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VISION MEASURING

TECHNIQUES
AND
ITS APPLICATIONS

BY:P MOHAN(2K12/ME/114)
PANKAJ PRASAD(2K12/ME/117)
PARVEEN KUMAR(2K12/ME/120)
PAWAN KUMAR(2K12/ME/121)
PRASHANT MATHUR(2K12/ME/124)

Introduction
Coordinate measuring technique is the field of metrology of geometrical quantities, which is
rapidly developing at present. A wide range of methods can be rated to this technique on
account of the essence of the measurement - collection of the coordinates describing a
position of the individual measuring points. The range starts from relatively simple methods
such as diameter measurement with the use of a microscope, through coordinate machines
and optical scanners and ends on single-purpose devices such as form testers. A common
feature of the above mentioned methods is the possibility of estimation of the surface only the surface which can be seen or touched by a gauging point.
With the advent of numerically controlled machine tools, the demand has grown for some
means to support these equipment. There has been growing need to have an apparatus that
can do faster first piece inspection and many times, 100% dimensional inspection. The
Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM) plays a vital role in the mechanisation of the
inspection process. Some of the CMMs can even be used as layout machines before
machining and for checking feature locations after machining.
Coordinate measuring machines are relatively recent developments in measurement
technology. Basically, they consist of a platform on which the workpiece being measured is
placed and moved linearly or rotated. A probe attached to a head capable of lateral and
vertical movements records all measurements. Coordinate measuring machines are also
called measuring machines. They are versatile in their capability to record measurement of
complex profiles with high sensitivity (0.25 m) and speed.
Coordinate measuring machine (CMM) measures the physical geometrical characteristics of
an object. This machine may be manually controlled by an operator or it may be computer
controlled. Measurements are defined by a probe attached to the third moving axis of this
machine. Probes may be mechanical, optical, laser, or white light, amongst others. A machine
which takes readings in six degrees of freedom and displays these readings in mathematical
form is known as a CMM.
Co-ordinate Measuring Machines are built rigidly and are very precise. They are equipped
with digital readout or can be linked to computers for online inspection of parts. These
machines can be placed close to machine tools for efficient inspection and rapid feedback for
correction of processing parameter before the next part is made. They are also made more
rugged to resist environmental effects in manufacturing plants such as temperature variations,
vibration and dirt.
Used for testing:

Profile
Surface shape
Angle & position
Size

Tomography refers to imaging by sections or sectioning, through the use of any kind of
penetrating wave. A device used in tomography is called a tomograph, while the image
produced is a tomogram. Tomography as the computed tomographic (CT) scanner was
invented by Sir Godfrey Hounsfield, and thereby made an exceptional contribution to
medicine. The method is used in radiology, archaeology, biology, atmospheric science,
geophysics, oceanography, plasma physics, materials science, astrophysics, quantum
information, and other sciences. In most cases it is based on the mathematical procedure
called tomographic reconstruction.
Computed tomography (CT) has recently allowed extending the measuring possibilities. This
method uses X-raying the objects. CT scanners are known in medicine for a long time, but for
technical imaging of 3D objects, these devices have been used for 10 years. The image from
CT scanner allows for estimation of the geometry of manufactured product as well as internal
closed surfaces. It also allows for analysis of pores in material interior or estimation of
subassemblies deformation during joining.
In conventional medical X-ray tomography, clinical staff make a sectional image through a
body by moving an X-ray source and the film in opposite directions during the exposure.
Consequently, structures in the focal plane appear sharper, while structures in other planes
appear blurred. By modifying the direction and extent of the movement, operators can select
different focal planes which contain the structures of interest. Before the advent of more
modern computer-assisted techniques, this technique, developed in the 1930s by the
radiologist Alessandro Vallebona, proved useful in reducing the problem of superimposition
of structures in projection (shadow) radiography.

