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Content Copyright jWorldTimes.com
Jahangir World Times
Published: October 2014

Democracy in Pakistan | Always on the Tenterhooks
Pakistan Affairs Special (October, 2014)
Monday, September 01, 2014

It is often said that democracy is the best form of government that is functional in most
countries of the world today. It is hard to negate that the countries where democracy put its
roots down reached the zenith of development and good governance within no time. The
exemplary development of the countries like United Kingdom, the US, Japan etc., bears
testimony to this fact. Though it has some in-built flaws, yet in the words of Sir Winston
Churchill, It is the worst form of government except all those other forms that have been tried
from time to time.
Democracy as professed by great philosophers and scholars is, in essence, the vox populi of a
nation and the supremacy of public will is at its core. The greatest of the Athenian philosophers,
Aristotle, wrote: Democracy is when the indigent, and not the men of property, are the rulers.
But, lamentably the case is altogether different in Pakistan. Here the democracy always faces
crucifixion due to corrupt practices of only a few people. Its history in Pakistan is so chequered
that we, the Pakistanis, are always on tenterhooks when it comes to the future of democracy.
Though, the intermittent military takeovers frustrated the strengthening of democracy, our
political 'dictators' too are not less culpable for this imbroglio. Their sheer ineptness, corruption,
nepotism, and all the vices one can think of, keep it on the verge of collapse.
Apparently, the civil-military relations in Pakistan are as good as the democratic norms require.
But, the reality is starkly different. How one can deny that hardly a civilian government starts to
settle down, the clouds of distrust start hovering over the skies of Islamabad. The recent episode
of long marches and dharnas, and the longest joint session of the parliament, elaborate the
schism between our civil and military leadership.
Nevertheless, they say there always is a silver lining in the cloud. And, this silver lining is the
rise of middle and upper middle class of the country as a stakeholder in the country's body
politic. Besides their unprecedented participation in 2013 elections, their fervour and zeal in
PAT's and PTI's sit-ins have put our rotten political system, which patronizes all sorts of ill
practices in the corridors of power, on the deathbed. This political upheaval has also made

media show its mettle. Given its role in exposing our rulers' corrupt practices and indifference
to public grievances, it seems that the thanedar Senator Chaudhry Aitzaz Ahsan referred to in
his address to the parliament is the Pakistani media. Round-the-clock coverage of sit-ins which
awakened the masses, made the erstwhile absent-from-house Prime Minister, attend the session
for many days and listen to the scathing criticism directed at his government's highest
functionaries. Notwithstanding media's impressive role in political awakening, it is also a reality
that some channels indulged in the filthy blame game against either PTI's Kaptaan or the
government of Mian Nawaz Sharif. Continual airing of Rana Mashhood-Asim Malik row by a
private channel is unethical because the person who is being projected as a hero is himself
wanted in Pakistan for fleecing hundreds of people. This matter should be thoroughly probed
and the culprits should face the music. But, one-sided character assassination must stop now.
The authority to ensure that media houses obey country's laws as well as journalism ethics, i.e.
Pemra has been rendered toothless due to reasons unknown to us.
Today's is a Pakistan of 21st century and a digital age. Our brilliant, talented and energetic
youth does need a real leadership now. Our rulers should understand now that no old gimmicks
can satisfy the young generation. Their fervour and spirit needs to be channelized prudently so
as to make the most of it for the development of our dear homeland. If they have a true, just and
honest leader to follow, then be assured that the reality to the dream of a developed, prosperous
and peaceful Pakistan that would be respected by the whole world is not far. In the words of
But of his barren acres Iqbal will not despair:
A little rain, and harvests shall wave at last, oh Saki!

Aug 16: Inqilab and Azadi marches settled down in Islamabad, flexing their muscles in
more ways than one.
Aug 16: A sessions judge ordered Lahore police to register a murder case against Prime
Minister Nawaz Sharif, Punjab Chief Minister Shahbaz Sharif, several other PML-N leaders
and some police officials over the June 17 Model Town incident.
Aug 16: Leaders of the PPP, PML-N and religious minority groups launched a campaign in
Sukkur and Ghotki districts against forced and underage marriages and religious extremism.
Aug 17: Addressing a charged crowd that was all set to storm the 'red zone', PTI Chairman
Imran Khan ordered his supporters to launch a civil disobedience movement against the
Aug 17: Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation (PBC) Director General Samina Pervez launched a
100-kW digital transmitter at the Hyderabad Broadcasting House.

Aug 18: New Delhi called off the Aug 25 meeting of foreign secretaries of the two countries
because of Pakistani high commissioner's consultative session with a Hurriyat leader.
Aug 19: ISPR issued a statement after midnight that called on all stakeholders to exercise
patience, wisdom and sagacity in the larger national interest.
Aug 19: The government of Pakistan awarded Ali Meer, the Khabarnak star, the Pride of
Performance award. Ali Meer, who is an IT graduate, started his career as creative manager at
Geo News and created over 100 political cartoons.
Aug 20: The Supreme Court asked Imran Khan and Dr Tahirul Qadri to appear before it to
reply to a number of challenges filed against the sit-ins being staged on Constitution Avenue by
their parties.
Aug 20: The army refused to mediate between the government and the protesting parties to
defuse the political crisis and instead asked both sides to work for a settlement on their own.
Aug 20: Khwaja Shahad Ahmed, the recently-appointed chairman of the Azad Jammu and
Kashmir Public Service Commission, and eight members took oath of their respective offices.
The AJKPSC comprises a chairman and nine members.
Aug 20: A judicial tribunal in Balochsitan, headed by a senior judge of the Balochistan High
Court, Justice Noor Mohammad Maskanzai, assigned the task to investigate the discovery of 17
mutilated bodies from two mass graves in Totak area of Khuzdar district said in the report that
security forces, intelligence agencies and the government were not found involved in the case.
Aug 20: The Earthquake Memorial Bridge connecting Naluchi and Chattar on the banks of
River Jhelum was opened for traffic. The project, funded by the Japan Bank of International
Cooperation (JBIC), was completed in just over four years at a cost of Rs.1.5 billion.
Aug 21: The Sindh police set up a fleet of 100 mobile vans equipped with surveillance cameras
to help the law-enforcement agency record crime scenes while patrolling, snap-checking or
raiding any criminal hideout.
Aug 22: PTI parliamentary leader in the National Assembly, Shah Mehmood Qureshi,
submitted the resignations of the party legislators to the Speaker's office.
Aug 22: The Baloch Human Rights Organisation (BHRO) and the banned Baloch Student
Organisation-Azad (BSOA) rejected the Balochistan Judicial Tribunal's report in the discovery
of mass graves in Khuzdar area and appealed to the United Nations to find out the truth.
Aug 22: Pakistan Navy inducted a second batch of Alouette Helicopters into its Fleet Air Arm.
Aug 23: A treason case was registered against Pakistan High Commissioner to India, Mr Abdul

Basit, and Hurriyat leader Shabir Ahmed Shah in India on the orders of Allahabad CGM court.
Aug 26: The battered Tehreek-i-Taliban Pakistan suffered a huge blow with the emergence of a
new group of militants, named Jamaatul Ahrar, within it.
Aug 26: The Economic Coordination Committee (ECC) of the Cabinet approved a sovereign
guarantee for Pakistan International Airlines (PIA) to acquire a Rs1 billion loan for Hajj
operations and allowed an increased tariff for import of 74MW electricity from Iran.
Aug 26: Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif witnessed the signing ceremony of a financing
agreement of $588.4 million with the World Bank relating to development of Dasu Hydropower
Project. Another agreement for $76.4 million financing was signed for Sindh Agricultural
Growth Project.
Aug 26: The one-member judicial commission investigating the June 17 Model Town incident
held the government responsible for the tragedy. The report said the affidavits of Chief Minister
Shahbaz Sharif and former law minister Rana Sanaullah contained contradictions regarding the
orders they reportedly issued to police to disengage, and declared police acted on government
Aug 27: The PTI submitted resignations of 28 of its 30 members of the Punjab assembly.
Aug 28: Security forces got freed Prof Ajmal Khan, Vice Chancellor of the Islamia University
Peshawar, four years after his abduction by the Taliban militants.
Aug 28: The Balochistan Assembly unanimously adopted the Balochistan Prohibition of
Private Money Lending Bill, 2014.
The bill was tabled by Minister for Information and Law Abdul Rahim Ziaratwal.
Aug 28: European Union lifted the temporary cargo ban imposed on Pakistan International
Airlines (PIA) cargo shipments to Europe.
Aug 29: Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif said that he had not sought the army chief's intervention
to break the deadlock in talks with protesting parties.
Aug 29: The Inter-Services Public Relations clarified that, in fact, the government had asked
Chief of Army Staff General Raheel Sharif to facilitate negotiations with the protesting PTI
and PAT.
Aug 29: The Pakistan International Airlines (PIA) became the first airline in South Asia to
achieve the two high aviation standards after it acquired approval of the Air Navigation Order
(ANO) 145 and 147.
Sep 01: A mob of protesters from the PTI and PAT sit-ins stormed the headquarters of Pakistan

Television (PTV) and forced its staff to take two of the state broadcaster's flagship channels
PTV News and PTV World off the air.
Sep 01: All of PTI representatives in the Sindh Assembly filed their resignations in the
assembly secretariat.
Sep 01: Five cases were registered against the leaders and activists of the PTI and the PAT on
different charges, including sedition, murder attempt and terrorism. More than 200 activists
were arrested from the Constitution Avenue and hospitals.
Sep 01: Police inserted section 7 of the Anti-Terrorism Act and three more sections of the
Pakistan Penal Code into the FIR about the June 17 Model Town incident lodged against Prime
Minister Nawaz Sharif, Punjab Chief Minister Shahbaz Sharif and 19 others.
Sep 01: The World Bank approved $47.95 million to help Pakistan improve nutrition status of
its children under the age of two years, and of pregnant and lactating women in targeted areas.
The money is meant for the Enhanced Nutrition for Mothers and Children project specifically
targeting women and the relatively high proportion of stunting that occurs during pregnancy. It
will also be used to support the scaling up of well-proven maternal nutrition interventions for
women of childbearing age and sharpening the nutrition focus of antenatal visits and provision
of daily iron folic acid supplementation during pregnancy.
Sep 04: Fifty-two people, three soldiers among them, were killed and over 90 others injured as
torrential rain wreaked havoc in north-eastern Punjab and Kashmir, causing a very high flood in
river Chenab. A number of cities received over 130mm of rain.
Sep 04: A Sessions Court acquitted former interior minister Rehman Malik in a dual nationality
case. On a directive of the apex court, the election commission had filed complaints against Mr
Malik and other legislators in 2012 for filing false declarations along with their nomination
papers for elections to conceal their dual nationality.
Sep 04: National Assembly Speaker Sardar Ayaz Sadiq accepted the resignation of estranged
PTI leader Makhdoom Javed Hashmi.
Sep 05: The PPP launched a wing to carry out relief work during natural disasters and
emergencies. The setting up of the party's 'social services wing' was announced by PPP CoChairman Asif Ali Zardari.
Sep 05: PPP Co-Chairman and former President Asif Ali Zardari appointed Sherry Rehman as a
member of Central Executive Committee of the Party.
Sep 06: Officials in Islamabad and Beijing announced the postponement of Chinese President
Xi Jinping's visit to Pakistan.

Sep 07: Hundreds of thousands of people were marooned, their houses submerged and livestock
washed away as the river Chenab in 'super flood' hit 600 villages in Gujranwala and Sialkot
Sep 07: Girls bagged all top three positions in the entrance test 2014 for admissions to medical
and dental colleges of Punjab, according to results announced by the University of Health
Sciences (UHS).
A total of 44,243 candidates appeared in the entrance test held on August 31, out of whom
19,231 scored 60 per cent and above marks. As many as 6,377 scored 50 to 59pc whereas 6,395
secured 40 to 49pc marks.
Sep 07: A report released by the United Nations Children's Fund (Unicef) revealed that one in
10 girls globally 120 million have been sexually abused, with violence against children
taking increasingly insidious forms. The report, 'Hidden in Plain Sight: Statistical Analysis of
Violence against Children', surveys 190 countries, including Pakistan, and surveys boys and
girls aged up to 19 years.
Sep 08: The Pakistan Navy foiled a militant attack on one of its facilities in Karachi. Two
militants were killed in the raid while four of the attackers were captured leading to more arrests
in other parts of the country.
Sep 08: The World Wide Fund for Nature-Pakistan (WWF-Pakistan) observed International
Vulture Awareness Day 2014 at Lahore College for Women University (LCWU).
WWF regards the white-backed vulture (Gyps bengalensis) as one of its priority species for
conservation. This specie has been listed as critically endangered by the International Union for
Conservation of Nature (IUCN) headquartered at Gland, Switzerland.
Sep 09: At least 20 people were killed and seven injured when the structure of a double story
mosque-cum-seminary partially collapsed in the congested Daroghawala locality.
Sep 09: The embassy of Netherlands and the Pakistan Baitul Maal (PBM) signed an MoU for
establishing a vocational training centre in Timergarah Jail in Lower Dir district of Khyber
Pakhtunkhwa for the empowerment of women.
Sep 11: The Balochistan Rural Support Programme (BRSP) launched a water management
programme in Qila Abdullah district at an estimated cost of Rs70 million with the assistance of
the Federal Republic of Germany.
Sep 12: A meeting of Executive Committee of the National Economic Council (Ecnec)
approved Rs33 billion for an emergency plan to eradicate polio, the crippling disease.
Sep 12: The army announced the arrest of all 10 Taliban terrorists involved in the attack on
teenage activist Malala Yousafzai.

Sep 12: A Unicef report titled Improving Children's Lives: Transforming the Future,'' said that
a baby dies every three minutes in Pakistan, with more than 350,000 children in Pakistan dying
before the age of five. Of these deaths, 20 per cent are caused by pneumonia, even though
Pakistan was first among South Asian countries to introduce the pneumococcal vaccine.
The report marks 25 years since the General Assembly of the UN adopted the Convention on
the Rights of the Child.
Sep 13: Maulana Asmatullah Muawiya, head of the Tehreek-i-Taliban Punjab, said that his
group had decided to abandon its armed struggle in Pakistan and instead would focus on
peaceful struggle for the implementation of Shariah.
Sep 13: Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif declared all the flood-affected areas as calamity-hit and
said the population of these areas would be steered out of the current miseries caused by flash
Sep 14: 'International Day of Democracy' was observed in Pakistan and across the world.
Sep 15: Pakistan Petroleum Limited (PPL) announced discovery of hydrocarbons from
exploratory well Adam West X-1 in Hala Block.
Sep 15: The executive board of the National Accountability Bureau (NAB) approved an inquiry
against former chief minister Balochistan Nawab Aslam Raisani for accumulation of assets
beyond known sources of income during his tenure as chief minister Balochistan to the tune of
Rs 4.4 billion (approximately) and also for allegedly misusing his authority and causing huge
loss to the national exchequer.

Aug 16: National Bank of Pakistan (NBP) outclassed Pakistan International Airlines (PIA) in
the final of All Pakistan NBP Hockey Tournament.
Aug 18: Pakistan's top internationals, Rashid-ul-Ghazi and Tehsin Gheewala won the Nishan-iHaider Pairs Bridge Tournament.
Aug 18: Former diplomat Shaharyar Khan was elected chief of Pakistan Cricket Board for a
three-year term. He is the 30th chairman of the PCB but the only one to have a second tenure.
He previously had held the post between December 2003 and October 2006.
Aug 23: Najam Sethi and Shakil Sheikh, both journalists, were named to lead two powerful
committees of the Governing Board (GB) of the Pakistan Cricket Board (PCB).
Three committees titled Executive, Cricket and Grassroots were formed at the 30th meeting of
the Governing Board.
Sep 01: Three Pakistanis; president of the Pakistan Hockey Federation (PHF) Akhtar Rasool,

Secretary Rana Mujahid and a high-profile coach of Pakistani origin Tayyab Ikram were elected
to important posts during the Asian Hockey Federation (AHF) elections held in Kuala Lumpur.
Sep 01: Special Olympics Pakistan celebrated the fourth annual Eunice Kennedy Shriver Day
to pay tribute to the founder of the Special Olympics world body.
Sep 09: Top-ranked Pakistani off spinner Saeed Ajmal was suspended indefinitely from
international cricket for an illegal bowling action.
Sep 12: Muneeb Shafiq of Sindh created three new national records in under-12 category of the
19th National Boys Age Group Swimming Championship.
Sep 14: History was made in Pakistan tennis as the three grandchildren of former Subcontinent
legend late Kh Iftikhar Ahmad (undefeated national champion 1947-61) represented Pakistan in
Davis Cup tie against Thailand.
Aisamul Haq Qureshi and Samir Iftikhar, members of Davis Cup squad are sons of Mrs
Nosheen Eithisham (daughter) and Tayyab Iftikhar (son) while Miss Ushna Suhail, FFC Sports
Ambassador and Ladies National Champion, daughter of Kh Suhail Iftikhar (son) would
represent the country in Asian games.

Aug 18: A renowned professor of cardiology and Chairperson of NJ University of Medicine
and Dentistry and Head of Medicine, Dr Bunyad Haider, passed away.
Aug 19: Pakistan's first-ever world champion in any sport, squash star Hashim Khan died in the
United States. He was 100.
Hashim Khan had won the sport's premier title, the British Open, seven times between 1951 and
Aug 27: Prominent poet of Balochi language Ghulam Rasool Mulla, a.k.a. G.R Mulla, who was
known for his nationalistic and revolutionary poetry, passed away. He was 75.
Aug 29: Senior journalist and editor of Weekly Quetta Times, Ghulam Tahir, died. He was 86.
Sep 04: Leading ghazal and playback singer Habib Wali Mohammad passed away at the age of
93. He was best known for his film ghazal 'Aaj Jaane Ki Zid Na Karo' that catapulted him to
widespread recognition. Making his appearance at a time when ghazal singing was getting
popular all over again during the 1960s and 1970s, Habib Wali Mohammad's singing style held
a certain kind of appeal that was simpler and more accessible to the listeners.
Sep 04: Veteran actor Maqsood Hassan passed away in Karachi.
Sep 05: Former Pakistan Test umpire Ferozeuddin Butt died. He was 72.

Sep 06: Allama Ali Akbar Kumaili, a Shia cleric and son of former senator and Jaffaria
Alliance Pakistan chief, Allama Abbas Kumaili, was killed in Azizabad area of Karachi.
Sep 07: Sarshar Siddiqui, a poet whose initial work was filled with scepticism but later on he
composed religious verses, died aged 88.
Sep 07: Former Sindh Ombudsman Yusuf Jamal died. He was 76.
Mr Jamal made a record by securing the highest marks in the CSP examination in which he
appeared in 1963 after completing post-graduation in political science from the University of
Karachi. The record remains unbreakable till this day.
During Gen Ziaul Haq's rule, he resigned from the government service but later on Mairaj
Khalid appointed him as member of the Sindh Public Service Commission after becoming
prime minister of Pakistan.
Sep 08: Former MNA Mir Inayat Ali Talpur, died of cancer. He was 62.
Sep 10: Dr Masood Baig, a seminary teacher and son-in-law of Jamia Binoria Al-Almia's
founding chief Mufti Mohammed Naeem, was killed in an attack.
Sep 10: Parveen Saeed Haroon, the daughter of Allah Nawaz Khan and wife of Haji Sir
Abdullah Haroon's youngest son, Saeed Haroon, passed away. She was 81.
Sep 12: Malik Anwar Ali Noon, veteran politician and former MNA, passed away. He was 90.
Sep 15: Dr S.M. Rab, the longest serving physician of the country, passed away in Karachi. He
was 85.

Aug 21: The Port Qasim Authority (PQA) signed an Implementation Agreement (IA) with a
Chinese company to allot 200 acres of land for the development of two coal-based power plants
of 660 megawatt each.
Aug 25: The government awarded a licence to Canada's Tallahassee Resources Inc. for
exploration of oil and gas resources in Karak district of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP).
Aug 27: A joint Pakistan-Germany business platform called Pakistan GATE (German
Association Trade and Economy) for the further development of trade and investment projects
was launched in Berlin. The Pakistan Embassy in Berlin and the German Embassy in Islamabad
will serve as patrons through the respective ambassadors, Syed Hasan Javed and Cyrill Nunn.
Aug 28: Telenor Pakistan signed an agreement with its emergency response partner, the
Pakistan Red Crescent Society (PRCS), to mitigate the impact of disasters through an SMSbased early warning system.

