
27
50. B = 0.020 T
MP= 1.6 10 Kg
1
Pitch = 20 cm = 2 10 m
2
Radius = 5 cm = 5 10 m
We know for a helical path, the velocity of the proton has got two components & H
Pitch =
Now, r =
=
m
1.6 10 27
2
5 10 =
qB
1.6 10 19 2 10 2
5 10 2 1.6 10 19 2 10 2
1.6 10 27
However, H remains constant
2m
T=
qB
= 1 10 m/s
Pitch
T
Pitch = H T or, H =
2 10 1
B = B0 J
E = E0 k
F = q E V B = q E 0k (u x i u x k )( B 0 j ) = qE 0 k u xB 0 k u zB 0 i
H =
Fz = (qE0 uxB0)
Since ux = 0, Fz = qE0
qE 0
qE 0
2
2
2
az =
, So, v = u + 2as v = 2
Z [distance along Z direction be z]
m
m
2qE 0 Z
m
52. The force experienced first is due to the electric field due to the capacitor
V
E=
F= eE
V
d
eE
d
[Where e charge of electron me mass of electron]
a=
me
V=
= u + 2as = 2
2
or =
2 e V d
eE
d =
dm e
me
2eV
me
Now, The electron will fail to strike the upper plate only when d is greater than radius of the are thus formed.
me
or, d >
2eV
me
d>
2m e V
eB
eB 2
53. = ni A B
4
= ni AB Sin 90 0.2 = 100 2 5 4 10 B
0 .2
= 0.5 Tesla
B=
100 2 5 4 10 4
34.11
Magnetic Field
54. n = 50, r = 0.02 m
2
A = (0.02) ,
B = 0.02 T
i = 5 A,
= niA = 50 5 4 104
is max. when = 90
4
1
2
= B = B Sin 90 = B = 50 5 3.14 4 10 2 10 = 6.28 10 NM
Given = (1/2) max
Sin = (1/2)
or, = 30 = Angle between area vector & magnetic field.
Angle between magnetic field and the plane of the coil = 90 30 = 60
2
55. l = 20 cm = 20 10 m
2
B = 10 cm = 10 10 m
D
i = 5 A,
B = 0.2 T
(a) There is no force on the sides AB and CD. But the force on the sides
AD and BC are opposite. So they cancel each other.
(b) Torque on the loop
= ni A B = niAB Sin 90
F
2
2
2
A
= 1 5 20 10 10 10 0.2 = 2 10 = 0.02 NM
Parallel to the shorter side.
56. n = 500,
r = 0.02 m,
= 30
1
i = 1A,
B = 4 10 T
i = B = B Sin 30 = ni AB Sin 30
4
1
2
= 500 1 3.14 4 10 4 10 (1/2) = 12.56 10 = 0.1256 0.13 NM
57. (a) radius = r
Circumference = L = 2r
L
r=
2
r =
2
L2
C
A
= 90
F
B
L2
4
42
iL2B
= i A B =
4
(b) Circumfernce = L
L
4S = L S =
4
2
L2
L
2
Area = S = =
16
4
iL2B
= i A B =
16
58. Edge = l,
Current = i
Turns= n,
mass = M
Magnetic filed = B
= B Sin 90 = B
Min Torque produced must be able to balance the torque produced due to weight
Now, B = Weight
g
I
I
B = g n i l2 B = g
B=
2
2
2
niI
59. (a) i =
q
q
q
=
=
2 / 2
t
(b) = n ia = i A [ n = 1] =
(c) =
q r 2
q r 2
=
2
2
q r 2
q
q r 2
q
2
, L = = mr ,
=
=
=
L
2
L
2m
2mr 2
2m
34.12
/2
Magnetic Field
2x dx.
r 2
q2 dx
q
q2xdx
di =
=
=
xdx
2
2
r t
r 2
r q 2
d = n di A = di A =
d = r
0
qxdx
r 2
x 2
r
r
qr 2
q x 4
q r 4
x dx = 2 = 2
=
4
r 4
r 4
3
l = = (1/2) mr
2
dx
q
q
qr 2
I
I
2m
2m
1 2
4 mr
2
dq
3qx 2 dx
q4x 2 dx
=
=
dt
4 3
R 3 2
R t
3
3qx dx
2
d = di A =
d
0
R 2
3
6q
R
0
4x
x 4 dx
2=
dx
6q
R3
6q x 5
R 3 5
x 4 dx
R
0
6
6q R 5
qR 2
3
5
5
R
34.13
CHAPTER 35
1.
F
F
N
N
F = q B or, B =
=
=
=
q
T
A. sec . / sec .
A m
0
2r
i = 10 A,
or, 0 =
B=
2.
3.
4.
2rB
mN
N
=
= 2
A m A
A
d=1m
i
10 7 4 10
6
= 20 10 T = 2 T
B= 0 =
2r
2 1
Along +ve Y direction.
d = 1.6 mm
So, r = 0.8 mm = 0.0008 m
i = 20 A
i
4 10 7 20
3
B = 0 =
= 5 10 T = 5 mT
2r
2 8 10 4
i = 100 A, d = 8 m
i
B= 0
2r
4 10 7 100
= 2.5 T
28
7
0 = 4 10 Tm/A
Z axis
X axis
1m
100 A
8m
5.
= 1 A,
r = 2 cm = 0.02 m,
5
B = 1 10 T
0
2r
P
2 cm
i
6.
7.
4 10 1
5
B at P =
= 1 10 T upward
2 0.02
2 cm
7
net B = 2 1 10 T = 20 T
Q
5
B at Q = 1 10 T downwards
Hence net B = 0
(a) The maximum magnetic field is B 0 which are along the left keeping the sense along the
2r
direction of traveling current.
(b)The minimum B 0
0i
2r
i
2r
0
If r =
B net = 0
2B
r
0
B net = 0
r<
2B
r > 0 B net = B 0
2B
2r
7
4
0 = 4 10 Tm/A,
= 30 A,
B = 4.0 10 T Parallel to current.
B =40 104 T
0
4 10 7 30
4
=
= 3 10 T
2r
2 0.02
net field =
3 10 4 10
4 2
4 2
= 5 10
T
35.1
30 A
i = 10 A. ( K )
B = 2 10
T South to North ( J )
To cancel the magnetic field the point should be choosen so that the net magnetic field is along  J
direction.
The point is along  i direction or along west of the wire.
B=
0
2r
2 10
r=
9.
4 10 7 10
2 r
2 10 7
3
= 10 m = 1 mm.
2 10 3
Let the tow wires be positioned at O & P
R = OA, =
8 10 4 = 2.828 10
(0.02)2 (0.02)2 =
4 10 10
4
= 1 10 T (r towards up the line)
(a) B due to Q, at A1 =
2 0.02
4 10 7 10
4
= 0.33 10 T (r towards down the line)
B due to P, at A1 =
2 0.06
O
4
4
4
net B = 1 10 0.33 10 = 0.67 10 T
A1
2 10 7 10
4
= 2 10 T
r down the line
(b) B due to O at A2 =
0.01
2 10 7 10
4
= 0.67 10 T
r down the line
B due to P at A2 =
0.03
4
4
4
net B at A2 = 2 10 + 0.67 10 = 2.67 10 T
4
B at A3 due to P = 1 10 T
r towards down the line
4
Net B at A3 = 2 10 T
2 10 7 10
4
= 0.7 10 T
towards SE
(d) B at A4 due to O =
2.828 10 2
4
B at A4 due to P = 0.7 10 T
towards SW
2
2
Net B = 0.7 10  4 0.7 10  4 = 0.989 104 1 104 T
10. Cos = ,
A4
2 cm
A2
= 60 & AOB = 60
7
0
10 2 10
4
=
= 10 T
2r
2 10 2
So net is [(104)2 + (104)2 + 2(108) Cos 60]1/2
B=
A3
= 10 [1 + 1 + 2 ]
1/2
= 10
4
2 cm
3 T = 1.732 104 T
Hence Net B = 0
2 cm
2 cm
(1, 1)
(1, 1)
(1, 1)
(1, 1)
due to (1) B =
due to (2) B =
due to (3) B =
due to (4) B =
0i
2 (15 / 2) 10
2 5 10 2
0i
2 (5 5 / 2) 10
0i
2 2.5 10
2 15 10 2
2 15 10 2
2 5 10 2
=
5 2/2
Q3
5
= (4/3) 10
= 4 10
32
5
5
4
10 = 10.6 10 1.1 10 T
3
At point Q2
due to (1)
due to (2)
oi
2 (2.5) 10 2
oi
2 (15 / 2) 10 2
oi
due to (3)
2 (2.5) 10 2
due to (4)
2 (15 / 2) 10 2
oi
Bnet = 0
At point Q3
due to (1)
due to (2)
due to (3)
due to (4)
4 10 7 5
2 (15 / 2) 10
4 10 7 5
2 (5 / 2) 10
4 10 7 5
2 (5 / 2) 10
4 10 7 5
2 (15 / 2) 10
= 4/3 10
= 4 10
= 4 10
= 4/3 10
32
5
5
4
10 = 10.6 10 1.1 10 T
3
35.3
5 cm
= (4/3) 10
4 5 2 10 7
4 5 2 10 7
= 4 10
4 5 2 10 7
5 2
4 5 2 10 7
2 2.5 10 2
Q2
D
0i
4
Q1
B
Q4
i
conductors. Hence magnetic field B = 0
4d
At P
B1 due to 1 is 0
i
B2 due to 2 is 0
4d
At Q
i
B1 due to 1 is 0
4d
B2 due to 2 is 0
At R
B1 due to 1 is 0
i
B2 due to 2 is 0
4d
At S
i
B1 due to 1 is 0
4d
B2 due to 2 is 0
i
14. B = 0 2 Sin
4d
i
0ix
2 x
= 0
=
2
4d
x
x2
2 d2
4d d2
4
4
P
i
x/2
d
d d
B
d2
(b) When x >> d, neglecting d w.r.t. x
0ix
2 0i
B=
=
4dx / 2
4d
1
B
d
15. = 10 A, a = 10 cm = 0.1 m
r = OP =
O
10 A
3
0 .1 m
2
B
10 cm
B = 0 (Sin1 Sin 2 )
4r
=
10 7 10 1
3
0 .1
2
30
2 10 5
5
= 1.154 10 T = 11.54 T
1.732
35.4
Q1
30
P
P
Q2
0i
,
2d
B2 =
0i
i
(2 Sin) = 0
4d
4d
i
1
B1 B2 =
B2 0
100
2d
0i
4d d2
4 d2
= 3.92 d +
2
4d d2
2
4
2 d2
0i
4d d2
d2
2
4
156816
99 4
=
= 3.92
=
40000
200
3.92 2
4
d2
2
0.02
d
=
=
3.92
0.02
= 0.07
3.92
B
2
3i
i/3
a2 a2
=
16
4
2
a
3a
4
2
3a/4
a
a/2
a 13
13a 2
=
16
4
0 2i
2i
a / 2 = 2 0i
2Cos = 0
2
4a
4a
5
a( 5 / 4)
i
BDC = 0
2Sin (90 B)
4 23a / 4
=
0i 4 2
0i
a / 2 = 2 0i
Cos =
3a ( 13a / 4)
4 3a
a3 13
The magnetic field due to AD & BC are equal and appropriate hence cancle each other.
Hence, net magnetic field is
2 0i
5
2 0i
a3 13
i
BAB = 0
(Sin (90 i) + Sin (90 ))
4 2a / 4
=
9a 2 a 2
=
16
4
a 5
5a 2
=
4
16
2
C
a/2
A
2i/3a
i 2 2
2 2 0i
B due to ABC = 2 0
=
6a
43a
2 2 0i
2 2 0i
2 0 i
Now B =
3a
6a
3a
D0 =
i
l
0i
=
200 d
1 3.92 2
2
2
2
i 2 2 2
2 2 0i
B due to ADC = 2 0
=
3 a
4
3
a
18. A0 =
2
4
0i 1
1
d 2 200
99
200
2
4
0i
2 0i 1
1
a 5 3 13
35.5
a/2
a/4
B
Hence net B = 0
Similarly, due to AB & CD at P = 0
B = 0 (Sin60 Sin60)
4r
i
For BD
B
B = 0 (Sin60)
4r
i
For DC
B
B = 0 (Sin60)
4r
Net B = 0
21. (a) ABC is Equilateral
AB = BC = CA = /3
Current = i
AO =
i
0i2Cos 4 ( / 4)
0 Cot( / 4)
4 2Sin( / 4)Cos( / 4)
4x
C
2i
A
30
60
1 = 2 = 60
as AM : MO = 2 : 1
So, MO =
6 3
B due to BC at <.
i9
i
i
= 0 (Sin1 Sin 2 ) = 0 i 6 3 3 = 0
2
4r
4
27 0i
9 0i
net B =
3 =
2
2
8 2 0 i
i8
(b) B due to AD = 0
2 =
4
4
8 2 0 i
8 2 0 i
Net B =
4=
4
r
22. Sin (/2) =
x
r = x Sin (/2)
Magnetic field B due to AR
0i
Sin(180 (90 ( / 2))) 1
4r
i[Sin(90 ( / 2)) 1]
0
4 Sin( / 2)
0i(Cos( / 2) 1)
4 Sin( / 2)
i
A
3
3
a =
=
23
2
2 3
60
B
M
60
45 45
/8
D
r
A
23. BAB
iSin
0i 2
2Sin = 0
b
4b
0i
=
= BDC
b 2 b 2
BBC
0i 2
iSin
2 2Sin = 0
4
=
( / 2)
Sin ( +b) =
2
Sin =
/4b /4
2
(b / 2)
2 / 4 b2 / 4
b2
2
b
2 b2
= BAD
0ib
2 b 2
Net B =
2 0i
b 2 b 2
2 0ib
2 b 2
2 0i( 2 b 2 )
b 2 b 2
2 0i 2 b 2
b
2r
= ,
=
n
n
n
Tan =
x=
2x
2Tan
r
2
n
i2Tan 2Sin
0i
(Sin Sin) = 0
BAB =
4( x )
4
24. 2 =
0inTan( / n)Sin( / n)
2 2r
2 10 5
10 10 2
d=
0 20 20
2d
4 10 7 20 20 10 10 2
2 2 10 5
d
3
= 400 10 = 0.4 m = 40 cm
27. i = 10 A
Magnetic force due to two parallel Current Carrying wires.
F= 0 12
2r
So, F or 1 = F by 2 + F by 3
10 10
10 10
= 0
0
2 5 10 2 2 10 10 2
=
=
4 10 7 10 10
2 5 10 2
4 10 7 10 10
1
5 cm
2
3
2 10 10 2
2 10 3 10 3
3 10 3
4
=
= 6 10 N towards middle wire
5
5
5
35.7
0 10i
0i40
=
2x
2(10 x )
10 A
10
40
1
4
=
=
x
10 x
x
10 x
10 x = 4x 5x = 10 x = 2 cm
The third wire should be placed 2 cm from the 10 A wire and 8 cm from 40 A wire.
29. FAB = FCD + FEF
A
10 10
0 10 10
= 0
C
2 1 10 2 2 2 10 2
A
3
3
3
= 2 10 + 10 = 3 10
downward.
E
FCD = FAB + FEF
As FAB & FEF are equal and oppositely directed hence F = 0
0i1i2
30.
= mg (For a portion of wire of length 1m)
2d
0 50 i2
4
= 1 10 9.8
3
2 5 10
4 10 7 5 i 2
10
FRQ =
=
0 i1i2
2 3 10
4 10 7 6 10
2 10 2
10
10
S
I1
I2
A
10
dx
Q
P
1 cm
N (Towards right)
+ 36 10
2 2 10 2
4 10 7 6 6
= 4 10
1 cm
50
= 8.4 10
0 i1i2
2 3 10
2 2 10 2
Net force towards down
4
4
= (8.4 + 7.6) 10 = 16 10 N
32. B = 0.2 mT,
i = 5 A,
n 0 i
B=
2r
r=
2 10 7 6 6
40 A
mg
2 6 10 10 7
10
= 9.8 10
2 5 10 3
3
3
1
2 i2 10 = 9.3 10 10
9 .8
i2 =
10 1 = 0.49 A
2
31. 2 = 6 A
1 = 10 A
FPQ
i i dx
30 dx
ii
F on dx = 0 1 2 dx = 0 1 2
= 0
2 x
x
2x
0 30 dx
2
7
FPQ =
= 30 4 10 [logx]1
1 x
x
7
= 120 10 [log 3 log 1]
7
Similarly force of FRS = 120 10 [log 3 log 1]
0 i1i2
0 i1i 2
FPS =
2
2 1 10
2 2 10 2
=
(10x)
x
n = 1,
= 7.6 10
r=?
n 0i
1 4 10 7 5
3
3
1
=
= 3.14 5 10 m = 15.7 10 m = 15.7 10 cm = 1.57 cm
2B
2 0.2 10 3
35.8
n 0 i
2r
n = 100, r = 5 cm = 0.05 m
5
B = 6 10 T
33. B =
2rB
3
2 0.05 6 10 5
1
=
=
10 = 0.0477 48 mA
7
n 0
6.28
100 4 10
5
34. 3 10 revolutions in 1 sec.
1
sec
1 revolutions in
3 10 5
i=
q
1.6 10 19
=
A
t
1
3 10 5
i=
0i
4 10 7.16 10 19 3 10 5 2 1.6 3
10
10
=
10 11 = 6.028 10 6 10 T
10
2r
0
.
5
2 0.5 10
35. l = i/2 in each semicircle
1 (i / 2)
i/2
ABC = B = 0
downwards
i
2
2a
A
1 0 (i / 2)
upwards
ADC = B =
i/2
2
2a
Net B = 0
r2 = 10 cm
36. r1 = 5 cm
n2 = 100
n1 = 50
i=2A
n i n i
(a) B = 1 0 2 0
2r1
2r2
B=
50 4 10 7 2
B
C
100 4 10 7 2
2 5 10 2
2 10 10 2
4
4
4
= 4 10 + 4 10 = 8 10
n i n i
(b) B = 1 0 2 0 = 0
2r1
2r2
37. Outer Circle
n = 100, r = 100m = 0.1 m
i=2A
n 0 i
100 4 10 7 2
4
B =
=
= 4 10
2a
2 0 .1
Inner Circle
r = 5 cm = 0.05 m,
n = 50, i = 2 A
n 0 i
4 10 7 2 50
4
B =
=
= 4 10
2r
2 0.05
Net B =
4 10 4 10
4 2
4 2
38. r = 20 cm,
i = 10 A,
F = e( V B) = eVB Sin
= 1.6 1019 2 106
=
downwards
32 2 10 8 = 17.7 10
0i
Sin 30
2r
2
= 16 10
19
35.9
18 10
= 30
V = 2 106 m/s,
1.6 10 19 2 10 6 4 10 7 10
2 2 20 10
= 1.8 10 = 1.8 mT
39. B Large loop = 0
2R
i due to larger loop on the smaller loop
2
= i(A B) = i AB Sin 90 = i r 0
2r
40. The force acting on the smaller loop
F = ilB Sin
i2r o 1
ir
=
= 0
2R 2
2R
41. i = 5 Ampere,
r = 10 cm = 0.1 m
As the semicircular wire forms half of a circular wire,
1 4 10 7 5
1 0i
So, B =
=
2 2r
2
2 0 .1
6
6
5
= 15.7 10 T 16 10 T = 1.6 10 T
i
i
2
42. B = 0
=
0
2R 2
3 2 2R
i
r
R
i
10 cm
4 10 7 6
6
120
= 4 10
2
6 10 t10
6
6
5
= 4 3.14 10 = 12.56 10 = 1.26 10 T
i
43. B due to loop 0
2r
i
Let the straight current carrying wire be kept at a distance R from centre. Given = 4i
4i
B due to wire = 0 = 0
2R
2R
r
Now, the B due to both will balance each other
0 4i
0i
4r
Hence
=
R=
2r
2R
Hence the straight wire should be kept at a distance 4/r from centre in such a way that the direction of current
in it is opposite to that in the nearest part of circular wire. As a result the direction will B will be oppose.