Modern tomography
More modern variations of tomography involve gathering projection data from multiple
directions and feeding the data into a tomographic reconstruction software algorithm
processed by a computer. Different types of signal acquisition can be used in similar
calculation algorithms in order to create a tomuographic image. Tomograms are derived using
several different physical phenomena listed in the following table:

PHYSICAL PHENOMENON

TYPE OF TOMOGRAM

X-rays
Gamma rays
Radio frequency waves
Electrical Resistance
Electron-proton annihilation
Electrons
Muons
Ions
Magnetic particles

CT
SPECT
MRI
ERT
PET
Electron tomography or 3D TEM
Muon tomography
Atom probe
Magnetic particles imaging

Some recent advances rely on using simultaneously integrated physical phenomena, e.g. Xrays for both CT and angiography, combined CT/MRI and combined CT/PET.
The term volume imaging might describe these technologies more accurately than the term
tomography. However, in the majority of cases in clinical routine, staff request output from
these procedures as 2-D slice images. As more and more clinical decisions come to depend on
more advanced volume visualization techniques, the terms tomography/tomogram may go
out of fashion.
Many different reconstruction algorithms exist. Most algorithms fall into one of two
categories: filtered back projection (FBP) and iterative reconstruction (IR). These procedures
give inexact results: they represent a compromise between accuracy and computation time
required. FBP demands fewer computational resources, while IR generally produces fewer
artifacts (errors in the reconstruction) at a higher computing cost.

I.

Main Structure

The machine incorporates the basic concept of three coordinate axes so that precise
movement in x, y, and z directions is possible. Each axis is fitted with a linear measurement
transducer. The transducers sense the direction of movement and gives digital display.
Accordingly, there may be four types of arrangement :-

Cantilever
The cantilever construction combines easy access and relatively small floor space
requirements. It is typically limited to small and medium sized machines. Parts larger than the
machine table can be inserted into the open side without inhibiting full machine travel. Figure
shows a cantilever structure.

Cantilever Structure

Bridge Type
The bridge arrangement over the table carries the quill (z-axis) along the x-axis and is
sometimes referred to as a travelling bridge. It is claimed that the bridge construction
provides better accuracy, although it may be offset by difficulty in making two members track
in perfect alignment. This is by far the most popular CMM construction. Figure shows a
bridge structure.

Bridge Structure

Column Type
The column type machine is commonly referred to as a universal measuring machine rather
than a CMM. These machines are usually considered gage room instruments rather than
production floor machine. The direction of movements of the arms are as shown in Figure.
The constructional difference in column type with the cantilever type is with x and y-axes
movements.

Column Structure

Gantry
In a gantry type arrangement, arms are held by two fixed supports as shown in Figure. Other
two arms are capable of sliding over the supports. Movements of the x, y and z-axes are also
as shown in Figure . The gantry type construction is particularly suited for very large
components and allows the operator to remain close to the area of inspection.

Gantry Structure

Horizontal
Figure shows the construction of a horizontal structure. The open structure of this
arrangement provides optimum accessibility for large objects such as dies, models, and car
bodies. Some horizontal arm machines are referred to as layout machines. There are some
horizontal machines where the probe arm can rotate like a spindle to perform tramming
operations. Tramming refers to accurate mechanical adjustment of instrument or machine
with the help of tram.

Horizontal Structure

II.

Probing System

It is the part of a CMM that sense the different parameters required for the calculation.
Appropriate probes have to be selected and placed in the spindle of the CMM.
In the early days of coordinate measurement mechanical probes were fitted into a special
holder on the end of the quill. A very common probe was made by soldering a hard ball to the
end of a shaft. This was ideal for measuring a whole range of flat, cylindrical or spherical
surfaces. Other probes were ground to specific shapes, for example a quadrant, to enable
measurement of special features. These probes were physically held against the workpiece
with the position in space being read from a 3-Axis digital readout (DRO) or, in more
advanced systems, being logged into a computer by means of a footswitch or similar device.
Measurements taken by this contact method were often unreliable as machines were moved
by hand and each machine operator applied different amounts of pressure on the probe or
adopted differing techniques for the measurement.