Aug 28: The Federation of Pakistan Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FPCCI) and
Philippines Chamber of Commerce and Industry (PCCI) signed a memorandum of
understanding (MoU) in Manila to form a business council of both countries.
Sep 03: According to the 'Global Competitiveness Report' 2014-15 released by the WEF,
Pakistan's competitiveness among global economies has slightly improved to 129 out of 144 in
rankings published yearly by the World Economic Forum (WEF).
The country was ranked 133 out of 148 in 2013-14, 124 out of 144 in 2012-13, and 118 out of
142 in 2011-12.
Sep 04: Pakistan assumed charge of the 10-member Economic Cooperation Organisation (ECO)
Chamber of Commerce and Industry for a period of three years.
Sep 11: The Businessmen Group for the sixth consecutive term swept All Pakistan Textile Mills
Association's (Aptma) annual elections for 2014-15. Mr S.M. Tanveer would be the central
chairman, Seth Mohammad Akber Punjab zone chairman while other office bearers and all
zonal members, belonging to the Businessmen Group, were declared elected unopposed for the
next term.
Sep 11: According to details of the agreement signed by the State Bank and the World Bank,
the latter will help the SBP design a framework for coordinating and implementing the strategy.
The State Bank will pay $500,314 to the World Bank for the preparation of the strategy. The
agreement will expire on February 28, 2015.
Sep 12: Syed Asad Haider Mashadi of Mian Pervaiz Aslam Group was elected unopposed as
President of the Rawalpindi Chamber of Commerce and Industry (RCCI) for the year 2014-15.

Transfers & Postings

Aug 18: The Punjab government appointed Punjab Counter-Terrorism Department Additional
IG Captain (retired) Amin Wains as the new CCPO Lahore. Mr Wains has replaced DIG
Chaudhry Shafique Ahmad who was removed from the post in connection with June 17 Model
Town carnage.
Aug 22: Rear Admiral Zafar Mahmood Abbasi and Rear Admiral Syed Arifullah Hussaini were
promoted to the rank of Vice Admiral with immediate effect.
Sep 01: Deputy Inspector General (DIG) Tahir Alam Khan was appointed as the DIG
Operations and was also given the additional charge of the inspector general of the police (IGP).
The post of DIG operations had been lying vacant since three years.
Sep 01: Justice Qazi Faaiz Essa was appointed as judge in the Supreme Court. The Judicial
Commission had recommended him for posting as judge of the apex court. The Parliamentary
Committee also approved it.

Sep 07: The Chief Justice of Balochistan High Court, Justice Ghulam Mustafa Mengal,
appointed the District and Sessions Judge (Inspection) Quetta, Imtiaz Hussain, registrar of the
High Court of Balochistan.
Sep 11: The federal government issued the notification of the appointment of Ghulam Haider
Jamil as the Inspector of Police Sindh.
Sep 15: The provincial government appointed Dr Farhat Saleemi as the vice-chancellor of the
Government College Women University, Lahore.

People & Places

On Aug 22, Asma Shirazi, a renowned journalist and TV anchor, was awarded the Peter
Mackler Award for Courageous and Ethical Journalism.
On Aug 23, the youngest member of Pakistan scrabble contingent taking part in the 6th Sri
Lanka International Scrabble Championship created a new world record by scoring an eyepopping 878 points against Matheesha De Silva of Sri Lanka.
According to the Guinness Book of World Records, the highest score ever recorded in a
scrabble match was made by Toh Wei Bin of Singapore who scored 850 against Rick Kennedy
of Scotland in 2012. No score of 800 plus has been witnessed in an international tournament.
On Aug 24, Mohammad Afzal Khan, a former official of the Election Commission of Pakistan
(ECP) who was directly involved in the preparations for and execution of the general elections
of 2013, alleged that the general elections were 'massively rigged' and pointed the finger
squarely at former chief justice Iftikhar Mohammad Chaudhry and retired Justice Riaz Ahmed
Kiani, the ECP member from Punjab.
On Aug 31, a Pakistani journalist and author of 'Historic Temples in Pakistan: A Call to
Conscience,' Reema Abbasi, was honoured as the best literary personality of the year at the
Fifth Rajiv Gandhi Excellence Awards held in New Delhi.
On Sep 12, Mehran Sattar, son of a fruit-seller, Iqra Khalid, daughter of an iron merchant and
Kainat Zulqadar, daughter of an expatriate, clinched the first three positions in the intermediate
examination conducted by BISE Multan.
On Aug 19, a seminar 'Provincial policy dialogue on early marriages and domestic violence'
was held in Larkana where speakers called for establishing committees at district level to ensure

implementation of laws protecting womens rights and curbing underage marriages.

The seminar was held under the auspices of a non-governmental organisation, Shirkatgah.
On Aug 25, the three-day workshop on 'Bio-invasion and ballast water management' was
organised by Saarc Coastal Zone Management Centre in collaboration with Climate Change
Experts from Sri Lanka, the Maldives, Bangladesh and Afghanistan also attended the event.
On Aug 28, a public defence of a PhD thesis titled, Role of Maritime Strategy in National
Security: A Case Study of Gwadar was held at National Defence University, Islamabad. Cdr
(r) Azhar Ahmad highlighted the importance of his research and convinced the audience about
the need of paying more attention to the maritime sector.
On Aug 28, USAID-funded assessment and strengthening programme organised a two-day
conference on Public Sector Leadership in 21st Century Pakistan; Challenges and Best
Practices kicked off at the Lahore University of Management Sciences (LUMS).
On Sep 15, a roundtable conference was held at Heinrich Boll Stiftung (HBS), Islamabad where
the speakers said that Pakistan should not look towards any other Muslim country for adopting
a governance system as its indigenous model is perfect. Rights activist Tahira Abdullah
mediated the session.
The dialogue series 'Governance, community and religion' is a joint effort of the Centre for
Research and Security Studies (CRSS) and Heinrich Boll Stiftung (HBS), Islamabad.

Aug 16: The death toll from landslides and flooding triggered by torrential monsoon rains in
Nepal and northern India climbed to at least 109.
Aug 16: Sri Lanka's defence minister was directed by a court to suspend the decision to deport
those registered with the UNHCR, granting interim relief to asylum seekers and refugees from
Aug 16: A man died after 35-people, including several children, were found inside a shipping
container being unloaded at a dock in eastern England. People are believed to be from the
Indian Subcontinent.
Aug 17: According to the ranking compiled by Shanghai Jiao Tong University in China,
Harvard University retained the top spot in the annual Academic Ranking of World

Universities, a position it has held for the past 12 years. Stanford University was second,
followed by, in order, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology; the University of California,
Berkeley; and the University of Cambridge.
The United States had 146 universities in the top 500, followed by Germany with 39, Britain
with 38 and China, excluding Hong Kong, with 32.
Aug 19: Sri Lankan President Mahinda Rajapaksa announced the appointment of Ahmer Bilal
Soofi of Pakistan and Avdash Kaushal of India to the panel of advisers to the Commission on
Missing Persons and War Crimes set up by the Sri Lankan government.
Aug 20: Militants belonging to the Islamic State (IS), formerly known as Islamic State of Iraq
and Syria, released a video showing the beheading of an American journalist, James Foley,
kidnapped in Syria.
Aug 20: A US judge ruled that Manmohan Singh is immune from allegations that he supported
genocide of Sikhs during his tenure as head of Indian government but does not enjoy head of
state immunity for claims arising from his tenure as finance minister, from 1991 to 1996.
Aug 20: India removed the chief executive of its film censorship board, Mr Rakesh Kumar,
after he was arrested on accusations of taking 70,000 rupees as bribe to clear a movie for
Aug 21: The United States offered new rewards for information on leading to the location of
Aziz Haqqani, Khalil al-Rahman Haqqani, Yahya Haqqani and Abdul Rauf Zakir; four key
leaders of the Haqqani Network and also increased a previously announced reward offer for
information about the group's current leader, Sirajuddin Haqqani.
The US Department of State's Rewards for Justice Programme announced that the government
had authorised $5 million rewards of up to each for information.
Aug 21: Indonesia's highest court unanimously upheld the recent presidential election result,
paving the way for Joko Widodo to take over as leader of the world's third largest democracy.
Aug 21: A giant flag in support of Palestinians in Gaza was unfurled from the Manhattan
Aug 21: The Indian government blocked the release of a controversial film, Kaum De Heere,
or Diamonds Of The Community, on the assassination of former premier Indira Gandhi after
calls grew for it to be banned for glorifying her killers.
The film tells the story of Indira Gandhi's Sikh bodyguards who shot the premier dead in 1984
apparently in revenge for a military operation that killed hundreds of Sikhs.

Aug 21: Turkey's ruling party chose Foreign Minister Ahmet Davutoglu to be the new prime
Aug 21: The United States designated Pakistan-based hawala group, Haji Basir and Zarjmil
Company and, its owner, Haji Abdul Basir, as Specially Designated Global Terrorists for
providing financial services or other support to the Taliban.
Aug 21: Thailand's coup leader and army chief, General Prayut Chan-O-Cha, was elected prime
minister by the kingdom's junta-appointed legislature.
Aug 21: Outgoing UN rights chief Navi Pillay rebuked the UN Security Council for putting
short-term geopolitical concerns and narrowly-defined national interests ahead of intolerable
human suffering and grave breaches of global peace and security.
Aug 22: Militiamen gunned down 70 people in an apparent revenge attack at an Iraqi mosque.
The shooting took place in the Hamreen area of Diyala province.
Aug 22: South African wildlife authorities said they have found dozens of dead jackals at a
popular game park in the country's worst ever incident of poisoning.
Aug 22: The ice bucket challenge's phenomenal success is making other charitable
organisations rethink how they connect with a younger generation of potential donors. Since the
ALS Association began tracking the campaign's progress on July 29, it has raised more than
$53.3 million from 1.1 million new donors in what is one of the most viral philanthropic social
media campaigns in history.
Aug 22: The Pentagon violated US law when it controversially swapped a soldier held in
captivity for five years in Afghanistan for five Taliban detainees without giving lawmakers
sufficient notice, congressional investigators said.
The Pentagon used $988,400 of its wartime funding for the transfer that freed Sergeant Bowe
Aug 23: Almost 200,000 people have been killed in Syria since the country fell into conflict in
2011, according to a report by UN Human Rights Commission released in Geneva.
A total of 191,369 people were killed between March 2011, when the conflict erupted, and
April 2014, according to the report.
Aug 23: An Indian woman is thought to have had the world's longest ectopic pregnancy after
doctors removed the skeleton of a baby that had been inside her for nearly four decades.
Kantabai Thakre became pregnant at the age of 24, in 1978. At the time doctors warned the
expectant mother her unborn child had little chance of survival, after it was found to be growing
outside of her womb.
Terrified at the thought of an operation, she fled and sought treatment for the pain at a small

Aug 25: Libya's outgoing parliament voted to replace the current interim government,
deepening the conflict torn country's already stark divisions and leaving it with two rival
parliaments and governments.
Aug 25: Islamic State militants stormed an airbase in northeast Syria, capturing it from
government forces.
Aug 25: French Prime Minister Manuel Valls presented his government's resignation, a day
after Economy Minister Arnaud Montebourg called for new economic policies and questioned
neighbour Germany's obsession with budgetary rigour.
Valls was asked by President Francois Hollande to form a new team only four months ago but
has continually had to reconcile policy differences between leftists such as Montebourg and
more centrist members of his Socialist-led government.
Aug 26: The United Nations Children's Fund undertook the largest emergency supply operation
in the organisation's history in a single month by shipping 1,000 metric tonnes of life-saving
supplies for children caught in the world's most urgent crises.
Aug 26: The presidents of Russia and Ukraine sat down for talks, meeting face-to-face for the
first time since June on the fighting that has engulfed Ukraine's separatist east.
Russia's Vladimir Putin and Ukraine's Petro Poroshenko were joined by the presidents of
Belarus and Kazakhstan and three senior officials from the European Union in the Belarusian
capital of Minsk.
Aug 26: A Jewish centre in Mumbai that was stormed by heavily armed militants during 2008
Mumbai attacks reopened.
Aug 26: Saudi Foreign Minister Prince Saud Al Faisal met with a senior Iranian official to
discuss regional developments and the fight against Islamic State jihadists.
The visit by Iran's Deputy Foreign Minister Hossein Amir-Abdollahian to the city of Jeddah
was the first by a high-level official from Iran to Saudi Arabia since Hassan Rouhani became
the Islamic republic's president in August last year.
Aug 26: A long-term ceasefire was agreed to by Israel and the Palestinians, ending 50 days of
the deadliest violence in a decade.
The agreement involves an immediate halt to the violence in Gaza, which began on July 8 and
has claimed the lives of 2,143 Palestinians and 69 on the Israeli side.
Aug 27: IMF chief Christine Lagarde was put under formal investigation by French magistrates
for alleged negligence in a political fraud affair dating from 2008 when she was finance

Aug 27: India's top court said lawmakers with criminal backgrounds should not serve in
government, with 13 ministers in the current administration facing charges for attempted
murder, rioting and other offences. The ruling shines a spotlight on Narendra Modi and his
Aug 27: Afghanistan's disputed presidential election veered further off course after both
candidates withdrew their observers from a UN-supervised audit of votes.
Aug 28: Angelina Jolie and Brad Pitt married in the French hamlet of Correns.
Aug 28: Syrian armed groups, some of whom are linked to Al Qaeda, captured 43 UN
peacekeepers on the Syrian side of the Golan Heights and surrounded 81 others.
The 43 peacekeepers from Fiji were forced to surrender their weapons and taken hostage near
the Quneitra crossing, but 81 Filipino blue helmets held their ground and refused to disarm.
Aug 28: Recep Tayyip Erdogan was sworn in as Turkey's president, cementing his position as
its most powerful leader of recent times.
Aug 29: The United States delivered an emergency shipment of weapons to Lebanon's military
as part of a broader regional effort to combat the growing threat posed by Islamic extremists.
The Lebanese government had requested the weapons after militants from Syria attacked the
Lebanese border town of Arsal, killing and kidnapping soldiers and police.
Aug 29: The number of refugees from the Syrian conflict had topped three million, the UN said.
In Geneva, UN refugee agency chief Antonio Guterres said Syria had become the biggest
humanitarian emergency of our era after a million people joined the exodus in the past year
Aug 30: Lesotho Prime Minister Tom Thabane fled after soldiers seized power in a coup,
despite the military denying it overthrew the tiny mountain kingdom's government.
Aug 30: Myanmar's first census in three decades shows the country has a population of 51
million people.
Sep 01: A Sri Lankan court gave permission to authorities to send back scores of Pakistani
asylum seekers.
Sep 01: Japan and India agreed to strengthen defence relations. Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo
Abe and his Indian counterpart Narendra Modi also agreed to speed up talks on a so-far elusive
deal on nuclear energy cooperation, welcoming what they called significant progress in the
Sep 01: North Korea test-fired a short-range missile into the sea off its east coast in the latest of
a series of missile and rocket tests.

Sep 01: US President Barack Obama formally notified Congress that he had authorized targeted
air strikes in Iraq to help deliver a humanitarian aid to the besieged shi'ite town of Amerli.
Sep 02: The High Court in Indian state Himachal Pradesh banned a long tradition of sacrificing
animals for religious reasons, deeming the practice cruel and barbaric.
The Court asked police and other officials to enforce its ban on the slaughter of mainly goats in
Hindu temples throughout the state.
Sep 02: Iran unveiled a new surface-to-air missile, the Talash-3, and two radar systems to
improve its defences.
Sep 02: Sudan ordered Iran to close its cultural centres and given their managers 72 hours to
leave the country.
Sep 03: Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe named five female ministers to country's 18strong cabinet.
Sep 03: Al Qaeda chief Ayman al-Zawahiri declared in a video message that the global Islamist
extremist movement has launched a new branch to lead its struggle in the Subcontinent.
Sep 04: Despite remarkable economic growth, governance remains a concern in Asia and the
Pacific. The rapid growth has lifted millions out of poverty, yet the region continues to face
governance deficits that constrain its ability to raise the quality of growth, the Asian
Development Bank (ADB) said in an evaluation report.
Sep 04: Former Israeli President Shimon Peres proposed a new global peace initiative to Pope
Francis: A United Nations of Religions, given that most wars today have religious, not
nationalistic, undercurrents.
Sep 05: Conservative leaders Tony Abbott of Australia and Narendra Modi of India sealed a
long-awaited nuclear energy deal, paving the way for Australia to sell uranium to India,
crippled by power shortages and blackouts.
Sep 05: Nato leaders agreed to set up a new rapid reaction spearhead force and to maintain a
continuous presence in an eastern Europe rattled by Russian moves in Ukraine.
Sep 06: The government of Turkish Prime Minister Ahmet Davutoglu won a vote of confidence
in parliament.
Sep 07: Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe the first Japanese prime minister to visit Sri
Lanka in 24 years and Sri Lanka's president agreed to forge stronger maritime links between
their two countries.
Sep 09: One of two British explorer ships, HMS Erebus and HMS Terror, that disappeared in

the Arctic more than 160 years ago were found.

Sep 09: The Group of 77 plus China, the coalition of developing countries at the United
Nations, decided to take collective action against US banks which cancelled accounts of more
than 70 overseas diplomatic missions.
Sep 11: The United States concluded a deal with key Arab nations to launch a coordinated
military campaign against the militants of the ISIS.
Sep 11: The Blade Runner, Oscar Pistorius, was acquitted of murdering his girlfriend, but the
South African celebrity athlete still faces judgement on a lesser culpable homicide charge.
Sep 11: The West hit Russia with new sanctions over its role in the Ukraine conflict after Kiev
admitted losing more ground to the rebels.
Sep 11: MasterCard lost its challenge at Europe's highest court against an EU ban on its crossborder card fees.
Sep 12: Retired US Marine general John Allen, former commander of American forces in
Afghanistan, was appointed coordinator of the international effort against the Islamic State,
formerly known as the Islamic State of Iraq and Al Sham (ISIS).
Sep 12: The worst-ever Ebola outbreak killed more than 2,400 people, the UN said, as Cuba
pledged the largest foreign medical team deployed so far in the west African health crisis.
World Health Organisation chief Margaret Chan warned the spiralling epidemic of the
murderous tropical virus demanded a stronger, faster response from the international
Sep 12: German authorities banned all activity on behalf of the Islamic State extremist group,
including the distribution of propaganda material and the display of its symbols.
The decree issued closes a legal gap that made it difficult to prosecute Islamic State supporters
in Germany.
Sep 12: A Great Dane from Michigan that held the title of world's tallest dog died at age 5.
Sep 12: Pakistan and India filed formal applications for the full membership of the Shanghai
Cooperation Organisation (SCO). At present, Iran, Pakistan and India are the SCO observer
countries. Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, China, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan are the permanent
members of the organisation. SCO partners are Belarus, Turkey and Sri Lanka.
Sep 12: Nearly half of all girls in South Asia marry before they turn 18, according to a United
Nations report that lays bare what it calls glaring inequalities.
The report, published by the UN children's agency UNICEF, also revealed that more than a
million newborn babies still die every year in the region, often due to inadequate healthcare.

Sep 13: A convoy of more than 200 white trucks crossed the Russian border to deliver
humanitarian aid to a battered Ukrainian city, a move made without Kiev's consent yet met with
silence by Ukraine`s top leaders.
Sep 15: About 500 Syrians, Palestinians, Egyptians and Sudanese died after human traffickers
rammed a vessel into their boat and it sank off the Malta coast, the International Organisation
for Migration said.
Sep 15: Google launched a $105 smartphone in India, taking aim at emerging markets as part of
an initiative called Android One.
Sep 15: A new UN mission officially took charge of peacekeeping operations in the Central
African Republic, with the tough task of ending ethnic and religious bloodshed there and
helping bring back stability.
The 7,600-strong UN force known by its French acronym MINUSCA took over from a smaller
UN Security Council-mandated African deployment, MISCA, which was stationed in the
country since December, alongside 2,000 French soldiers.

Aug 16: Belarus' Maryna Arzamasova overtook Britain's Lynsey Sharp to win the women's
800m final at the European Championships.
Christelle Daunay of France also broke away from Italian Valeria Straneo in the final stages of
the women's marathon to win gold.
Aug 17: England defeated India to win the fifth Test by a crushing innings and 244 runs at The
Oval and clinched the series 3-1.
Aug 18: Sri Lanka won the second and final Test against Pakistan by 105 runs to sweep the
series 2-0.
Aug 18: Roger Federer won an unprecedented sixth championship in Cincinnati when he
defeated David Ferrer in the Western & Southern Open.
Aug 18: Serena Williams beat Ana Ivanovic to win the Western & Southern Open ladies' title.
Aug 19: Quinton de Kock, the 21-year-old wicket-keeper/batsman of South Africa, equalled the
mark of England's Jonathan Trott in reaching the landmark of 1,000 runs in only 21 ODI games.
Aug 23: In a successful second edition of the Youth Olympic Games swimming programme, a
total of 20 new World Junior records were established, 16 in individual and four in relay events.
Aug 26: Denesh Ramdin and Darren Bravo both scored centuries in a record breaking third
wicket partnership as West Indies crushed Bangladesh to wrap-up a 3-0 one-day series win.