2
44. n = 200, i = 2 A,
r = 10 cm = 10 10 n
n 0 i
200 4 10 7 2
4
=
= 2 4 10
2r
2 10 10 2
4
4
= 2 4 3.14 10 = 25.12 10 T = 2.512 mT
(a) B =
(b) B =
n 0ia 2
2(a d )
2
2 3/2
1
a2
=
2a
2(a 2 d2 )3 / 2
2
2
1/3
2
a + d = (2 a)
2
2
2/3
2
10 + d = 2 10
2
2
10 (1.5874 1) = d
n 0 i
n 0ia 2
=
4a
2(a 2 d2 )3 / 2
(a +d )
2
2 3/2
2a
a + d = (2a )
a + d =2 a
2
2/3
2
(10 )(2 1) = d
2
2
d = 10 0.5874
2
2/3 2
=
=
0ia 2
2(a 2 d2 )3 / 2
4 10 7 5 0.0016
2((0.0025 )3 / 2
6
5
= 40 10 = 4 10 T
3 2/3
(10 ) + d = 2 (10 )
2
1/3
2
(10 ) (4 1) = d
1 2
2/3
1 2
= 7.66 cm.
a = 4 cm = 0.04 m
O
4 cm M
3 cm = 0.03 m
d = 3 cm = 0.03 m
3 cm
C,
r = 20 cm = 0.2 m,
w = 60 rad/sec.,
xQ
4 0 x a 2
Electric field
=
Magnetic field
0ia 2
2
2 a2 x 2
=
=
q
3.14 10 6 60
5
=
= 1.5 10
t
2 0 .2
i=
3/2
3/2
xQ
4 0 x 2 a 2
3/2
2 x 2 a2
3/2
0ia 2
9 10 9 0.05 3.14 10 6 2
4 10 7 15 10 5 (0.2)2
9 5 2 10 3
4 13 4 10
12
3
8
i
i 2
i
B = 0 = 0
= 0
2d
23r
2r
48. (a) At a point just inside the tube the current enclosed in the closed surface = 0.
o
Thus B = 0 = 0
A
(b) Taking a cylindrical surface just out side the tube, from amperes law.
i
B= 0
0 i = B 2b
2b
49. i is uniformly distributed throughout.
i
a 2 =
b
Now according to Amperes circuital law
B d = B 2 a = 0
2
ia 2
r/2
r
O
a
b
b2
ia
1
= 0 2
2a
2b
b
2
50. (a) r = 10 cm = 10 10 m
2
x = 2 10 m,
i=5A
i in the region of radius 2 cm
5
(2 10 2 )2 = 0.2 A
(10 10 2 )2
2 2
B (2 10 ) = 0(02)
B = 0
B=
ia 2
2
4 10 7 0.2
4
0.2 10 7
4 10
10
(b) 10 cm radius
2 2
B (10 10 ) = 0 5
B=
= 2 10
4 10 7 5
5
= 20 10
10 2
(c) x = 20 cm
2 2
B (20 10 ) = 0 5
B=
0 5
(20 10
2 2
4 10 7 5
400 10
= 5 10
B
x
35.11
B dl = i. Theoritically B = 0 a t A
0
0i
B
will exist in its vicinity.
B=
S
R
2( b)
b
(c) At point ,
Applying amperes rule to the above rectangle
l
B 2l = 0K0
B 2l = 0kl B =
dl
Bb
0k
2
Ba
B 2l = 0K0
dl
o
k
B 2l = 0kl B = 0
Bd
2
Bnet = 0 0 = 0k
C
2
2
D
53. Charge = q,
mass = m
We know radius described by a charged particle in a magnetic field B
m
r=
qB
Bit B = 0K [according to Amperes circuital law, where K is a constant]
rq 0k
m
r=
=
q 0 k
m
2
54. i = 25 A, B = 3.14 10 T,
B = 0ni
2
7
3.14 10 = 4 10 n 5
n=?
10 2
1
4
= 10 4 = 0.5 10 = 5000 turns/m
2
20 10 7
55. r = 0.5 mm,
i = 5 A,
B = 0ni (for a solenoid)
3
Width of each turn = 1 mm = 10 m
1
3
No. of turns n =
= 10
10 3
7
3
3
So, B = 4 10 10 5 = 2 10 T
R
= 0.01 in 1 m,
r = 1.0 cm
Total turns = 400,
= 20 cm,
56.
l
400
2
n=
turns/m
B = 1 10 T,
20 10 2
E
E
E
i=
=
=
R0
R 0 / l (2r 400 )
0.01 2 0.01 400
n=
B = 0ni
35.12
E=
400
20 10
E
400 2 0.01 10 2
10 2 20 10 2 400 2 10 2 0.01
4 10 7 400
=1V
0
a 2indx
3/2
4
2
l
2
a x
2
dB
0
0 a 2nidx
4a 2 x
2
0ni
4
ni dx
/2x
3/2
a dx
2
2x
a 3 1
2a
58. i = 2 a, f = 10 rev/sec,
qe = 1.6 10
19
c,
3/2
0ni
4 a
dx
2x
1
2a
n= ?,
3/2
me = 9.1 10
B
B = 0ni n =
0i
31
2x
= 1
2a
/2
kg,
f 2m e
f 2m e
qB
B
10 8 9.1 10 31
B=
n=
=
=
= 1421 turns/m
2m e
qe
0i
qe 0i
1.6 10 19 2 10 7 2 A
59. No. of turns per unit length = n,
radius of circle = r/2,
current in the solenoid = i,
Charge of Particle = q,
mass of particle = m
B = 0ni
f=
niqr
q 0nir
qBr
mV 2
= qVB V =
=
= 0
r
m
2m
2m
60. No. of turns per unit length =
(a) As the net magnetic field = zero
Bplate B Solenoid
Bplate 2 = 0kd = 0k
k
...(1)
Bplate 0
B Solenoid = 0ni (2)
2
k
Equating both i = 0
2
(b) Ba = k
Ba = 0k BC = 0k
Again
B=
Ba 2 Bc 2 =
2 0k 2 =
2 0k
Ba
0ni
2k
n
3
t = 2 sec,
61. C = 100 f,
Q = CV = 2 10 C,
V = 20 V, V = 18 V,
Q = CV = 1.8 103 C,
2 0k = 0ni
Bc
i=
2 10 4
Q Q
4
=
= 10 A
n = 4000 turns/m.
t
2
7
4
7
B = 0ni = 4 10 4000 10 = 16 10 T
i=
35.13
CHAPTER 36
PERMANENT MAGNETS
1.
m = 10 Am,
d = 5 cm = 0.05 m
m
10 2
10 7 10
4
=
= 4 10 Tesla
B= 0 2 =
2 2
25
4 r
5 10
m1 =m2 = 10 Am
r = 2 cm = 0.02 m
we know
2.
0 m1m 2
4 10 7 10 2
2
=
= 2.5 10 N
4
4 r 2
4 4 10
dv
3
3
dv = B d = 0.2 10 0.5 = 0.1 10 Tm
d
Since the sigh is ve therefore potential decreases.
Here
dx = 10 sin 30 cm = 5 cm
B=
dV
0.1 10 4 T m
=B=
dx
5 10 2 m
5.
0.1104 Tm
B=
0 2M
10 2M
4
2 10 =
4 d3
(10 1 )3
2 10
10
= M M = 1 Am
10 2
(b) If the point is at broadon position
6.
30
0.210
Tm
0.3104 Tm
30
0.410
0 M
10 7 M
4
2
2 10 =
M = 2 Am
3
4 d
(10 1 )3
Given :
= tan1
7.
In cm
Tm
2
2 tan = 2 2 = tan
tan
tan = 2 cot
= cot
2
tan
= tan
We know
2
Comparing we get, tan = cot
or, tan = tan(90 )
or = 90
or + = 90
Hence magnetic field due to the dipole is r to the magnetic axis.
Magnetic field at the broad side on position :
M
2 = 8 cm
d = 3 cm
B= 0
4 d2 2 3 / 2
4 10
m=
10 7 m 8 10 2
9 10
16 10
4 10 6 125 10 8
8 10 9
4 3 / 2
4 10
= 62.5 10
Am
36.1
10 9 m 8
10
4 3 / 2
25 3 / 2
Permanent Magnets
8.
We know for a magnetic dipole with its north pointing the north, the neutral point in the broadside on
position.
N
0M
Again B in this case =
4d3
M
0 3 = BH due to earth
P
4d
9.
10 7 1.44
d3
= 18 T
10 7 1.44
6
S
= 18 10
d3
3
3
d = 8 10
1
d = 2 10 m = 20 cm
In the plane bisecting the dipole.
When the magnet is such that its North faces the geographic south of earth. The neutral point lies along
the axial line of the magnet.
7
0 2M
6
10 7 2 0.72 = 18 106 d3 = 2 0.7 10
=
18
10
4 d3
18 10  6
d3
8 10 9
d=
10 6
1/ 3
= 2 10
m = 20 cm
N2
4 10 7 0.72 2
4 d
d =
3
tan
= 18 10
0.72 1.414 10 7
6
N
1
BH
N1
= 0.005656
18 10
d 0.2 m = 20 cm
11. The geomagnetic pole is at the end on position of the earth.
B=
BH
BM
0 2M
10 7 2 8 10 22
6
=
60 10 T = 60 T
3
4 d
(6400 10 3 )3
5
12. B = 3.4 10 T
M
5
Given 0 3 = 3.4 10
4 R
M=
3.4 10 5 R 3 4
7
= 3.4 10 R
4 10
2M
5
B at Poles = 0 3 = = 6.8 10 T
4 R
13. (dip) = 60
BH = B cos 60
B = 52 106 = 52 T
3
= 44.98 T 45 T
2
14. If 1 and 2 be the apparent dips shown by the dip circle in the 2r positions, the true dip is given by
2
2
2
Cot = Cot 1 + Cot 2
2
2
2
Cot = Cot 45 + Cot 53
2
Cot = 1.56 = 38.6 39
BV = B sin = 52 10
36.2
Permanent Magnets
15. We know
BH =
Give : BH = 3.6 10
2
i = 10 mA = 10 A
n=?
0in
2r
= 45
tan = 1
r = 10 cm = 0.1 m
BH tan 2r
3.6 10 5 2 1 10 1
3
=
= 0.5732 10 573 turns
0i
4 10 7 10 2
4
2
16. n = 50
A = 2 cm 2 cm = 2 2 10 m
3
i = 20 10 A
B = 0.5 T
= ni A B = niAB Sin 90 = 50 20 103 4 104 0.5 = 2 104 NM
n=
17. Given = 37
We know
d = 10 cm = 0.1 m
M
4 (d2 2 ) 2
4 d4
=
tan =
(0.1)3
3
7
4
3
2 1
tan 37 = 0.5 0.75 1 10 10 = 0.375 10 = 3.75 10 Am T
2
4 10
M
3
2 1
18.
(found in the previous problem) = 3.75 10 Am T
BH
= 37,
d=?
M
4 2
=
(d 2 )3 / 2 tan
BH
0
<< d
neglecting w.r.t.d
M
4 3
1
3
=
d Tan 3.75 103 =
d 0.75
7
BH
0
10
3.75 10 3 10 7
4
= 5 10
0.75
d = 0.079 m = 7.9 cm
M
2
= 40 Am /T
19. Given
BH
d3 =
M
4 d3
=
= 40
BH 0
2
40 4 10 7 2
6
= 8 10
4
2
d = 2 10 m = 2 cm
with the northpole pointing towards south.
20. According to oscillation magnetometer,
d =
3
T = 2
MBH
1.2 10 4
= 2
10
M 30 10 6
1.2 10 4
1
=
M 30 10 6
20
2
M=
1.2 10 4 400
30 10
36.3
Permanent Magnets
1 mB H
2
21. We know : =
1
=
2
M1 M2
M M2
M M2
10
= 1
25 = 1
M1 M2
M1 M2
M1 M2
2
2M1
M
26
13
=
1 =
24
2M2
M2
12
6
T1 = 0.1
T
6
B = BH Bwire = 2.4 10
24 10 6
MBH
23. T = 2
B
BH
0 .1
14
0.01 14
2
=
T2 =
T2 = 0.076
24
24
T2
Here = 2
1
min
40
T1
=
T2
o i
2 10 7 18
6
6
6
= 24 10
= (24 10) 10 = 14 10
2 r
0 .2
T1
=
T2
14 10 6
0 .1
=
T2
T1 =
MBH
T = 2
22. BH = 24 10
T2 = ?
1
=
40T2
1
1
1
1
2
=
T2 =
T2 = 0.03536 min
2
2
800
1600 T2 2
1 MBH B
2
1 =
1 MBH
2
B=
0 m
10 7 1.6
= 20 T
4 d3
8 10 3
1
=
2
2 =
B
40
=
2
BH B
40
25
2 =
= 17.88 18 osci/min
5
5
1 MBH
2
1
=
2
2 =
B
40
=
2
BH B
2 min
1 MBH B
2
25
2 =
45
40
25
45
= 53.66 54 osci/min
36.4
CHAPTER 37
1.
2.
3.
B = 0ni,
H=
B
0
H = ni
1500 A/m = n 2
n = 750 turns/meter
n = 7.5 turns/cm
(a) H = 1500 A/m
As the solenoid and the rod are long and we are interested in the magnetic intensity at the centre,
the end effects may be neglected. There is no effect of the rod on the magnetic intensity at the
centre.
(b) = 0.12 A/m
We know = XH
X = Susceptibility
0.12
5
=
= 0.00008 = 8 10
X=
H
1500
(c) The material is paramagnetic
3
B1 = 2.5 10 ,
B2 = 2.5
4
2
A = 4 10 m ,
n = 50 turns/cm = 5000 turns/m
(a) B = 0ni,
3
7
2.5 10 = 4 10 5000 i
i=
(b) =
2.5 10 3
4 10 7 5000
= 0.398 A 0.4 A
B2
2 .5
2 .5
6
6
H =
(B 2 B1 ) =
2.497 = 1.99 10 2 10
0
4 10 7
4 10 7
M
m
m
=
=
V
A
A
6
4
m = A = 2 10 4 10 = 800 Am
(a) Given d = 15 cm = 0.15 m
= 1 cm = 0.01 m
2
4
2
A = 1.0 cm = 1 10 m
4
B = 1.5 10 T
M=?
2Md
We Know B = 0 2
4 ( d 2 )2
(c) =
4.
1.5 10 =
4
M=
10 7 2 M 0.15
(0.0225 0.0001)
1.5 10 4 5.01 10 4
3 10 8
(b) Magnetisation =
(c) H =
m
4d2
3 10 8 M
5.01 10 4
= 2.5 A
2 .5
M
6
=
= 2.5 10 A/m
V
10 4 10 2
M
4d2
2 .5
4 3.14 0.01 (0.15)2
2
7
6
B = 0 (H + ) = 4 10 (2.510 2 884.6) 3,14 T
37.1
6.
Permiability () = 0(1 + x)
Given susceptibility = 5500
= 4 107 (1 + 5500)
= 4 3.14 107 5501 6909.56 107 6.9 103
B = 1.6 T,
H = 1000 A/m
= Permeability of material
B
1 .6
3
=
= 1.6 10
H
1000
=
r =
1.6 10 3
4
3
=
= 0.127 10 1.3 10
0
4 10 7
= 0 (1 + x)
1
0
x=
7.
x=
x
T
C
= 1 = 2
x2
T1
T
1.2 10 5
1.8 10
T2
300
12
300 = 200 K.
18
28
3
= 8.52 10 atoms/m
3
For maximum , Let us consider the no. of atoms present in 1 m of volume.
24
2
Given: m per atom = 2 9.27 10 Am
T2 =
8.
net m
24
28
6
= 2 9.27 10 8.52 10 1.58 10 A/m
V
[ H = 0 in this case]
B = 0 (H + ) = 0
7
6
1
= 4 10 1.58 10 = 1.98 10 2.0 T
=
9.
B = 0ni,
H=
B
0
H
4 10 4
=
= 10 A.
n
4000
37.2
ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION
CHAPTER  38
1.
E.dl MLT
(a)
3 1
I L ML2I1T 3
= at + bt + c
2
/ t Volt
(a) a = 2
t t Sec
b = = Volt
t
c = [] = Weber
d
[a = 0.2, b = 0.4, c = 0.6, t = 2s]
dt
= 2at + b
= 2 0.2 2 + 0.4 = 1.2 volt
(a) 2 = B.A. = 0.01 2 103 = 2 105.
1 = 0
(b) E =
3.
d 2 10 5
= 2 mV
dt 10 103
3
5
3 = B.A. = 0.03 2 10 = 6 10
5
d = 4 10
d
e=
= 4 mV
dt
3
5
4 = B.A. = 0.01 2 10 = 2 10
5
d = 4 10
e=
0.03
0.02
0.01
10 20 30 40 50 t
d
= 4 mV
dt
5 = B.A. = 0
5
d = 2 10
d
e=
= 2 mV
dt
(b) emf is not constant in case of 10 20 ms and 20 30 ms as 4 mV and 4 mV.
2 2
5
5
1 = BA = 0.5 (5 10 ) = 5 25 10 = 125 10
2 = 0
e=
4.
1 2 125 10 5
4
3
= 25 10 = 7.8 10 .
1
t
5 10
2
A = 1 mm ; i = 10 A, d = 20 cm ; dt = 0.1 s
i A
d BA
e=
0
dt
dt
2d dt
E=
5.
6.
4 10
10
1
10
6
1
1 1010 V .
10A
20cm
2 2 10
1 10
(a) During removal,
2
= B.A. = 1 50 0.5 0.5 25 0.5 = 12.5 Teslam
38.1
(ms)
Electromagnetic Induction
1
d 2 1 12.5 125 10
50V
dt
dt
0.25 25 10 2
(b) During its restoration
2
1 = 0 ; 2 = 12.5 Teslam ; t = 0.25 s
e=
12.5 0
= 50 V.
0.25
(c) During the motion
1 = 0, 2 = 0
E=
d
0
dt
R = 25
(a) e = 50 V, T = 0.25 s
2
i = e/R = 2A, H = i RT
= 4 25 0.25 = 25 J
(b) e = 50 V, T = 0.25 s
2
i = e/R = 2A, H = i RT = 25 J
(c) Since energy is a scalar quantity
Net thermal energy developed = 25 J + 25 J = 50 J.
A = 5 cm2 = 5 104 m2
B = B0 sin t = 0.2 sin(300 t)
= 60
a) Max emf induced in the coil
E=
7.
8.
E=
=
d d
(BA cos )
dt dt
d
1
(B0 sin t 5 10 4 )
dt
2
= B0
B 5
5
d
10 4 (sin t) = 0 10 4 cos t
2
2
dt
0.2 5
300 10 4 cos t 15 10 3 cos t
2
3
Emax = 15 10 = 0.015 V
b) Induced emf at t = (/900) s
E = 15 103 cos t
3
3
= 15 10 cos (300 /900) = 15 10
= 0.015/2 = 0.0075 = 7.5 103 V
c) Induced emf at t = /600 s
3
E = 15 10 cos (300 /600)
3
= 15 10 0 = 0 V.