A further development was the addition of motors for driving each axis. Operators no longer
had to physically touch the machine but could drive each axis using a hand box with joysticks
in much the same way as with modern remote controlled cars. Measurement accuracy and
precision improved dramatically with the invention of the electronic touch trigger probe. The
pioneer of this new probe device was David McMurtry who subsequently formed what is
now Renishaw plc. Although still a contact device, the probe had a spring-loaded steel ball
(later ruby ball) stylus. As the probe touched the surface of the component the stylus
deflected and simultaneously sent the X.Y,Z coordinate information to the computer.
Measurement errors caused by individual operators became fewer and the stage was set for
the introduction of CNC operations and the coming of age of CMMs.

Optical probes are lens(Telecentric lens)-CCD-systems, which are moved like the mechanical
ones, and are aimed at the point of interest, instead of touching the material. Telecentric
lenses are designed to have a constant magnification regardless of the object's distance or
location in the field of view. This attribute is ideal for many machine vision measurement
applications, as measurements of an object's dimension will be independent of where it is
located. The captured image of the surface will be enclosed in the borders of a measuring
window, until the residue is adequate to contrast between black and white zones.The
horizontal information on the CCD is 2D (XY) and the vertical position is the position of the
complete probing system on the stand Z-drive (or other device component). This allows
entire 3D-probing.now all using the tactile sensor system.

image of screws using Telecentric lens

image of screws using conventional lens

New probing systems


There are newer models that have probes that drag along the surface of the part taking points
at specified intervals, known as scanning probes. This method of CMM inspection is often
more accurate than the conventional touch-probe method and most times faster as well.
The next generation of scanning, known as non-contact scanning includes high speed laser
single point triangulation, laser line scanning, and white light scanning, is advancing very
quickly. This method uses either laser beams or white light that are projected against the
surface of the part. Many thousands of points can then be taken and used to not only check
size and position, but to create a 3D image of the part as well. This "point-cloud data" can
then be transferred to CAD software to create a working 3D model of the part. These optical
scanners often used on soft or delicate parts or to facilitate reverse engineering.

Some of the probes are :Motorized Probe


With the motorized probe, 48 positions in the horizontal axis, 15 in the vertical axis can be
programmed for a total of 720 distinct probe orientations. Figure (b) shows some typical
applications for motorized probe. It shows that with a range of light weight extensions, the
head can reach into deep holes and recesses. The second diagram shows that head of the
probe is sufficiently compact to be regarded as an extension of the machine quill. This
enables the inspection of complex components that would otherwise be impossible or involve
complex setups.

(a). MOTORIZED PROBE

(b). TYPICAL APPLICATIONS OD MOTORIZED PROBE

Multiple Styluses Probe Heads


Wide ranges of styli have been developed to suit many different gaging applications. Some of
the different styli available are shown mounted on a multiple gaging head in Figure. The
selection of stylus is done based on the application for which the probe is to be used.

MULTIPLE STYLUS PROBE HEAD WITH VARIETY OF STYLI

III.

Machine Control and Computer Hardware

The control unit allows manual measurement and self teach programming in addition to CNC
operation. The control unit is microprocessor controlled. Usually a joystick is provided to
activate the drive for manual measurement.

MACHINE VISION
Machine vision (system vision) it's a apply computer vision in industry. While computer
vision is focused mainly on image processing at the level of hardware, machine vision most
often requires the use of additional hardware I/O (input/output) and computer networks to
transmit information generated by the other process components, such as a robot arm.
Machine vision is a subcategory of engineering machinery, dealing with issues of information
technology, optics, mechanics and industrial automation. One of the most common
applications of machine vision is inspection of the products such as microprocessors, cars,
food and pharmaceuticals. Machine vision systems are used increasingly to solve problems of
industrial inspection, allowing for complete automation of the inspection process and to
increase its accuracy and efficiency. As is the case for inspection of products on the
production line, made by people, so in case of application for that purpose machine vision
systems are used digital cameras, smart cameras and image processing software.
NEED FOR MACHINE VISION
The introduction of the automation has revolutionized the manufacturing in which complex
operations have been broken down into simple step-by-step instruction that can be repeated
by a machine. In such a mechanism, need for the systematic assembly and inspection have
been realized in different manufacturing processes. These tasks have been usually done by
the human workers, but these types of deficiencies have made a machine vision system more
attractive. Expectation from a visual system is to perform the following operations: the image
acquisition and analysis, the recognition of certain features or objects within that image, and
the exploitation and imposition of environmental constraints. Scene constraint is the first
consideration for the machine vision system. The hardware for this sub-system consists of the
light source for the active imaging, and required optical systems. Different lighting
techniques such as the structured lighting can be used for such purpose. The process of vision