The pair put on 258, a record for a third-wicket partnership in a One-day International, and the
joint eighth highest one day partnership of any kind.
Aug 28: The second Youth Olympics concluded after a spectacular closing ceremony and a
glowing endorsement from the International Olympic Committee (IOC).
The sporting competition, which involved almost 4,000 athletes aged between 14 and 18, ended
with the host nation finishing as the most successful country with 38 golds.
Aug 28: Howard Warner of New Zealand reigned supreme in the second World Senior Scrabble
Aug 28: Manchester United striker Wayne Rooney was named as captain of England Football
Team. He will replace Steven Gerrard.
Aug 29: Indian players topped the medals table of the South Asian Cadet and Junior Table
Tennis Championships, which concluded at the Pakistan Sports Complex.
India clinched 10 gold and four silver medals followed by Sri Lanka which won four silver and
eight bronze medals.
Sep 06: South Africa won a first-ever tournament final against Australia.
Sep 07: Japan's Kei Nishikori became the first Asian man to make a Grand Slam final in the
US Open.
Sep 08: American twins Bob and Mike Bryan became the first doubles pair to win 100 titles
together after they beat Spain's Marcel Granollers and Marc Lopez in the US Open final.
The world number one duo broke the 11th seeds once in each set to claim their fifth US Open
title and take their 16th grand slam title together.
Sep 08: World number one Serena Williams capped her dominant run to a third consecutive US
Open championship, overpowering Caroline Wozniacki to move up in the record books with
her 18th Grand Slam crown.
Sep 09: Marin Cilic won his first major final, beating Kei Nishikori of Japan at the US Open.
Aug 20: BKS Iyengar, the Indian yoga guru credited with helping to fuel a global explosion in
the popularity of the ancient spiritual practice, died aged 95.
Aug 21: Former Irish premier, Albert Reynolds, a central figure in the Northern Ireland peace
process who helped broker the 1994 IRA ceasefire, died aged 81.
Aug 22: Acclaimed Indian writer Udupi Rajagopalacharya Ananthamurthy, famed for his
novels and poems, died at the age of 82.

Aug 23: Former Jamaican umpire Douglas Sang Hue died aged 82 in Kingston. In a career
spanning more than 25 years, Sang Hue umpired 31 Tests in the West Indies, as well as an ODI
featuring Pakistan in Kingston in 1988.
Aug 25: British actor and film director Richard Attenborough, who appeared in films such as
Brighton Rock, The Great Escape and Jurassic Park, in a career spanning six decades, died at
the age of 90.
Sep 02: South African Norman Gordon, who was the oldest former Test cricketer, died aged
103 in Johannesburg.
Sep 04: Acerbic comedian Joan Rivers died in New York. She was 81.
Sep 11: Richard Kiel, who played the towering steel-toothed baddie Jaws in two James Bond
movies, died. He was 74.
Sep 12: Former Northern Irish first minister Ian Paisley, the firebrand Protestant leader who
struck a power sharing deal with former foes Sinn Fein, died at the age of 88.
Sep 14: Japanese actress and singer Yoshiko 'Shirley' Yamaguchi, who was nearly executed in
China at the end of World War II, died at the age of 94.

Aug 21: After a remarkable analysis of bacterial DNA from 1,000-year-old mummies, scientists
have proposed a new hypothesis for how tuberculosis arose and spread around the world.
The disease originated less than 6,000 years ago in Africa, they say, and took a surprising route
to reach the New World: It was carried across the Atlantic by seals.
Sep 04: The Milky Way galaxy resides on the outskirts of a massive, previously unknown
galaxy super-cluster, named Laniakea, from Hawaiian words for immeasurable heaven.
The discovery stems from a new mapping technique that combines not only the distances
between more than 8,000 nearby galaxies, but also their relative motions.
Sep 10: Earth's protective but fragile ozone layer is beginning to recover, largely because of the
phase-out since the 1980s of certain chemicals used in refrigerants and aerosol cans, a UN
scientific panel reported in a rare piece of good news about the health of the planet. Scientists
said the development demonstrates that when the world comes together, it can counteract a
brewing ecological crisis.
In 1974, Molina and F. Sherwood Rowland wrote a scientific study forecasting the ozone
depletion problem. They won the 1995 Nobel Prize in chemistry for their work.
The ozone layer had been thinning since the late 1970s. Man-made chlorofluorocarbons, called
CFCs, released chlorine and bromine, which destroyed ozone molecules high in the air.

People & Places

On Aug 16, a five-and-a-half-hour film from the Philippines From What Is Before, directed
by Lav Diaz, scooped the coveted Golden Leopard prize at the Locarno film festival in
Switzerland.Clocking in at 338 minutes, the black-and-white film beat 16 other films to the
festival's top prize.
On Aug 20, Sakari Momoi, a former high school principal in Japan, who was born on February
5, 1903, months before the Wright brothers carried out the first human flight, was recognised as
the world's oldest male at the age of 111 by the Guinness World Records.
On Aug 21, Facebook awarded a $50,000 Internet Defence Prize to Johannes Dahse and
Thorsten Holz from Ruhr-Universitdt Bochum in Germany; the two German researchers who
devised a seemingly viable approach to detecting vulnerabilities in Web applications.
On Aug 25, a famous American diva Miley Cyrus won the award for Video of the Year for
her hit single Wrecking Ball, at the 2014 MTV Video Music Awards.
On Aug 29, May Myat Noe, a Myanmar beauty queen and the winner of Miss Asia Pacific World
Super Talent 2014, who was dethroned for alleged misconduct, absconded with her crown.


On Sep 01, Mohammad Reza Rahimi, Iran's first vice president under former president
Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, was sentenced to prison to become the most senior official from that
era to be convicted.
On Sep 01, Indonesia's first female provincial leader, and head of one of the country's most
powerful political dynasties, Ratu Atut Chosiyah, was jailed for four years for bribing a top
judge over an election dispute.
On Sep 06, Sweden's Roy Andersson won the Golden Lion at the Venice Film Festival for his
absurdist feature A Pigeon Sat on a Branch Reflecting on Existence.
His film, a series of bleakly comic vignettes, had some critics in raptures but left others
scratching their heads.
On Aug 18, Sri Lankan great Mahela Jayawardene ended his glittering test career that spanned 17 years.

On Aug 26, thousands of people formed the world's largest portrait of Mustafa Kamal Ataturk,
the founder of the modern Turkish republic. At least 6,000 volunteers gathered outside the
Anitkabir mausoleum, Ataturk's final resting place, to form the larger-than-life portrait for an
event marking Turkey's Victory.
On Aug 28, the German Chancellor Angela Merkel hosted the 'West Balkan Conference' at the
chancellery. The conference was convened to thrash out measures to bring about economy
prosperity and political stability in the South-East European region.
On Sep 02, African leaders and delegates attended the Africa Union Peace and Security Council
Summit on Terrorism held at the Kenyatta International Convention Centre in Nairobi, Kenya.
On Sep 08, key discoveries about breast cancer, Parkinson's disease and the body's handling of
defective proteins earned prestigious medical awards, the Lasker Award, for five scientists.
The Award, established in 1942, is presented by the Albert and Mary Lasker Foundation. Each
prize includes a $250,000 honorarium. The winners of this year are:
For Clinical Medical Research
1. Dr Mahlon DeLong of Emory University, Atlanta, USA
2. Dr Alim Louis Benabid of Joseph Fourier University, Grenoble, France
Special Achievement in Medical Science
1. Mary-Claire King of the University of Washington, Seattle, USA
For Basic Medical Research
1. Peter Walter of the University of California, San Francisco, USA
2. Kazutoshi Mori of Kyoto University, Japan
On Sep 10, authorities in Argentina moved to stop any more kids being called 'Messi' amid
concerns that the situation could get out of control.
Parents who wish to name their children after Barcelona star Lionel Messi will now be
prohibited from doing so in his home city.
On Sep 09, a 232-carat white diamond worth as much as $20 million was discovered in
Cullinan, east of Pretoria at a South African mine famed for its big-gem finds.
Adeel Niaz

Letters to the Editor

For feedback and suggestions, please write to us at: editor@jworldtimes.com; adeelniaz78@gmail.com

Pakistan Affairs Special (October, 2014)

Monday, September 01, 2014


The unions in education sector were founded to facilitate the teachers. These were to provide
them with a platform to raise their voice before the higher echelons to get their grievances
addressed. Lamentably, these unions have become a Mafia of certain scoundrels and
conscienceless elements. I strongly condemn this abominable blot on the prophetic profession.
The union leaders want that all appointments, ranging from headmasters/principals to peons are
made as per their whims and wishes. If they succeed, then at the helm of the education sector
will only be some inept, sycophant administrators. Increasing budget for education sector or
recruiting more teachers to raise the deteriorated standard of education is not going to work
unless government puts a full stop to the rascality and hooliganism of these so-called unions. It
is the most appropriate time for NGOs, civil society, educationists, and true Sindhis to launch a
massive campaign to get rid of these Gullus so as to elevate the education standard.
Ahsan Jamil (Zhob)
State Bank of Pakistan has directed banks and DFIs to submit updated list of loan defaulters for
placement of their names on the Exit Control List (ECL). According to the SBP, the policy for
placing the names of loan defaulters and bank staff involved in frauds or forgeries, etc. on ECL
will be governed under Exit from Pakistan (Control) Rules 2010. The central bank has made the
right decision. The current political turmoil in the country has underscored the need for better
governance and improved banking practices. Those who owe money to banks and DFIs but are
not willing to pay back must face the music. They should face the consequences of committing
wilful defaults. After all, the words wilful default implies more than negligence or
Naqi Zafar (Karachi)
Ironically, the ongoing 'dynastic democracy' has become the beauty of our dear homeland. All
Pakistanis are deprived of their basic constitutional rights except a few dynasties which,

unfortunately, have been running the country since the past many decades.
Judiciously speaking, from top to bottom there is a lack of an effective leadership to tackle the
present crisis politically. Everyone is a part of the corrupt system since the personal interests have
constrained us to be on democracys side. Rigging in 2013 elections has been exposed by the report
the ECP has issued after more than 9 months.
The prime minister and chief ministers have a moral responsibility to step down until a commission
thoroughly audits the election of 2013.
Syed Muneer Ali Shah (Larkana)


Education, indisputably, has a strong connection with economic development. In contemporary
world, when the focus is on the 'knowledge economy,' the role of education becomes all the more
important. After all, a society of literate and skilled citizens has better chances of development at
economic and social levels. However, unfortunately, a large number of children are unable to
attend schools. According to the Education For All Global Monitoring Report, almost 6.5 million
children in Pakistan don't go to school. Countries like India, Ethiopia, Mozambique, Ghana, Niger,
Kenya and Mali are placed in relatively better positions than Pakistan.
If we have to make our economy stronger in the years to come, we must improve the state of
education in Pakistan. This is the only panacea.
Ali Raza Mahesar (Naushahro Feroze)
While reading the Argy Bargy segment of Jahangir's World Times, a statement of Chinese
president Xi Jinping caught my attention. He said, Chinese peoples won't accept the logic of might
is right. This statement startled me because the concept he loathed is omnipresent in our country.
Be it the education system, economy, media, nothing is safe from the tyranny of might is right.
In Pakistan, unfortunately, there is no consideration for the poor. Here, rich parents send their kids
to private schools to provide them with quality education, but the poor cannot afford this luxury
due to poverty.
Our country is entirely under the dominance of the well-off people and there is no concept of
equality of rights. Like Chinese president if we do not condemn the concept of might is right,
then we have every chance to be an advanced and a developed nation.
Rameez Ali Mahesar (Naushahro Feroze)
Democracy as a system of governance constituted by a mob is far off from practicability if it is to
bring prosperity among the ruled. This notion has its roots in the early thoughts of Plato and
Aristotle with the Muslim sages from Tussi to Iqbal fortifying the same idea. All that the celebrated
thinkers and philosophers contended can ingeniously be likened to the democracy we are, at
present, having in Pakistan. Our 'democratic' setup consists of the most inept and the unworthiest
segment of the society.
While every Tom, Dick and Harry chants the slogans of democracy deeming it to be the only
panacea for the ills of the state, they fail to fathom its essence. Democracy is only when an ordinary
person is empowered. Democracy is only when country's politics is not under the thumb of Bhuttos,
Sharifs, Maulanas and Chaudharies, and is only when the ruled are also the rulers.
Farrukh Aziz Ansari (QAU, Islamabad)

World's Top 10 Stories

Back to Square One, Peace is Still Elusive, Spilling the Beans?, Nature's Wrath or Sheer
Ineptness?, Better Late Than Never!, A Wake-up Call, It's A Big No!, Historic Yet
Insignificant, Imposed Reconciliation, A Never-ending War,
Pakistan Affairs Special (October, 2014)
Monday, September 01, 2014

Back to Square One!

On Aug 18, New Delhi called off the Aug 25 meeting of foreign secretaries of the two countries
because of Pakistani high commissioner's consultative session with a Hurriyat leader.
Peace is Still Elusive
On Aug 26, Israel and the Palestinians agreed to an Egyptian-brokered plan to end the fighting
in Gaza after 50 days of combat in which more than 2,100 Palestinians, most of them civilians,
64 Israeli soldiers and five civilians in Israel were killed.
Spilling the Beans?
On Sep 01, the President of PTI, Makhdoom Hashmi, alleged Imran Khan of going against the
core committee decision to not to march on the PM House. He said that the country has been
brought to the verge of martial law.
Nature's Wrath or Sheer Ineptness?
On Sep 07, hundreds of thousands of people were marooned, their houses submerged and
livestock washed away as the river Chenab in 'super flood' hit 600 villages in Gujranwala and

Sialkot regions.
Better Late Than Never!
On Sep 13, Maulana Asmatullah Muawiya, head of the Tehreek-i-Taliban Punjab, said that his
group had decided to abandon its armed struggle in Pakistan and instead would focus on
peaceful struggle for the implementation of Shariah.
A Wake-up Call
On Sep 16, two late-arriving politicians Senator Rehman Malik and an MNA Dr Ramesh
Vankwani were forced to get off a PIA aircraft by angry passengers because they had caused
a long flight delay.
It's A Big No!
On Sep 18, the people of Scotland voted in a referendum crucial for the existence of the United
Kingdom. The Scots gave a big NO 55.3 percent against 44.7 percent for YES and gave
their verdict to stay in the UK.
Historic Yet Insignificant
On Sep 19, the longest joint session of the parliament began on 2nd September was
prorogued. The parliamentary resolution reiterated its 'unequivocal, unwavering and unqualified
resolve' to uphold the supremacy of the Constitution, the democratic system, sanctity of state
institutions, the rule of law and the sovereignty of parliament.
Imposed Reconciliation
On Sep 21, Afghanistan's presidential rivals, Ashraf Ghani and Abdullah Abdullah, signed a
power-sharing deal according to which the former will be the President of Afghanistan whereas
the latter will nominate his choice for the new post of chief executive.
A Never-ending War
On Sep 23, the US military began airstrikes against ISIS in Syria. Fighters, bombers and
Tomahawk Land Attack Missiles are being used in the attack. The airstrikes focused on the ISIS
stronghold of Raqqa.

4 Reasons Why Xi Delayed Pakistan Visit

Chinese president Xi Jinping has four major reasons for delaying his high-profile state visit to Pakistan.
Xi was set to visit Pakistan as part of a tour that also included India and Sri Lanka, with Islamabad being
the likely first stop. On 6 September, however, the Chinese foreign ministry released a statement stating
that the trip would be cancelled for the time being due to ongoing anti-government protests, with new
dates being discussed through diplomatic channels. A renowned Chinese analyst and journalist Mu
Chunshan takes a look at the reasons that may have led to the cancellation of the visit.

Pakistan Affairs Special (October, 2014)

Monday, September 01, 2014

1. The first reason for delaying Xi's trip to Pakistan is because Beijing does not want to get involved in
the ongoing conflict over there, which has led the demonstrations turn violent. If the protesters get what
they want and incumbent Pakistani Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif is ousted shortly after Xi's visit, then
China will no doubt lose face.
2. The second reason is because Pakistan is too preoccupied with the unrest to have the time or ability
to properly cater to Xi's visit. Ensuring Xi's safety would have been a primary concern for both sides.
3. The third reason stems from the planned slate of bilateral agreements the two countries planned to
sign during Xi's visit, said to be worth as much as US$34 billion, about one-seventh of Pakistan's
national GDP. China must be having second thoughts about the economic risks of signing such highvalue deals with an unstable government and would prefer to wait until the situation dies down before
4. Fourthly, as all-weather friends, a change in Pakistan's government will not affect the overall longterm relations between the two countries which is why China has decided to wait out the current
conflict and stick to its non-interference principle when it comes to the internal affairs of foreign
For Islamabad, the delay of Xi's visit is particularly troublesome as the Chinese president will still go
ahead with his planned trip to New Delhi, further raising suggestions that Beijing has become more
interested in India than its all-weather ally Pakistan.
The apprehensions that China's relations with India have taken priority over its relations with Pakistan
are not unwarranted in light of the interactions between the two countries after Modi became Indias
prime minister.

Strategic Vision of Pakistan's

Foreign Policy
Crafting a more effective foreign policy constitutes a challenge in a political environment in
which non-state actors and their sympathisers have come to occupy a position of strength.
Common sense suggests that Pakistan should have friendly relations with all neighbours and with
global powers that hold sway. Such a level-headed foreign policy requires realism and has little
room for knee-jerk reactions led by populist sentiments.
Pakistan Affairs Special (October, 2014)
Monday, September 01, 2014

Recently, the adviser to the Prime Minister on National Security and Foreign Affairs, Sartaj Aziz,
presented to the Senate the Strategic Vision of Pakistan's Foreign Policy; a report on the completion
of the first year's work of the Nawaz Sharif government.
In 2013, Pakistan's foreign policy priorities were mainly focused on strengthening relations with the
countries in the region such as Afghanistan, India, China, Turkey, Iran and the Gulf Coast countries,
and then followed by the US, the European Union and Russia. But, in general, these priorities had the
character of intent.
Foreign Policy in 2013
Last year saw some adjustments to the country's foreign policy priorities. A distinctive feature of the
new strategic vision is: The security of its own country and not the security of others. The
mechanism by which to ensure security and key to its success is the liquidation of the growing
extremist threat in a concerted Pakistani political and military strategy. In 2013, the Ministry of Foreign
Affairs did not mention a word of the generals, thereby underlying a disassociation from the military.
But that was last year.
The next three priorities have been the traditional priorities over the course of the past fifteen years:

1. To ensure economic recovery and sustainable development of the country and to overcome the
energy crisis. This can be achieved, according to the Foreign Ministry, through expanding investment
and trade (not aid), resolving the energy crisis, and addressing extremism and terrorism;
2. Peaceful coexistence, i.e., the further development of regional ties and the strengthening of their own
3. The conversion of the strategic geographical location of Pakistan from a liability into an asset by
promoting regional trade, transport, communication and energy projects with China, Central Asia and
West Asia. This, in turn, aims to achieve a balance in the geostrategic and geo-economic priorities of
Pakistan-China Relations
The statement opens with a list of achievements on the further strengthening of the strategic partnership
with Beijing. In the years 2013 and 2014, more than twenty investment projects in various sectors of
the economy were signed. For its part, Pakistan supports the interests of China in Tibet and Taiwan.
In the Pak-China relationship, the leading role is played, as in previous years, by Beijing, but each of
the parties in serving their national interests receives benefits. Islamabad receives long-term investment
and confidence in the implementation of major infrastructure projects. The search for new energy
markets has forced China to look for geographical access to direct supply routes of hydrocarbons in the
Strait of Hormuz. And since 2005, with the investment and technical assistance of China, construction
began on the port of Gwadar. In 2013 and 2014, the project gave impetus to the development of a series
of agreements for the construction of railways and highways through Balochistan up to the point where
it can connect with Chinese rail, road and energy networks.
Pakistan-Afghanistan Relations
On Afghanistan, constructive engagement has allowed us [Pakistan] to reduce that deficit of trust.
However, despite attempts for the progressive movement of both parties towards each other, there has
been little progress. There are several reasons that would explain this. Pakistan-Afghan relations in
2013 and 2014 developed as part of international efforts to resolve the internal political situation in
Afghanistan. Numerous border incidents have complicated the relationship. Adding to the uncertainty
were the presidential elections in Afghanistan from April to June, 2014. At the end of May 2014
President Barack Obama revised the US timetable for the withdrawal of coalition forces, US and
NATO from Afghanistan, and on the contrary, it strengthened anti-terrorism efforts of Pak-Afghan
cooperation. But there are continuing calls for the normalization of relations between Islamabad and
Kabul, as well as a coordination of measures for the prevention of using territory against one another,
the problems of transit trade, regulation and management of border control, the return of refugees to
Afghanistan, the fight against the trafficking of drugs and the intensification of the dialogue at the
regional and international level.
Pakistan-India Relations
Pakistans relationship with New Delhi remains on the list and is characterized as being complex and
urgent. Despite repetitive statements by Nawaz Sharif on the government's intention to seek sustainable
and productive dialogue on issues of Kashmir, expanding economic cooperation has not resulted in
meaningful progress. Dramatically complicating dialogue between Pakistan and India were a series of
border incidents centred on the Line of Control in 2013 and the spring of 2014. In 2013 and 2014, the
Foreign Ministry has reversed policies from the successful experience of the former ruling Pakistan