B = 0.10 T
2
4
2
A = 1 cm = 10 m
T=1s
1
4
5
= B.A. = 10 10 = 10
=
9.
d 10 5
10 5 = 10 V
dt
1
3
10. E = 20 mV = 20 10 V
2 2
4
A = (2 10 ) = 4 10
Dt = 0.2 s, = 180
e=
38.2
Electromagnetic Induction
1 = BA, 2 = BA
d = 2BA
E=
d 2BA
dt
dt
20 10
2 B 2 104
2 10 1
3
20 10 = 4 B 10
3
B=
20 10 3
= 5T
42 10 3
11. Area = A, Resistance = R, B = Magnetic field
= BA = Ba cos 0 = BA
e BA
d BA
e=
;i=
R
R
dt
1
= iT = BA/R
2
12. r = 2 cm = 2 10 m
n = 100 turns / cm = 10000 turns/m
i=5A
B = 0 ni
= 4 107 10000 5 = 20 103 = 62.8 103 T
n2 = 100 turns
R = 20
2
r = 1 cm = 10 m
2
4
Flux linking per turn of the second coil = Br = B 10
2
4
3
1 = Total flux linking = Bn2 r = 100 10 20 10
When current is reversed.
2 = 1
4
3
d = 2 1 = 2 100 10 20 10
E=
I=
d 4 2 10 4
dt
dt
E 42 10 4
R
dt 20
42 10 4
4
dt = 2 10 C.
dt 20
13. Speed = u
Magnetic field = B
Side = a
a) The perpendicular component i.e. a sin is to be taken which is r to
velocity.
So, l = a sin 30 = a/2.
Net a charge = 4 a/2 = 2a
So, induced emf = BI = 2auB
E 2auB
b) Current =
R
R
14. 1 = 0.35 weber, 2 = 0.85 weber
D = 2 1 = (0.85 0.35) weber = 0.5 weber
dt = 0.5 sec
q = Idt =
38.3
a sin
30
Electromagnetic Induction
d 0 .5
= 1 v.
d t 0 .5
The induced current is anticlockwise as seen from above.
15. i = v(B l)
= v B l cos
d 0.6 ( 2 5 0) 10 4
4
= 3 10 V
dt
2
b) At t = 10 sec
distance moved = 10 1 = 10 cm
The flux linked does not change with time
E=0
c) At t = 22 sec
distance = 22 1 = 22 cm
The loop is moving out of the field and 2 cm outside.
E=
E=
5cm
20cm
d
dA
B
dt
dt
0.6 (2 5 10 4 )
4
= 3 10 V
2
d) At t = 30 sec
The loop is total outside and flux linked = 0
E = 0.
17. As heat produced is a scalar prop.
So, net heat produced = Ha + Hb + Hc + Hd
3
R = 4.5 m = 4.5 10
4
a) e = 3 10 V
=
e
3 10 4
2
6.7 10 Amp.
R 4.5 10 3
2 2
3
Ha = (6.7 10 ) 4.5 10 5
Hb = Hd = 0 [since emf is induced for 5 sec]
2 2
3
Hc = (6.7 10 ) 4.5 10 5
So Total heat = Ha + Hc
2 2
3
4
= 2 (6.7 10 ) 4.5 10 5 = 2 10 J.
18. r = 10 cm, R = 4
i=
dB
d dB
0.010 T/,
A
dt
dt
dt
r2
d dB
E=
A 0.01
2
dt
dt
10 4 = 1.57 104
2
2
E 1.57 10 4
4
5
= 0.39 10 = 3.9 10 A
R
4
19. a) S1 closed S2 open
net R = 4 4 = 16
i=
38.4
Electromagnetic Induction
e=
d
dB
6
A
10 4 2 10 2 = 2 10 V
dt
dt
i through ad =
e 2 10 6
7
1.25 10 A along ad
R
16
b) R = 16
e=A
dB
5
=20 V
dt
c
b
2 10 6
7
= 1.25 10 A along d a
16
c) Since both S1 and S2 are open, no current is passed as circuit is open i.e. i = 0
d) Since both S1 and S2 are closed, the circuit forms a balanced wheat stone bridge and no current will
flow along ad i.e. i = 0.
i=
20. Magnetic field due to the coil (1) at the center of (2) is B =
0Nia 2
2(a 2 x 2 )3 / 2
0Nia 2
E.m.f. induced
=
=
b) =
2(a 2 x 2 )3 / 2
0Na2a2 di
d
dt 2(a 2 x 2 )3 / 2 dt
a
(2)
d
0Na 2a2
d
E
2(a 2 x 2 )3 / 2 dt (R / L )x r
0Na 2a2
2(a x )
2
2 3/2
a (1)
1.R / L.v
(R / L)x r 2
0Na 2a2
ERV
(for x = L/2, R/L x = R/2)
2(a 2 x 2 )3 / 2 L(R / 2 r )2
a) For x = L
E=
0Na 2a 2RvE
2(a 2 x 2 )3 / 2 (R r )2
dt
T
T
50 2 10 1 (0.02)2
3
= 5 4 10
0 .1
2
2
= 2 10 V = 6.28 10 V
e 6.28 10 2
2
= 1.57 10 A
R
4
2
1
3
Q = it = 1.57 10 10 = 1.57 10 C
4
22. n = 100 turns, B = 4 10 T
A = 25 cm2 = 25 104 m2
a) When the coil is perpendicular to the field
= nBA
When coil goes through half a turn
= BA cos 18 = 0 nBA
d = 2nBA
b) i =
38.5
Electromagnetic Induction
The coil undergoes 300 rev, in 1 min
300 2 rad/min = 10 rad/sec
10 rad is swept in 1 sec.
/ rad is swept 1/10 = 1/10 sec
d 2nBA 2 100 4 10 4 25 10 4
3
= 2 10 V
dt
dt
1/ 10
b) 1 = nBA, 2 = nBA ( = 360)
d = 0
E=
1
E 2 10 3
= 10 3
2
R
4
3
4
= 0.5 10 = 5 10
4
5
q = idt = 5 10 1/10 = 5 10 C.
23. r = 10 cm = 0.1 m
R = 40 , N = 1000
= 180, BH = 3 105 T
= N(B.A) = NBA Cos 180 or = NBA
= 1000 3 105 1 102 = 3 104 where
4
d = 2NBA = 6 10 weber
c) i =
d 6 10 4 V
dt
dt
e=
6 10 4 4.71 10 5
40dt
dt
i=
Q=
4.71 10 5 dt
5
= 4.71 10 C.
dt
d dB.A cos
dt
dt
= B A sin = BA sin
(dq/dt = the rate of change of angle between arc vector and B = )
24. emf =
80
2
6
i Rdt
2
t B 2 A 22
B 2 A 22
2R
R2
sin t R dt
(1 cos2t)dt
0
1 min ute
B A 22 sin 2t
t
2R
2 0
B2 A 22
sin 2 8 2 / 60 60
60
2R
2 80 2 / 60
2
60
2r 4 B2 80 4
60
200
64
625 6 64
60
7
10
10 625 10 8 10 4
10 11 = 1.33 10 J.
200
9
92
38.6
Electromagnetic Induction
26. 1 = BA, 2 = 0
=
2 10 4 (0.1)2
5
= 10
2
d 10 6
6
= 1.57 10 V
dt
2
l = 20 cm = 0.2 m
v = 10 cm/s = 0.1 m/s
B = 0.10 T
19
1
1
21
a) F = q v B = 1.6 10 1 10 1 10 = 1.6 10 N
b) qE = qvB
E = 1 101 1 101 = 1 102 V/m
This is created due to the induced emf.
c) Motional emf = Bv
= 0.1 0.1 0.2 = 2 103 V
= 1 m, B = 0.2 T, v = 2 m/s, e = Bv
= 0.2 1 2 = 0.4 V
= 10 m, v = 3 107 m/s, B = 3 1010 T
Motional emf = Bv
10
7
3
= 3 10 3 10 10 = 9 10 = 0.09 V
v = 180 km/h = 50 m/s
B = 0.2 104 T, L = 1 m
E = Bv = 0.2 I 104 50 = 103 V
The voltmeter will record 1 mv.
a) Zero as the components of ab are exactly opposite to that of bc. So they
cancel each other. Because velocity should be perpendicular to the length.
b) e = Bv
= Bv (bc) +ve at C
c) e = 0 as the velocity is not perpendicular to the length.
d) e = Bv (bc) positive at a.
i.e. the component of ab along the perpendicular direction.
a) Component of length moving perpendicular to V is 2R
E = B v 2R
E=
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
b
V
a
60
3 /2
3
= 1.732 10 = 17.32 10 V.
34. a) The e.m.f. is highest between diameter r to the velocity. Because here
length r to velocity is highest.
Emax = VB2R
b) The length perpendicular to velocity is lowest as the diameter is parallel to the
velocity Emin = 0.
38.7
Electromagnetic Induction
35. Fmagnetic = iB
This force produces an acceleration of the wire.
But since the velocity is given to be constant.
Hence net force acting on the wire must be zero.
36. E = Bv
Resistance = r total length
= r 2( + vt) = 24( + vt)
i=
Bv
2r( vt )
+ve
ve
37. e = Bv
i=
e
Bv
R 2r( vt )
a) F = iB =
Bv
B2 2 v
B
2r ( vt )
2r( vt )
b) Just after t = 0
Bv B2 v
F0 = i B = B
2r
2r
F0 B 2 v
2B2 v
2
4r
2r ( vt )
2 = + vt
T = /v
38. a) When the speed is V
Emf = Bv
Resistance = r + r
B v
r R
b) Force acting on the wire = iB
Current =
c) v = v0 + at = v 0
= v0
dx =
x=
V0
B2 2 v
m(R r )
B 2 2 v
t [force is opposite to velocity]
m(R r )
B2 2 x
m(R r )
dv
B2 2 v
dx m(R r )
dvm(R r )
B2 2
m(R r )v 0
B2 2
39. R = 2.0 , B = 0.020 T, l = 32 cm = 0.32 m
B = 8 cm = 0.08 m
5
a) F = iB = 3.2 10 N
=
BvB B2 2 v
Rr
Rr
d) a = v
B2 2 v
5
= 3.2 10
R
38.8
c
F
d
Electromagnetic Induction
(0.020) (0.08) v
5
= 3.2 10
2
2
3.2 10 5 2
v=
= 25 m/s
6.4 10 3 4 10 4
2
b) Emf E = vB = 25 0.02 0.08 = 4 10 V
2
c) Resistance per unit length =
0.8
Resistance of part ad/cb =
2 0.72
= 1.8
0 .8
B v
0.02 0.08 25 1.8
2
1 .8 =
= 0.036 V = 3.6 10 V
2
2
2 0.08
d) Resistance of cd =
= 0.2
0 .8
Vab = iR =
Bv =
2 10 6 2 10 1
iR
5
=
= 1 10 Tesla
v
20 10 2 20 10 2
tan =
B v 1 10 5 1
41. I =
Bv B cos v cos
R
R
Bv
=
cos2
R
Bv cos2 B
R
Now, F = mg sin [Force due to gravity which pulls downwards]
F = iB =
l Cos, vcos
B2 2 v cos2
Now,
= mg sin
R
Rmg sin
2 v cos 2
42. a) The wires constitute 2 parallel emf.
2
2
4
Net emf = B v = 1 4 10 5 10 = 20 10
B=
Net resistance =
22
19 = 20
22
4cm
20 10
= 0.1 mA.
20
b) When both the wires move towards opposite directions then not emf = 0
Net current = 0
Net current =
38.9
2 2
19
B=1T
Electromagnetic Induction
P1
43.
4cm
P2
2
19
P1
Q1
Q2
P2
B=1T
2 10 3
3
= 1 10 A = 1 mA.
2
44. B = 1 T, V = 5 I 102 m/, R = 10
a) When the switch is thrown to the middle rail
E = Bv
= 1 5 102 2 102 = 103
Current in the 10 resistor = E/R
Q1
Q2
P1
P2
i=
Q1
2cm
10 3
4
= 10 = 0.1 mA
=
10
b) The switch is thrown to the lower rail
E = Bv
2
2
4
= 1 5 10 2 10 = 20 10
5cm/s
2cm
20 10 4
4
= 2 10 = 0.2 mA
10
45. Initial current passing = i
Hence initial emf = ir
Emf due to motion of ab = Bv
Net emf = ir Bv
Net resistance = 2r
ir Bv
Hence current passing =
2r
46. Force on the wire = iB
iB
Acceleration =
m
iBt
Velocity =
m
47. Given Bv = mg
(1)
When wire is replaced we have
2 mg Bv = 2 ma [where a acceleration]
2mg Bv
a=
2m
1
Now, s = ut at 2
2
1 2mg Bv 2
=
t [ s = ]
2
2m
Q2
10
Current =
t=
4ml
2mg Bv
1g
i
1g
1g
B
b
4ml
2 / g . [from (1)]
2mg mg
38.10
Electromagnetic Induction
48. a) emf developed = Bdv (when it attains a speed v)
Bdv
Current =
R
Bd2 v 2
Force =
R
This force opposes the given force
Net F = F
Bd2 v 2
Bd2 v 2
RF
R
R
RF B 2d2 v
mR
b) Velocity becomes constant when acceleration is 0.
Net acceleration =
F B2d2 v 0
0
m
mR
F B 2 d2 v 0
mR
m
FR
V0 = 2 2
B d
c) Velocity at line t
a=
dv
dt
t
dv
dt
RF l B v mR
0
2 2
ln [RF l2B2 v ] 2 2
l B 0
ln (RF l2B2 v ) 0
tl2B2
Rm
l2B2 v
1
= e
RF
l2B2 v
1 e
RF
t
Rm
t 2B2 t
Rm
l 2B 2 t
Rm
l 2B 2 t
Rm
l 2B 2 v 0 t
FR
v = 2 2 1 e Rv 0m v 0 (1 e Fv 0m )
lB
B
E Bv
(E Bv ) towards right.
=
B =
r
r
Electromagnetic Induction
50. a) When the speed of wire is V
emf developed = B V
Bv
(from b to a)
R
c) Down ward acceleration of the wire
b) Induced current is the wire =
mg F
due to the current
m
B2 2 V
Rm
d) Let the wire start moving with constant velocity. Then acceleration = 0
= mg  i B/m = g
B 2 2 v
mg
Rm
gRm
Vm 2 2
B
dV
e)
a
dt
dV mg B2 2 v / R
dt
m
dv
mg B2 2 v / R
m
v
mdv
mg
2 2
B v
R
dt
dt
0
2 2
log(mg B v = t
R
B2 2
0
R
mR
B2 2
B2 2 v
loglog mg
log(mg) = t
B2 2 v
2 2
mg
R tB
log
mg
mR
B2 2 v tB2 2
log1
Rmg
mR
B2 2 v
1
e
Rmg
(1 e B
v=
2 2
/ mR
tB 2 2
mR
B 2 2 v
Rmg
2 2
Rmg
1 e B / mR
2 2
v = v m (1 e gt / Vm )
Rmg
v m 2 2
B
38.12
Electromagnetic Induction
f)
ds
v ds = v dt
dt
t
(1 e
s = vm
gt / vm
)dt
V2
V
V2
= Vm t m e gt / vm Vmt m e gt / vm m
g
g
g
= Vm t
g)
Vm2
1 e gt / vm
g
d
ds
mgs mg
mgVm (1 e gt / vm)
dt
dt
2
2B2 v 2
dH 2
BV
i R R
R
dt
R
2B2 2
Vm (1 e gt / vm )2
R
After steady state i.e. T
d
mgs mgVm
dt
dH 2B2 2
2B2
mgR
Vm =
Vm 2 2 mgVm
dt
R
R
B
d
d
Hence after steady state H mgs
dt dt
5
51. = 0.3 m, B = 2.0 10 T, = 100 rpm
100
10
v=
2
rad/s
60
3
0.3 10
2
2
3
Emf = e = Bv
v=
0.3
0.33 10
2
3
6
6
6
= 3 10 V = 3 3.14 10 V = 9.42 10 V.
52. V at a distance r/2
r
From the centre =
2
r 1 2
E = Bv E = B r
= Br
2
2
53. B = 0.40 T, = 10 rad/, r = 10
r = 5 cm = 0.05 m
Considering a rod of length 0.05 m affixed at the centre and rotating with the same .
0.05
v =
10
2
2
0.05
e = Bv = 0.40
10 0.05 5 10 3 V
2
5
= 2.0 10
0.3
e 5 10 3
= 0.5 mA
R
10
It leaves from the centre.
I=
38.13
Electromagnetic Induction
B
54. B 0 yK
L
L = Length of rod on yaxis
V = V0 i
Considering a small length by of the rod
dE = B V dy
B0
y V0 dy
L
B V
dE = 0 0 ydy
L
B0 V0 L
E=
ydy
L 0
dE =
y2
1
B0 V0 L2
= B0 V0L
L 2
2
2 0
i
B = 0
2x
B V
= 0 0
L
So, de =
0i
vxdx
2x
iv
e = de 0 =
0
2
x t / 2
x t / 2
dx 0iv
iv x / 2 0iv 2x
ln
= 0 ln
2 x / 2 2x 2x
56. a) emf produced due to the current carrying wire =
Let current produced in the rod = i =
0iv 2x
ln
2 2 x
0iv 2x
ln
2R 2x
0iv 2x 0i
ln
dx
2R 2 x 2x
2
i v 2 x dx
ln
dF = 0
2 R 2 x x
xt / 2
dx
i v 2x
ln
F= 0
2
R
2
x
x t / 2 x
i v 2x 2x
ln
= 0
ln
2 R 2 x 2 x
=
v 0i 2 x
ln
R 2 2 x
b) Current =
0 ln 2 x
ln
2R 2x
38.14
R
i
dx
l
x
Electromagnetic Induction
2
R 2 2 x
2R 2 x
1 0iv 2x
ln
R 2 2 x
d =
=
0i adx
2x
a
d
0
0ia
2
ab
dx 0ia
ln{1 a / b}
x
2
d d 0ia
b) e =
ln[1 a / b]
dt dt 2
dx
0a
d
ln[1 a / n] i0 sin t
2
dt
0ai0 cos t
ln[1 a / b]
2
e 0ai0 cos t
ln[1 a / b]
r
2r
2
H = i rt
c) i =
ai cos t
= 0 0
ln(1 a / b) r t
2r
02 a2 i02 2
4 r
ln2 [1 a / b] r
20
502a 2i20
20
]
ln2 [1 a / b] [ t =
2r
58. a) Using Faraday law
Consider a unit length dx at a distance x
=
i
B= 0
2x
Area of strip = b dx
d =
0i
2x bdx
0i
b
2
Emf =
=
a l
dx
x
a
dx
0i
dx
2x
al
0ib a l
log
2
a
d d 0ib a l
log
dt dt 2
a
0ib a va (a l)v
(where da/dt = V)
2 a l
a2
38.15
Electromagnetic Induction
0ibvl
0ib a vl
=
2 a l a 2
2(a l)a
The velocity of AB and CD creates the emf. since the emf due to AD and BC are equal and opposite to
each other.
C
B
i
i
BAB = 0
E.m.f. AB = 0 bv
i
2a
2a
b
Length b, velocity v.