system starts with the image acquiring in which representation of the image data, image
sensing and digitization is accomplished. Image sensing is the next step in order to obtain a
proper image from the illuminated scene. Digitization is the next process in which image
capturing and image display are accomplished. The last step in this process is the image
processing in which a more suitable image is prepared.
OPERATION OF A MACHINE VISION SYSTEM
A visual system can perform the following functions:
1. The image acquisition and analysis,
2. The recognition of an object or objects within an object groups.
The light from a source illuminates the scene and an optical image is generated by image
sensors. Image acquisition is a process whereby a photo detector is used to generate and
optical image that can be converted into a digital image. This process involves the image
sensing, representation of image data, and digitization. Image processing is a process to
modify and prepare the pixel values of a digital image to produce a more suitable form for
subsequent operations. Pattern classification refers to the process in which an unknown object
within an image is identified as being part of one particular group among a number of
possible object groups.
COMPONENTS OF MACHINE VISION SYSTEM
A typical machine vision system consists of several components of the following:
One or more digital or analogue camera (black and white or colour) with optical lenses,
Interface the camera to digitize the image (the so-called frame grabber),
Processor (this is usually PC or embedded processor such as DSP), (In some cases, all the
elements listed above are included in the one device, the so-called smart cameras).
Device I/O (input/output), or communication links (e.g. RS-232) used to report the results
of system,
Lens for taking close-ups,
Adapted to the system, specialized light source (such as LEDs, fluorescent lamps, halogen
lamps, etc.),
Software to the imaging and detection of features in common image (image processing
algorithm) (fig. 2),
Sync-sensor to detect objects (this is usually an optical or magnetic sensor), which gives the
signal for the sampling and processing of image,
The regulations to remove or reject products with defects.

Fig. A typical vision system operation

The image from the camera is captured by frame grabber, which is a digitalize device
(included in each intelligent camera or located in a separate tab on the computer)
and convert image from a digital camera to digital format . The image in digital form is saved
to computer memory, for its subsequent processing by the machine vision software.
Depending on the software algorithm, typically executed several stages, making up the
complete image processing. Often at the beginning of this process, the image is noise filtering
and colours are converted from the shades of gray on a simple combination of two colours:
white and black (binarization process). The next stages of image processing are counting,
measuring and/or identity of objects, their size, defects, or other characteristics. In the final
stage of the process, the software generates information about the condition of the product
inspected, according to pre-programmed criteria. When does a negative test (the product does
not meet the established requirements), the program gives a signal to reject the product, the
system may eventually stop the production line and send information
about this incident to the staff.
APPLICATIONS OF MACHINE VISION
Machine vision systems are widely used in the manufacture of semiconductors, where these
systems are carrying out an inspection of silicon wafers, microchips, components such as
resistors, capacitors and lead frames. In the automotive industry machine vision systems are
used in control systems for industrial robots, inspection of painted surfaces, welding quality
control, rapid-prototyping, checking the engine block or detect defects of various
components. Checking products and quality control procedures may include the following:
the presence of parts (screws, cables, suspension), regularity of assembly, of the proper
execution and location of holes and shapes (curves, circular area, perpendicular surfaces,
etc.), correct selection of equipment options for the implementation of the quality of surface
markings (manufacturer's numbers and geographical detail), geometrical dimensions (with an
accuracy of a single micron) the quality of printing (location and colour). Beside listed above
are other area to implement machine vision. Figure 2 shows the simplest arrangement of the
machine vision measuring olive oil bottles on production lines. The online defect inspection

method based on machine vision for float glass fabrication is shown in Fig. 3. This method
realizes the defect detection exactly and settles the problem of miss-detection under
scurvinesss fabricating circumstance. Several digital line-scan monochrome cameras are laid
above float glass to capture the glass image. The red LED light source laid under the glass
provides illumination for grabbing the image. High performance computers are used to
complete the inspection task based on image processing.