People's Party (2008 2013.). In 2012, the PPP proposed to postpone any discussion of the main
contentious issues (Kashmir, Siachen, Sir Creek, etc.) and enter into a new round of discussions on the
humanitarian package. From New Delhi's perspective, there was a positive reaction, followed by
consultations at the level of state secretaries, which led to a breakthrough in Pak-Indian relations. Visa
agreements, in addition to customs agreement, along with several others were signed. In 2013 and
2014, Pakistani Foreign Ministry did not take any initiatives. The objective reason for this was the
imminent change of government in New Delhi. Building a relationship with the new Prime Minister of
India, Narendra Modi, will be another challenge for Islamabad in the near future.
Pakistan-US Relations
Relations with the US are of a more ambiguous nature. This is partly due to the loss of interest by
Washington towards Islamabad as a key ally in the fight against terrorism in the region. The
withdrawal of coalition troops from Afghanistan, the reorientation of the White House on the AsiaPacific region, conflicts in Syria and Iraq and the rise of ISIS have displaced the need to consider the
positions of Islamabad as it had in the past. In 2014, Islamabad again aims to transform the substance
of the relationship, as it remains interested in attracting American investment, increasing the volume of
trade and opening up of US markets for Pakistani goods.
Pakistan-EU Relations
The defining foreign policy achievement of the Nawaz government was grant of the GSP plus status to
Pakistan by the EU. Trade, investment and cooperation in the social sector are on the rise, while
cooperation in fighting terrorism continues to strengthen. But efforts to reduce customs duties and
providing trade preferences for Pakistani goods in the European market, which began in 2010, was at
the moment going in circles.
Pakistan-Saudi Arabia Relations
Commencing in June 2013, the new government began paying attention to the countries of the Gulf,
primarily the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. In 2013 and 2014, the overall situation in the Middle East
deteriorated in connection with the military in Egypt entering the political arena, the arrest of former
President Morsi and the deterioration of the situation in Syria. The impetus for a change in the attitudes
of Islamabad were the events in Cairo as well as the Syrian conflict. Over the past year, Islamabad has
greatly enhanced military cooperation with the countries of the Gulf Coast.
Relations with Other Countries
Istanbul is considered by Islamabad as one of the key regional allies militarily as well as in trade;
Islamabad has welcomed Turkish investments in key sectors of its economy.
While building Pakistan-Iran relations, Pakistan restricts itself to the study of practical ways to enhance
trade within the guidelines of the US sanctions.
Russia occupies the last place in the ranking of priorities for Pakistan. Cooperation with Moscow is
considered primarily within the framework of international organizations such as the Shanghai
Cooperation Organization.
In acknowledging the previous, it can be noted that Islamabad realizes turbulence events in different
regions of the world and makes extremely cautious assessments, not allowing itself harsh statements.
Courtesy: New Eastern Outlook


During the Cold War, when the world stood divided between socialist and capitalist camps, foreign policy
of any country was reflective of its internal policies. Theoretically, countries having pro-people, welfareoriented policies were considered socialists whereas those subscribing to unbridled capitalism were in
Western or capitalist camp. There were also non-aligned countries, but from those, India and Pakistan
were not only close to the Soviet camp, they also intertwined in defence pacts with the West, and still
enjoyed the status of being members of the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM).

Pakistan Affairs Special (October, 2014)

Monday, September 01, 2014

Pakistan's economic malaise and political instability owe their origin to the flawed policies of our inept
past rulers who tied our national interests with the US and the West. The threat to Pakistan's security
from India may have been a genuine reason for joining defence pacts, as described in the introductory
paragraph, but the Pakistanis had fully comprehended the meaninglessness of these pacts during 1965
and 1971 Indo-Pak wars.
It is the indisputable prerogative of the elected government to frame foreign policy of the country, but
incompetence of the political leadership and unending wrangling between political parties provided
space to the military to have a major say in these decisions. However, since 2008 elections, when
transition from a quasi-democracy to democracy started, the influence of military over civilian
government in policymaking has abated significantly. At present, an elected government is in the
driving seat.
In recent months, Saudi Arabia's $1.5 billion 'gift', Pakistan's bonhomie with Bahrain as well as
reversal of Syrian policy have given rise to many questions. Certainly, it is present government's own
initiative. Nevertheless, our foreign policy has been, and still is, vulnerable to manipulations because of
internal political and economic instability.
The foundations of Pakistan's foreign policy were laid by the civil and military bureaucracy in 1950s,
when Pakistan joined defence pacts with the West and bilateral agreement with the US. Though, these
pacts were exposed when it was transpired that the West would help only if there is a communist
aggression. However, all military and elected governments in the past wished to curry favour with the
US. On the contrary, people of Pakistan always opposed these policies, be it Suez crisis of 1950s,
Arab-Israel war of 1960s or attack on Afghanistan or Iraq after 9/11 events. The relations between
Pakistan and the US became tense after Kerry Lugar Bill, Abbottabad and Salalah incidents.
In fact Pakistan's global isolation started when it joined the Baghdad Pact. The Arab countries like

Egypt, Syria, Libya etc., were unhappy with Pakistan; non-aligned nations were suspicious of our role;
the socialist bloc considered Pakistan their enemy, and the US-led Western powers thought of Pakistan
no more than a pawn on their international political chessboard. In 1980, late General Zia-ul-Haq,
exploiting the Soviet intervention in Afghanistan with a view to curry favour with the Western
countries, wished to foster the same relationship with them that had existed in the 1950s and early
1960s. In early 1980s, Pakistan became the frontline state; and as a result of Afghan War, Pakistan
suffered in playing host to 3.5 million Afghan refugees, terrorist acts from Peshawar to Karachi, and
faced the menace of drugs and Kalashnikov culture.

After the Soviet withdrawal from Afghanistan, and end of Cold War, the US and the West ditched
Pakistan, as their priorities changed with the new geopolitical scenario. Hence, it became imperative
also for us to review our own priorities and goals in a different international landscape. But from 1988
to 1999, the PPP and the PML-N governments continued to appease the West by succumbing to their
pressure. After 9/11, Musharraf was coerced into cooperating with the US in its War on Terror. This
time the war was against those who had fought the Soviet forces shoulder to shoulder with Pakistan
Army, fighting the US proxy war.
It is an undeniable truth that the foreign policy that is framed by keeping in view the peoples'
aspirations, only can withstand the pressure and influence exerted by external interests. Quaid-i-Azam
had envisioned a foreign policy for Pakistan that would safeguard our national security, independence,
and promote the wellbeing of the people. He had great hopes that Pakistan would play a major role in
international affairs and for world peace. But the irresponsible policies of successive governments
brought about economic and political instability.
Here, the question arises whether Pakistan can afford to review its foreign policy at this stage? The
answer is in the affirmative, provided the rulers are willing to bring about a fundamental change in the
system, to ensure socio-economic justice in the society, and implementing the provisions of the
constitution in letter and spirit.
In Pakistan, the question is often raised whether the military has the right to give its assessment of
threats to internal and external security? In the US, Britain and even in India political leaderships take
decisions on the basis of the information provided by intelligence agencies and advice of military
leadership. Of course, career diplomats also contribute towards formulation of foreign policy. It is a
matter of record that Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh had in principle agreed to withdraw from
Siachen. An agreement to that effect was about to be inked when the army prevailed upon the prime
minister and convinced him that India would lose strategic advantage, and Indian forces would be
vulnerable if India withdrew from Siachen. It means that military in other countries has a say in matters
of foreign policy, especially when related to matters of security.
Mohammad Jamil

PAK-RUSSIA Relations
Very little is known to the Pakistani public about the depth and breadth of Pak-Russia relations.
Spectrum of this relationship is very wide on the canvas that is deprived of the proper colours to
complete the picture. One can only blame the media and the bureaucracy of Pakistan for this
sorry state of affairs. Nevertheless, it is an undeniable fact that the field is wide open for both
countries to expand these relations to any level. All that it needs is for Pakistan in particular to
identify its immediate and long-term requirements and work on those with heads down.

Pakistan Affairs Special (October, 2014)

Monday, September 01, 2014

Six decades of Pak-Russia relations have observed various bumps and bruises but still both
countries, out of odds, managed to develop a congeniality of relations after the dawn of 21st
century and tumultuous events of 9/11. After over these years now both states have realized that
the prism of distrust through which they view each other is murky and it must be removed.
Pak-Russia relations have been marred by historical legacies, overemphasized western
dependence and Pakistan's India-centric approach. There have been many ups and downs in the
history of their relations but most of the times they have perceived each other in negative
mindset; Pakistan through the prism of western perception and the Soviets through the Indian
After the Soviet disintegration in 1991 and in the post Cold War era, both Pakistan and Russia
realized their past mistakes and initiated a process of forging closer relations based on new
strategic realities. However in the post 9/11 scenario, with Pakistan becoming part of the
global war on terror, and abandoning its support for the Taliban rule, mutual trust between
Pakistan and Russia improved and bilateral high level contacts picked up frequency as they saw
their strategic and economic interests converging to a common point.
Russian Federation is reasserting its role in its immediate sphere of influence and beyond, and
Pakistan is looking for new avenues of opportunities in the face of US withdrawal from the
region. Therefore, both have geopolitical and strategic compulsions to improve their relations.
Both envisage a role for themselves in achieving peace and stability in Afghanistan and

economic cooperation in Central Asia. While Pakistan needs Russian investment for reviving its
economy, Russia also eyes Pakistan as a good destination for its investments and trade, with
India getting closer to the US and Europe in its place. It is in this light that the recent progress
in Pak-Russian relations is being seen.
Pak-Russian relations have often been under-rated, despite strong potentials, mainly due to
misperceived notions and mindsets. There have been many opportunities to improve their
relations but were lost due to different approaches to regional and global security perceptions.
Indeed, if viewed from a realist's perspective, most of misperceptions between Pakistan and
Russia can be attributed to a strong US influence on Pakistan, for the ultimate promotion of its
own (US) strategic objectives. Previously, with the desire to promote cordial bilateral
relationship, Soviet Union, installed a steel mill in Karachi, indeed, a huge project for boosting
the Pakistani economy.
Pakistan should now 'redirect' its foreign policy. It should come out of its past misperceptions
and make a fresh start. It is the need of the time that Pakistan must take an earnest and eager
effort to improve relations with Russia as Russia is a former superpower and currently a major
regional and world power as a permanent member of United Nations Security Council (UNSC)
having the veto right. It is a leading member of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO).
In view of these strong credentials, Pakistan must forge stronger ties with Russia. With Russia
as a new friend, Pakistan stands to gain in all areas: Connecting Russia and CARs to Gwadar
Port and developing the new Silk Roadas proposed by the US, will result in an economic
turnaround for Pakistan.
Moreover Russian ties can help Pakistan in harnessing better relations with India through
resolution of disputes. In that respect, one recalls Moscow's role in brokering the Tashkent Pact
which ended the 1965 war impasse between the contenders.
There already is evolving a strategic partnership between China and Russia for the promotion of
regional peace and in order to undo the global hegemony of an outside power. Apart from its
close cooperation with China, Pakistan seeks Russian economic assistance in the form of
foreign direct investment and technological cooperation particularly in the energy field. Russia
seems inclined to responding to these needs in addition to increasing trade volume from current
$600 million to $1 billion in next decade.
Indeed, Russia and Pakistan have many common interests and objectives like, regional security
and stability and countering threats of terrorism and extremism in all forms and manifestations.
Besides, controlling illicit arms trade, drug trafficking, money laundering, cross-border
organized crime. Indeed, despite tumult in the past relationship of Pakistan and Russia, there are
opportunities. There is a solid foundation for constructing a multi-storey building of RussiaPakistan relations. All we need to do is, to exploit these opportunities for the common good.
Both countries have strong potential to improve their relations in the fast-changing regional and
global security environment but it depends how both countries utilize the new opportunities
knocking their doors.

Ups and Downs in Pak-Russia Relations

1. Soviet relations with Pakistan date back to 1922 after the Bolshevik Revolution.
2. From 1922-27, people who entered from Soviet Union into territory (now Pakistan) held by
British Indian Empire, attempted to start a communist revolution against the British Empire.
3. This series of coups is known as Peshawar Conspiracy Cases.
4. Joseph Stalin and officials at Moscow did not send any congratulatory message to GovernorGeneral Jinnah the founder of Pakistan.
5. First foreign minister of Pakistan Sir Zafrullah Khan wrote a letter to the then deputy foreign
minister of USSR Andrei Gromyko to establish bilateral relations.
6. Gromyko accepted the invitation on 24th April, 1948.
7. The Soviet Union and Pakistan first established the diplomatic and bilateral relations on 1st
May 1948.
8. Pakistan's first Ambassador Plenipotentiary Shuaib Qureshi presented his credentials to the
President of USSR on 31st December, 1949.
9. Soviet Union was the first country to extend formal invitation to Pakistan's Prime Minister
Liaquat Ali Khan.
10. In December 1949, it was announced that the prime minister would visit the US in May 1950.

11. In 1950, Soviet Union and Pakistan established the multi-billion dollar worth PakistanSoviet Oil Fields later renamed as Pakistan Oilfields.
12. During 1954-58, the relations were strained and hostility against each other rose.
13. In 1954, Pakistan became a member of SEATO and CENTO in 1955, which Soviet Union
did not welcome.
14. In MarchApril 1954, a delegation of the Soviet cultural troupe toured Pakistan and a
festival of the Soviet films was held in Karachi.
15. First Pakistan-USSR Bilateral Trade Agreement was signed on 27th June, 1956.

16. In 1958, Pakistan and Soviet Union finally established an oil consortium, Pakistan Oilfields,
and expressing interests in establishing the country's first steel mills.
17. In 1959, Ayub Khan permitted the flights of reconnaissance and covert surveillance flights
of U-2, giving the authorization of final U-2 flight, piloted by USAF Captain Francis Gary
18. The U-2 incident severely compromised Pakistan security and jeopardized relations between
the Soviet Union and Pakistan.
19. Mehmood Arshad Hussain presented himself as the second Ambassador of Pakistan to
Russia on 5th October, 1961.
20. Soviet Union paid back its revenge on Indo-Pakistani war of 1965, as it emerged as the
biggest supplier of military hardware to India.
21. President Ayub Khan first visited Russia on April 5, 1965.
22. As the result of President Khan's visit to the Soviet Union, both countries concluded another
agreement for cultural exchanges that was signed on 5 June 1965.
23. President Ayub Khan and Indian premier Lal Bahadur Shastri signed the historic Tashkent
Declaration on 6th January, 1966 after Soviet mediation.
24. The foreign ministers of Russia and Pakistan signed the agreement for opening of Russian
Consulates in Karachi and Dhaka (presently capital of Bangladesh) on 7th June, 1966.
25. On 17 April 1968, Premier Alexei Kosygin paid a visit to Pakistan and was welcomed by
President Ayub and civil society members.
26. During the time of Kosygin's reception, renowned poet Hafeez Jullundhri, sang out a poem,
comparing Kosygin's visit to the coming of the dawn, which would bring self-determination and
justice to the Kashmiri people.
27. In 1969, the Pakistan Government employed V/o Tyaz Promexport, a USSR technical
consortium, for vertically integrated steel mills in Karachi.
28. Later, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto succeeded to bring full-scale Soviet investment in this project,
and laid the foundations of the steel mills in 1972.
29. In 1972, the West-Pakistan Parliament passed the resolution which called for establishing
ties with Soviet Union.
30. Both countries signed an agreement on 22nd January, 1972, to provide economic and
technological assistance to enable Pakistan to set up Pakistan Steel Mills in Sindh.

31. The foundation stone for Pakistan Steel Mills was laid on 30 December 1973 by the then
Prime minister Mr Zulfikar Ali Bhutto.
32. In 1974, Bhutto paid a state visit to Soviet Union, becoming the first prime minister since
Pakistan's independence to visit the country.
33. In 1980, the relationship took a dangerous turn, when Soviet press notable "Pravda" and
other Soviet commentators, began to issue threatening statements towards Pakistan.
34. In November 1982, General Zia travelled to the Soviet Union to attend the funeral of Leonid
Brezhnev, then-General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.
35. Soviet President Andrei Gromyko and the new Secretary-General Yuri Andropov met with
Zia. Their a brief meeting took place at the Kremlin.
36. In 1989, Soviet ambassador to Pakistan offered Pakistan to install a commercial nuclear
power plant.
37. In 1996, Russia willingly agreed to launch Pakistan's second satellite, Badr-B, from its
Baikonur Cosmodrome for the lowest possible charges.
38. On April 1999 Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif paid an important state visit to Kremlin. This
was the first trip to Moscow paid by a Pakistan's Prime minister in 25 years.
39. On 19 April 2001, the Russian Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs Alexander Losyukov
paid a state visit to Pakistan where both countries agreed upon cooperating in economic
development, and to work towards peace and prosperity in the region.
40. In 2007, Russian Prime Minister Mikhail Fradkov paid a 3-day visit to Pakistan.
41. Mr Fradkov was the first Russian prime minister to visit Pakistan in the post Soviet-era in
38 years.
42. In 2011, Russia endorsed Pakistan bid to join the Shanghai Cooperation Organization.
43. In 2012, Russian president Vladimir Putin announced to pay a state visit to Pakistan soon
after his re-election, later he cancelled it, citing other crucial engagements.
44. On 5th August, 2013, Colonel General Vladimir V Chirkin visited Pakistan where he was
received by General Ashfaq Parvez Kayani.
45. On June 02, 2014, Russia lifted its embargo on arms supplies to Pakistan and said to hold
talks on supplying Pakistan with Russian Mi-35 Hind attack helicopters.

American Interests in Pakistan

A famous English writer and poet Walter Savage Landor once said, We talk on principle, but
we act on interest. The undeniable reality about relations among states is their vault on
interests. Interest only is the permanent thing that sets the overall goal and agenda of a country's
foreign policy. With the turn of events in the international arena, a country adopts its strategy
and tactics to meet its interests and achieve the foreign policy goals. Geography, economy, nature
and volume of trade, political atmosphere, cultural and social values, military strength,
population size and location constitute conditions for foreign policy strategy.
Pakistan Affairs Special (October, 2014)
Monday, September 01, 2014

History of the Pak-US relations reveals that the latter has at all times used the former for its covetous
interests, and when fulfilled, left the former in the lurch. This is the relationship that both partners have
sustained, sometimes happily, other times not so happily.
From Pakistan's wars with India to Soviet entrance into Afghanistan, from grabbing of Kashmir to
dismemberment of East Pakistan, from disintegration of USSR to devastation of 9/11, from Pakistan's
nuclear tests in 1998 to Americas nuclear deal with India and in the post 9/11 'India-supportive'
scenario in the region and beyond against Pakistan, from Iran-Pakistan gas pipeline to TAPI, from Silk
Route to Gwadar, from economic adversity to political quandary, from peaceful Pakistan to fight
against extremism and terrorism, from CSF to USAID, the US has always negatively exploited and
browbeaten Pakistan.
United States has a variety of interests in Pakistan at all levels i.e. short, mid and long term. Broadly
speaking, these can be divided into geostrategic interests and the protracted War on Terror. Among
geostrategic interests, the US has severe reservations owing to Pakistan's inclination toward Russia,
China and the SCO. American administration doesn't like better Pakistan-Russia ties. Pakistan and
China have time-tested relations but the US would only bear it if American aims and interests are not
put at stake. America would do anything to thwart Pakistan's joining of SCO as full member.
America has been forcing Pakistan incessantly to shun IP pipeline as it wants the country to go for
TAPI project. Through this, the US wants to achieve a dual advantage. On one hand, it wants to inflict

more harm to already cornered Iran though after nuclear non-proliferation deal, the US has no
lawful reasons to keep its traditional animosity with Iran while on the other, it plans to shift Central
Asian gas resources to South Asia that will not only help India rise against China but will also severely
damage Russian interests in the region.
The US wants the completion of TAPI project at all costs, and at the earliest. It doesn't care if the route
of TAPI is perilous and passes from the insecure areas. It is dead against Pak-China trade corridor
through Silk Route as it may make other regional powers functional ergo powerful. The operations at
the Gwadar Port, one of the world's deepest seaports, are still in the doldrums; despite the fact that fully
functioning of this harbour can change the fate of Pakistan. The Indo-US manoeuvring or war in this
region has been successfully countered by Pakistan and China but it has shattered the regional balance
and peace. The emergence of China against the aspirations and designs of USA around the globe, and
especially in this region, has changed the state of affairs.
The US has been chanting do more mantra to Pakistan. It is actually the wrapping of a
comprehensive pack of American interests and benefits. By unending demand to 'do more', the US
wants Pakistan to go on with the operations in its tribal areas. Other stipulations include covert
permission to launch drone attacks, and a full-fledge, unconditional cooperation in the war against
terror. The imminent US withdrawal from Afghanistan is impossible without Pakistan's support. At
present, the US has no option but to support Pakistan because it is fully entangled in the quagmire of
war against terror and the proposed withdrawal.
Pakistan has genuine, strong and rational concerns against America. First of all, America has made
civil nuclear deal with India at a time when Pakistan is facing acute water and energy crises. It is also
pressurizing Pakistan to go for TAPI instead of IP despite knowing that IP gas pipeline is more
feasible, safer, and more result-oriented. The US knows that Pakistan and India are archrivals
Kashmir issue is still unresolved due to Indian stubbornness and hypocrisy of world powers but
America's unconditional support to India is really questionable. With American support, India has built
up its presence in Afghanistan thus rendering Pakistan's Western border unsafe. American antagonism
towards Gwadar port and Pak-China trade corridor is another issue of concern for Pakistan.
One thing is crystal clear that America cannot afford a destabilized Pakistan because if it happens, the
extremists and militants would take over the whole region and this is totally against the American
imperial designs. War on terror which actually is war for terror has now unfortunately become an
anathema for Pakistan.
It is time for America to do more for Pakistan because it needs Pakistan more than Pakistan needs the
US. Pakistan should with sensitivity realize its position and importance without any fear and becoming
marionette and satellite, and behave accordingly.