D
A
0i
BCD =
a
l
2(a l)
=
E.m.f. CD =
0ibv
2(a l)
Length b, velocity v.
0ibv
0ibvl
0i
=
bv
2(a l)
2a(a l)
2a
Net emf =
59. e = Bvl =
i=
B a a
2
Ba2
2R
Ba2
B2a3
aB
towards right of OA.
2R
2R
60. The 2 resistances r/4 and 3r/4 are in parallel.
F = iB =
r / 4 3r / 4 3r
r
16
e = BV
R =
= B
i=
a
Ba
a
2
2
2
e Ba2
Ba2
R
2R
2 3r / 16
r/4
3r/4
Ba216 8 Ba2
2 3r
3 r
61. We know
=
B 2a2
iB
2R
Component of mg along F = mg sin .
F=
B a
mg sin .
Net force =
2R
1
[from previous problem]
62. emf = Ba2
2
2 3
e E 1/ 2 Ba2 E Ba2 2E
Current =
R
R
2R
mg cos = iB [Net force acting on the rod is O]
mg cos =
R=
Ba2 2E
aB
2R
(Ba 2E)aB
.
2mg cos
2
38.16
mg
F = mg sin
ilB
R
C
O
mg mg cos
Electromagnetic Induction
63. Let the rod has a velocity v at any instant,
Then, at the point,
e = Bv
Now, q = c potential = ce = CBv
Current I =
dq d
CBlv
dt dt
l
v
dv
(where a acceleration)
CBla
dt
From figure, force due to magnetic field and gravity are opposite to each other.
So, mg IB = ma
2 2
mg CBa B = ma
ma + CB a = mg
mg
a(m + CB22) = mg
a=
m CB2
64. a) Work done per unit test charge
= E. dl
(E = electric field)
E. dl = e
mg
= CBl
d
E dl =
dt
E 2r = r 2
dB
E 2r =
A
dt
dB
dt
r 2 dB r dB
2 dt 2 dt
b) When the square is considered,
E dl = e
E=
E 2r 4 =
dB
(2r )2
dt
dB 4r 2
r dB
E=
dt 8r
2 dt
The electric field at the point p has the same value as (a).
E=
65.
di
= 0.01 A/s
dt
di
= 0.02 A/s
dt
n = 2000 turn/m, R = 6.0 cm = 0.06 m
r = 1 cm = 0.01 m
a) = BA
d
di
0nA
dt
dt
7
3
4
2
= 4 10 2 10 1 10 2 10
2
10
= 16 10
10
= 157.91 10
8
= 1.6 10
d
or,
for 1 s = 0.785 .
dt
For 2s
b) E.dl =
[A = 1 10 ]
d
dt
38.17
P
r
Electromagnetic Induction
8
0.785 10
d
7
E=
= 1.2 10 V/m
dt
2 10 2
d
di
7
2
c)
= 0n A = 4 10 2000 0.01 (0.06)
dt
dt
Edl =
Edl =
d
dt
2r
8 10 2
66. V = 20 V
dI = I2 I1 = 2.5 (2.5) = 5A
dt = 0.1 s
E=
dI
dt
20 = L(5/0.1) 20 = L 50
L = 20 / 50 = 4/10 = 0.4 Henry.
V= L
67.
d
4
8 10 weber
dt
n = 200, I = 4A, E = nL
d LdI
dt
dt
or,
or, L = n
68. E =
=
dI
dt
d
4
2
= 200 8 10 = 2 10 H.
dt
0N2 A dI
dt
4 10 7 (240 )2 (2 10 2 )2
12 10 2
0.8
4 (24)2 4 8
10 8
12
8
4
= 60577.3824 10 = 6 10 V.
t/r
69. We know i = i0 ( 1 e )
=
a)
b)
90
i0 i0 (1 e t / r )
100
t/r
0.9 = 1 e
t/r
e = 0.1
Taking n from both sides
t/r
n e = n 0.1 t = 2.3 t/r = 2.3
99
i0 i0 (1 e t / r )
100
t/r
e = 0.01
t/r
ne = n 0.01
or, t/r = 4.6 or t/r = 4.6
99.9
i0 i0 (1 e t / r )
100
t/r
e = 0.001
t/r
t/r
lne = ln 0.001 e = 6.9 t/r = 6.9.
c)
38.18
Electromagnetic Induction
70. i = 2A, E = 4V, L = 1H
E 4
R=
2
i 2
L 1
i=
0.5
R 2
71. L = 2.0 H, R = 20 , emf = 4.0 V, t = 0.20 S
i0 =
e
4
L
2
,=
0 .1
R 20
R 20
a) i = i0 (1 e
t/
)=
4
1 e 0.2 / 0.1
20
= 0.17 A
1 2 1
Li 2 (0.17)2 = 0.0289 = 0.03 J.
2
2
72. R = 40 , E = 4V, t = 0.1, i = 63 mA
i = i0 (1 etR/2)
63 103 = 4/40 (1 e0.1 40/L)
3
1
4/L
63 10 = 10 (1 e )
2
4/L
63 10 = (1 e )
4/L
4/L
e
= 0.37
1 0.63 = e
4/L = ln (0.37) = 0.994
b)
4
= 4.024 H = 4 H.
0.994
73. L = 5.0 H, R = 100 , emf = 2.0 V
3
2
t = 20 ms = 20 10 s = 2 10 s
2
t/
i0 =
now i = i0 (1 e )
100
L=
210 2 100
2
L
5
5
i=
1
e
100
R 100
2
(1 e 2 / 5 )
100
0.00659 = 0.0066.
V = iR = 0.0066 100 = 0.66 V.
74. = 40 ms
i0 = 2 A
a) t = 10 ms
t/
10/40
1/4
i = i0 (1 e ) = 2(1 e
) = 2(1 e )
A
= 2(1 0.7788) = 2(0.2211) = 0.4422 A = 0.44 A
b) t = 20 ms
t/
20/40
1/2
i = i0 (1 e ) = 2(1 e
) = 2(1 e )
= 2(1 0.606) = 0.7869 A = 0.79 A
c) t = 100 ms
i = i0 (1 et/) = 2(1 e100/40) = 2(1 e10/4)
= 2(1 0.082) = 1.835 A =1.8 A
d) t = 1 s
i=
Electromagnetic Induction
75. L = 1.0 H, R = 20 , emf = 2.0 V
L
1
= 0.05
R 20
e
2
= 0.1 A
R 20
i = i0 (1 et) = i0 i0et
i0 =
di di0
t/
(i0 x 1 / e t / ) = i0 / e .
dt dt
So,
a) t = 100 ms
di
0 .1
=
e 0.1/ 0.05 = 0.27 A
dt 0.05
b) t = 200 ms
di
0 .1
=
e 0.2 / 0.05 = 0.0366 A
dt 0.05
di
0 .1
9
=
e 1/ 0.05 =4 10 A
dt 0.05
76. a) For first case at t = 100 ms
di
= 0.27
dt
c) t = 1 s
di
= 1 0.27 = 0.27 V
dt
b) For the second case at t = 200 ms
Induced emf = L
di
= 0.036
dt
di
= 1 0.036 = 0.036 V
dt
c) For the third case at t = 1 s
Induced emf = L
di
9
= 4.1 10 V
dt
di
9
= 4.1 10 V
dt
77. L = 20 mH; e = 5.0 V, R = 10
Induced emf = L
L 20 10 3
5
, i0 =
R
10
10
t/ 2
i = i0(1 e )
i = i0 i0 e t /
iR = i0R i0R e t /
a) 10
2
d
5
10
di
=
i0R 10
e 010 / 210
10 20 10 3
dt dt
5
5000
3
10 3 1
= 2500 = 2.5 10 V/s.
2
2
Rdi
1
b)
R i0 e t /
dt
3
t = 10 ms = 10 10 s
=
2
5
10
dE
10
e 0.0110 / 210
10 20 10 3
dt
= 16.844 = 17 V/
38.20
Electromagnetic Induction
c) For t = 1 s
dE Rdi 5 3 10 / 210 2
= 0.00 V/s.
10 e
dt
dt
2
78. L = 500 mH, R = 25 , E = 5 V
a) t = 20 ms
E
i = i0 (1 etR/L) = (1 E tR / L )
R
3
3
5
1
=
1 e 2010 25 / 10010 (1 e 1)
5
25
1
(1 0.3678 ) = 0.1264
5
Potential difference iR = 0.1264 25 = 3.1606 V = 3.16 V.
b) t = 100 ms
=
i = i0 (1 e
=
tR/L
)=
E
(1 E tR / L )
R
3
3
5
1
1 e 10010 25 / 10010 (1 e 5 )
5
25
1
(1 0.0067 ) = 0.19864
5
Potential difference = iR = 0.19864 25 = 4.9665 = 4.97 V.
c) t = 1 sec
E
i = i0 (1 etR/L) = (1 E tR / L )
R
3
5
1
=
1 e 125 / 10010 (1 e 50 )
5
25
=
1
1 = 1/5 A
5
Potential difference = iR = (1/5 25) V = 5 V.
79. L = 120 mH = 0.120 H
R = 10 , emf = 6, r = 2
i = i0 (1 et/)
Now, dQ = idt
= i0 (1 et/) dt
=
Q = dQ =
i (1 e
0
t /
)dt
1
t
t
= i0 dt e t / dt i0 t ( ) e t / dt
0
0
0
= i0 [t (e t / 1)] i0 [ t e t / ]
Now, i0 =
6
6
= 0.5 A
10 2 12
L 0.120
= 0.01
R
12
a) t = 0.01 s
So, Q = 0.5[0.01 + 0.01 e0.01/0.01 0.01]
= 0.00183 = 1.8 103 C = 1.8 mC
=
38.21
Electromagnetic Induction
b) t = 20 ms = 2 10 = 0.02 s
So, Q = 0.5[0.02 + 0.01 e0.02/0.01 0.01]
= 0.005676 = 5.6 103 C = 5.6 mC
c) t = 100 ms = 0.1 s
So, Q = 0.5[0.1 + 0.01 e0.1/0.01 0.01]
= 0.045 C = 45 mC
2
6
2
8
80. L = 17 mH, = 100 m, A = 1 mm = 1 10 m , fcu = 1.7 10 m
2
R=
A
1 10 6
L 0.17 10 8
2
= 10 sec = 10 m sec.
R
1 .7
81. = L/R = 50 ms = 0.05
i
a) 0 i0 (1 e t / 0.06 )
2
1
1
1 e t / 0.05 e t / 0.05 =
2
2
t/0.05
1/2
n e
= n
t = 0.05 0.693 = 0.3465 = 34.6 ms = 35 ms.
i=
b) P = i2R =
E2
(1 E t.R / L )2
R
Maximum power =
E2
R
E2 E 2
(1 e tR / L )2
2R R
1
tR/L
1e
=
= 0.707
2
So,
etR/L = 0.293
tR
ln 0.293 = 1.2275
L
t = 50 1.2275 ms = 61.2 ms.
E
82. Maximum current =
R
1 E2
L
2 R2
1 E2
L
8 R2
1 E2
L
4 R2
1 E2 1 E2
L
L
(1 e t1R / L )2
8 R2 2 R 2
1 et 1R / L
e t1R / L
Again
1
2
1
R
t1
= n 2 t1 = n2
2
L
1 E2
1 E2
L 2 = L 2 (1 e t 2R / L )2
2 R
4 R
38.22
Electromagnetic Induction
2 1
e t 2R / L
2 2
2
1
n2
t2 = n
2 2
So, t2 t1 = n
1
2 2
83. L = 4.0 H, R = 10 , E = 4 V
a) Time constant = =
L
4
= 0.4 s.
R 10
b) i = 0.63 i0
t/
Now, 0.63 i0 = i0 (1 e )
t/
e = 1 0.63 = 0.37
t/
ne = In 0.37
t/ = 0.9942
t = 0.9942 0.4 = 0.3977 = 0.40 s.
t/
c) i = i0 (1 e )
4
(1 e0.4 / 0.4 ) = 0.4 0.6321 = 0.2528 A.
10
Power delivered = VI
= 4 0.2528 = 1.01 = 1 .
2
d) Power dissipated in Joule heating =I R
2
= (0.2528) 10 = 0.639 = 0.64 .
84. i = i0(1 et/)
t/
IR/L
B = B0 (1 e
)
0ni = 0n i0(1 e )
0.8 B0 = B0 (1 e 2010
R / 2103
e
= 0.2
R/100 = 1.609
85. Emf = E
LR circuit
a) dq = idt
t/
= i0 (1 e )dt
IR.L
= i0 (1 e
)dt
R/100
tR / L
R/100
dt
IR/L
= i0 [t (L/R) (e
) t0]
= i0 [t L/R (1 eIR/L)]
Q = E/R [t L/R (1 eIR/L)]
b) Similarly as we know work done = VI = EI
= E i0 [t L/R (1 eIR/L)]
=
E2
IR/L
[t L/R (1 e
)]
R
c) H =
i2R dt
2 t
E
R
(1 e
E2
R2
R (1 e tR / L )2 dt
( 2 B) / L
n(e
) = n(0.2)
R = 16.9 = 160 .
[ = L/R]
t
dq i dt e
Q =
R/100
0.8 = (1 e
2e tR / L ) dt
38.23
Electromagnetic Induction
t
E
L 2tR / L L
e
2 e tR / L
t
0
R 2R
R
E2
L 2tR / L 2L tR / L L 2L
e
R 2R
R
2R R
E2
L 2 2L 3 L
x
x
t
R 2R
R
2 R
E2
L 2
(x 4x 3)
t
2 2R
d) E=
=
1 2
Li
2
1 E2
L
(1 e tR / L )2
2 R2
tR/L
[x = e
LE2
(1 x)2
2R 2
e) Total energy used as heat as stored in magnetic field
=
E2
E2 L 2 E 2 L
3L E2 LE2 LE2 2 LE2
4x 2
T
x
x 2 x
R
R 2R
R r
2R R 2R2 2R2
R
E2
E2L
LE2
t 2 x 2
R
R
R
E2
L
t (1 x)
R R
t/
= EI0 (1 e
)=
E2
(1 e t / )
R
3
22
1
(1 e 1010 200 / 2 ) = 0.02 (1 e ) = 0.1264 = 12 mw.
200
2
c) Power dissepited in heating the resistor = I R
= [i0 (1 e t / )]2 R
= (6.3 mA) 200 = 6.3 6.3 200 10
4
3
= 79.38 10 = 7.938 10 = 8 mA.
d) Rate at which energy is stored in the magnetic field
d/dt (1/2 LI2]
2
LI02 t /
2 10 4 1
e 2t / )
(e
(e e2 )
10 2
2
2
= 2 10 (0.2325) = 0.465 10
3
= 4.6 10 = 4.6 mW.
=
38.24
Electromagnetic Induction
87. LA = 1.0 H ; LB = 2.0 H ; R = 10
a) t = 0.1 s, A = 0.1, B = L/R = 0.2
t/
iA = i0(1 e )
=
2
1 e
10
0.110
1
iB = i0(1 et/)
=
2
1 e
10
0.110
2
iA 0.12642411
= 1.6
iB
0.78693
b) t = 200 ms = 0.2 s
t/
iA = i0(1 e )
= 0.2(1 e0.210 / 1 ) = 0.2 0.864664716 = 0.172932943
iB = 0.2(1 e0.210 / 2 ) = 0.2 0.632120 = 0.126424111
iA 0.172932943
= 1.36 = 1.4
iB 0.126424111
c) t = 1 s
iA = 0.2(1 e 110 / 1 ) = 0.2 0.9999546 = 0.19999092
iB = 0.2(1 e110 / 2 ) = 0.2 0.99326 = 0.19865241
iA 0.19999092
= 1.0
iB 0.19865241
0.1/
)
n (1/2) = n (e
0.693 = 0.1/
= 0.1/0.693 = 0.144 = 0.14.
b) L = 4 H, i = L/R
0.14 = 4/R
R = 4 / 0.14 = 28.57 = 28 .
89.
Case  I
Case  II
1 2
Li
2
So, the current will also remain same.
Thus charge flowing through the conductor is the same.
V1 = V2 =
38.25
Electromagnetic Induction
90. a) The inductor does not work in DC. When the switch is closed the current
charges so at first inductor works. But after a long time the current flowing is
constant.
Thus effect of inductance vanishes.
E(R1 R2 )
E
E
i=
R1R2
Rnet
R1R2
R1 R2
b) When the switch is opened the resistors are in series.
L
L
=
.
Rnet R1 R2
91. i = 1.0 A, r = 2 cm, n = 1000 turn/m
Magnetic energy stored =
B2 V
20
0n2i2
r 2h
20
4 107 106 1 4 10 4 1
2
2
5
= 8 10
5
4
= 78.956 10 = 7.9 10 J.
=
B2
20
[h = 1 m]
i2
B2 V (0i / 2r)2
=
V 20
V
20
20
4r 2
4 10 7 42 1 10 9
4 (10 1 )2 2
= 8 10
14
J.
93. I = 4.00 A, V = 1 mm ,
d = 10 cm = 0.1 m
i
B 0
2r
Now magnetic energy stored =
=
02i2
4r 2
B2
V
20
1
4 107 16 1 1 10 9
V
20
4 1 10 2 2
8
10 14 J
14
= 2.55 10 J
94. M = 2.5 H
dI A
dt
s
=
dI
dt
E = 2.5 1 = 2.5 V
E
38.26
R2
R1
Electromagnetic Induction
95. We know
d
di
E M
dt
dt
From the question,
di d
(i0 sin t) i0 cos t
dt dt
ai cos t
d
E 0 0
n[1 a / b]
dt
2
Now, E = M
di
dt
0 ai0 cos t
n[1 a / b] M i0 cos t
2
or,
0 a
n[1 a / b]
2
0Na2 a2ERV
2L(a2 x 2 )3 / 2 (R / Lx r)2
dI
ERV
2
dt
Rx
L
r
L
N0 a2 a2
E
.
di / dt 2(a 2 x 2 )3 / 2
97. Solenoid I :
2
a1 = 4 cm ; n1 = 4000/0.2 m ; 1 = 20 cm = 0.20 m
Solenoid II :
2
a2 = 8 cm ; n2 = 2000/0.1 m ; 2 = 10 cm = 0.10 m
B = 0n2i let the current through outer solenoid be i.
= n1B.A = n1 n2 0 i a1
= 2000
E=
2000
4 10 7 i 4 104
0.1
d
di
64 10 4
dt
dt
E
4
2
= 64 10 H = 2 10 H.
di / dt
98. a) B = Flux produced due to first coil
= 0 n i
Flux linked with the second
2
= 0 n i NA = 0 n i N R
Emf developed
dI dt
=
(0niNR2 )
dt dt
Now M =
= 0nNR2
[As E = Mdi/dt]
di
0nNR2i0 cos t .
dt
38.27
CHAPTER 39
ALTERNATING CURRENT
1.
= 50 Hz
= 0 Sin Wt
Peak value =
2.
= 0 Sin Wt
= Sin Wt = Sin
= Wt.
4
or, t =
1
=
=
=
= 0.0025 s = 2.5 ms
400
4 2
8
8 50
Erms = 220 V
Frequency = 50 Hz
E
(a) Erms = 0
2
E0 = Erms 2 = 2 220 = 1.414 220 = 311.08 V = 311 V
(b) Time taken for the current to reach the peak value = Time taken to reach the 0 value from r.m.s
= 0 0 = 0 Sin t
2
2
1
t=
=
=
=
= 2.5 ms
4
4 2f
850
400
P = 60 W
V = 220 V = E
t =
3.