Fig 2. The simplest arrangement of the machine vision measuring olive oil bottles on production lines.

Fig 3. Float glass inspection system.

Fig 4. System configuration for validation testing of vehicle instrument cluster.

Another interesting proposition is use the machine vision system to validation of vehicle
instrument cluster. The machine vision system (Fig. 4) consists of a camera, lighting, optics
and image processing software. A Cognex Insight CCD vision sensor was selected for image
acquisition and processing, which offers a resolution of 1600 x 1200 pixels and 64 MB flash
memory. The acquisition rate of the vision sensor is 15 full frames per second. The image
acquisition is through progressive scanning. The camera can work in a partial image
acquisition mode, which provides flexibility for selecting image resolution and acquisition
rate. The image processing software provides a wide library of vision tools for feature
identification, verification, measurement and testing applications. The PatMaxTM technology
for part fixturing and advanced OCR/OCV tools for reading texts are available within the
software. The primary source of illumination is from LED ring lights with directional front
lighting, which provides high contrast between the object and background. The selection of
optical lens depends on the field of view and the working distance. In this setting, a lens with
a focal length of 12 mm is used.
Other machine vision applications:

Automatic PCB inspection,

Wood quality inspection

Final inspection of sub-assemblies

Engine part inspection

Label inspection on products

Checking medical devices for defects

Robot guidance and checking orientation of components

Packaging and Medical vial Inspection

Verifying engineered components

Industrial production on a large scale

Small-lot production of unique objects

Safety systems in industrial environments

Intermediate inspection (e.g. quality control)

Control of autonomous mobile robots

Quality control and purity of food products

Exploitation of bridges

Agriculture

Exploitation of railways

Vision systems for blind people.

IV.

Software for Three-dimensional Geometry Analysis

In a CMM, the computer and the software are an inseparable part. They together represent
one system. The efficiency and cost effectiveness of a CMM depend to a large extent on the
software. The features that the CMM software should include :

Measurement of diameter, center distances, lengths, geometrical and form errors in


prismatic components, etc.

Online statistics for statistical information in a batch.

Parameter programming to minimize CNC programming time of similar parts.

Measurement of plane and spatial curves.

Data communications.

Digital input and output commands for process integration.

Program for the measurement of spur, helical, bevel and hypoid gears.

Interface to CAD software.


Software used in our machine is IK 5000 QUADRA-CHECK the Universal PC
Package Solution for Measuring Machines
INTRODUCTION
IK 5000 QUADRA-CHEK, the universal PC package solution for 2-D and 3-D measuring
tasks, is equally suitable for initial equipping on a machine as well as for retrofitting. IK 5000
QUADRA-CHEK consists of the IK 5000 slot card for the PC as well as the additional
necessary slot covers, and the corresponding PC software. Once installed on your PC you will
have a powerful measuring station.
FUNCTIONS
The innovative operator guidance provides self-explanatory information about the various
functions. It already supports you while setting up the coordinate system (aligning the part
and specifying the datum).
Various predefined features are available for measurement, depending on the version:
2-D saving: Point, line, circle, slot, rectangle
3-D saving: Plane, cylinder, cone, sphere
#The Measure Magic: it selects that feature which best matches the shape implied by the
points probed.
In addition, you can establish relationships (distances, angles) between features.
Measuring programs that you create yourself or record automatically simplify the efforts
necessary for repeated parts. The digital readout graphically takes you to the next
measurement position during program run.
Depending on the version, IK 5000 QUADRA-CHEK saves measurement points of plane (2D) contours either automatically or manually via crosshairs, via optical edge detection, or via
a video camera.
For 3-D contours, such as planes, cylinders, cones and spheres, the measurement points are
saved by probing with a touch probe. If a triggering touch probe is used the values are saved
automatically. With rigid probing elements a key must be pressed. The measured features can
be clearly displayed either in three dimensions or in one of the three projection planes.
FEATURE
Multi-sensor scanning