Zulqarnain Sewag

Pak-EU Ties | Exploring New Horizons

Results of the recent elections to the European Parliament astounded leaders and political
scientists alike. The rise of the far right is being seen as a threat to the very existence of the EU,
as indicated by British government's overtures. This is the most crucial time in the history of
Europe as a great paradigm shift has been witnessed. The EU has granted GSP Plus status to
Pakistan. Moreover, Pakistan-EU relations are also important for our foreign policy makers. In
the instant piece, a rational analysis of the prospects for Pak-EU ties in the post-elections
scenario is being presented.
Pakistan Affairs Special (October, 2014)
Monday, September 01, 2014

Ever since its inception in 1947, Pakistan has been a strong ally of the West. During the Cold War, this
relationship continued to be productive. European Commission started its cooperation with Pakistan in
1976 and made significant contributions in various projects and developmental programmes. During
1980s, the European Commission undertook many new projects in various parts of Pakistan. These
projects included development of roads, bridges, a fishing harbour facility, rural electricity
infrastructure, livestock, education, vocational training and integrated rural development. During
1990s, the European Union mainly concentrated on social sector development, education, human
development and environmental management.
During the first decade of the 21st century, the EU contributed in terms of its support to Pakistan for its
dedicated support during War on Terror. EU has been forthcoming in its contribution during October
2005 earthquake and 2010 floods.
In a landmark decision, in December 2013, the EU granted Pakistan, the much-awaited duty-free
market access under the Generalized System of Preference (GSP) plus status. The concession would
enable Pakistan for its export to European Union, its twenty-eight member states until 2017. This
concession is extendable, provided Pakistani exports meet the criterion.
In May 2014, the European Parliament (EP) held its elections to elect the new Parliament which
consists of 751 members. A total 365 million voters in 28 EU member countries were eligible to vote
while the turnout remained 43.09%. These were important elections in EU's history being the first
under the Lisbon Treaty of 2007, which empowered Parliament to govern both EU and Euro Zone (EZ)

at par with European Commission (EC). For the first time, the new Parliament also elected the new EC
President. The EZ crisis has brought the EU economy to centre stage in these polls. The issue of
'unemployment' remained yardstick to measure the effectiveness and sincerity or otherwise of the main
The results show that the nationalist/eurosceptic parties won the elections from France and Britain.
However, anti-establishment parties almost doubled their representation. Resultantly, centre-right and
centre-left will continue to control more than half of 751 seats in EU legislature. The centre-right
European People's Party, led by former Luxembourg PM Jean-Claude Juncker was ahead in elections.
The center-left Socialists, Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats (S&D), led by outgoing
European Parliament President Martin Schulz of Germany, was in second place with 189 seats
followed by centrist liberals, Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for European (ALDE), on 64. Antiimmigration and anti-globalization National Front (NF) in France emerged as winner and UK
Independent Party (UKIP) defeated PM David Cameron's Conservative Party, German Chancellor
Angela Merkels conservative bloc emerged the strongest. In Italy Matteo Renzi's Democratic Party,
Belgium Flemish Nationalists (NVA), Denmark anti-immigration far right Danish Peoples Party,
Netherlands' Dutch Freedom Party and Greece's radical left anti-austerity Syriza Movement won the
Given the recent developments, although, the Pak-EU relations are of strategic level, particularly,
following the EU-Pakistani Summit-2009, yet the changing scenario and change of guards in EU
Parliament, may impact future Pakistani interests with EU. There are many concerns on account of the
GSP plus status. Pakistan is expected to face tough questions on various issues including, human rights,
minority rights, etc. It is likely that anti-EU populists, leftists and protectionist groups will try to
suspend the GSP Plus facility to Pakistan. Southern Europe countries (Italy, France, Greece, Portugal
and Spain) will be more critical towards this status due to their textile sector pressure. New wave of
malicious propaganda may be launched against Pakistan on human rights, minorities, blasphemy law,
missing persons, women empowerment and child labour laws. Situations in Balochistan / FATA will
also get more attention in new Parliament. Strategic dialogue with EU will also be seriously tested, as
linkage will be drawn with situation in Afghanistan and Pakistan's relations with India.
Indeed, Pakistan has contributed greatly towards the global community, particularly, the Europe and
US in its entire history. May be it was the Communist containment strategy of the West, Soviet
invasion of Afghanistan and the current phase of global war on terror. Despite being sceptical of
foreign agendas, Pakistan played its role with honesty and dedication. Pakistan even spoiled its
relationship with a former superpower and annoyed a vast majority of its masses. However, it never
lags behind to its international commitments, being a very responsible state. In the war against terror,
Pakistan lost over 52,000 people including 6000 personnel of the security forces.
Nevertheless, the State of Pakistan now expects its partners, the EU in particular, not to be
discriminatory towards Pakistan. At the moment, Pakistan needs support of the EU and the US in war
against terrorism. Politically, Pakistan would like to continue good relations with all EU countries.
Economically, Pakistan needs that its goods should get enhance access to EU market.
Dr. Muhammad Khan

India-Pakistan Conflict | Leaders must

step foward
The Indian and Pakistani foreign secretaries were supposed to meet to talk about talks. India
cancelled the dialogue at the eleventh hours as 'punishment' after Pakistan's high commissioner in
Delhi met with Kashmiri political groups. In the aftermath, there has been a dramatic escalation of
shelling along the Line of Control (LoC) in Kashmir. This latest failure by both states to resume
dialogue is unfortunate but not surprising, for the history of India-Pakistan dialogue has often
witnessed two steps forward, followed by three steps back. To reverse this trend, it is time for the
prime ministers of the two states, not their top diplomats, to step to the front.

Pakistan Affairs Special (October, 2014)

Monday, September 01, 2014

Hopes for peace were high this spring when Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi invited his Pakistani
counterpart, Nawaz Sharif, to his inauguration in Delhi. Their meeting in late May, as well as their
subsequent letter diplomacy suggested a personal connection between the two that would facilitate
bold new steps in relations. But a spring thaw in relations has turned into summer dismay, as prospects
for progress dimmed amidst regular ceasefire violations along the LoC, political turmoil in Pakistan,
domestic distractions for the new government in India, and now the cancelled talks. Before they find
themselves in another crisis, it is incumbent on the two prime ministers to get relations back on track
by planning their next summit with a commitment to action, not just talk. Though planning for a
summit while tensions are high may seem nave, such symbolic gestures can play a central role in
realigning relations and demonstrating leadership.
The most promising effort to normalize India-Pakistan relations came at the Lahore Summit in 1999.
There, both prime ministers, Atal Bihari Vajpayee and Nawaz Sharif, birthed the Composite Dialogue
as well as nuclear confidence-building measures. More importantly, Vajpayee visited the Minar-iPakistan to send a powerful signal of Indian acceptance of the legitimacy of Pakistan. The symbolism
and rhetoric of the visit were reminiscent of US-Soviet efforts by Ronald Reagan and Mikhail
Gorbachev during their summits in Washington and Moscow in 1987 and 1988, respectively, to change
the negative images each population held of the other.
These examples and others demonstrate the necessity of high-level leadership in peace efforts. The
long-standing territorial, water and natural resource disputes between Argentina and Brazil, for
instance, fed mutual suspicions and even motivated secret nuclear activities during the 1970s. But the

personal involvement of successive presidents in a reconciliation process resulted in a new baseline of

stable relations. A 1985 meeting between Brazilian President Jos Sarney and Argentine President Ral
Alfonsn on their shared border at Iguazu Falls, at which they inaugurated a new bridge connecting the
two countries, provided an image of a shared future for both populations. Subsequently, leaders of the
two countries exchanged visits to nuclear facilities, a confidence-building measure that ultimately led
to the formation of a bilateral nuclear inspectorate.
Granted, Argentina and Brazil shared a far less violent history and neither possessed nuclear weapons;
both factors shape the India-Pakistan narrative and complicate their security competition today. But
there is no reason such a process built on symbolic steps advanced by committed political leaders could
not be replicated in South Asia. Certainly, the regular tragedies that befall South Asiathe burning of
the Samjhota Express and the attacks in Mumbai, to name just two of the most recentwill take time
and political will to reconcile. And there remain actors in both states that prefer continued division and
violence to reconciliation. Rather than let those incidents and actors continue to dominate the narrative
and sow division, however, Modi and Sharif should work to forge new symbols of hope. For example,
they could hold a meeting on Dal Lake or elsewhere in the Indus watershed, demonstrating their
commitment to a peaceful resolution of the dispute over Kashmir and shared commitment to managing
precious water. They could agree to demilitarize the Siachen glacier and declare it a joint national park.
They could even contemplate reciprocal visits to nuclear power facilities in each country. These
notions may seem Pollyannaish, but the point is that these kinds of symbolic steps can begin to
challenge the dominant narratives that perpetuate conflict, just as Vajpayee's visit to the Minar-iPakistan did in February 1999.
This approach to conflict resolution requires leadership that only heads of government can provide.
Diplomats, well meaning though they may be, represent bureaucratic and institutional interests, rather
than the national interest. They tend to be cautious as well as, pragmatic. They can negotiate and
implement incremental steps to institutionalize progress, but they cannot initiate the kind of changes
that resolve long-lasting and deep-seeded disputes. It is the job of heads of government to build
political coalitions in favour of reconciliation and to lead their nations through the inevitable setbacks
and violent opposition that are likely to befall a peace process before it succeeds.
Prime Ministers Modi and Sharif are both planning to be in New York in September for the United
Nations General Assembly meeting. They should make it a priority to meet. And rather than talking
about talks or skirmishing over tactics, they should define a vision, accompanied by concrete steps,
for moving relations between India and Pakistan past the divisions spawned by the 20th century and
into the promise of the 21st.

Reforming PSEs
The issue of State-owned Enterprises (SOEs) has been in focus in Pakistan for the past many
years. The increasing fiscal deficit has further sharpened the focus on the losses of SOEs, and
most analysts advocate privatization as its solution. However, keeping in view the experience at
the national and international economic level, this is not a viable solution. Despite all the
privatization efforts, SOEs remain on the economic scene. It is, therefore, imperative to review
Pakistan's experience of managing SOEs and their operational efficiency.
Pakistan Affairs Special (October, 2014)
Monday, September 01, 2014

Pakistan has had a rich experience in reforming and managing the public corporate sector. Some of the
reform efforts in Pakistan led to development of management systems that are globally known. They
are currently operational in countries like India, Kenya, and Brazil. With this rich experience, it will be
useful to benefit from our past experiences and address the losses of SOEs.
Historical Perspective
SOEs play a critical role in the economy of Pakistan. They have a role and size that is in line with those
of the global norms. The enterprises remain prominent in major sectors of the economy, i.e. energy, air
and rail transport, electricity, gas, water supply, and the financial sector. They also comprise one third
of the total stock market capitalization. Despite privatization, there are still more than 100 SOEs which
contribute about 10 percent of GDP. In most of the sectors of the economy the lead/major enterprises
are from the public sector. It may also be mentioned that SOEs in Pakistan have increased from 12 at
the time of independence to more than 100 today. Private sector was considered the engine of growth
in all the major economic policies such as the Industrial Policy of 1948, etc.
Reasons for Growth
1. A shy private sector or inadequate private investment.
2. Need to use foreign aid/ funds for specific projects.
3. Projects such as Harnai Woolen Mill, and Dir Forest Project set up for development of backward

4. Introduction or promotion of new technologies and industries, like urea and polyester fibre.
5. Strategic goods industries such as Pakistan Steel Mills set up to promote capital goods industries.
6. Establishment of infrastructural enterprises such as those related to railways and roads, etc.
7. Public sector expansion with the objective of controlling commanding heights of economy during
1972 to 1977 when 33 large manufacturing enterprises were nationalized.
Contribution of SOES to Economy
The role and performance of SOEs in Pakistan has been chequered. And though a significant
contribution has been made by these enterprises in their respective areas, there are also allegations of
their being inefficient and unethical.
A. Positive Contributions
1. Establishment of an industrial base in Pakistan through PIDC.
2. Signing of Indus Basin Treaty by WAPDA.
3. Provision of funds through the ADBP to the agriculture sector, etc.
4. Development of capital market via government-sponsored institutions, ICP, NIT, PICIC, and NDFC,
etc., in the financial sector.
Privileges to SOEs
Frequently resources were allocated to SOEs at favourable/ preferable terms. Some of the privileges
enjoyed by SOEs were as follows:
1. SOEs got priority in the allocation of resources, especially in procurement of funds from the banking
2. Number of SOEs enjoyed preferential treatment while borrowing by availing sovereign guarantee.
3. SOEs enjoyed monopolistic position by acquiring the status of first right of refusal in a number of
Rise of Public Sector
Public corporate sector in Pakistan acquired a prominent position by the late 1980s. During this period,
barring a few years during the early 1970s corporations were set up in all facets of the economy. Its
importance was acknowledged when public corporate sector was discussed as a separate sector in the
Third Five Year Plan.
Some of the major corporations like WAPDA took pride in making appropriate use of its independence
in a positive manner. Public corporations were a unique organizational device for achieving the given
objectives in the major areas of the economy.
Government Control

One of the major reasons for this importance of the corporate bodies during this period was
governments focus on their administration. An important step was the enactment of the Public
Increments (Financial Safeguard) Ordinance NOXLVI of 1960. Among other steps, this ordinance
recommended that the CFOs of the public corporations were to be representative of the Ministry of
Finance and must report directly to the ministry and not to the chairman of the corporation. This indeed
was an attempt by the federal government to strengthen its control, but it was also an attempt for strong
accountability. This just indicates the importance given by the government to this sector.
Performance Appraisal
The corporate bodies were also managed with a laid down system of information disclosure. Two of
the major annual reports of the performance of corporation sector were:
1. Government Sponsored Corporations, which provided a write-up and review of all the major
corporations. The report was presented to and placed before the parliament.
2. Annual Report on Public Industrial Sector, published by the Experts Advisory Cell of the Ministry of
Production, that contained a detailed analysis of 75 large public sector manufacturing enterprises.
Decline of SOEs
The performance of public corporate sector experienced a major downswing during the 1970s. The
primary reason was sudden expansion of public sector due to nationalization in most of the sectors of
economy such as manufacturing, finance, medium and small enterprises including education and
health. This sudden expansion of the public sector was beyond the existing management capacity of the
then government. Even in the post-1977 period, the public sector continued to expand due to the
various projects under-implementation which were initiated in the earlier period. This resulted in
continued performance deterioration and resultant losses, in turn increasing fiscal deficit. The
government established a number of committees and task forces under various senior professionals
such as HU Baig and NM Uquaili, etc.
Prof LP Jones Report
The report which made a major impact on the SOE sector was prepared in 1981 by a consultant from
Harvard/ Boston University Prof LP Jones. The report titled The efficiency of manufacturing
enterprises in Pakistan, identified that the then management system in Pakistan was antiquated and
needed major reform efforts. It focused on the public manufacturing sector, its organization, and
autonomy structure and recommended a comprehensive reform programme.
In the post- 1977 period public industrial sector in Pakistan was managed by the Ministry of
Production. The ministry with the assistance of a highly professional body, i.e. Experts Advisory Cell
(EAC) controlled 75 Public Industrial Enterprises (PIEs) through 8 holding corporations. The report by
LP Jones identified that there was a poor autonomy structure which was over-centralized and which
had little delegation of power.
How to Reform?
To improve the efficiency and performance of the PSEs, the government must carve out a roadmap for
restructuring with the ultimate object of making them commercially viable entities. Reform of PSEs in
Pakistan is essential as they account for a sizeable share of the country's GDP and employment and
they contribute a considerable portion of direct and indirect taxes. Following recommendations can be
helpful in this regard:

1. Reasons need to be enunciated for the government to own or control companies that are deemed
critical to Pakistan's security and economic wellbeing. A rationalisation of the current list of PSEs into
those that are of strategic importance or those which are for special assignment is needed to focus
government attention towards privatisation or corporatisation.
2. All remaining PSEs should be brought under standard legal structures. Proper compilation of
accounts and information sharing will enhance overall transparency.
3. For those remaining under government control, the majority shareholder needs to clearly articulate
the mandate and key performance indicators for the PSEs. This should be kept distinct from the
government's function of policymaking, market regulation or social obligations.
4. PSEs have to be managed on a sound commercial footing and held accountable for the judicious use
of public resources. PSEs should make full disclosure of tradeoffs they face in terms of costs and
quality of delivery. The budget should annually provide for financing of the required shortfall or
subsidies in a transparent manner.
5. State ownership should not create a competitive edge for the PSEs. There is a need to ensure a level
playing field by nurturing competitiveness in markets. Competition will enhance economic efficiency
and innovation.
6. There is also a need to enhance the role and capacities of the sector regulators and the Competition
Commission to examine the PSEs' role in sectors which often operate as natural monopolies (even if
private entry is allowed) and examine whether state ownership is ensuring an adequate level of service
7. There is probably no institution better placed than the board of directors to ensure good corporate
governance at the entity level. Therefore the primary focus of corporate governance reform of PSEs
needs to be on the selection of qualified and competent people on the board of directors of these
8. The appropriate mechanism needs to be put in place that ensures the right selection and continuous
monitoring of the members of the board, divorced from political interference. This mechanism could
take the form of a separate government department, similar to the Department of Public Enterprises in
9. Professionals need to be tapped for the steering committee, applying the same fit and proper criteria
developed for individual board members of PSEs. Ex-officio membership from ministries should be
discouraged as should institutional representation.
10. If the above corrective measures prove inadequate to stem the rapid deterioration in the PSEs, a
more radical shift towards centralised ownership models may be required.
As with all reform measures, the implementation has to be in letter and spirit so that its chances of
success are not sacrificed at the altar of political expediency.

Demystifying India's Volte-Face on Pakistan

Relations between India and Pakistan have long been strained by a number of historical and
political issues. The relationship of the two South Asian nations has been plagued with hostility
and suspicion. Regional peace, and to an extent, the peace of the world has been held hostage by
this bitter hostility for the past 67 years. Recently, new Indian government sprung two back-toback surprises on Pakistan: the first was inviting Pakistan's Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif to the
swearing-in of Prime Minister Narendra Modi; the second was the about-face on foreign
secretary level talks upon the resumption of dialogue.