R=
220 220
v2
=
= 806.67
P
60
0 =
4.
E2
E 2 rms
E0
2
2
2
R
R
2
2
2
2
E0 = 2E E0 = 2 12 = 2 144
5.
6.
E =
2
E0 = 2 144 = 16.97 17 V
P0 = 80 W (given)
P
Prms = 0 = 40 W
2
Energy consumed = P t = 40 100 = 4000 J = 4.0 KJ
6
2
E = 3 10 V/m, A = 20 cm ,
d = 0.1 mm
Potential diff. across the capacitor = Ed = 3 106 0.1 103 = 300 V
V
300
=
= 212 V
Max. rms Voltage =
2
2
39.1
Alternating Current
7.
i = i0e
ur
i2 =
i 2
1
i0 2 e 2 t / dt = 0
i2 =
8.
e 2 t / dt =
i0
i
e 2t / = 0 e 2 1
2
2
0
i e 2 1
i0 2 1
2 1 = 0
e 2
2 e
C = 10 F = 10 10
E = (10 V) Sin t
E0
E
=
a) = 0 =
Xc
1
F = 10 F
10
3
= 1 10 A
1
10 10 5
b) = 100 s
E0
10
2
=
=
= 1 10 A = 0.01 A
1
1
C
100 10 5
1
c) = 500 s
E0
10
2
=
=
= 5 10 A = 0.05 A
1
1
C
500 10 5
1
d) = 1000 s
E0
10
1
=
= 1 10 A = 0.1 A
1
1
C
1000 10 5
Inductance = 5.0 mH = 0.005 H
1
a) = 100 s
5
XL = L = 100
= 0.5
1000
10
= 20 A
i= 0 =
XL
0 .5
1
9.
b) = 500 s
XL = L = 500
i=
5
= 2.5
1000
0
10
=
=4A
XL
2 .5
c) = 1000 s
XL = L = 1000
i=
0
10
=
=2A
XL
5
10. R = 10 ,
E = 6.5 V,
Z=
5
=5
1000
R 2 XL 2 =
L = 0.4 Henry
30
=
Hz
R 2 (2L)2
=
=
=
= 0.625 =
= 6.5
2
2
Z
Z
100 576
8
30
R 2 ( 2 L ) 2
10 2 2
0 .4
39.2
Alternating Current
V2
T,
R
11. H =
H=
dH =
= 250 ,
E0 = 12 V,
E 0 Sin 2 t
144
dt =
sin 2 t dt = 1.44
R
100
R = 100
1 cos 2t
dt
2
3
10 3
1.44 10
Sin2t 103
dt
Cos2t dt = 0.72 10 3
0
2 0
2 0
1
( 2)
1
4
= 0.72
=
0.72 = 0.0002614 = 2.61 10 J
1000
1000 500
12. R = 300,
C = 25 F = 25 106 F,
0 = 50 V,
= 50 Hz
Xc =
1
10 4
1
=
=
50
c
25
2 25 10 6
R Xc
2
Z=
10 4
(300)
25
E0
50
=
= 0.1 A
Z
500
(b) Average Power dissipitated, = Erms rms Cos
E0
2
E0
2Z
E 2
R
50 50 300
3
= 02 =
=
= 1.5 .
Z
2
500
500
2
2Z
13. Power = 55 W,
Voltage = 110 V,
frequency () = 50 Hz,
V
=
Current in the circuit =
Z
220 220
(220 )2 (100 L )2
220 2 =
V2
110 110
=
= 220
P
55
= 2 = 2 50 = 100
V
R 2 ( L ) 2
Resistance =
110 V
VR
R 2 ( L ) 2
220 V
= 110
48400 + 10 L = 193600
10 L = 193600 48400
142500
2
= 1.4726
L = 1.2135 1.2 Hz
L = 2
10 4
6
14. R = 300 ,
C = 20 F = 20 10 F
50
Hz
L = 1 Henry,
E = 50 V
V=
E
(a) 0 = 0 ,
Z
4 2
Z=
R 2 ( X c XL ) 2 =
4 2
1
(300)2
2L
2 C
1
50
= (300 )2
2
1
50
20 10 6
E0
50
=
= 0.1 A
0 =
Z
500
39.3
10 4
(300)
100
20
= 500
Alternating Current
(b) Potential across the capacitor = i0 Xc = 0.1 500 = 50 V
Potential difference across the resistor = i0 R = 0.1 300 = 30 V
Potential difference across the inductor = i0 XL = 0.1 100 = 10 V
Rms. potential = 50 V
Net sum of all potential drops = 50 V + 30 V + 10 V = 90 V
Sum or potential drops > R.M.S potential applied.
15. R = 300
C = 20 F = 20 106 F
L = 1H,
Z = 500 (from 14)
E
50
0 = 50 V, 0 = 0 =
= 0.1 A
Z
500
2
6
3
Electric Energy stored in Capacitor = (1/2) CV = (1/2) 20 10 50 50 = 25 10 J = 25 mJ
2
2
3
Magnetic field energy stored in the coil = (1/2) L 0 = (1/2) 1 (0.1) = 5 10 J = 5 mJ
16. (a)For current to be maximum in a circuit
Xl = Xc
(Resonant Condition)
WL =
1
WC
W =
1
1
10 6
=
=
LC
36
2 18 10 6
10 3
10 3
2 =
6
6
1000
=
= 26.537 Hz 27 Hz
6 2
E
(b) Maximum Current =
(in resonance and)
R
20
2
=
A = 2 mA
=
3
10 10
10 3
17. Erms = 24 V
r = 4 ,
rms = 6 A
W=
E
24
=
=4
6
Internal Resistance = 4
Hence net resistance = 4 + 4 = 8
12
Current =
= 1.5 A
8
3
18. V1 = 10 10 V
R = 1 103
9
C = 10 10 F
R=
(a) Xc =
Z=
0 =
10
V1
1
5000
1
1
1
10 4
=
=
=
=
=
3
9
4
WC
2 C
2
2 10 10 10 10
2 10
R 2 Xc 2 =
E0
V
= 1 =
Z
Z
1 10
3 2
5000
5000
10 6
10 10 3
5000
10 6
39.4
10 nF
V0
Alternating Current
(b) Xc =
Z=
0 =
1
500
1
1
10 3
1
=
=
=
=
=
5
3
WC
2 C
2
2 10 10 10
2 10
R 2 Xc 2 =
500
3 2
500
10 6
10 10 3
E0
V
= 1 =
Z
Z
V0 = 0 Xc =
10
500
10 6
10 10 3
500
10 6
500
= 1.6124 V 1.6 mV
(c) = 1 MHz = 10 Hz
6
Xc =
1
10 2
1
1
1
50
=
=
=
=
=
6
2
WC
2 C
2
2 10 10 10
2 10
Z=
R 2 Xc 2 =
0 =
50
=
3 2
50
10 6
10 10 3
E0
V
= 1 =
Z
Z
V0 = 0 Xc =
10
50
10 6
10 10 3
50
10 6
50
0.16 mV
(d) = 10 MHz = 10 Hz
1
1
1
1
10
5
Xc =
=
=
=
=
=
7
1
WC
2 C
2
2 10 10 10
2 10
7
Z=
0 =
R 2 Xc 2 =
E0
V
= 1 =
Z
Z
V0 = 0 Xc =
10
3 2
5
=
5
10 6
10 10 3
5
10 6
10 10 3
5
10 6
5
16 V
19. Transformer works upon the principle of induction which is only possible in
case of AC.
Hence when DC is supplied to it, the primary coil blocks the Current supplied
to it and hence induced current supplied to it and hence induced Current in the
secondary coil is zero.
39.5
P1
Sec
ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES
CHAPTER  40
1.
0 dE
0 EA
dt
dt 4 0r 2
=
M1L3 T 4 A 2
M1L3 A 2
= (Current)
2.
E=
Kq
x2
3.
A1T1 L2
1
=A
2
T
L
(proved).
E = EA =
Id
KqA
x2
dE
d kqA
d
= 0
0
0 KqA x 2
dt
dt x 2
dt
1
dx qAv
= 0
q A 2 x 3
.
4 0
dt 2x 3
E=
Q
(Electric field)
0 A
= E.A. =
i0 = 0
Q A
Q
0 A 2 0 2
dE
d Q 1 dQ
0
dt
dt 0 2 2 dt
td
4.
1d
1
1 t / RC E RE0
(EC e t / RC ) EC
e
e
2 dt
2
RC
2R
E=
Q
(Electric field)
0 A
= E.A. =
i0 = 0
5.
Q A
Q
0 A 2 0 2
dE
d Q 1 dQ
0
dt
dt 0 2 2 dt
B = 0H
H=
B
0
E0 B0 /(0 0 C)
1
H0
B0 / 0
0 C
1
= 376.6 = 377 .
8.85 10 3 108
1
1
1
Dimension
1 2 3 2 = M1L2T3A2 = [R].
1
1 3 4 2
0 C [LT ][M L T A ] M L T A
=
6.
12
E0 = 810 V/m, B0 = ?
We know, B0 = 0 0 C E0
Putting the values,
7
12
8
B0 = 4 10 8.85 10 3 10 810
= 27010.9 1010 = 2.7 106 T = 2.7 T.
40.1
Electromagnetic Waves
7.
I = 2.5 10
14
E0 =
9.
W/m
We know, I =
E02 =
1 2 (200 10 6 )2
4 10 8
1
B0
=
= 0.0159 = 0.016.
7
20
2 4 10
8 10 7 20
1
0 E02 C
2
2I
0 C
2I
0 C
or E0 =
2 2.5 1014
8.85 10 12 3 108
B0 = 0 0 C E0
7
12
8
8
= 4 3.14 10 8.854 10 3 10 4.33 10 = 1.44 T.
1
Intensity of wave = 0 E02 C
2
12
8
2
0 = 8.85 10 ; E0 = ? ; C = 3 10 , I = 1380 W/m
1380 = 1/2 8.85 10
12
E02 =
E02 3 10
2 1380
4
= 103.95 10
8.85 3 10 4
2
3
E0 = 10.195 10 = 1.02 10
E0 = B0C
B0 = E0/C =
1.02 103
3 108
= 3.398 10
= 3.4 10
40.2
T.
31
kg
27
kg
Electric field be E
Force experienced by Electron = qE
accln. = qE/me
For time dt
1 qE
dt 2
2 me
Se =
(1)
qE
4 mp
1
qE
dt 2
2 4 mp
Sp =
(2)
Se 4mp
= 7340.6
Sp
me
2.
5 10
qE 1.6 5 10 16
m
9.1 10 31
a) S = distance travelled
=
1 2
at = 439.56 m = 440 m
2
b) d = 1 mm = 1 10
1 10
t =
2
3.
1 1.6 5 5 2
10 t
2
9.1
9.1
9
1018 t = 1.508 10 sec 1.5 ns.
0.8 5
4.
V = f(Pd)
vs = Ps ds
vL = Pl dl
Vs Ps ds
100 10 1mm
Vl
Pl dl
100 20
x
x = 1 mm / 2 = 0.5 mm
5.
i = ne or n = i/e
e is same in all cases.
We know,
41.1
i = AST e
/ RT
19
/ 1.3810
23
23
J/k
1000
1.7396 10
17
a) T = 300 K
19
n(T)
AS (300)2 e 4.521.610 / 1.3810
n(1000K)
AS 1.7396 10 17
23
300
= 7.05 10
55
b) T = 2000 K
19
n(T)
AS (2000)2 e4.521.610 / 1.3810
n(1000K)
AS 1.7396 10 17
23
2000
= 9.59 10
11
c) T = 3000 K
19
6.
n(T)
AS (3000)2 e4.521.610 / 1.3810
n(1000K)
AS 1.7396 10 17
23
3000
= 1.340 10
16
i = AST2 e / KT
i1 = i
i2 = 100 mA
A1 = 60 10
S1 = S
A2 = 3 10
S2 = S
T1 = 2000
T2 = 2000
1 = 4.5 eV
2 = 2.6 eV
K = 1.38 10
23
J/k
4.51.61019
23
e1.3810 2000
2.61.61019
23
e1.3810 2000
e
100
i
i
20 e11.014
20 0.000016
100
100
i = 20 0.0016 = 0.0329 mA = 33 A
7.
Pure tungsten
Thoriated tungsten
= 4.5 eV
= 2.6 eV
A = 60 10 A/m k
4
A = 3 10 A/m k
i = AST e / KT
2
23
2.651.61019
S 3 10 T e
4
1.38T 1023
4.51.610 19
3 10 e
8
1.38T10 23
2.651.61019
= e
1.38T 1023
3 10
Taking ln
9.21 T = 220.29
T = 22029 / 9.21 = 2391.856 K
41.2
i = AST e
/ KT
e / KT
12
i = AST
i
T 2 e / KT
12 / KT
i T e
2
i T / KT KT T KT / KT
e
e
i T
T
2
i 2000
=
e
i 2010
9.
4.51.61019
1.3810 23
1
1
= 0.8690
2010 2000
i
1
1.1495 = 1.14
i 0.8699
A = 60 10 A/m k
4
= 4.5 eV
S = 2 10
= 6 10
/m k
2
K = 1.38 10
23
J/K
H = 24
The Cathode acts as a black body, i.e. emissivity = 1
E = A T (A is area)
4
T4 =
E
24
2 1013 K 20 1012 K
8
A 6 10 2 10 5
T = 2.1147 10 = 2114.7 K
3
= AST e / KT
2
Now, i
4.51.610 19
= 6 10 2 10
5
= 1.03456 10
10. ip =
(2114.7) e 1.38T10
2
23
A = 1 mA
CVp3 / 2
(1)
dip
dv p
3
CVp1/ 2
2
(2)
3 / 2CVp1/ 2
i dip
ip dv p
CVp3 / 2
1 dip
3
ip dv p 2V
dv p
dip
R=
2V
3ip
2V
2 60
4 103 4k
3ip 3 10 10 3
P
1
Ip =
Vp 36
Ip (Vp)
3/2
Ip (Vp)
Ip
Ip
3/2
(Vp )3 / 2
Vp
3/2
1/ 36 36
Ip
49
1
36 6
Ip 0.4411
36 Ip
49 7
==
=
250 225 25
12.5
2.5 0.5
2
14. rp = 2 K = 2 103
gm = 2 milli mho = 2 10
mho
= rp gm = 2 10 2 10
3
= 4 Amplification factor is 4.
Ip = ?
Vp = 220 220 = 20 V
Ip =Vp / rp) / Vg = constant.
4
= 20/10 = 0.002 A = 2 mA
Vp
16. rp =
Ip
at constant Vg
(240 160)V
(13 3) 10 3 A
80
103 8K
10
Ip
gm =
= constant
Vg v p
(13 3) 10 3
10 10 3
A
2.5 milli mho
[( 4) ( 8)]
4
= rp gm
= 8 10 2.5 10
3
= 8 1.5 = 20
17. a) rp = 8 K = 8000
Vp = 48 V
Ip = ?
Ip = Vp / rp) / Vg = constant.
So, Ip = 48 / 8000 = 0.006 A = 6 mA
b) Now, Vp is constant.
Ip = 6 mA = 0.006 A
41.4
0.006
= 2.4 V
0.0025
18. rp = 10 K = 10 103
= 20
Vg = 7.5 V
Vp = 250 V
Ip = 10 mA
Ip
a) gm =
Vp = constant
Vg
Vg =
Ip
gm
15 103 10 10 3
/ rp
5 10 3
20 /10 10
5
2.5
2
rg = +2.5 7.5 = 5 V
Vp
b) rp =
Ip
10 =
Vg = constnant
Vp
(15 10
10 10 3 )
Vp = 10 5 10
4
= 50 V
Vp Vp = 50 Vp = 50 + Vp = 200 V
19. Vp = 250 V, Vg = 20 V
a) ip = 41(Vp + 7Vg)
1.41
41(250 140)
b) ip = 41(Vp + 7Vg)
Differentiating,
1.41
= 41 (110)
1.41
dVp
Now rp =
or
dVp
dip
dip
= 30984 A = 30 mA
1.41
0.41
(dVp + 7dVg)
Vg = constant.
1 106
= 10 2.51 10
6
41 1.41 1100.41
2.5 10 = 2.5 K
3
c) From above,
dIp = 41 1.41 6.87 7 d Vg
gm =
dIp
dVg
3/2
= 6.95 = 7
(1)
dip
dVg
1/2
d Vg
1/ 2
V
3
K Vg 0
2
41.5
1/2
(2)
ip = k (gm) gm 3 ip
3
mho
Amplification factor = 30
Load Resistance = RL = ?
We know
A=
A=
rp
1
RL
rp gm
rp
1
RL
30 =
where = rp gm
4RL
20 103 2 10 3
3=
20000
RL 20000
1
RL
3RL + 60000 = 4 RL
RL = 60000 = 60 K
22. Voltage gain =
rp
1
RL
When A = 10, RL = 4 K
10 =
rp
4 103
10
4 10
4 103 rp
40 10 10rp = 4 10
3
(1)
when A = 12, RL = 8 K
12 =
rp
12
8 103
8 103 rp
8 103
96 10 + 12 rp = 8 10
(2)
Multiplying (2) in equation (1) and equating with equation (2)
3
rp = 2 10 = 2 K
3
40 10 + 20 10 ) = 4 10
3
= 60/4 = 15
41.6
1 = 400 nm to 2 = 780 nm
E = h =
E1 =
2.
hc
4.
34
6.63 10 34 3 108
9
6.63 3
19
10 19 = 5 10 J
4
400 10
6.63 3
19
E2 =
10 19 = 2.55 10 J
7.8
19
19
So, the range is 5 10 J to 2.55 10 J.
= h/p
6.63 1034
27
27
JS = 1.326 10 = 1.33 10 kg m/s.
500 10 9
9
9
1 = 500 nm = 500 10 m, 2 = 700 nm = 700 10 m
E1 E2 = Energy absorbed by the atom in the process. = hc [1/1 1/2]
6.63 3[1/5 1/7] 1019 = 1.136 1019 J
P = 10 W E in 1 sec = 10 J
% used to convert into photon = 60%
Energy used = 6 J
P = h/ =
3.
h = 6.63 10
5.
6.63 10 34 3 108
9
6.633
10 17
590
590 10
6
6 590
19
No. of photons used =
6.63
3
10 17
590
power
3
2
3
2
a) Here intensity = I = 1.4 10 /m
Intensity, I =
= 1.4 10 /m
area
Let no.of photons/sec emitted = n
Power = Energy emitted/sec = nhc/ = P
No.of photons/m2 = nhc/ = intensity
int ensity
1.9 103 5 10 9
3.5 1021
hc
6.63 10 34 3 108
b) Consider no.of two parts at a distance r and r + dr from the source.
The time interval dt in which the photon travel from one point to another = dv/e = dt.
n=
p dr
In this time the total no.of photons emitted = N = n dt =
hc C
These points will be present between two spherical shells of radii r and r+dr. It is the distance of the
st
1 point from the sources. No.of photons per volume in the shell
N
Pdr
1
p
2
2
2r2dr
hc
4r ch 4 hc 2r 2
11
9
In the case = 1.5 10 m, = 500 nm, = 500 10 m
(r + r + dr) =
P
4r 2
4r 2 hc 2
500 10 9
1.2 1013
6.63 10 34 3 108
2
c) No.of photons = (No.of photons/sec/m ) Area
21
2
= (3.5 10 ) 4r
21
11 2
44
= 3.5 10 4(3.14)(1.5 10 ) = 9.9 10 .