Along with the usual method for saving measurement points, the IK 5494 and IK 5594
versions permit multi-sensor scanning: in addition to the video camera, the measuring
machine is also equipped with a touch probe. You can then use the touch probe to measure 3D features on the object, and enjoy the advantages of video evaluation for 2-D features. The
integrated probe library manages the various measurement tools for you, whether they be
optical, video, laser or touch-probe systems.
Constructed features
QUADRA-CHEK gives you several possibilities for determining dimensions:
Measuring the features
Calculating the features (e. g. the center point of a measured circle)
Establishing a relationship between features (e. g. distance between two circle center points,
angle between two lines)
However, you can also construct new features from existing features and from relationships.
The properties of these constructed features
Data management
The integrated data-report generator for customized forms, databases and tolerance checks is
used to archive, export and import data in numerous formats. Use the integrated spreadsheets
for complex and non-standard calculations.
Simply send your customized reports to a printer, or make the data available to other users in
a database.
SYSTEM REQUIRMENTS
The following is necessary to run
QUADRA-CHEK:
PC: >=dual-core Pentium, 2.66 GHz
Operating system: Windows XP or Vista
RAM: >= 1GB
Hard disk: At least 500 MB available
One PCI slot and one or two additional
empty slots (depending on the version)
Screen:
Resolution at least 1024 x 768 pixels;

for the video function: 22 widescreen,


resolution at least 1680 x 1050 pixels
OPERATION
IK 5000 connections
Some connections are made directly to the IK 5000 PC card connector, others are made to
flyouts near the card. The preceding page shows an example of card and flyout connectors at
the rear of an IK 5000 system. Connector configurations for all standard IK 5000 system are
also shown. Certain connectors are common to multiple IK products, others are unique to
specific system in IK 5000 products family
IK 5000 measuring Technologies
IK 5294
IK 5293
IK 5394-EG
IK 5394-3D
IK 5493
IK 5494-2D
IK 5494-3D
IK 5594-3D

Crosshair
Manual touch probe
Manual optical edge
Manual touch probe and video edge
Optical edge and CNC
Video edge and CNC
Touch probe and CNC
TP200 Touch probe, video edge and CNC

IK 5000 Connectors
A
B
H
J
K
M
N
P
R

X,Y and Z encoder and optical foot switch inputs


X,Y and Z axis CNC control outputs
Q axis encoder input
Q axis CNC control output
Video light and zoom outputs
Touch probe inputs
Camera zoom control output
Comparator light source output
Comparator screen sensor input

IK 5000 Workspace Elements


1

Menu bar

2
3
4

DRO window
Program toolbar
Template window

Contains menu that control file, edit display, measurment


and calibration functions
Display the current positions of measurement axis
Contains icons for commonly used programming functions
Display feature measurement, program and tolerance data

5
6

Feature stamp window


Status bar

Display measured part features and feature form error


Present measurment , program and system status

Datum toolbar

8
9

VED toolbar
Part view window

10

View toolbar

11
12

Measure toolbar
Result window

13

Window menu

information
Contains icons for commonly used datum and refrance
frame functions
Contains icons for selecting video probe
Isplay the measurment refrance frame and all measured
features
Contain icons for zooming and rotating the part view
windows
Contains icons for selecting measurment types
Display measurment data for the feature selected in a
template window
Display menu item for the right clicked window

Measure Toolbar Icons

1.Magic measure: automatic point , line , circle, and arcs.


2.Point measurement
3.Line measurement
4.Arc measurement
5. Circle measurement
6.Ellipse measurement
7.Plane measurement
8. Cone measurement
9. Cylinder measurement
10. Sphere measurement
11.Distance measurement
12.Angle measurement
13.Torus measurement
VIEW TOOLBAR ICONS

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Top view:- Display the part top view orientation.