Pakistan Affairs Special (October, 2014)

Monday, September 01, 2014

Modi's invitation to Nawaz Sharif was seemingly couched in India's regional diplomacy, but
was mainly directed at Pakistan. The message was that with a new right-leaning government in
New Delhi, Pakistan could expect bolder movement on the outstanding issues between the two.
However, the cancellation of talks apparently stemmed from the Modi government's reluctance
to be brought to the negotiating table under Pakistani pressure.
There were an estimated 95 incidents along the Line of Control (LoC) this summer, with 25 on
the working boundary. The increase in action along the LoC is being seen by some sceptics as
Pakistani military's attempt to get India to engage meaningfully and to position the military
favourably within Pakistan. This was first to gain credibility for the talks by pushing India to
the table, and second to caution the Pakistani government against any sell out.In this event,
the Pakistani high commissioner's meeting with Kashmiri leadership, something traditionally
accepted legal by India, provided the pretext for the cancellation of talks.
India's outstretched hand in the Rashtrapati Bhawan forecourt appeared promising for the peace
constituency in Pakistan. It is a longstanding Indian policy to hold out economic benefits to
Pakistan as an incentive to go beyond the Kashmir question. Cancelling talks was a serious
blow to all efforts towards the restoration of peace between the two states. The cancellation and
the manner it was done together suggest India's intent to bring about change through other

The ability to administer military punishment was found wanting when it was tested during the
2008 Mumbai attacks. Even though India has had a conventional doctrine for the nuclear age,
called Cold Start, since the attack on India's Parliament in December 2001, the military's
wherewithal to execute its policy could not keep pace given the strained economic
circumstances during the later part of the last decade.
Deterrence deemed insufficient, India is now attempting to compel.
India is expected to import $250 billion in arms over the next ten years. It is filling in the gaps
in its conventional inventory, such as artillery, to improve the credibility about its conventional
deterrence. The amount of foreign investment allowed in defence manufacturing has been
upped to 49 per cent. Since assuming office, Mr Modi has visited occupied Jammu and Kashmir
twice, addressing troops on both occasions. Additionally, keeping the defence portfolio without
a full-time minister has allowed Modi to keep a closer eye on it.
Three warships have been commissioned in close succession, although two of them are
reportedly not quite ready. Carte blanche has been given to the Army and the Border Security
Force by respective ministers to administer a befitting reply on the LoC and international
Will this strategy succeed?
Pakistan, for its part, has a counter-strategy of ensuring that it is always in a position to credibly
show itself in conflict with India. All it needs to do to win is to avoid losing. Further, its moves
on the nuclear front are being taken by India as a threat of escalation. This places India's
conventional threat in question, as it is based on keeping any conflict non-nuclear.
In Pakistan's perception, with the US set to exit Afghanistan and good behaviour on Kashmir
over the past decade not having worked, it may be back to business. The spike in firing
incidents since talks were cancelled suggests as much.
India has been involved in a proxy war against Pakistan. This has been conveyed to the Indians,
most notably at the Sharm-el Sheikh joint statement in Egypt. The appointment of an
intelligence czar as India's national security advisor is an indicator that India won't back off.
Afghanistan readily lends itself as a suitable site for such an endeavour.
Given such dangers, India and Pakistan would do well to restart the peace process at the earliest
opportunity. At the least, a meeting between the two PMs would reinsert a buffer between crisis
and conflict. Realistically, this may not be on the cards. India, set on upping the ante, may have
decided to hold course no matter what. In this game of chicken, it hopes Pakistan's army will be
the first to blink. This is a touching, if entirely unfounded, faith in Pakistan's army.
Sarfraz Ahmad

Mission Afghanistan | Why Peace there is

Important for Pakistan?
Historically, the Pak-Afghan relations have often seen fluctuations, especially in the last three
decades. During the Zia era, President Dauod and General Zia-ul-Haq reached a consensus to
'freeze' all the unresolved issues between the two countries, and start working for a prosperous
beginning for the both brotherly states. However, unfortunately, their understanding had to be
short-lived as the communist coup sabotaged it all.
Pakistan Affairs Special (October, 2014)
Monday, September 01, 2014

The essentiality of the adjacent boundaries along with large ethnic groups on both sides of the border,
and the common religious character require that the past rancour be put aside and the way for an
association of mutual economic and strategic gains to address the growing challenges be surfaced.
Pakistan can greatly take the advantage if it acts as a major player in the future rehabilitation and
reconstruction efforts in Afghanistan. Pakistani machinery, workforce and expertise could play an
important part in such efforts, and, in turn, its ports and transport sector could receive a major boost.
Apart from the concept of the 'strategic depth' Afghanistan's strategic location and its ability to
destabilize the regional security and prosperity owing to its geographic significance of being the
Gateway to Asia Afghanistan is one of the most important countries in the region. All of its
neighbours share a common interest in the emergence of a stable Afghanistan. However, these
neighbours have variables, and in some cases quite contradicting interests regarding the nature of the
Afghan state. However, the country is landlocked having no sea and bounded on the north by
Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan; on the east by China; on the south by Pakistan; and on the
west by Iran. But the country, whose future is most intimately tied to that of Afghanistan, is Pakistan.
Afghanistan is very much important for Pakistan in terms of trade and other economic interactions.
Pakistan can increasingly facilitate Afghan trade and get the opportunity of being a state that has
maritime route towards the rest of the world. Such steps will further boost the economic development
of both neighbouring countries. Recently, the Afghanistans Foreign Minister also propped the

Pakistan's Minister for Finance for enhancing trade activities and a workout for a proper mechanism to
enhance bilateral economic cooperation.
Pakistan has planned many projects to enhance its role in the social and economic development of
Afghanistan. These projects include a 400-bed Jinnah Hospital in Kabul, a 200-bed hospital in Logar, a
Kidney Hospital in Jalalabad, an Engineering University in Balkh along with Rehman Baba School,
and accommodation for 2000 children, and the dual road of 75km length to increase the trade activities
from Pakistan's border directly to Jalalabad.
Recently, Pakistan increased the development fund for Afghanistan to $500 million to ensure the
timely completion of development projects. Pakistan has also proposed inclusion of Tajikistan in the
transit trade agreement with Afghanistan to convert it into a trilateral accord and extend the trade to the
entire region. The transit trade means a trade by a citizen from a non-resident, followed by the sale of
the goods to another non-resident without the goods entering the country. Therefore, transit trade is not
included in the international trade statistics.
Pakistan and Afghanistan also have a Free Trade Agreement (FTA) with an understanding to follow
common tariff policies, to facilitate the transit trade. The Afghanistan-Pakistan Transit Trade
Agreement (APTTA) was established with a desire to strengthening the economic ties between the two
countries. The Agreement promotes the intermodal freight transport and ensures the effective and
efficient administration of the transit transport, avoiding the unnecessary delay in the movement of
goods and commercial vehicles.
Pakistan also facilitates transit of Afghan goods to India. During the Taliban rule, the trade under
transit facilities (ATT) was over Rs.100 billion and comprised items that were not in demand in
Afghanistan and were actually meant for smuggling into Pakistan. The goods that get to Afghanistan
are not subject to any tariff; therefore, they are smuggled back into Pakistan to bag the 25 to 35 percent
differential on a tariff that Pakistan imposes on its imports. According to an estimate, Pakistan was
losing over Rs.30 billion in revenues throughout the ATT. However, since 9/11, the scope of
smuggling had actually reduced.
Smuggling is a curse for both countries as it significantly brings losses to their economies. There is a
dire need to employ modern technological means to curb this menace. Moreover, realizing the setback,
the Pak-Afghan Joint Chamber of Commerce emphasizes on the need of real-time initiatives like
providing an online system. The proposed new system of WeBOC (Web Based One Customs) a
system of one window operation for all the Customs needs is a good step. Such steps will really boost
the economic growth of the two countries.
The economic growth is benign for the governments as well as for the common people. The economic
growth means an increase in real GDP that will automatically increase the value of national outputs.
The benefits include higher incomes which will ultimately yield in shape of better services and better
living standards. The economic growth will also bring the unemployment at the lowest level. The
governments will generate higher tax revenues and there would be less need to spend money on
benefits such as unemployment allowance. Therefore, there will be an automatic reduction in
borrowing. Ultimately, the economic growth will encourage the foreign investors and create a virtuous
cycle of actual development.
Nasrullah Brohi

Recurring Floods and Disaster

Management in Pakistan
Introduction | Pakistan is one of the countries highly affected by the climate change
phenomenon. Pakistan is exposed to multiple forms of natural and manmade disasters.
Natural disasters range from earthquakes, floods, droughts, cyclones, landslides, and seabased hazards. These disasters result in colossal losses almost every year. But,
unfortunately, the matter is still at the lowest priority for the government. This provides a
grim picture of the state of affairs and poses distrust on the continuation of outdated
policies. As recent monsoon rains and the resultant flooding inundated most part of
Punjab, this piece will basically focus on disaster management in Pakistan with special
reference to floods.
Pakistan Affairs Special (October, 2014)
Monday, September 01, 2014

Disastrous Floods
In the past few years, Pakistan has been hit by massive floods. In 2010 Pakistan was struck by
its worst-ever natural disaster; one fifth of the country was inundated by floodwater causing
massive damage to infrastructure. But, it is quite perturbing that no lesson has been learnt from
history. Once again torrential rains have taken heavy toll on the country as sudden floods across
Punjab and Kashmir have wreaked havoc leaving countless people deprived of their valuable
Government's Ineptness
It looks as if in Pakistan numerous episodes of flood were not sufficient to wake us up from
deep slumber. Unfortunately, the magnitude of our laziness is greater than that of these floods.

It is to be noted that the biggest and the most deliberate mistake made by the government
is to term these floods a natural disaster. It is true that the annual monsoon rains are a natural
phenomenon but the flooding they cause is entirely preventable. Pakistan has been hit by nearly
21 major floods over the past several decades, which caused severe human, financial and
infrastructure loss. Faced with such devastating impacts of floods, one may assume that the
country now has a comprehensive disaster management plan that can handle such natural
calamities. However, it is not less than a heinous crime that no robust and pragmatic plan has
been devised yet, and people still continue to suffer.
Causes of the Fiasco
In August 2013, the World Bank issued a policy note entitled Managing Natural Disasters by
Haris Khan and Marc Forni which lists the following causes for poor disaster management in
1. Weak institutional capacity for DRM
Lack of preparedness, poorly executed emergency responses, and weak institutional systems to
manage disasters have undermined government credibility among its citizens. Pakistan has,
though, begun to institutionalize and mainstream DRM activities, yet still much work remains.
2. Lack of coordination and clarity of roles
The roles and relationships among federal and provincial entitiesincluding the Floods
Commission, Earthquake Reconstruction and Rehabilitation Authority, National Disaster
Management Authority, and PDMAslack clarity. These bodies do not agree on which of them
are ultimately responsible for understanding disaster risk.
3. Limited understanding of disaster risk
Policymakers and DRM practitioners lack the ability to define the occurrence and impacts of
disaster events, including floods, droughts, and earthquakes. A comprehensive multi-hazard risk
assessment tied to risk mitigation efforts has yet to be undertaken for Pakistan.
4. Weak integration in government planning
The government's focus needs to shift from response to preparedness and risk reduction. This is
partly because the costs of pre-disaster investments and mitigation measures are significantly
less than the post-disaster costs of rebuilding. But these investments are not currently prioritized
due to the difficulty in quantifying the benefits of such interventions.
5. Poor communication of risk information
A wide range of actors in DRM convey messages on disaster risk. Lack of a single, coordinated

message has led to confusion and misinformation over the risks faced and the measures to be
taken to increase resilience and response capacity.
Another Cause
Besides our own follies and ineptness, there is another political dimension to the flooding. The
water wars being fought by Pakistan and India invariably get uglier whenever there is flooding.
This is because of fears on our side of the border that India is releasing excess water from its
dams. India's dam-building has made our water situation worse as it can dry up our supply when
needed and release more water during times of flooding.
Learning From the Past
It is absolutely ridiculous to note that the Federal Minister for Water and Power, Khawaja
Muhammad Asif, claimed while speaking in the National Assembly that MET Office officials
had predicted below normal rainfall during the monsoon season and preparations were made
accordingly. The heavens be praised! This is the level of competence of our ministers.
Devastating floods from 2010 onward are not a story of the previous century. Shouldn't have the
government been better prepared to cope with the situation even if the lame excuse of the
minister is accepted as true? Were the highly-paid officials of numerous state organs sleeping?

Role of NDMA
National Disaster Management Authority, in its report of 2010 floods entitled Pakistan 2010
Flood Relief Learning from Experience: Observations and Opportunities observed:
Effective Disaster Management and preparedness is critical to the safety and wellbeing of the
people of Pakistan. This requires the support of Federal and Provincial Governments and all
stakeholders. Disaster response itself must be a 'one-window' operation. To achieve this, it is
imperative that roles and responsibilities are clearly mandated and the designated key agency is
empowered to lead the process of ensuring more cohesive coordination. In addition, the
capacity of key organizations needs to be strengthened urgently.
But, believe it or not, we are back to square one. As the floods play havoc, the federal agencies

supposed to jointly manage the disaster are blaming each other for whatever goes wrong. The
rapid filling of Mangla Dam has been questioned, so is the poor coordination among the flood
protection agencies as well as acting on 'unreliable' information about flood data supposedly
provided by India. If government's inability to deliver a timely aid is any indication, then be
assured that the losses and miseries of people will keep on exacerbating in the coming years.
How to Improve?
1. The government should develop a fairly efficient system of flood warning and providing
relief to the affected population;
2. Canals should be de-silted and the banks of waterways should be strengthened;
3. There should be sound planning to deal with the worst scenario
4. All technological, institutional, and policy options should be used to prevent any such
disaster in future;
5. A robust flood policy, integrated water resources management framework, and Indus Basin
flood plan following integrated river-basin approaches are the most called for;
6. Government should rationalize organizational roles and bring about radical institutional
7. A special emphasis should be paid on increasing revenue for the maintenance and
management of flood protection infrastructure.
8. Linkages between city emergency centres and current disaster management structures at
federal, provincial and district levels should be established.
9. There is also a need to ensure systematic methods are in place for collecting disaster risk
information in future.
10. Government should ensure that the NDMA, the PDMAs and District Disaster Management
Authorities (DDMAs) fulfil their mandated roles and responsibilities.
Dr. M. Usmani

Jinnah's relevance to contemporary Pakistan

Bernadotte Croce, the famed Italian philosopher, lays down that the practical requirements
which underlie every historical judgement give to all history the character of 'contemporary
history' because however remote in time events there recounted may seem to be, the history in
reality refers to present needs and present situation wherein those events vibrate.

Pakistan Affairs Special (October, 2014)

Monday, September 01, 2014

As with history, so with the lives of great men who shape the course of history. And the events
in their lives, when abstracted in terms of their universal components and interpreted in
perspective, become relevant to present needs and present situations. And that is how some
leaders come to acquire the role-model status. And this precisely was the case with Jinnah.
Jinnah's role-model status acquires significance not so much because of his being the founding
father since not every founder of a state or nation-builder acquires such a status but
because of the principles he had owned up during his long political career, and, more
importantly, because of the congruence of his behaviour pattern and politics with his professed
principles throughout his public life.
Jinnah's principles and political behaviour, it is true, were meant, primarily, to meet the specific
requirements of the day. A political leader, after all, has to deal with matters of the moment for
most of the time; he has to address issues that loom large at the moment, that call for
explication, resolution, or a policy pronouncement. Though dealing, by and large, with specific
issues and specific events, the pronouncements and behaviour pattern of a genuine leader are
yet reflective of certain basic principles he has owned up during his public life. And these
principles are in turn inspired by an element of universal truth which transcends both time and
The core principle he had stood for is that of clean, honest and unstained politics. Even when he
had established himself at the bar, he refitted to enter politics, until he had sawed enough, so
that he didn't have to live off politics. To him indeed, politics was not the broad avenue to

amass power and pelf, but the strait path to serve the community and the country. He was wont
to spend his personal funds to finance his political activities (including travel, boarding and
Even as Governor-General, he set an example in austerity. Ispahani tells us that he cancelled the
orders for a Lincoln (car) for them. For the same reason, he would not go in for installing a lift
in the Governor-General House, despite his age. More surprising, he would see that the lights
were put off before he himself retired to his bedroom.
His sister, Fatima Jinnah, followed his illustrious brother's example in running the GovernorGeneral House establishment. His ADC (Mian Ata Rabbani) tells us how rigorously she
controlled the finances, eliminated frills, cut down on lavish entertainment, wasteful kitchen
expenditure and unauthorised 'langar-like' feeding, got rid of surplus staff, and went in for
austerity menus, cutting down severely both the number of courses and the quantity served,
and even on the supply of cigarettes. (In this context one would like to know the amount on
the maintenance of the Resident's and the Prime Minister's houses since 1988 under the BB and
MNS regimes.)
Not only Jinnah and his sister, but his entire team headed by Prime Minister Liaquat Ali Khan
went in for austerity, in order to tide over the financial difficulties at the time; all of them were
extremely careful as to how public money was spent. And when Liaquat was assassinated, he
had a low four-figure balance, and Begum Liaquat didn't have a house to move in.
In contrast, what is the record of the incumbents for the past twenty-eight years? One has only
to look at the daily newspapers, and the writings of columnists of the likes of Cowasjee and
Amina Jilani to see how public money is being squandered with the least compunction. Even
religious rites such as Umrah and Haj are being performed, along with hordes of relatives,
friends and hangers-on, at public expense. (Dawn, July 15, 1996) tells us that only Umras by the
high and the mighty during the previous eighteen years has cost the public exchequer a sum of
Rs. 24.8 million! Likewise, BB's April 1995 US tour cost the national exchequer the mindboggling sum of over US $10.75 million (Dawn, April 28, 1995) while the furnishing of the
Prime Minster's office under Nawaz Sharif in 1997 over Rs. 100 million. Incredibly though, the
PM's Office table alone cost Rs. 275,484 and the coffee table Rs.209,900! (The Nation, May 11,
Indeed, the squandering of public money for personal comfort and glory has over the years
assumed the proportions of a virus afflicting the nation as a whole. Even those known as Mr
Clean till yesterday are not uninfected by it. Take, for instance, the much-trumpeted Kashmir
Committee (1993-96) under Nawabzada Nasrullah Khan, the veteran politician, known for his
uprightness and principled politics. According to Gohar Ayub Khan, the Committee had
reportedly spent a cool sum of Rs. 103.5 million during 1995-96 alone! The breakdown is
revealing Rs. 60 million on official expenses, Rs. 13 million on delegations going abroad, Rs.
10 million on seminars, Rs. 35 million on purchasing durables, and several million on
miscellaneous expenses. These figures given in the NA went uncontested. (The Nation, August

29, 1996). And all this expense, with what result? (One cannot possibly blame the Nawabzada
for being up in arms and conjuring up alliances since November 1996 when his perks and
privileges entered a dead-end street.)
It is such squandering, supplemented, of course, by the piratical plunder of the national
exchequer by both the BB and MNS regimes (remember Surrey Palace, GBP 102,000 necklace
in a Swiss locker, and the plush flats in the most expensive central London), that had brought
Pakistan to economic ruin.
Simultaneously, the gross flouting of democratic traditions, which Jinnah had tried to build up
both during the Pakistan Movement and his all too brief stewardship of the fledgling state,
brought Pakistan to political disruption. It is rather well known that he believed in democratic
ideals, in a democratic approach, in a democratic dispensation. He stood for consensual politics,
political accommodation and toleration, for an honest difference of opinion, and for observing
the rules of the game.
Equally important, and in contrast, he abhorred dynastic politics. He refused to be elected lifepresident when it was offered to him, preferring to present himself for election each year on the
basis of his previous year's performance. He desisted from pitch forking his sister, Fatima
Jinnah, to any public office, beyond 'Organiser' of the Women's wing of the Muslim League (at
the Patna session in December 1938) which, of course, was no public office in the real sense of
the term, nor was commensurate with her status in terms of hierarchy. Nor did Fatima Jinnah
ever utilized her vantage position to take to public platform, after Jinnah's demise.
Of course, she did come to but only at the fag end of her life, some fifteen years after
Jinnah's death, and even then, only at the imminent and desperate call of the nation, to lead a
pro-democracy movement against the entrenched semi-authoritarian Ayub regime, which called
for a leader/leaderne of Fatima Jinnah's stature.
Prof Sharif al Mujahid


The boilerplate versions of different aspects of Pakistan Affairs are in abundance; the
Constitution of Pakistan is no exception. The chief versions of the Constitution that often come
under discussion are: the 1956 Constitution, the 1962 Constitution and the 1973 Constitution.
The standard comparison of the three versions involves similarities and dissimilarities among
them. The similarities highlight the basis of the Islamic provisions, the role of Objectives

Resolution of 1949 in constitution-making and its impact on the subsequent versions, the position
of armed forces and organization and establishment of the constitutional courts. The
dissimilarities emphasize the characteristics of the parliamentary versus the presidential systems
of government and the differences in the local government systems in the 1962 and the 1973
Constitutions. This write-up is an attempt to underline three conceptual themes that pervade the
constitutional debates in Pakistan.
Pakistan Affairs Special (October, 2014)
Monday, September 01, 2014