= 1.4 10
3
42.1
7.
t t
9
hc
W = Pc/t
or Force
19
60
E hc
= Power (W)
t
t
or, P/t = W/c = force.
= 7/10 (absorbed) + 2 3/10 (reflected)
E=
or,
7 W
3 W
7
10
3
10
10 C
10 C
10 3 108
10 3 108
8
8
= 13/3 10 = 4.33 10 N.
8.
m = 20 g
The weight of the mirror is balanced. Thus force exerted by the photons is equal to weight
P=
E=
hc
PC
E P
C
t
t
Rate of change of momentum = Power/C
30% of light passes through the lens.
Thus it exerts force. 70% is reflected.
Force exerted = 2(rate of change of momentum)
= 2 Power/C
2 Power
30%
mg
C
20 10 3 10 3 108 10
= 10 w = 100 MW.
23
Power = 100 W
Radius = 20 cm
60% is converted to light = 60 w
power
60
Now, Force =
2 10 7 N .
velocity 3 108
Power =
9.
Pressure =
force
2 107
1
105
2
area 4 3.14 (0.2)
8 3.14
= 0.039 10
= 3.9 10
= 4 10
N/m .
10. We know,
If a perfectly reflecting solid sphere of radius r is kept in the path of a parallel beam of light of large
aperture if intensity is I,
r 2l
C
2
8
I = 0.5 W/m , r = 1 cm, C = 3 10 m/s
Force =
Force =
(1)2 0.5
3.14 0.5
3 10
3 108
8
9
= 0.523 10 = 5.2 10 N.
8
42.2
kq2 kq2
R
1
kq2
hc
=
1
or =
hc
kq2
6.63 3 10 34 108
9 109 (1.6 2)2 10 38
863
= 215.74 m
4
hC
6.63 10 34 3 108
1.9
W0
2.5 1019
14
14
= 3.77 10 Hz = 3.8 10 Hz
h
6.63 1034
b) eV0 = h W 0
0 =
e
1.6 1019
19
16. = 4 eV = 4 1.6 10 J
a) Threshold wavelength =
= hc/
or, V0 =
6.4
4 1.6 10 19
10
b) Stopping potential is 2.5 V
E = + eV
19
19
hc/ = 4 1.6 10 + 1.6 10 2.5
=
6.63 3 1026
1.6 10
19
6.5
= 4 + 2.5
= 1.9125 10
= 190 nm.
42.3
hc
4.14 10 15 3 108
2.5ev = 0.605 ev.
hv 0 =
4 10 7
P2
2
P = 2m KE.
2m
2
31
19
P = 2 9.1 10 0.605 1.6 10
25
P = 4.197 10 kg m/s
18. = 400 nm = 400 109 m
V0 = 1.1 V
hc hc
ev 0
0
We know KE =
6.63 10 34 3 108
400 10
4.97 =
6.63 10 34 3 108
1.6 10 19 1.1
0
19.89 10 26
1.76
0
19.89 10 26
= 4.97 17.6 = 3.21
0
19.89 10 26
7
= 6.196 10 m = 620 nm.
3.21
19. a) When = 350, Vs = 1.45
and when = 400, Vs = 1
0 =
hc
= W + 1.45
350
(1)
Stopping
potential
hc
=W+1
(2)
400
Subtracting (2) from (1) and solving to get the value of h we get
h = 4.2 1015 evsec
and
hc
= ev  s
1240
1.45 = 2.15 ev.
350
c) w =
hc
hc
there cathod
w
1240
= 576.8 nm.
2.15
45
20. The electric field becomes 0 1.2 10 times per second.
=
Frequency =
1.2 1015
15
= 0.6 10
2
h = 0 + kE
h 0 = KE
2
1.6 10 19
= 0.482 ev = 0.48 ev.
7
1
21. E = E0 sin[(1.57 10 m ) (x ct)]
7
W = 1.57 10 C
KE =
42.4
1/
f=
W0 = 1.9 ev
1.57 3 1015
1.9 ev
2
= 3.105 1.9 = 1.205 ev
= 4.14 10
So, V0 =
15
1.205 1.6 10 19
= 1.205 V.
1.6 1019
15 1
15 1
22. E = 100 sin[(3 10 s )t] sin [6 10 s )t]
15 1
15 1
= 100 [cos[(9 10 s )t] cos [3 10 s )t]
15
15
The w are 9 10 and 3 10
for largest K.E.
fmax =
w max
9 1015
=
2
2
E 0 = K.E.
hf 0 = K.E.
2 KE
2 1.6 10 19
KE = 3.938 ev = 3.93 ev.
23. W 0 = hv ev0
5 10 3
15
3.05 10 19
= 1.906 eV.
1.6 10 19
24. We have to take two cases :
Case I v0 = 1.656
14
= 5 10 Hz
Case II v0 = 0
14
= 1 10 Hz
We know ;
a) ev 0 h w 0
V (in volts)
2
1.656
1
1.656e = h 5 10 w0
(1)
14
(2)
0 = 5h 10 5w0
1.656e = 4w0
1.656
w0 =
ev = 0.414 ev
4
b) Putting value of w0 in equation (2)
14
5w0 = 5h 10
14
5 0.414 = 5 h 10
15
h = 4.414 10 evs
25. w0 = 0.6 ev
For w0 to be min becomes maximum.
14
w0 =
hc
hc
6.63 10 34 3 108
or =
=
w0
0.6 1.6 10 19
hc
1242
=
ev
400
5
5 400
No.of electrons =
5 400
hc
6.63 10 34 3 108
19
=
= 9.945 10
2 107
1 10 7
9.945 10
= 1 10
11
19
no.s
1 1011
7
= 1 10
10 4
Net amount of positive charge q developed due to the outgoing electrons
7
19
12
= 1 10 1.6 10 = 1.6 10 C.
Now potential developed at the centre as well as at the surface due to these charger
Kq 9 109 1.6 10 12
1
= 3 10 V = 0.3 V.
r
4.8 10 2
28. 0 = 2.39 eV
1 = 400 nm, 2 = 600 nm
for B to the minimum energy should be maximum
should be minimum.
=
hc
0 = 3.105 2.39 = 0.715 eV.
The presence of magnetic field will bend the beam there will be no current if
the electron does not reach the other plates.
mv
r=
qB
E=
10 cm
X
X
X
X
X
X
2mE
qB
r=
0.1 =
1.6 10 19 B
B = 2.85 10 T
29. Given : fringe width,
y = 1.0 mm 2 = 2.0 mm, D = 0.24 mm, W 0 = 2.2 ev, D = 1.2 m
5
D
y=
d
or, =
yd 2 10 3 0.24 10 3
7
= 4 10 m
D
1.2
B
A
B
A
B
hc 4.14 10 15 3 108
= 3.105 ev
4 10
Stopping potential eV0 = 3.105 2.2 = 0.905 V
E=
42.6
WC
V=
1 10 9 20
d
= 22.598 V = 22.6
E0
8.85 10 12 100
hc
4.14 10 15 3 108
w0
1.9
4 10 7
= 3.105 1.9 = 1.205 ev
or, V0 = 1.205 V
As V0 is much less than V
Hence the minimum energy required to reach the charged plate must be = 22.6 eV
For maximum KE, the V must be an accelerating one.
Hence max KE = V0 + V = 1.205 + 22.6 = 23.8005 ev
32. Here electric field of metal plate = E = P/E0
V0e = h w0 =
1 10 19
= 113 v/m
8.85 10 12
accl. de = = qE / m
=
1.6 10 19 113
9.1 10 31
= 19.87 10
Metal plate
12
y = 20 cm
2y
2 20 10 2
7
t=
= 1.41 10 sec
a
19.87 10 31
hc
K.E. =
w = 1.2 eV
19
= 1.2 1.6 10 J [because in previous problem i.e. in problem 31 : KE = 1.2 ev]
2KE
2 1.2 1.6 10 19
= 0.665 10
4.1 10 31
Horizontal displacement = Vt t
= 0.655 106 1.4 107 = 0.092 m = 9.2 cm.
33. When = 250 nm
V=
Energy of photon =
hc 1240
= 4.96 ev
250
hc
w = 4.96 1.9 ev = 3.06 ev.
K.E. =
2KE / m
42.7
3.06
9.1 10 31
3.06 1.6 10 19
9.1 10 31
= 1.04 10 m/sec.
6
hc
ke hc
hc
1
1
V0 =
2d
e
e
ion
d
Ke2 hc
hc Ke2
Ke2 2d
2d
2d
2d
hc 2d
Ke 2d
2
8 hcd
2hcd
.
2 0
1
e 80 d
2d
40 e2
hc 1240
= 3.1 eV
400
Energy of photon =
42.8
2.
3.
a0 =
0 h2
me
A 2 T 2 (ML2 T 1 )2
L MLT M(AT)
M2L4 T 2
M2L3 T 2
a)
R 2
2
n
n
1
2
1
1 1
1.1 107
1
1
1
7
8
=
b)
z2R 2
2
n1 n2
1
91 nm
= 23 nm
4
1.1 10 7 z2
1
1
c)
z2R 2
2
n
n
1
2
91 nm 91
=
= 10 nm
9
z2
=
4.
Rydbergs constant =
me = 9.1 10
31
or, R =
5.
me 4
8h3 C02
kg, e = 1.6 10
19
c, h = 6.63 10
34
= 1.097 10 m
7
n1 = 2, n2 =
13.6 13.6
1
1
E =
13.6 2 2
2
2
n1
n2
n2
n1
= 13.6 (1/ 1/4) = 13.6/4 = 3.4 eV
43.1
12
0h n
2 2
6.
a) n = 1, r =
=
0.53n
A
Z
0.53 1
= 0.265 A
2
13.6 4
= 54.4 eV
1
0.53 16
b) n = 4, r =
= 4.24 A
2
13.6 4
=
= 3.4 eV
164
0.53 100
c) n = 10, r =
= 26.5 A
2
13.6 4
=
= 0.544 A
100
As the light emitted lies in ultraviolet range the line lies in hyman series.
1
1
1
R 2 2
n1 n2
=
7.
mZe2
13.6z2
n2
1
102.5 10
109
102
1.1 107 (1 1/ n22 )
1.1 107 (1 1/ n22 )
102.5
102.5
1
100
1
1 100
1 2
2
102.5
1.1
102.5
1.1
n2
n2
8.
9.
n2 = 2.97 = 3.
a) First excitation potential of
+
2
He = 10.2 z = 10.2 4 = 40.8 V
++
b) Ionization potential of L1
2
= 13.6 V z = 13.6 9 = 122.4 V
n1 = 4 n2 = 2
n1 = 4 3 2
1
1 1
1.097 107
16 4
1
1.097 107 3
1 4
1.097 107
16
16
16 10 7
7
= 4.8617 10
3 1.097
9
= 1.861 10 = 487 nm
n1 = 4 and n2 = 3
1
1 1
1.097 107
16 9
1
1.097 107 7
9 16
1.097 107
144
144
144
=
= 1875 nm
7 1.097 107
n1 = 3 n2 = 2
1
1 1
1.097 107
9 4
43.2
1
1.097 10 5
49
1.097 107
66
36
7
36 10 7
= 656 nm
5 1.097
10. = 228 A
=
228 10 10
The transition takes place form n = 1 to n = 2
2
16
Now, ex. 13.6 3/4 z = 0.0872 10
E=
z =
2
0.0872 10 16 4
13.6 3 1.6 10 19
= 5.3
z = 5.3 = 2.3
The ion may be Helium.
q1q2
11. F =
40r 2
[Smallest dist. Between the electron and nucleus in the radius of first Bohrs orbit]
n
n
1
2
=
1
1 1
1
1.097 107 2 2 1.097 107 1
4
1
2
4
10 7
1.097 3
7
9
= 1.215 10 = 121.5 10 = 122 nm.
13.6
= 0.3777777
14. Energy at n = 6, E =
36
Energy in groundstate = 13.6 eV
Energy emitted in Second transition = 13.6 (0.37777 + 1.13)
= 12.09 = 12.1 eV
b) Energy in the intermediate state = 1.13 ev + 0.0377777
= 1.507777 =
13.6 z2
n
13.6
n2
13.6
= 3.03 = 3 = n.
1.507
15. The potential energy of a hydrogen atom is zero in ground state.
An electron is board to the nucleus with energy 13.6 ev.,
Show we have to give energy of 13.6 ev. To cancel that energy.
Then additional 10.2 ev. is required to attain first excited state.
Total energy of an atom in the first excited state is = 13.6 ev. + 10.2 ev. = 23.8 ev.
or, n =
43.3
= 27 ev.
46
1
46 10 9
hc 4.14 10 15 3 108
= 12 ev.
103.5
II
2
n(n 1)
= 6 n = 4.
b) Total no.of wavelengths in the transition is 6. We have
2
nh
nh
hn
2
mr w =
w=
18. a) We know, m r =
2
2
2 m r 2
=
1 6.63 10 34
= 0.413 10
17
rad/s = 4.13 10
17
rad/s.
19. The range of Balmer series is 656.3 nm to 365 nm. It can resolve and + if / = 8000.
656.3 365
No.of wavelengths in the range =
= 36
8000
Total no.of lines 36 + 2 = 38 [extra two is for first and last wavelength]
20. a) n1 = 1, n2 = 3, E = 13.6 (1/1 1/9) = 13.6 8/9 = hc/
9
13.6 8
b) As n changes by 2, we may consider n = 2 to n = 4
1242
or = 487 nm.
then E = 13.6 (1/4 1/16) = 2.55 ev and 2.55 =
V0
21. Frequency of the revolution in the ground state is
2r0
or,
C2r0
V0
C2r0
= 45.686 nm = 45.7 nm.
V0
22. KE = 3/2 KT = 1.5 KT, K = 8.62 10 eV/k, Binding Energy = 13.6 (1/ 1/1) = 13.6 eV.
According to the question, 1.5 KT = 13.6
5
1.5 8.62 10 T = 13.6
13.6
5
= 1.05 10 K
T=
1.5 8.62 10 5
+
No, because the molecule exists an H2 which is impossible.
5
23. K = 8.62 10 eV/k
K.E. of H2 molecules = 3/2 KT
Energy released, when atom goes from ground state to no = 3
13.6 (1/1 1/9) 3/2 KT = 13.6(1/1 1/9)
13.6 8
5
3/2 8.62 10 T =
9
5
4
4
T = 0.9349 10 = 9.349 10 = 9.4 10 K.
5
43.4
24. n = 2, T = 10
Frequency =
me 4
402n3h3
4o2n3h3
me
19
= 12247.735 10 sec.
4 (8.85)2 23 (6.63)3
9.1 (1.6)
10 8
No.of revolutions =
me 4
402h3n3
( r02n2 )
10 24 10 102
10 76
= 8.16 10
12247.735 10 19
6
= 8.2 10 revolution.
25. Dipole moment ()
= n i A = 1 q/t A = qfA
=
me5 ( r02n2 )
402h3n3
= 0.0009176 10
20
= 9.176 10
24
Am.
e me 4 rn2n2
402h3n3
nh
2
Since the ratio of magnetic dipole moment and angular momentum is independent of Z.
Hence it is an universal constant.
Angular momentum = mvr =
Ratio =
e5 m r02n2
240h3n3
= 8.73 10
10
2
(1.6 10 19 )5 (9.1 10 31 ) (3.14)2 (0.53 10 10 )2
nh
2 (8.85 1012 )2 (6.63 10 34 )4 12
C/kg.
1242
= 2.76 ev
450
1242
= 2.258 = 2.26 ev.
550
1242
100
0.32
E3 to E4, Energy absorbed = 0.65
Energy left = 12.42 0.65 = 11.77 eV
1242
hc 1242
or
=
= 105.52
11.77 =
11.77
b) The energy absorbed by the H atom is now radiated perpendicular to the incident beam.
hc
1242
or =
= 121.76 nm
10.2 =
10.2
1242
hc
12.1 =
or =
= 102.64 nm
12.1
0.65 =
hc
1242
or =
= 1910.76 nm
0.65
31. = 1.9 eV
a) The hydrogen is ionized
n1 = 1, n2 =
2
2
Energy required for ionization = 13.6 (1/n1 1/n2 ) = 13.6
hc
1.9 = 13.6 = 80.1 nm = 80 nm.
4
32. The given wavelength in Balmer series.
The first line, which requires minimum energy is from n1 = 3 to n2 = 2.
The energy should be equal to the energy required for transition from ground state to n = 3.
i.e. E = 13.6 [1 (1/9)] = 12.09 eV
Minimum value of electric field = 12.09 v/m = 12.1 v/m
43.6
= 2v1v 2
2E
m
(3)
v =
2
v=
4E 4 13.6 1.6 10 19
m
1.67 10 27
4 13.6 1.6 10 19
27
= 7.2 10 m/s.
4
1.67 10
2
35. Energy of the neutron is mv .
2
The condition for inelastic collision is mv > 2E
2
E = mv
E is the energy absorbed.
Energy required for first excited state is 10.2 ev.
E < 10.2 ev
4 10.2
ev
m
v=
1.67 10 27
36. a) = 656.3 nm
= 6 10 m/sec.
4
hc 1 h
6.63 10 34
25
27
=
= 0.01 10 = 1 10 kgm/s
c
656.3 10 9
27
27
b) 1 10 = 1.67 10 v
v = 1/1.67 = 0.598 = 0.6 m/s
Momentum P = E/C =
c) KE of atom = 1.67 10
27
(0.6) =
2
0.3006 10 27
19
ev = 1.9 10
1.6 10
37. Difference in energy in the transition from n = 3 to n = 2 is 1.89 ev.
Let recoil energy be E.
2
2
19
me [V2 V3 ] + E = 1.89 ev 1.89 1.6 10 J
ev.
2187 2 2187 2
1
19
9.1 1031
E = 3.024 10 J
2
2
3
19
25
E = 3.024 10 3.0225 10
38. n1 = 2, n2 = 3
Energy possessed by H light
= 13.6 (1/n12 1/n22) = 13.6 (1/4 1/9) = 1.89 eV.
For H light to be able to emit photoelectrons from a metal the work function must be greater than or
equal to 1.89 ev.
43.7
+
Maximum KE of photoelectrons emitted
= Energy of Photons Work function of metal.
= 13.6 eV 1.9 eV = 11.7 eV
41. = 440 nm, e = Charge of an electron, = 2 eV, V0 = stopping potential.
hc
4.14 10 15 3 108
2eV eV0
eV0
440 10 9
eV0 = 0.823 eV V0 = 0.823 volts.
42. Mass of Earth = Me = 6.0 1024 kg
30
Mass of Sun = Ms = 2.0 10 kg
11
Earth Sun dist = 1.5 10 m
We have,
mvr =
nh
n2h2
2 2 2
or, m v r =
2
42
GMeMs
Mev 2
2
or v = GMs/r
r
r2
(1)
(2)
n2h2
We get Me r =
42GMs
for n = 1
h2
r=
4 GMsMe2
2
b) n2 =
= 2.29 10
138
Me2 r 4 2 G Ms
h2
m = 2.3 10
m.
= 2.5 10 .
74
nh
z
43. meVr =
138
(1)
me V 2
GMn
2
(2)
r
r
r
Squaring (2) and dividing it with (1)
GMnMe
2
m2e v 2r 2
=
=
n2h2r
4 Gmn
2
nh
2rme
me r =
2
n2h2r
4 Gmn
2
r=
n2h2r
4 Gmnme2
2
from (1)
nh4 2 GMnMe2
2Me n h
2 2
2GMnMe
nh
KE =
(2GMnMe )2 42 G2Mn2M3e
1
1
me V 2 me
2
2
nh
2n2h2
PE =
r
n2h2
n2h2
Total energy = KE + PE
22 G2Mn2M3e
2n2h2
43.8
nh
.