Left view:- Display the part left view orientation.
Front view:- Display the part front view orientation.
Zoom window:- click and drag cursor to magnify an area.
Zoom all :- fit all measured features into the part view.
Zoom Feature :- select a feature in atemplate than zoom to it.
South west view:-display the part south west orientation.

8. View rotor :- Display the view rotator window. click and draag the view rotator dot to
change the part view.
PROGRAM TOOLBAR ICONS

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Record :- Record activities as a program to be played later with identical parts


Stop Recording or pouse playback :- stop recording or pause a program
New run :-run the correct part program from the beginning.
Run from current step:- run a paused program from the current step.
Left View:-run a paused program one step from the current step.

DATUM TOOLBAR ICON

1. Datum Magic :-probe datum features. The system will automatically set a datum.
2. Primary Plane :- probe the primary plane to the level part.
3. Secondary Line :-probe the secondary line feature to align the part with the major
axis.
4. Zero point :- construct or probe the zero datum point.
5. Save Reference Frame :- save the measurement reference.
PROBES SELECTION
IK 5000 system can include

Crosshair
Touch probes
Optical edge detection
Video edge detection

Crosshairs
1. Click the desired measurement in the MEASURE MENU or MEASURE TOOLBAR.
A MEASURE DIALOG BOX will displayed.
2. position the desired feature location under the crosshair and click ENTER in dialog
box.
3. Continue until all the required points are probed , and then click OK to complete the
measurement.

Touch probes
1. Click the desired measurement inn the MEASURE MENU or MEASURE
TOOLBAR. A MEASURE DIALOG BOX will be displayed .
2. Move the part or touch the probe to make a contact at desired feature location .A
point will be entered.
3. Continue until all the desired points are probed, and then click OK to complete the
measurement.
Optical edge detection
1. Click the measurement in the MEASURE TOOLBAR. A MEASURE DIALOG BOX
will be displayed.
2. Move the light to dark transition of the desired feature location under the edge
detector and click ENTER in the dialog box.
3. Continue until all the required points are probed and then click OK to complete the
measurement.
Video edge detection
1. Click the desired measurement in the MEASURE MENU .A MEASURE DIALOG
BOX will be displayed.
2. Click the appropriate video probe in PROBE or in the VED toolbar.
3. Position the probe over the desired feature light to dark transition and click ENTER
POINT in the dialog box
4. Continue until all required points are probed and then click OK to complete the
measurement.
PREPARING TO MEASURE
Preparing to measure include:

Magnification selection
Light adjustment
Focus adjustment
Probe selection
Probe qualification

RECORDING MEASUREMENT
SESSION STEPS AS A PROGRAM
record the measurement session steps on one part when several identical parts will be
measured.
1. Set the fixturing mode of the parts. click TOOLS/ OPTIONS/PROGRAMMING to
display the RECORDING OPTIONS.

2. Click the DEFAULT FIXTURING MODE DROP DOWN LIST ARROW and select
the desired fixturing.
NONE: Datuming each part.
TEMPORARY: DAtuming first part.
PERMANENT: No datuming.
3. Click the RECORD ICON immediately prior to the measuring session.

4. Click the STOP RECORDING ICON when the session is over.

CONDUCTING A MEASURING SESSION


A measuring session can include:

Establishing a reference frame.


Measuring part feature.
Constructing part feature.
Creative part feature.
Apply tolerance.
Exporting data.
Printing reports.

Establishing a reference frame


Referencing frame can include:

Primary plane : part level


Secondary line : part skew alignment
Zero point : Datum zero

# For 3D measurement require a part level, skew and zero.


# For 2D measurement often requires only a skew and zero.

MEASURING PART FEATURES

Measure part features be selecting a measurement type, probing points distributed around the
feature and then clicking OK in the MEASURE dialog box.

Points:- probes a minimum of one point and


then click OK. The system will take geometric
average when several points are probed
Line:- probe a min of 2 points .

Distance:- probe 2 points.