First and foremost question is of a constitution in a Muslim state. It goes without saying that the
Islamic Law is unequivocal in setting the supremacy of the Quran and the Hadith over all sources of
law. With this fundamental basis, what is the status of a constitution in a Muslim country? What if it is
written? What if it contravenes the Quran and Hadith? What is, precisely, the definition of Hadith? Is it
confined to 'The Authentic Six' (sihah sitta), or are the sources of Hadith indefinite? What is the
difference between Sunnah and Hadith? Do the Quran and Hadith form a legal order, and if yes, can it
be written down? Does a written constitution provide an independent legal order different from that
ordained in the Quran and Hadith? What is Shariah?
All these questions have been addressed by authors all over the world. Orientalists like Joseph Schacht
and Noel James Coulson raised these questions forcefully in the last three decades of the previous
century. Maulana Abul-ala-Maududi wrote a book entitled 'Islamic Law and the Constitution' on the
subject. The issue is of fundamental nature especially when it comes to interpreting the successive
versions of the constitution of Pakistan and while deciding about the hierarchy of the legal sources in
the constitutional and legal order of the country.
Pakistan's judiciary, which is predominantly trained in English jurisprudence and Common Law
learning, hasn't delivered authoritative principle-based judgements on these issues. The issues are still
unsettled. In 1985, General Zia-ul-Haq through Ninth Amendment Bill to the 1973 Constitution tried to
incorporate supremacy of Shariah Law over the Constitution, but the National Assembly did not pass
the Bill. Another attempt was made in 1998 by Nawaz Shairf government, in form of Fifteenth
Amendment Bill to the 1973 Constitution, to reintroduce the supremacy of Shariah law over the
constitution, but it also failed. A Federal Shariat Court was established through a Presidential Order
(Constitution Amendment Order, 1980) and was protected by insertion of Article 270-A in the Eighth
Amendment. The gist of the discussion is that the matter is still not settled and the constitution as a
document vis--vis Islamic Law is trying to reconcile its position.
Secondly, there are questions on the nature of the political system. Confounded by many an influence,

the political system, and, in turn, the system of governance is not performing as per the aspirations of
the people. The recent spate of sit-ins and dharnas by Imran Khan's PTI and Dr Tahir-ul-Qadri's PAT
are just stark reminders of the extent of disagreement over the political system of the country. What
political system works for the country is not known yet as the three versions of the constitution in
Pakistan kept on changing the political system of the country to tailor the needs of the political
exigencies. The tinkering with the constitutional law of the country upstaged the characteristic
permanence of a constitution with the topical and temporal visibility oriented gimmicks of the
government of the day. The centre of gravity of the political power remained outside the parliament,
which has increased the centrifugal pull of the extra-constitutional forces. The first Constituent
Assembly of Pakistan, which was a product of 1946 elections, through a legislative move tried to limit
some powers of the Governor General of Pakistan. In response, the Governor General dissolved the
Assembly. This fight for political power and the nature of political system gave rise to two rounds of
Maulvi Tamizuddin Case.
In round one, in the Sindh Chief Court, the Governor General of Pakistan was represented by Sir Ivor
Jennings who was a constitutional expert on South Asian countries and later became the Vice
Chancellor of the University of Cambridge, while Speaker of the Constituent Assembly, Maulvi
Tamizuddin was represented by D. M. Pritt. The two sides pleaded the case and the Sindh Chief Court
decided in favour of the Speaker of the dissolved legislature. The Federal Court headed by Chief
Justice Munir and four other judges, however, later on decided in favour of the Governor General and
set aside the order of the Sindh Chief Court. Except, Justice Cornelius, no lordship dissented the
reasoning of the majority decision. Justice Cornelius touched upon the political system question as he
opined that the Constituent Assembly was a 'sovereign' body and therefore no limitations could be
imposed on its powers. His viewpoint did not carry the day, but the legal debate of the nature of
political system resurrected in almost all the constitutional cases of the country. Contrary to this, the
reasoning of CJ Muhammad Munir, inter alia, was built on the Bracton's legal maxim of 'Necessity
makes lawful which is otherwise not lawful'. Was Pakistan a part of the Commonwealth or an
independent state is the question that was taken up by international lawyers. Sir Ivor Jennings wrote a
dedicated book on the Constitutional Problems in Pakistan in 1957. The book unfortunately is not
readily available in the market or in some leading law libraries of the country, however, a capsule
review of the book was published in the esteemed Foreign Affairs magazine in July, 1957 by Henry L.
Roberts wherein it was argued that Tamizuddin Case is an important precedent for the Commonwealth

The presidential system of the 1962 Constitution, the parliamentary system of the 1973 Constitution
with extra powers of the President all pointed to the same problems of nature, composition and powers

of the political system. The role of federating units and their autonomy are issues related to the political
system. The Eighteenth Amendment to the Constitution of Pakistan 1973 introduced a plethora of
changes to the Constitution in which concurrent list of subjects of legislation was abolished thus
changing the nature and structure of governance system. It has touched upon many an important aspect,
however, the political power of military in the country has not been calibrated with the governance
system. Since the constitution of a country is primarily a consent document giving rise to legal
obligations, there is need to assess the political power-wielders in the political system before
formalizing anything. Another related aspect is the system of local government, which again is present
in the letter, but not in the spirit. The Eighteenth Amendment to the 1973 Constitution obligated the
provincial governments to hold local government elections and to devolve the political authority, but so
far the response is lukewarm. These examples highlight the prevalence of the issue in every aspect of
the constitutional law of Pakistan, and no doubt, it is one of the fundamental issues that guarantee
enactment and sustainability of the constitution for the country.
Thirdly, what ideology shapes the constitutional law of Pakistan has remained an open question. This
point has more to do with the spirit of the constitutional law rather than its letter. The letter of the
Constitution has been predominantly ascribed to Islamic ideology, but the implementation has been, at
best, selective. The implementation of Articles 62 and 63 of the 1973 Constitution that lay down
qualifications for members of national and provincial assemblies is an illustration of the fact that many
such ideas remain unimplemented. Likewise, the case of prohibition of riba/interest that has been
procrastinated by all judicial fora on one pretext or the other is another example of the defiance to the
ideological basis. One subtle point warrants mention here. The lexis employed by the constitutional law
of Pakistan for basic rights of its citizens is 'Fundamental Rights' instead of 'Human Rights'; it may be
because the Fundamental Rights can be suspended when emergency legal provisions to protect the state
are invoked contrary to the human rights, which may not be suspended. A related matter is
implementation of Capital Punishment law of the country. Last year, GSP Plus Scheme of the
European Union for Pakistan was celebrated as a great success. The detailed analysis of the Scheme
evinced that it imposed legal obligation on Pakistan to implement twenty-seven international treaties
related to human rights, labour rights, environmental and governance principles. The
internationalization of the EU agenda through international treaties and linking it to trade with its trade
partners show how the international legal order is being used by the West to advance its core values.
Conversely, trading off and suspending the core constitutional values of protecting the life and property
of citizens of Pakistan (and its consequential instruments such as death penalty) show where Pakistan
places its constitutional values.
In modern constitutional law, the constitution of a country is considered a living organism. Judiciary,
executive, military, media and citizenship all are products of the constitution, but their interaction,
nature and functionality depend upon the human beings who man them. Unfortunately, in Pakistan,
constitution has remained smaller in its size as compared to the interests of the power-wielders; the
equation has to change: when and how, the nation has no idea.
The author is an independent researcher and
has done his BCL from the University of Oxford.
Kamran Adil

Building Dams, Building Future

To say that dams are crucial for a country's sustainable socioeconomic progress is to state the obvious.
Water security has emerged as a key theme of public policy discourse at global level as countries are
taking immediate steps to replenish their water resources by building more and more dams and making
judicious and efficient use of water.

Pakistan Affairs Special (October, 2014)

Monday, September 01, 2014

For the last many years, Pakistan has been grappling with the acute energy crisis, which has stymied
the growth of economy and has exposed domestic households to immense inconvenience. According to
Economic Survey of Pakistan 2013-14, the energy crisis caused an erosion of 2-3% of Gross Domestic
Product (GDP) as factories were shut leading to massive lay-offs, businesses were moved abroad and
foreign direct investment declined.
Pakistan's future lies in unlocking tremendous hydropower potential of 60,000 MW that still remains
untapped. Hydroelectricity is not only the cheapest but also the cleanest and the most environmentfriendly, and is thus the preferred source for power generation. The role being played by
hydroelectricity in keeping the power tariff at present level can be measured from the fact that
according to data for fiscal year 2013-14, per unit generation cost of hydroelectricity is merely Rs. 1.65
on an average as compared to Rs. 7.53 for gas, Rs. 11.66 for coal, Rs. 11.74 for bagasse, Rs. 18.68 for
furnace oil, Rs. 28.41 for diesel (HSD), Rs. 6.38 for nuclear and Rs. 14.55 for wind.
Another reason why Pakistan needs to harness immense water potential relates to increasing water
needs of the country. In the absence of sufficient number of water reservoirs, per capita water
availability has decreased from 5620 cubic metres in 1950s to a little over 1000 cubic metres in 2014;
thereby exposing the country to a prospect of being water-stressed.
Geographically, Pakistan is located in a zone that is likely to experience erratic weather patterns as a
result of climate change. Consequently, the country will face worst floods caused by excessive glaciermelting and extreme drought. This dynamic makes it all the more compelling to focus on building new
dams and water reservoirs to ensure water security for the country and to meet growing needs of its
agriculture, industry and population.
Dams not only help store water for agriculture and inexpensive power generation but also play an
important role in flood mitigation. Pakistan experienced one of the most devastating floods in 2010,

which according to a study, jointly carried out by the World Bank and Asian Development Bank,
caused a cumulative loss of $10 billion to economy besides loss of hundreds of precious lives.
As these lines are being written, flood caused by torrential rains and release of water by India has swept
across Punjab and Azad Jammu & Kashmir. It is still too early to calculate the exact damage in man
and material caused by the recent floods.
However, what is little known is the fact that Pakistan's existing dams are serving as a shield against
flood thereby reducing the ferocity of floodwater as it leaves destruction and miseries behind.
The study of raised Mangla Dam project presents a readily-available reference point in this respect.
Mangla Dam was completed during 1962-67 as part of Indus Basin Treaty replacement works at a cost
of $434.505 million. The original storage capacity of the dam was 5.88 million acre feet (MAF) of
water. The vital components of the dam were main dam, intake embankment, Sukian Dyke, Jari dam,
and other earth-fills to close gaps in reservoir rim.
With the passage of time, the total water storage capacity of Mangla dam reduced by 20% due to
siltation. In order to fully utilize the Jhelum river water resources, it was considered necessary to
increase the storage capacity of Mangla reservoir. So the work on Mangla Dam Raising Project was
initiated in July 2004. The project was completed at a cost of Rs. 96.853 billion in December 2009 and
affected about 50,000 people. The dam was raised by 30 feet up to 1242 feet with a gross storage
capacity of 7.39 MAF representing an increase of 2.88 MAF.
Following successful completion of the Raising project in 2009, the impounding of reservoir took
place, recording water storage of 1206 ft above mean sea level in 2010, 1210 ft in 2011, 1206 ft in
2012 and 1240 ft in 2013 respectively. This year, there is all likelihood that Mangla reservoir will
achieve the historic feat of filling up to its maximum capacity of 1242 feet above mean sea level.
The level of Mangla reservoir prior to this year's flood was 1227.80 feet above mean sea level on
September 4, 2014. The WAPDA officials who were stationed at the site held their breath as
floodwater entered the dam the same day making it attain 1241.15 feet. Engineers express their
apprehensions about stability and safety of a dam when it is filled to its optimum capacity thereby
confirming the strength of its structure to withstand rapid flows of water.
Now imagine for a moment, had there been no raised Mangla dam to trap much of the floodwater,
about 391000 Cusecs of Jhelum water at Mangla would have combined with 102462 Cusecs of Chenab
at Marala to record a cumulative 493462 Cusecs at Head Trimmu, which would have wreaked far
greater havoc than what we are witnessing now. In the same way, heavy flood of 1004614 Cusecs
would have invaded Head Trimmu after 634000 Cusecs of Jhelum at Mangla and 370614 Cusecs of
Chenab at Marala had merged together in case of no Mangla dam being there to tame peak inflows.
Other benefits accruing from raised Mangla dam have been monetized to be well over Rs. 110 billion
per annum in terms of enhanced agricultural production, additional electricity generation and
mitigation of flood hazard. Additional 2.88 MAF of water, following completion of raised component
of the project, will irrigate another 1.34 million acres of land and generate 644 million additional units
of electricity per annum from existing Mangla Hydel Power Station.
Recurring floods are an eye-opener. They draw the attention of policymakers to the imperativeness of

constructing more and more water reservoirs to augment our precious water resources, much of which
are wasted into the sea downstream of Kotri in Sindh. Time to act is now.
The writer is a civil servant and can be reached at
Amanat Ali Chaudhry


A welfare state is determined by the type of government. If the government provides all the
services for the welfare or wellbeing of its citizens, then it can be called a welfare state. Such a
government is a part of the lives of its people at every extent. It caters for the physical, material
and social needs. The main objective of a welfare state is to essentially create social and economic
equality and to ensure fair standards of living, fair access to justice, freedom of faith and speech
and complete transparency in decision making of officials and executives.

Pakistan Affairs Special (October, 2014)

Monday, September 01, 2014

Recent sit-ins at Islamabad have sparked a debate regarding the viability of the political state of
Pakistan. That political economics plays a big part can be gauged from the history of Britain
and Germany. In the 1920s these countries had notable intellectuals who gave the philosophical
background to these two countries. For Britain, it was R. H. Tawney with his three books
namely 'Equality', 'Religion and the Rise of Capitalism', and 'The Acquisitive Society'; and for
Germany it was Wilhelm Rpke with 'A Humane Economy'. Both these countries were
devastated by the Second World War and therefore were in dire straits. In other words, these

two countries mobilized knowledge.

Broadly, there are two kinds of visionaries in any country; those who are constrained and those
who are not. The constrained visionary is a status quo individual seeking no change while the
unconstrained visionary is one willing to try new things to improve a country's situation. Do we
have the right mix of visionaries in this country? Knowledge that is given in articulate form but
that is not implementable is of no use to any country. Neoliberal economics once was made to
implement, but who will implement neoliberal politics? When we took directions from the West
on neoliberal economics, we were doomed for we did not use our intellect. Now we will be
doing the same in neoliberal politics.
What is the democratic and political intellect in Pakistan or in any of the developing countries?
The message that is coming out of our current political system is vague and not of any
substantive indication. It is true that PML-N is at the helm for the third time. Does experience
matter? Is politics then based on experience? The logic of life is experience!!!
No, do remember that governance each time is a new ball game, and in this modern world,
every day is a new day. Nawaz Sharif has never been able to complete his term of office as PM.
Was it the moral limitations that the PML-N leaders couldn't cash in on their experience, for
their system of governance is again under threat by the protests in the capital? Do moral
limitations matter in matters of state? Given the current state of the country and the morality
imposed by the media, there is no other way out than to be moral in dealing with the people of
the country. Are these radical infirmities ought to be ignored? But we should have come of age
politically and with all the infirmities that we have if only we had not lived in a world of denial
and its flip side of egocentric politics. But all that is history.
This uncertainty will hit economics for sure and the macro figures in a tottering economy are
not all that fabulous. The Islamabad version was that no demonstration will be allowed in the
state buildings; i.e. Parliament, PM office, etc. Buildings do not constitute the culture of state; it
is the people within those who determine the effectiveness of the institutions. So, the leadership
gives it the reputation that it enjoys. Name one intellect in the parliament who can hold his own
intellectuality. They articulate and delve in verbosity. Presently, ministers or members of
parliament don't do any intellectual work and as a result PML-N is entirely dependent on the
bureaucracy and its loyalty to them. For this, they have brought with them bureaucrats from
Punjab where they had been, and are still, in power. Now the difference between Punjab
province and Federation work is that the provincial bureaucrats have just not graduated in
official work at the Centre. They are still what Americans will call 'lean shanks'. Loyalty is not
to the individuals per se but to the state. So the human contrivances are lacking and the will to
censor wrong orders from correct ones is still wanted for. Do the ill propensities outdo the good
If the elected government loses out in fourteen months despite tall claims to experience
then there is something inherently wrong in the intellect of this country. Can the political
system prefer such people so shamelessly and blindly over others who are more deserving,

more capable and more talented? There has to be a moral audit of the system in terms of
cronyism and in terms of appointments based on caste and creed. The inefficiencies that they
germinate are responsible for most of our dilemmas. Inefficiencies multiply and the governance
system becomes unworkable. Politicians must sacrifice their own interests for the larger good of
the community because it has led to soaring inflation, rising unemployment and pathetic
financial management. But these things do not hurt one as much as the destruction of moral
values. The role of the ministers has been despicable. TV talk shows are a testimony to verbal
garbage thrown at opponents.
Pakistan's law of damages is weak and incomprehensible and there is no law of torts. The
legislative body is unable to legislate. This status quo has to be measured against the
unconstrained persons in society that do not take anything for given and feel that there can be
improvement all the way. Nothing is absolute but the stagnant mind of the policymaker.
We, the Pakistanis, have come to a sorry state by not doing our own work. The West has made
us dependent. The eastern wisdom that we work on our terms is now being used by our
policymakers just as they used the western systems. Dependent on the left as well as the right
and this leaves me with the thought can we ever get rid of our egocentric system and prefer
the rights of the poor and others to our own luxuries? Are we corrupted by prejudices, artificial
passions and social customs? Can we work out our own issues and bring them to the principles
of policy?
Pakistan has a long haul and this is in all fields. Complacency and our inabilities to
conceptualize for the long term may be a factor.
Dr Zafar Altaf

Strengthening Direct Taxation System

In the contemporary world, significance of tax revenue for financing government expenditures cannot be
denied. In almost all the countries with the exception of a few natural resource-rich ones, tax revenue is
utilized to provide public services ranging from security, justice, and basic ones such as education, health,
etc. There is a direct linkage between the quantum of revenue and the supply of public services. There is
adequate supply of public services in all the developed countries as they have higher tax-GDP ratio. On
the other hand, public services are undersupplied in the countries (almost all developing countries)
having lower tax-GDP ratio.

Pakistan Affairs Special (October, 2014)

Monday, September 01, 2014

A country's tax revenue is raised through direct and indirect taxes. Important sources of direct tax
revenue include income tax, wealth tax, inheritance tax, gift tax, etc. On the other hand, indirect tax
revenue mainly comes from sales tax or value added tax, customs duty or trade taxes and federal excise
duty. Thus effective taxation is important from social perspective in addition to accomplishing other
fiscal targets.
Under the prevailing economic systems, the capitalists are fetching large share of world income pie due
to inadequate taxation. Income inequality across the globe has increased in recent decades. It is because
not only the tax rates on the income of corporations are decreased but also the multinational enterprises
are employing aggressive tax planning techniques.
It is suggested that the countries should adopt measures such as effective taxation besides other steps
for bridging the gap of income between the rich and the poor.
In Pakistan, there appears a sharp divide a small fraction of population is too rich while
overwhelmingly major chunk is too poor. The working class virtually becomes slaves, left with no
options for earning. The public services are undersupplied in the country. Health facilities are not
affordable for everyone. Furthermore, all children do not have access to schools.
One rationale for the poor state of affairs for the majority of the people in the country could, therefore,
be the ineffective taxation policy adopted for collecting direct taxes over the years on one hand, and
weak enforcement on the other. The tax-GDP ratio in our country is less than 10 per cent; one of the
lowest in the region. Moreover, the direct tax-GDP ratio was 3.34 per cent in 2010-11, against 6.8% in
Indonesia, 7% in Malaysia, 9.5% in Philippine and 6.3% in Thailand in 2007-08.
Income tax is the only major direct tax levy with a contribution of over 98 per cent in the overall direct
tax revenues. Other sources of direct tax revenues include Workers Welfare Fund (WWF). In the
developed countries, besides income tax, inheritance tax, property tax, gift tax, etc., are also much
stronger sources of direct tax revenues.
Secondly, within income tax system, around 50-60 per cent income tax revenue is generated through
withholding taxes. In Pakistan, too, around 60 per cent income tax is collected through withholding
regime. However, withholding in Pakistan is predominantly presumptive in nature, in sharp contrast to
the developed countries where withholding taxes are adjustable with the exception of a few taxes. The
presumptive or final taxes have the tendency of assuming indirect form of taxation implies the
incidence or burden of taxes shifted to the consumers in the form of increased prices.
Thirdly, though in view of widespread tax evasion and tax avoidance, both by corporate and noncorporate taxpayers, presumptive taxes are justified by the tax authorities in order to protect tax

revenue essential for balancing the budgets. Nevertheless, such taxes are not preferred by tax gurus as
these are against the production efficiency theorem that permits taxes on consumption and profits but
precludes taxes on turnover or trade.
Fourthly, the income tax code is replete with provisions that allow specific persons or class of persons
or sectors of economy exemption of either full or partial income from taxation or directly permit
reduction of tax liability. Such taxation policy has resulted in significant loss of tax revenue and has
also in promoting tax evasion and tax avoidance. It also discourages certain economic agents that are
overburdened to pay taxes as such agents might lose competitiveness in favour of those whose incomes
are exempted or their tax liabilities are reduced.
Arguments Against Using Indirect Taxation
1. Many indirect taxes make the distribution of income more unequal because indirect taxes are more
regressive than direct taxes
2. Higher indirect taxes can cause cost-push inflation which can lead to a rise in inflation expectations
3. If indirect taxes are too high this creates an incentive to avoid taxes through boot-legging e.g.
the booze cruises to France where duty on alcohol and cigarettes is much lower.
4. Revenue from indirect taxes can be uncertain particularly when inflation is low or there is a
recession causing a fall in consumer spending
5. There is a potential loss of welfare from duties e.g. loss of producer & consumer surplus
6. Higher indirect taxes affect households on lower incomes who are least able to save
7. Many people are unaware of how much they are paying in indirect taxes they may be taxed by
stealth this goes against one of the basic principles of a tax system that taxes should be transparent
Bilal Hassan

Militancy in Pakistan How to Combat the

Islam and the state has always been a debatable issue in Pakistan. Cultural Islam continually

dominates the lives of the Pakistanis. There was no main dissent among different sects, and
people actively participated in each other's religious affairs. The radical strain proliferated by
Zia's Islamization resulted in the worst sectarian strife ever.
Pakistan Affairs Special (October, 2014)
Monday, September 01, 2014

Militancy in Pakistan has deep roots in history. The country has witnessed various trends of militancy
from intolerance to extremism, from radicalization to violence, etc. The al-Qaeda-Taliban nexus and
the induction of sectarian groups into this deadly mix have complicated the militancy issue. In the
absence of a sustainable long-term counter-militant strategy, domestic and foreign policy settings have
been affected in particular since 2001. The main reasons which explain the genesis and growth of
militancy in Pakistan are as follows:
1979: A Tumultuous Year
The year 1979 brought enormous changes in the Muslim world and Pakistan was no exception.
Following formative events took place during 1979:
1. The Iranian revolution, that gave a new dimension to Middle East politics, and its effects rippled
across to Pakistan as well. This also brought the Saudi-Iran proxy war to Pakistan.
2. The Grand Mosque Seizure on November 20, 1979, that severely shocked the nation. The rumours
that US forces would enter the holy city to help Saudis whipped up strong anti-American feelings in
Pakistan. The American Embassy in Islamabad was stormed and parts of it were set on fire by the
3. The Soviet Invasion in Afghanistan, that created a grave situation for Pakistan because not only
country's foreign policy was affected but it also gave a new lease of life to the military dictatorship of
General Zia-ul-Haq.
Pakistan's Geostrategic Location
Owing to Pakistan's crucial geostrategic location, the Soviet invasion posed major geostrategic and
political implications for Pakistan. This invasion brought the two superpowers face to face in this
regional arena. Becoming a frontline state, by aligning with the US, Pakistan supported the Afghan
jihad and acted as a channel for the influx of Mujahideen from Saudi Arabia and other Middle Eastern
states. The US had no hesitation in owning the creation of the Mujahideen.