2eB
nh
mv
,r=
2
qB
Substituting the value of r in (1)
mv nh
mv
qB 2
c) mvr =
m2 v 2
nheB
[n = 1, q = e]
2
heB
heB
or v =
.
2m2
2m2
45. even quantum numbers are allowed
n1 = 2, n2 = 4 For minimum energy or for longest possible wavelength.
1
1
1
1
E = 13.6 2 2 13.6 2 2 = 2.55
n
n
2
4
1
2
v2
hc
hc
1242
=
= 487.05 nm = 487 nm
2.55 2.55
46. Velocity of hydrogen atom in state n = u
Also the velocity of photon = u
But u << C
Here the photon is emitted as a wave.
So its velocity is same as that of hydrogen atom i.e. u.
According to Dopplers effect
1 u / c
frequency v = v 0
1 u / c
u
as u <<< C
1 q
c
1 u / c
u
u
v = v0
v 0 1 v = v 0 1
1
c
c
2.55 =
43.9
X  RAYS
CHAPTER 44
1.
= 0.1 nm
a) Energy =
hc 1242 ev.nm
0.1 nm
C
3 108
3 108
3 1018 Hz
10
0.1 10 9
10
c) Momentum = E/C =
2.
= 6.613 10
24
kgm/s = 6.62 10
24
kgm/s.
Distance = 3 km = 3 10 m
8
C = 3 10 m/s
3
Dist
3 103
10 5 sec.
Speed 3 108
8
10 10 sec = 10 s in both case.
V = 30 KV
hc hc 1242 ev nm
4
3.
4.
hc 6.63 10 34 3 108
18
15
15
= 19.89 10 = 1.989 10 = 2 10 J.
10 10
hc
1242
3
= 80 pm, E =
= 15.525 10 eV = 15.5 KeV
80 10 3
hc
We know =
V
hc
Now =
1.01V 1.01
0.01
=
.
1.01
0.01
1
% change of wave length =
= 0.9900 = 1%.
100
1.01
1.01
3
d = 1.5 m, = 30 pm = 30 10 nm
hc
1242
3
= 41.4 10 eV
E=
30 10 3
Max. Energy =
5.
6.
7.
V 41.4 103
3
= 27.6 10 V/m = 27.6 KV/m.
d
1.5
Given = 26 pm, V = 1.5 V
hc
hc
Now, =
,
=
ev
ev
or V = V
12
V = ( 26 10 ) 1.5 V
Electric field =
8.
44.1
XRays
= 1.5 1.5 26 10
=
12
39 10 12
12
= 78 10 m
0.5
hc
6.63 3 10 34 108
5
3
= 0.15937 10 = 15.93 10 V = 15.93 KV.
19
12
e 1.6 10 78 10
9. V = 32 KV = 32 103 V
When accelerated through 32 KV
3
E = 32 10 eV
hc
1242
3
= 38.8 10 nm = 38.8 pm.
=
E 32 103
hc
18
10. =
; V = 40 kV, f = 9.7 10 Hz
eV
eV
h
h
i
h
; or,
; or h
or,
V s
f
c eV
f eV
V=
eV
40 103
15
Vs
= 4.12 10 eVs.
f
9.7 1018
3
11. V = 40 KV = 40 10 V
3
Energy = 40 10 eV
70
3
Energy utilized =
40 103 = 28 10 eV
100
hc 1242 ev nm
3
=
44.35 10 nm = 44.35 pm.
3
E
28 10 ev
=
70
2
(40 28)103 = 84 10 .
100
hc
1242
3
= 147.86 10 nm = 147.86 pm = 148 pm.
3
E 8.4 10
For third wavelength,
70
3
2
2
= (12 8.4) 10 = 7 3.6 10 = 25.2 10
E=
100
hc
1242
2
=
= 49.2857 10 nm = 493 pm.
E 25.2 102
1242
12. K = 21.3 1012 pm,
Now, EK EL =
= 58.309 kev
21.3 10 3
EK = 58.309 + 11.3 = 69.609 kev
EL = 11.3 kev,
Now, Ve = 69.609 KeV,
or V = 69.609 KV.
13. = 0.36 nm
1242
= 3450 eV (EM EK)
E=
0.36
Energy needed to ionize an organ atom = 16 eV
Energy needed to knock out an electron from Kshell
= (3450 + 16) eV = 3466 eV = 3.466 KeV.
14. 1 = 887 pm
=
C
3 108
7
16
8
=
= 3.382 10 = 33.82 10 = 5.815 10
887 10 12
2 = 146 pm
v=
v=
3 108
146 10 12
= 0.02054 10
20
= 2.054 10
18
= 1.4331 10 .
44.2
XRays
v a(z b)
We know,
13 b 5.815 10 1
= 0.4057.
30 b
1.4331
30 0.4057 0.4057 b = 13 b
12.171 0.4.57 b + b = 13
0.829
b=
= 1.39491
0.5943
5.815 108
7
0.51323 108 = 5 10 .
11.33
For Fe,
a=
3 108
==
6
12
= 0.000198 10 m = 198 10 = 198 pm.
15141.3 1014
15. E = 3.69 kev = 3690 eV
hc 1242
=
= 0.33658 nm
E 3690
c / a(z b);
a = 5 10
3 108
9RC
(z h)
8
v z
Second method :
We can directly get value of v by `
hv = Energy
Energy(in kev)
v=
h
This we have to find out
17. b = 1
For a (57)
10 20 30 40
v = a (Z b)
v = a (57 1) = a 56
For Cu(29)
(1)
44.3
50 60
XRays
v
a 56
= 2.
1.88 1018 a 28
18
2
18
8
v = 1.88 10 (2) = 4 1.88 10 = 7.52 10 Hz.
18. K = EK EL
,,,(1)
K = 0.71 A
K = EK EM
,,,(2)
K = 0.63 A
L = E L EM
,,,(3)
Subtracting (2) from (1)
K K = EM EL = L
or, L = K K =
3 108
10
L
K
E3
E2 L
3 108
0.63 10
0.71 10 10
18
18
= 4.761 10 4.225 10 = 0.536 10 Hz.
18
3 108
= 5.6 10 = 5.6 A.
0.536 1018
1242
3
19. E1 =
= 58.309 10 ev
3
21.3 10
1242
3
E2 =
= 8.8085 10 ev
3
141 10
3
E3 = E1 + E2 (58.309 + 8.809) ev = 67.118 10 ev
hc
1242
3
=
= 18.5 10 nm = 18.5 pm.
E3 67.118 103
Again =
10
L
E1 K
103 = 5.25 10 Hz
h
4.14 10 15
K = EK KM = hv
E EM 25.31 0.53
18
v= K
102
= 0.625 10
17
no.of electrons.
1.6 10
KE of one electron = eV = 1.6 1019 40 103 = 6.4 1015 J
17
15
2
TKE = 0.625 6.4 10 10 = 4 10 J.
2
a) Power emitted in Xray = 4 10 (1/100) = 4w
b) Heat produced in target per second = 400 4 = 396 J.
23. Heat produced/sec = 200 w
neV
= 200 (ne/t)V = 200
t
i = 200 /V = 10 mA.
24. Given : v = (25 1014 Hz)(Z 1)2
14
2
Or C/ = 25 10 (Z 1)
i = ne
or n =
19
3 108
(Z 1)2
78.9 10 12 25 1014
2
6
or, (Z 1) = 0.001520 10 = 1520
Z 1 = 38.98 or Z = 39.98 = 40. It is (Zr)
a)
44.4
XRays
3 10
(Z 1)2
146 10 12 25 1014
2
6
or, (Z 1) = 0.0008219 10
Z 1 = 28.669 or Z = 29.669 = 30. It is (Zn).
8
3 108
c)
12
Intensity
b)
(Z 1)2
158 10 25 10
2
6
or, (Z 1) = 0.0007594 10
Z 1 = 27.5589 or Z = 28.5589 = 29. It is (Cu).
14
3 108
(Z 1)2
198 10 12 25 1014
2
6
or, (Z 1) = 0.000606 10
Z 1 = 24.6182 or Z = 25.6182 = 26. It is (Fe).
25. Here energy of photon = E
E = 6.4 KeV = 6.4 103 ev
d)
6.4 103
= 3.41 10
24
m/sec.
3 10
According to collision theory of momentum of photon = momentum of atom
Momentum of Atom = P = 3.41 1024 m/sec
2
Recoil K.E. of atom = P / 2m
(3.41 10 24 )2 eV
(2)(9.3 1026 1.6 10 19 )
hc 6.63 10 34 3 108
6
= 1.242 10 Vm
e
1.6 10 19
12
27. = 10 pm = 100 10 m
2
D = 40 cm = 40 10 m
= 0.1 mm = 0.1 103 m
d=
V0
1/
D
d
D 100 10 12 40 10 2
7
= 4 10 m.
10
0.1
44.5
1/
CHAPTER  45
f = 1013 kg/m , V = 1 m
m = fV = 1013 1 = 1013 kg
No.of atoms =
2.
3.
4.
0.23 1.6 10 19
0.23 1.6 10 4
4
= 0.2676 10 = 2670.
1.38
1.38 10
Bandgap = 1.1 eV, T = 300 K
T=
a) Ratio =
23
1.1
1.1
= 42.53= 43
KT 8.62 10 5 3 102
1.1 105
= 3000.47 K.
4.253 8.62
8.62 105 T
2KT = Energy gap between acceptor band and valency band
2 1.38 1023 300
b) 4.253 =
5.
1.1
or T =
6 1.38 10 21
6 1.38
2
19 eV
10 eV
1.6
10
1.6
2
= 5.175 10 eV = 51.75 meV = 50 meV.
Given :
Band gap = 3.2 eV,
E = hc / = 1242 / = 3.2 or = 388.1 nm.
= 820 nm
E = hc / = 1242/820 = 1.5 eV
Band Gap = 0.65 eV, =?
9
5
E = hc / = 1242 / 0.65 = 1910.7 10 m = 1.9 10 m.
Band gap = Energy need to over come the gap
E = (2 1.38 3) 1021 J =
6.
7.
8.
9.
hc 1242eV nm
= 2.0 eV.
620nm
10. Given n = e E / 2KT , E = Diamon 6 eV ; E Si 1.1 eV
6
Now, n1 = e
E1 / 2KT
5
e 23008.6210
1.1
n2 = e E2 / 2KT e 23008.6210
n1 4.14772 1051
42
= 7.15 10 .
10
n2
5.7978 10
Due to more E, the conduction electrons per cubic metre in diamond is almost zero.
1
Semiconductor devices
11. = T
3/2
eE / 2KT at 4K
0.74
= 43 / 2 e 28.6210
At 300 K,
=8e
0.67
= 300
Ratio =
3/2
5
e 28.6210 300
1073.08
3 1730 12.95
.
e
8
8 e 1073.08
[(3 1730) / 8] e 12.95
64
e 1060.13 .
3 1730
15
x=
5 1028
3
13
10
= 3.607 10 10 = 3.607 10 .
1386.035 1015
13. (No. of holes) (No.of conduction electrons) = constant.
At first :
19
No. of conduction electrons = 6 10
19
No.of holes = 6 10
After doping
23
No.of conduction electrons = 2 10
No. of holes = x.
19
19
23
(6 10 ) (6 10 ) = (2 10 )x
6 6 1019 19
=x
2 1023
15
16
x = 18 10 = 1.8 10 .
14. = 0 eE / 2KT
E = 0.650 eV, T = 300 K
According to question, K = 8.62 105 eV
E
0 eE / 2KT 2 0 e 2K300
0.65
5
e 28.6210 T = 6.96561 10
Taking in on both sides,
We get,
0.65
2 8.62 10 5 T '
= 11.874525
1 11.574525 2 8.62 10 5
T'
0.65
T = 317.51178 = 318 K.
Semiconductor devices
15. Given band gap = 1 eV
Net band gap after doping = (1 103)eV = 0.999 eV
According to the question, KT1 = 0.999/50
T1 = 231.78 = 231.8
For the maximum limit KT2 = 2 0.999
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
2 1 10 3
2
102 23.2 .
8.62
8.62 10
Temperature range is (23.2 231.8).
7
Depletion region d = 400 nm = 4 10 m
5
Electric field E = 5 10 V/m
a) Potential barrier V = E d = 0.2 V
b) Kinetic energy required = Potential barrier e = 0.2 eV [Where e = Charge of electron]
Potential barrier = 0.2 Volt
a) K.E. = (Potential difference) e = 0.2 eV (in unbiased condn)
b) In forward biasing
KE + Ve = 0.2e
KE = 0.2e 0.1e = 0.1e.
c) In reverse biasing
KE Ve = 0.2 e
KE = 0.2e + 0.1e = 0.3e.
Potential barrier d = 250 meV
Initial KE of hole = 300 meV
We know : KE of the hole decreases when the junction is forward biased and increases when reverse
blased in the given Pn diode.
So,
a) Final KE = (300 250) meV = 50 meV
b) Initial KE = (300 + 250) meV = 550 meV
i1 = 25 A, V = 200 mV, i2 = 75 A
a) When in unbiased condition drift current = diffusion current
Diffusion current = 25 A.
b) On reverse biasing the diffusion current becomes O.
c) On forward biasing the actual current be x.
x Drift current = Forward biasing current
x 25 A = 75 A
x = (75 + 25) A = 100 A.
Drift current = 20 A = 20 106 A.
Both holes and electrons are moving
T2 =
20 106
2 1.6 1019
= 6.25 10 .
13
R=
5
e 8.6210 300
V
8.6210 5 300
= 100
= 119.08 10
V
V
119.08 10 3
119.08 10 3
2
=
= 1.2 10 .
I I0 (eev / KT 1 )
10 10 6 (100 1)
99 10 5
V0 = I0R
6
2
3
10 10 1.2 10 = 1.2 10 = 0.0012 V.
3
Semiconductor devices
c) 0.2 =
KT eV / KT
e
ei0
ev
i = i0 e KT
100
= 20 10 6 (e 8.62 1) = 2.18 A = 2 A.
V
b) 4 = 20 10
V 103
8.62
e 3
2
(e 8.62310
200001
1)
V 103
8.62
e 3
4 106
20
V 103
12.2060
8.623
40
Hence net resistance of the circuit is
= 20 .
2
25. a) Since both the diodes are forward biased net resistance = 0
2V
=1A
i=
2
20
20
20
20
20
2V
2V
2V
2V
2
= 0 A.
2
2
= 1 A.
2
2
= 1 A.
2
26. The diode is reverse biased. Hence the resistance is infinite. So, current through
A1 is zero.
For A2, current =
A1
2V
2
= 0.2 Amp.
10
A2
10
Semiconductor devices
i
10
27. Both diodes are forward biased. Thus the net diode resistance is 0.
i=
5
5
= 1 A.
(10 10) /10.10 5
i
5V
i=
Rnet 10 0
5V
28. a) When R = 12
The wire EF becomes ineffective due to the net ()ve voltage.
Hence, current through R = 10/24 = 0.4166 = 0.42 A.
b) Similarly for R = 48 .
i=
10
10
10
4V
12
6V
C
E
10
= 10/60 = 0.16 A.
(48 12)
B
D
F
29.
A
10
1
2
Since the diode 2 is reverse biased no current will pass through it.
I
I
= c
Ib
Vce = constant
2.5 10 3
2500
= 50.
50
50 10
Current gain = 50.
Semiconductor devices
32. = 50, Ib = 50 A,
V0 = RG = 50 2/0.5 = 200.
V
V0
200
a) VG = V0/V1 = 0
= 8000 V.
Vi Ib Ri 50 106 5 102
b) Vi = Ib Ri = 50 10 5 10 = 0.00025 V = 25 mV.
R
2
4
c) Power gain = 2 RG = 2 0 2500
= 10 .
Ri
0.5
6
35. LHS = AB AB = X X
[X = AB]
If X = 0, X = 1
If X = 0, X = 1
1 + 0 or 0 + 1 = 1
RHS = 1 (Proved)
P
R1=0.5K
2K
N
N
e
THE NUCLEUS
CHAPTER  46
1.
A 1.007276 1.6605402 10 27
4 / 3 3.14 R3
14
f in CGS = Specific gravity = 3 10 .
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
= 0.300159 10
18
= 3 10
17
kg/m .
M
M
4 1030
1
1
V
1013 1014
17
v
f
0.6
6
2.4 10
3
V = 4/3 R .
1
1 3 1
3
3
1014 = 4/3 R R = 1014
6
6 4
1 100
3
R =
1012
8
4
4
R = 10 3.17 = 1.585 10 m = 15 km.
Let the mass of particle be xu.
particle contains 2 protons and 2 neutrons.
2
Binding energy = (2 1.007825 u 1 1.00866 u xu)C = 28.2 MeV (given).
x = 4.0016 u.
7
7
Li + p l + + E ; Li = 7.016u
4
= He = 4.0026u ; p = 1.007276 u
7
E = Li + P 2 = (7.016 + 1.007276)u (2 4.0026)u = 0.018076 u.
0.018076 931 = 16.828 = 16.83 MeV.
2
B = (Zmp + Nmn M)C
Z = 79 ; N = 118 ; mp = 1.007276u ; M = 196.96 u ; mn = 1.008665u
2
B = [(79 1.007276 + 118 1.008665)u Mu]c
= 198.597274 931 196.96 931 = 1524.302094
so, Binding Energy per nucleon = 1524.3 / 197 = 7.737.
238
4
234
a) U 2He + Th
E = [Mu (NHC + MTh)]u = 238.0508 (234.04363 + 4.00260)]u = 4.25487 Mev = 4.255 Mev.
238
234
b) E = U [Th + 2n0 + 2p1]
= {238.0508 [234.64363 + 2(1.008665) + 2(1.007276)]}u
= 0.024712u = 23.0068 = 23.007 MeV.
223
209
14
Ra = 223.018 u ; Pb = 208.981 u ; C = 14.003 u.
223
209
14
Ra Pb + C
223
209
14
m = mass Ra mass ( Pb + C)
= 223.018 (208.981 + 14.003) = 0.034.
Energy = M u = 0.034 931 = 31.65 Me.
1
EZ.N. EZ1, N + P1 EZ.N. EZ1, N + 1H [As hydrogen has no neutrons but protons only]
2
E = (MZ1, N + NH MZ,N)c
f=
E2N = EZ,N1 + 10 n .
2
Energy released = (Initial Mass of nucleus Final mass of nucleus)c = (MZ.N1 + M0 MZN)c .
10. P
32
32
0v
10
11. In P + e
We know : Half life = 0.6931 / (Where = decay constant).
4
Or = 0.6931 / 1460 = 8.25 10 S
[As half life = 14 min = 14 60 sec].
2
2
Energy = [Mn (MP + Me)]u = [(Mnu Mpu) Mpu]c = [0.00189u 511 KeV/c ]
2
2 2
= [1293159 ev/c 511000 ev/c ]c = 782159 eV = 782 Kev.
46.1
The Nucleus
12.
13.