Arcs:- Probes a minimum of 3 points in


sequence from one end to other.

Circle:- Probes a minimum of 3 points


distributed evenly around the circumference.

Ellipse:- Probe a minimum of 6 points


distributed evenly around the circumference

Slot:- probe 5 points in clockwise or counter


clockwise sequence. Two in one side, one on
an end , one in the middle of the second side
and one on the second side.
Angle:- Probe a minimum of 4 points on the 2
legs of an angle. Probe the first leg, click OK,
Probe the second leg and click OK.

Blob:-Position the video blob probe over a


shape, ENTER points and then click OK.

Plane:- probe a minimum of 3 points.

Cylinder:- probe 3 points at one end and 3 at


other end and then probe additional points if
desired.

Sphere:-probe 3 points at the equator, probe 1


point at the top and then probe additional
points if desired.
Cone :- probe 3 point sat one end , probe 3
points at the other end and then probe
additional points if desired .

Torus:- probe 5 points distributed evenly


around and then probe one point on the outer
most edge.

CMM IN COMPUTER AIDED MANUFACTURING


CMM is a very essential and useful tool in CAM. The old standards in communication in
CAM were capable of only unidirectional communications, i.e. they translated data which
were then converted into design form. But whether the design conforms to the specification

could not be known from these standards. Dimensional Measurement Interface System
(DMIS) is a new standard in communication used in CAM. It provides a bi-directional
communication of inspection data between manufacturing systems and inspection equipment
to see what has to be made and what has been made. CMMs enable DMIS bi-directional
communication.
The data-collecting unit in a CMM is the probe. Therefore, selection of probe and its
positioning is very crucial. Instructions must be given to CMM system for the speed for
positioning the probe, the path to be followed by the probe, angle at which the probe
approaches etc. After a part has been produced on the CNC machine, finished part would be
checked on a CMM with its inspection program. Then, the data about the checked part is sent
back to the computer, where the original part geometry is stored. The part geometry as
designed is compared with the part produced and the resultant deviation could be identified.
It helps in identifying problems in manufacturing. Figure shows an interrelation among CNC
machine tool, CAD system and a CMM.

CMM in CAM

APPLICATIONS OF CMM:

plastic parts (e.g. connectors, tubing, moulding)


medical device implants (e.g. stents, hearing aids)
machined parts for aerospace

machined parts for military use


machined parts for automotive
general precision engineering
watch making
Science research institute

ADVANTAGES OF CMM:CMM has got a number of advantages. The precision and accuracy given by a CMM is very
high. It is because of the inherent characteristics of the measuring techniques used in CMM.
Following are the main advantages that CMM can offer :

Flexibility

CMMs are essentially universal measuring machines and need not be dedicated to any
particular task. They can measure almost any dimensional characteristic of a part
configuration, including cams, gears and warped surfaces. No special fixtures or gages are
required. Because probe contact is light, most parts can be inspected without being clamped
to the table.

Reduced Setup Time

Part alignment and establishing appropriate reference points are very time consuming with
conventional surface plate inspection techniques. Software allows the operator to define the
orientation of the part on the CMM, and all subsequent data are corrected for misalignment
between the parts-reference system and the machine coordinates.

Single Setup

Most parts can be inspected in a single setup, thus eliminating the need to reorient the parts
for access to all features.

Improved Accuracy

All measurements in a CMM are taken from a common geometrically fixed measuring
system, eliminating the introduction and the accumulation of errors that can result with handgage inspection methods and transfer techniques.

Reduced Operator Influence

The use of digital readouts eliminate the subjective interpretation of readings common with
dial or vernier type measuring devices. Operator feel is virtually eliminated with modern
touch-trigger probe systems, and most CMMs have routine measuring procedures for typical
part features, such as bores or centre distances. In computer assisted systems; the operator is
under the control of a program that eliminates operator choice. In addition, automatic data
recording, available on most machines, prevents errors in transcribing readings to the
inspection report. This adds up to the fact that less skilled operators can be easily instructed to
perform relatively complex inspection procedures.