226
58 Ra
24 222
26 Rn
19
8 O
0
0
19
9 F n 0 v
13
25 Al
25
12
MG 01e 00 v
64
Cu 64Ni e v
500 1.6 10 19
3 108
19 K
40
20 Ca40 1e0 0 v 0
19 K
40
18 Ar 40 1e0 0 v 0
19 K
40
1e0 18 Ar 40
19 K
40
20 Ca40 1e0 0 v 0 .
103 J = 2.67 10
22
kg m/s.
40
18 Ar 40 1e0 0 v 0
2
40
1e 18 Ar
0
40
2
6
3 Li n
8
3 Li
73Li ; 73 Li r 83Li
84Be e v
8
4Be
24He 24He
16. C B + + v
mass of C = 11.014u ; mass of B = 11.0093u
Energy liberated = (11.014 11.0093)u = 29.5127 Mev.
For maximum K.E. of the positron energy of v may be assumed as 0.
Maximum K.E. of the positron is 29.5127 Mev.
+
17. Mass
238Th
= 228.028726 u ;
224
Th Ra* +
224
Ra* Ra + v(217 Kev)
224
Now, Mass of Ra* = 224.020196 931 + 0.217 Mev = 208563.0195 Mev.
226Th
224
E( Ra* + )
KE of = E
= 228.028726 931 [208563.0195 + 4.00260 931] = 5.30383 Mev= 5.304 Mev.
12
12
+
18. N C* + e + v
12
12
C* C + v(4.43 Mev)
12
12
+
Net reaction : N C + e + v + v(4.43 Mev)
+
12
12
Energy of (e + v) = N (c + v)
= 12.018613u (12)u 4.43 = 0.018613 u 4.43 = 17.328 4.43 = 12.89 Mev.
Maximum energy of electron (assuming 0 energy for v) = 12.89 Mev.
19. a) t1/2 = 0.693 / [ Decay constant]
t1/2 = 3820 sec = 64 min.
b) Average life = t1/2 / 0.693 = 92 min.
t
c) 0.75 = 1 e In 0.75 = t t = In 0.75 / 0.00018 = 1598.23 sec.
20. a) 198 grams of Ag contains N0 atoms.
238
224
224
1 g of Ag contains N0/198 1 g =
6 1023 1 10 6
atoms
198
46.2
The Nucleus
Activity = N =
0.963
0.693 6 1017
N =
disintegrations/day.
t1/ 2
198 2.7
0.693 6 1017
0.693 6 1017
disintegration/sec =
curie = 0.244 Curie.
198 2.7 3600 24
198 2.7 36 24 3.7 1010
A0
0.244
b) A =
10 18 sec.
4.9 1018 4.9
3
= 6.47 10 years.
0.693
0.693
9
= 4.5 10 years.
b) Half life of uranium =
4.9 1018
A
A
c) A = t / t0 0 2t / t1/ 2 = 22 = 4.
A
2 1/ 2
23. A = 200, A0 = 500, t = 50 min
t
50 60
A = A0 e or
200 = 500 e
4
= 3.05 10 s.
0.693
0.693
= 2272.13 sec = 38 min.
b) t1/2 =
0.000305
5
24. A0 = 4 10 disintegration / sec
6
A = 1 10 dis/sec ; t = 20 hours.
A
A
A = t / t0 2t / t1/ 2 0 2t / t1/ 2 4
A'
2 1/ 2
1/2
t / t1/ 2 = 2 t = t/2 = 20 hours / 2 = 10 hours.
A = A0e
A0
t / t1/ 2
4 106
6
3
= 0.00390625 10 = 3.9 10 dintegrations/sec.
2100 / 10
2
25. t1/2 = 1602 Y ; Ra = 226 g/mole ; Cl = 35.5 g/mole.
1 mole RaCl2 = 226 + 71 = 297 g
297g = 1 mole of Ra.
A =
1
0.1 6.023 1023
22
= 0.02027 10
0.1 mole of Ra =
297
297
11
= 0.693 / t1/2 = 1.371 10 .
11
20
9
9
Activity = N = 1.371 10 2.027 10 = 2.779 10 = 2.8 10 disintegrations/second.
26. t1/2 = 10 hours, A0 = 1 ci
0.1 g =
0.693
N9 =
0.693
0.693
9
10
= 0.5 Ci.
46.3
The Nucleus
0.693 /10
13
13
No.of disintegrations = (103.023 96.103) 10 = 6.92 10 .
27. t1/2 = 14.3 days ; t = 30 days = 1 month
As, the selling rate is decided by the activity, hence A0 = 800 disintegration/sec.
t
[ = 0.693/14.3]
We know, A = A0e
A = 800 0.233669 = 186.935 = 187 rupees.
28. According to the question, the emission rate of rays will drop to half when the + decays to half of its
original amount. And for this the sample would take 270 days.
The required time is 270 days.
29. a) P n + e+ + v Hence it is a + decay.
b) Let the total no. of atoms be 100 N0.
Carbon
Boron
10 N0
Initially 90 N0
Finally 10 N0
90 N0
N10 =
0.693
= 7.146 10 dis/sec.
dN
14
b)
7.146 10
dt
14
17
19
No.of decays in next 10 hours = 7.146 10 10 36.. = 257.256 10 = 2.57 10 .
14
0.693
6.16
Or =
23
23
6.28 109
1m
7
7 1
= 1.0467 10 = 1.05 10 s .
6 1016
32. Half life period can be a single for all the process. It is the time taken for 1/2 of the uranium to convert to
lead.
6 1023 2 103
12
20
=
10 20 = 0.05042 10
238
238
6 1023 0.6 10 3
3.6
1020
206
206
3.6
12
20
Initially total no. of uranium atoms =
10 = 0.06789
235 206
No. of atoms in Pb =
0.693
0.693
9
46.4
The Nucleus
33. A0 = 15.3 ; A = 12.3 ; t1/2 = 5730 year
=
0.6931 0.6931 1
yr
T1/ 2
5730
0.6931
t 12.3 = 15.3 e.
5730
t = 1804.3 years.
34. The activity when the bottle was manufactured = A0
Activity after 8 years = A 0 e
0.693
8
12.5
0.693
t
12.5
0.693
12.5
= A0e
0.693
8
12.5
0.015
0.693
0.6938
t
In[0.015]
12.5
12.5
0.05544 t = 0.44352 + 4.1997 t = 83.75 years.
9 1
35. a) Here we should take R0 at time is t0 = 30 10 s
30 109
i) In(R0/R1) = In
30 109 = 0
30
30 109
ii) In(R0/R2) = In
9
16 10
= 0.63
30 109
iii) In(R0/R3) = In
8 109
= 1.35
30 10
iv) In(R0/R4) = In
9
3.8 10
= 2.06
25
Count rate R(109 s1) 20
15
10
5
25
30 109
v) In(R0/R5) = In
2 109 = 2.7
1
b) The decay constant = 0.028 min
c) The half life period = t1/2.
0.693 0.693
= 25 min.
0.028
9
9
36. Given : Half life period t1/2 = 1.30 10 year , A = 160 count/s = 1.30 10 365 86400
0.693
A = N 160 =
N
t1/ 2
t1/2 =
N=
6.023 10
23
6.023 1023 = 40 g 1 =
9.5 10
40
6.023 1023
40 9.5 1018
4
= 6.309 10 = 0.00063.
6.023 1023
The relative abundance at 40 k in natural potassium = (2 0.00063 100)% = 0.12%.
18
present in =
50
75
100
Time t (Minute)
46.5
The Nucleus
37. a) P + e n + v neutrino [a 4.95 10 s
7
; b 1]
1/2
b)
f = a(z b)
3 108
14903.2 1014
= 2 10
10 = 2 10
6
14
m = 20 pm.
dN
dN
R R=
dt
dt
Given after time t >> t1/2, the number of active nuclei will become constant.
i.e. (dN/dt)present = R = (dN/dt)decay
R = (dN/dt)decay
R = N [where, = Radioactive decay constant, N = constant number]
Rt1/ 2
0.693
(N) Rt1/2 = 0.693 N N =
.
R=
t1/ 2
0.693
38. Given : Half life period = t1/2, Rate of radio active decay =
23
40. n = 1 mole = 6 10 atoms, t1/2 = 14.3 days
t = 70 hours, dN/dt in root after time t = N
0.69370
23
23
23
1 3.7 108
11
2.9 1011 100 % = 1.275 10 %.
2.7 1013
3.7 1010
Ci = 729 Ci.
212
83 Bi
208
81
Ti 24He( )
212
83 Bi
212
212
84
Bi 84
P0 e
The Nucleus
43. Activities of sample containing Ag and Ag isotopes = 8.0 10 disintegration/sec.
8
a) Here we take A = 8 10 dis./sec
i) In (A1/ A 01 ) = In (11.794/8) = 0.389
108
110
12
10
v) In(5.4115/8) = 0.391
vi) In(3.0828/8) = 0.954
vii) In(1.8899/8) = 1.443
viii) In(1.167/8) = 1.93
ix) In(0.7212/8) = 2.406
b) The half life of 110 Ag from this part of the plot is 24.4 s.
110
c) Half life of Ag = 24.4 s.
decay constant = 0.693/24.4 = 0.0284 t = 50 sec,
t
8
0.028450
8
= 1.93 10
The activity A = A0e = 8 10 e
d)
4
2
400
500
Time
6
4
2
O
20 40 60 80
108
Energy 1q2 e 2t / cR
Activity
2 CA 0 e t
Since the term is independent of time, so their coefficients can be equated,
2t
2
1
2
= t
or, =
or,
or, R = 2 (Proved)
So,
CR
CR
C
CR
46. R = 100 ; L = 100 mH
After time t, i = i0 (1 e t / Lr )
i i0 (1 e tR / L )
N
N0 e t
N = N0 (e )
6.023 1023
0.007 atom
235
The Nucleus
300 10 = n 200 10 1.6 10
3
3
n=
1019 =
1019
2 1.6
3.2
6
6 10
23
19
3
238 3 1019
4
= 3.7 10 g = 3.7 mg.
1019 atoms are present in
3.2
6 1023 3.2
8
49. a) Energy radiated per fission = 2 10 ev
8
7
12
Usable energy = 2 10 25/100 = 5 10 ev = 5 1.6 10
8
8
Total energy needed = 300 10 = 3 10 J/s
3 108
20
= 0.375 10
5 1.6 1012
20
24
No. of fission per day = 0.375 10 3600 24 = 3.24 10 fissions.
24
b) From a No. of atoms disintegrated per day = 3.24 10
23
We have, 6.023 10 atoms for 235 g
235
for 3.24 1024 atom =
3.24 1024 g = 1264 g/day = 1.264 kg/day.
23
6.023 10
50. a)
2
2
1 H 1H
13H 11H
2
2
1 H 1H
32H n
2
3
1 H 1H
24H n
Kq1q2
9 109 (2 1.6 1019 )2
=
r
r
23
1.5 KT = 1.5 1.38 10 T
51. PE =
23
(1)
(2)
T=
9 109 10.24 10 38
2 10 15
9 109 10.24 10 38
9
10
= 22.26087 10 K = 2.23 10 K.
2 10 15 1.5 1.38 10 23
4
4
8
Be
52. H + H
2
4.0026 u
M( H)
M(8Be)
8.0053 u
Q value = [2 M(2H) M(8Be)] = (2 4.0026 8.0053) u
= 0.0001 u = 0.0931 Mev = 93.1 Kev.
53. In 18 g of N0 of molecule = 6.023 1023
6.023 1026
25
= 3.346 10
18
26
% of Deuterium = 3.346 10 99.985
25
Energy of Deuterium = 30.4486 10 = (4.028204 3.016044) 93
5
= 942.32 ev = 1507 10 J = 1507 mJ
In 100 g of N0 of molecule =
46.8
S = 1000 km = 10 m
The process requires minimum possible time if the velocity is maximum.
8
We know that maximum velocity can be that of light i.e. = 3 10 m/s.
Distance
106
1
s.
Speed
3 108 300
= 50 cm, b = 25 cm, h = 10 cm, v = 0.6 c
a) The observer in the train notices the same value of , b, h because relativity are in due to difference
in frames.
b) In 2 different frames, the component of length parallel to the velocity undergoes contraction but the
perpendicular components remain the same. So length which is parallel to the xaxis changes and
breadth and height remain the same.
So, time =
2.
e = e 1
3.
V2
C
50 1
C2
9 1010
9 1016
b) v = 3 x 106 m/s
L = 1 1
9 1012
9 1016
7
c) v = 3 10 m/s
1 10 6 = 0.9999995 m
1 10 4 = 0.99995 m.
9 1014
1 10 2 = 0.9949 = 0.995 m.
9 1016
v = 0.6 cm/sec ; t = 1 sec
6
8
a) length observed by the observer = vt 0.6 3 10 1.8 10 m
L = 1 1
4.
(0.6)2 C2
b) = 0 1 v 2 / c 2 1.8 108 = 0 1
(0.6)2 C2
C2
1.8 108
8
= 2.25 10 m/s.
0.8
The rectangular field appears to be a square when the length becomes equal to the breadth i.e. 50 m.
i.e. L = 50 ; L = 100 ; v = ?
8
C = 3 10 m/s
0 =
5.
We know, L = L 1 v 2 / c 2
6.
50 = 100 1 v 2 / c 2 v = 3 / 2C = 0.866 C.
6
L0 = 1000 km = 10 m
v = 360 km/h = (360 5) / 18 = 100 m/sec.
2
10 4
100
9
6
a) h = h0 1 v 2 / c 2 10 6 1
= 10 .
10
1
8
6
9 10
3 10
Solving change in length = 56 nm.
b) t = L/v = 56 nm / 100 m = 0.56 ns.
47.1
1802
1800 = L 1
(3 105 )2
14
or, L =
3.24 10
= 1800 + 25 10
14
12
1 36 10
or 25 nm more than 1800 km.
8.
1.8 106 25 10 9
50
t =
1 v / c
2
1y
25c
169c 2
y 13 13
y.
12
12
10. The clocks of a moving frame are out of synchronization. The clock at the rear end leads the one at
2
from by L0 V/C where L0 is the rest separation between the clocks, and v is speed of the moving frame.
Thus, the baby adjacent to the guard cell is elder.
11. v = 0.9999 C ; t = One day in earth ; t = One day in heaven
v=
1
1 v / c
2
(0.9999) C
C2
1
= 70.712
0.014141782
t = v t ;
Hence, t = 70.7 days in heaven.
12. t = 100 years ; V = 60/100 K ; C = 0.6 C.
t
100y
100y
= 125 y.
t =
2
2
2 2
0.8
1 V / C
(0.6) C
1
C2
13. We know
f = f 1 V 2 / C2
f = apparent frequency ;
f = frequency in rest frame
v = 0.8 C
f =
0.64C2
C
0.36 = 0.6 s
t =
2
2
2
1 V / C
1000
1
8
36 3 10
t t = 10 3600
1
2
1000
36 3 108
C2 V 2 C2/4 = C2 V2
C2 3 2
3
C.
C V=
4
4
2
16. d = 1 cm, v = 0.995 C
V = C2
2
1 10 2
d 1 10 2
v 0.995C
= 33.5 10
0.995 3 108
b) In the frame of the particle
=
t =
t
1 V 2 / C2
12
= 33.5 PS
33.5 10 12
1 (0.995)2
= 335.41 PS.
Increase in mass =
0.025
C
0.025
9 1016
0.025
9 10
2 10 1
18. Q = MS 1 4200 (100 0) = 420000 J.
2
E = (m)C
E
Q
420000
m = 2 2
C
C
(3 108 )2
16
= 0.01388 10
12
1.5 8.3 10
124.5
C2
9 1015
16
15
= 1383 10 = 1.38 10 Kg.
20. Let initial mass be m
2
mv = E
Loss in mass =
1 12 5
m 50
m
2 18
9
2
m = E/C
E=
16
= 1.4 10 .
8
m 50
m
50
m
9 9 10
81 1016
16
17
0.617 10 = 6.17 10 .
21. Given : Bulb is 100 Watt = 100 J/s
So, 100 J in expended per 1 sec.
Hence total energy expended in 1 year = 100 3600 24 365 = 3153600000 J
Total energy 315360000
Change in mass recorded =
C2
9 1016
8
16
8
= 3.504 10 10 kg = 3.5 10 Kg.
m =
16
sun
E mC2 m E / t
2
t
t
t
C
1400 4 2.25 1022
C =
2 10
30
Kg disintegrates in
66
2 1030
4.4 109
sec.
1 1021
8
21
13
=
= 1.44 10 10 y = 1.44 10 y.
2.2 365 24 3600
31
23. Mass of Electron = Mass of positron = 9.1 10 Kg
Both are oppositely charged and they annihilate each other.
Hence, m = m + m = 2 9.1 1031 Kg
Energy of the resulting particle = m C2
= 2 9.1 10
31
9 10
16
J=
2 9.1 9 10 15
1.6 10 19
4
6
= 102.37 10 ev = 1.02 10 ev = 1.02 Mev.
31
24. me = 9.1 10 , v0 = 0.8 C
a) m =
Me
1 V 2 / C2
9.1 1031
1 0.64C2 / C2
ev
9.1 10 31
0.6
25. a) ev m0C =
31
m0 C2
2 1
2 1
0.36C
C2
31
9 10
V
C2
ev 9.1 10
eV 9.1 9 10
15
16
9.1 9 10 15
9.1 9 10 15
15
eV 9.1 9 10 =
2 0.8
1.6
81.9
9.1 9
81.9 10 15
9.1 9 1015 = eV
eV =
1.6
1.6
15
4
eV = 133.0875 10 V = 83.179 10 = 831 KV.
m0 C2
b) eV m0C =
2 1
eV 81.9 10
15
eV = 12.237 10
V=
eV 9.1 9 10
V2
C2
m0 C2
+m0C =
15
V2
C2
9.1 10 31 9 1016
2 1 (0.99)
V
C2
eV = 372.18 10
9.1 9 10 15
= 76.48 kV.
2 1
2 1
2 1
V = 0.99 C = eV m0C2 =
16
15
1.6 10 19
m0 C2
9 10
9.1 9 10 15
2 0.435
12.237 10 15
eV =
19
V=
372.18 20 15
1.6 1019
= 272.6 10
26. a)
m0 C2
V2
1 2
C
m0C = 1.6 10
2
19
19
m0 C2
1 = 1.6 10
2
2
1 V / C
1
1 V 2 / C2
1 =
1.6 10 19
9.1 10 31 9 1016
b)
m0 C2
1
m0C = 1.6 10
2
19
10 10
V
C2
15
m0 C2
1 = 1.6 10
2
2
1 V / C
1
1 V 2 / C2
1 =
1.6 10 15
9.1 9 1015
m0 C2
2
m0C = 1.6 10
2
12
V
1 2
C
V = 8..999991359 10
2
16
V = 2.999987038 10 .
5
8
0.81C2
C2
9.1 9 10 15
1.6 10 19
m0 C2
1
m0 C2 mv 2
V
2
1 2
28.
= 0.01
1
2
m0 v
2
v2
1 3 V2 1 3 5 V6
2
) m0 C2
m0 C (1
2
2
6
1
2
4
2
4
6
2C
C
C
mv 2 = 0.1
1
2
2
m0 v
1
3
V 4 15
V4 1
m0 v 2 m0 2
m0 2 m0 v 2
8
96
2
C
C
2
= 0.01
1
2
m0 v
2
3 V4
15 V 4
= 0.01
2
4C
96 2 C4
4
Neglecting the v term as it is very small
3 V2
V2
=
0.01
= 0.04 / 3
4 C2
C2
0.2
3 108
1.732
8
7
= 0.346 10 m/s = 3.46 10 m/s.
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