Influx of Refugees
The Soviet invasion resulted in the exodus of more than two million Afghan refugees towards Pakistan.
Most of these refugees settled down in camps in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province where they were
welcomed due to ethnic affinity. Since the tribal belt comprising FATA has been governed by a
different set of laws called the Frontier Crimes Regulation (FCR) inherited from the British, and the
administration there is run by a political agent (PA) with the coordination of local Maliks and Sardars,
it was easy for militant tendencies to nurture in these areas.
Zia's Islamization
The 1977 coup d'tat by General Ziaul Haq marked the beginning of his 11-year-long rule. His process
of 'Islamization' promoted sectarianism ergo the militant culture in Pakistan. Zia combined three main
interest groups, the military, the mullahs and the business elite to bolster his rule. The Islamization
policy politicized religious groups in Pakistan. It is commonly believed that the Afghan jihad started
the destabilization10 and radicalization of Pakistan.
Zia's Islamization and reforms not only strengthened the religious establishment but also promoted a
certain set of Islamic jurisprudence which eventually imbalanced the multi-denominational society of
Seminaries (Madaris)
Analysts have linked the role of madaris, which proliferated during Zia regime, in promoting the
culture of violence, militancy and extremism. This was tragic indeed as the institution of madaris
known for research and learning became an engine of extremism. Their number grew rapidly during
the 1980s. Punjab and Khyber Paktuhnkhwa are still the main tributaries of madaris. These institutes
house an increasing number of foreign people, particularly from the Central Asia, the Middle East and
the Persian Gulf.
Sectarian Militancy in Pakistan
Islam and the state has always been a debatable issue in Pakistan. Cultural Islam continually dominates
the lives of the Pakistanis. There was no main dissent among different sects, and people actively
participated in each other's religious affairs. The radical strain proliferated by Zia's Islamization
resulted in the worst sectarian strife ever.
The Politico-religious Discourse
Zia's policies played a crucial role in the growth of militancy in Pakistan. While the seminaries that
were organised on sectarian lines served as hatcheries for sectarian strife, the growing role of religious
parties in country's politics also greatly strengthened the forces of extremism in the country. These
parties have also played a key role in providing legitimacy to military rules during which militancy
expanded its domain.
Use of Print and Electronic Media
The structure and the modus operandi of the Islamist enterprise are highly organized and systematic.
The use of print and electronic media since 1980s and social media in today's world by militant
outfits to expand their set of agenda has been quite effective. They have gained access to large
Anti-American Sentiments in Society
The US-led War against Terrorism has stirred a new wave of militancy in Pakistan. Due to ethnic
affinity of the people of Khyber Pakhunkhwa (KPK) with the Pashtun population of Afghanistan, the

tribal belt showed strong sentiments against the US. Due to Pakistan's alignment with the US in this
war, they also developed anti-government sentiments. The offensive strategy of using drone attacks to
target the militants in Pakistani territory also aggravated the sentiments against the US. This antiAmericanism acts as a reactionary force and strengthens the agenda of the militants.

Socioeconomic Factors
Besides the abovementioned factors, poor socioeconomic conditions in the country also drive the
desperately-wretched into the arms of the militant outfits. Socioeconomic issues such as poverty,
illiteracy, social injustice, unemployment etc., have had a disastrous impact on the social fabric of
Pakistan. It is a well-known narrative that to contain militancy and insurgency, it is important to win
the battle of hearts and minds by addressing the socioeconomic issues. Let's have a brief dissection of
these socioeconomic factors:
1. Poverty
Poverty has been a major socioeconomic issue in Pakistan since long. Nearly two-thirds of the
population and 80 per cent of the country's poor people live in rural parts of the country. Most of them
do not have access to adequate basic amenities. In Pakistan, the most vulnerable and poor parts of
Pakistan FATA, South Punjab and Balochistan are considered breeding grounds of terrorism
mainly due to abject poverty. According to a white paper of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa government, it is
Pakistan's poorest province with an overall incidence of poverty at 44 per cent. Moreover almost 60 per
cent of the people of FATA live below the poverty line making it the most backward region of
Pakistan. Similar conditions also prevail in Balochistan.
2. Poor Education Facilities
Literacy rate in Pakistan also reflects society's vulnerability to militancy. Pakistan has one of the lowest
literacy rates in the world. Economic Survey of Pakistan puts the literacy rate (10 years and above) at
60 per cent, which is far lower than other developing countries in South Asian region. Some analysts
opine that at least 79 per cent have an educational level of matriculation or below. This reflects the role
of illiteracy in furthering militancy.
3. Unemployment
Unemployment is also adding fuel to the fire of this menace. The estimated rate of unemployment in
2013-14 was 6.2 per cent. Pakistan also suffers from underemployment and cyclical unemployment
mainly due to lack of opportunities.
4. Energy Crisis
The energy crisis in Pakistan has forced the layoff of thousands of poor workers. Fear of hunger and
social injustice leads them to extremist tendencies hence they are exploited by the militants who recruit
them for the fulfilment of their nefarious designs. The militant outfits create their dependency on the

organization as recruits are provided food, shelter and a handsome amount of money.
5. Corruption
Corruption is also cited as a factor in the growth of militancy in Pakistan. The Chairman of
Transparency International, Pakistan, Syed Adil Gilani, ascribes terrorism directly to poverty resulting
from corruption which not only weakens governance but undermines the economy. Pakistan was
ranked 127 on the scale of 1175 of Corruption Perceptions Index 2013. The survey conducted
revealed that land services followed by police department and the judiciary were Pakistan's most
corrupt departments. This adverse situation allows militants to spread mayhem without fear of
Combating the Monster
In an APC, the political parties advised the government to adopt the course of dialogue, which the
government did. But, unfortunately, this sincerity was taken as its cowardliness and the dialogue
eventually failed. So, on June 15, 2014, Pak Army launched Operation Zarb-e-Azb [Azb is a sword of
the Prophet (PBUH)] against militant groups. This operation has gained commendable success as
terrorist outfits seem in shambles. The Tehreek-e-Taliban Pakistan has broken into various factions.
Moreover, Punjabi Taliban have also announced to quit all militant activities in Pakistan. Asmatullah
Muaweya, the chief of the Punjabi Taliban, said:
We have decided to give up militancy in Pakistan. I've taken the decision in the best interests of Islam
and the nation. I also appeal to all other armed groups to stop violent activities in Pakistan.
Way Forward
To counter terrorism there are political, social, educational, economic, military, intelligence, judicial
and media measures, the first including political reconciliation, accommodation, empowerment,
tolerance and coexistence. In case of social measures, one way to deal with extremism and
radicalisation in society is to promote social harmony, mobility and interaction among different social
groups. By promoting literacy and better education, one can defeat the elements that take advantage of
ignorance and illiteracy and promote extremism, militancy and terrorism.
Furthermore, intelligence measures can help counter the planning and operations of terrorist groups
while judicial measures can ensure prompt hearings and the award of punishment to those found guilty
of acts of terror. Finally, media measures include raising awareness levels in terms of threats of
militancy and terrorism. Media's role in de-radicalisation could also be crucial.
Pakistan may have to live with the phenomenon of terrorism for a long period, it is high time that a
plausible and pragmatic counter-terrorism strategy was formulated and implemented.
Mustansar Hussain Tasir

Climate Change & Pakistan

Pakistan is facing numerous socioeconomic challenges including poverty, terrorism, water scarcity, to
name some. However, the most complex challenge likely to impact our current and future generations is
climate change. The signs are already visible on our society, most prominent of which is the extreme
flooding during recent years. The ever-increasing impacts of climate change have given rise to the need
that the brilliant minds in Pakistan sit up and discuss ways to tackle this looming threat.

Pakistan Affairs Special (October, 2014)

Monday, September 01, 2014

The climate change phenomenon is exhibiting unforeseen and asymmetrical weather patterns in
Pakistan. As is evident from longer spells of heavy rains, withering floods and droughts in parallel,
Pakistan is experiencing the worst effects of climate change. These wet and dry conditions present
serious threats to agriculture, industry, water resources in fact, the country's overall economic
framework. As the climate has become warmer, these weather extremes have become more frequent
and dangerous due to increase in extreme heat, scarce precipitation and drought.
ADB's Assessment
The Asian Development Bank in its recent report, 'Assessing the Costs of Climate Change and
Adaptation in South Asia' found: Climate change will affect South Asia more than most other regions.
South Asia's weather is likely to become hotter than the global average, while monsoon rains and heavy
storms will increase in most parts of the region. As well, the mountainous countries face increased
flooding and landslides, while the coastal countries of the region are likely to be partly inundated by
sea-level rise.
Effects on Pakistan
Pakistan is also hard hit by climate change. According to the Global Climate Risk Index 2014 released
by the German Watch Institute, Pakistan is ranked number three after Haiti and the Philippines as
countries most affected by climate change. This should set off alarm bells for our government and it
should take stringent measures for climate change mitigation.
Until some decades ago, the annual temperature ranges had normal variances. However, in the past few

years, the annual temperature range has been growing, mostly owing to an increase in the maximum
temperature that is recorded in the summer months. In 2010, across
Sindh and in parts of Blochistan, the highest temperature was 50 to
52 degrees continuously for 10 days. It is worth mentioning that
parts of Punjab, during 2010, also saw a heat wave with
temperatures lasting for days around 48 to 50 degrees. This heat
wave was followed by a massive flood caused by unexpected
torrential rains, that brought with them loss of hundreds of lives,
thousands of livestock, submerging of tens of millions of acres of
fertile agricultural land, inundation of the most critical of power
plants, besides causing a major law and order problem, with the
army diverting its attention to rescue and relief.
Ignoring this issue has taken many lives and millions of people
have been affected in the recent past, as climate change has flooded
our plains again and again. Glacial melt is increasing and is also on
an all-time high in Pakistan, which means that there is a strong
probability of great floods in future. This is going to have deadly
impacts. Hence, sensitising the unaware regarding climate change
is much needed in Pakistan. We cannot ignore the fact that it is the
matter of our survival.
How to Mitigate?
It is an undeniable fact that the Pakistani economy is highly dependent on agriculture and if certain
measures are not taken, the country may confront genuine threats. To save agriculture, farmers are
presently being prompted by experts to reconsider their harvest timetable and begin sowing cotton two
months prior so that the product is harvested before the monsoon hits. Rice cultivators; again, ought to
strive for deferred planting.
There is a need to bring in new mixed varieties of wheat, rice and sugarcane which can grow faster and
survive storms and delayed drought. There is an agreement among experts that new dams can control
and deal with the future surge of the currents of the rivers. Or else the nation will undoubtedly see a
greater amount of such deluges and additional problems.
For the long haul, strategies need to be combined with the goal that individuals and domesticated
animals are protected from the crushing impacts of natural calamities.
Role of Media
If we wish to sensitise people we need to sensitise the media first. It is the government's responsibility
to communicate these disastrous impacts using whatever means possible. Effectively portraying it will
help in dealing with the issue and the government can push the media to do so by giving government
ads to those groups and outlets that widely report on the environment. The media must play a greater
role in communicating climate change impacts to the public.
More funds also need to be allocated for the Climate Change Division so that increases in carbon
emissions could be curtailed. Unfortunately, this division has witnessed a huge reduction in funds
having dropped down to Rs25 million in the 2014-15 budget with no specific allocation for climate
change awareness through the media.

2014 floods are live a wakeup call for our rulers they have failed to understand the gravity of the
situation. The issue is ignored and makes any reasonable individual question the government's policies.
Sufficient funds need to be allocated to create climate change awareness among the public so that
vulnerable communities, especially those living along the coastal and northern areas of Pakistan, who
stand on the frontline of climate change, take necessary steps to mitigate it.

Zero-Based Budgeting
The traditional budgeting is based on incremental decision making; it begins with
estimation of current costs hence it is an accounting-oriented approach while no review of
ongoing activities is undertaken for allocating funds. In zero-based budgeting, the
organization should not take for granted the expenditures incurred in previous years
rather they should start afresh insofar as expenditure in coming years are concerned.
Efficiency and effectiveness are the hallmarks of ZBB as justification for each expenditure
proposal is to be made in concrete terms. E. Hilton and Peter A. Pyhrr are the proponents
of this idea and it was first introduced in the USA.
Pakistan Affairs Special (October, 2014)
Monday, September 01, 2014

All the expenditures are analyzed on zero base; those falling within the criteria set for assessing
the proposal are accepted while the rest are eliminated or altogether dropped. Thereby lowpriority programmes are replaced with ones of higher impact and resources are allocated within
overall objectives of the planning policy. However, it requires expert personnel as well as
effective management information system.

Past performance or historical data is not considered as building block for demanding new
expenditure. The manger has to equivocally justify total cost versus total benefits in
measureable terms. Another feature of ZBB is saving as the expenditures, which keep
multiplying year after year just on the basis that they were previously sanctioned, are
discontinued and fresh expenditures are analyzed item by item. This equally applies on fresh
and existing expenditures.
It requires detailed analysis of the projects as well as setting up of targets rationally. At the time
of providing justifications, a lot of information is exchanged which not only provides help in
emphasizing efficiency but also in evaluating the effectiveness of the administration. It's a
combination of planning, programming and budgeting system as it clarifies the justification for
which money is being provided for.
Being a systematic process, the management at different levels finds it convenient to evaluate
the programme and helps in time of contingency to review priorities. Similarly, it allows
management to control overhead costs and sharpens their analytical skills. It's a kind of
administrative development. To undertake ZBB, a lot of investment both in human and IT
fields is required since decisions are taken in the light of data analyzed from different angles.
So, it may be preferred in 3 to 7 years planning while the traditional budget approach is resorted
to in areas of governmental activities where it's difficult to quantify gains in measureable terms.
Since ZBB rationalizes the work and mode of completing development activities, therefore, it
declares staff surplus or redundant, creating a sense of insecurity, ergo restlessness, among the
employees. The solution to this problem is that surplus employees may be adjusted somewhere
else. But the decision-makers have to ensure job-related issues before any decision.
To ensure the applicability of ZBB, special training must be incorporated in training module of
capacity building of government officers especially of those relevant to budgeting. The use of
IT and other modern-day technologies must be introduced to help administration get rid of
unnecessary paper work, hence improve managerial efficiency. As a first step, ZBB can be
undertaken in selected areas and its scope can be further widened spanning from 2 to 5 years
The short- and long-term gains of ZBB are: betterment in performance, maximum utility of
resources, availability of more resources for new development projects, etc. It shall also curtail
discretionary powers and reduce maladministration. Completion of projects in time and
management of overrun cost shall improve efficiency and check unnecessary government
Muhammad Ramzan

In Case of Indo-Pak War

5 Indian Weapons Pakistan Should Fear | 5 Pakistani Weapons India Should Fear
Pakistan Affairs Special (October, 2014)
Monday, September 01, 2014

5 Weapons Pakistan Should Fear

1. INS Vikramaditya Aircraft Carrier
INS Vikramaditya is the newer and more modern of Indias two aircraft carriers. Vikramaditya
can lead an offensive at sea against Pakistani Navy. It is 282 meters long and displaces 44,000
tons. Its powerful air wing is capable of executing air superiority, anti-surface, anti-ship and
anti-submarine warfare.
2. INS Chakra Nuclear Attack Submarine
The most powerful of Indias submarines is INS Chakra, an Akula-II nuclear-powered attack
submarine. It can fulfil a variety of wartime tasks. It can be a real threat to Pakistan Navy. It is
also capable of covertly laying mines in Pakistani waters and conduct surveillance in support of
a blockade.
3. AH-64D Apache Longbow Block III Attack Helicopter
AH-64D Apache helicopter represents a quantum leap in land firepower for the Indian Army. It
is capable of speeds of up to 171 miles an hour in high altitude environments. The rotor blades
are resistant to 12.7mm machine gunfire, and the cockpit is protected from shrapnel by Kevlar

4. Su-30MKI Fighter
The Indian Air Force has 200 Su-30MKIs in service with another 72 on order. A long-ranged,
twin engine fighter with a powerful radar and formidable armament, the Su-30MKI can be the
mainstay of the IAF. It can prove even more lethal with the addition of the BrahMos supersonic
5. Indian Nuclear Weapons
India has 90-110 nuclear devices and its primary delivery systems are land-based missiles. The
Prithvi I and II missiles have ranges from 150 to 350 kilometers and need half a day to prepare
for launch. The Agni I, II, III and IV missiles have a range of 700 to 4,000 kilometres.

5 Pakistani Weapons of War India Should Fear

1. JF-17 Thunder Fighter Bomber
The JF-17 Thunder is a significant upgrade for Pakistan Air Force over the existing Mirage
III, Mirage V, and Chengdu F-7 fighters. It has an extensive suite of features common to
modern fighters. Its five weapons hardpoints can carry a total of 8,000 pounds of fuel,
equipment or munitions.
2. Khalid-Class Submarine
Pakistans most useful naval assets are its Khalid-class diesel electric attack submarines:
Khalid, Saad and Hamza the modernized versions of the French Agosta-class diesel electric
submarines. Weighing in at 2,050 tons submerged, all three submarines have an air-independent
propulsion system, allowing them to stay submerged for greater periods.
3. Pakistani Nuclear Weapons
Pakistan has two short-range tactical ballistic missiles: the Ghaznavi and the Shaheen. For
longer range strikes, Pakistan has an unknown number of Ghauri-2 missiles, an intermediate
range ballistic missile. From Pakistans F-16 base at Sargodha, a nuclear armed F-16A could
reach as far as central India.
4. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs)
Since 2008, Pakistan has fielded two small unmanned aerial vehicles for tactical
reconnaissance, the Shahpar and Uqab. Uqab is a tactical UAV system with a range of 150
kilometres and an endurance of six hours whereas Shahpar is slightly larger and faster, about
15% bigger and capable of speeds up to 150 kilometres per hour.
5. SAM Spada 2000
The Spada 2000 is an all-weather, day and night, highly automated, system. The system can
engage up to four targets simultaneously with Aspide missiles. It consists of a detection centre
and either two or four firing sections, each section equipped with two missile launchers. Each
missile launcher has six ready-to-fire Aspide 2000 missiles.

Pakistan's Looming Demographic Crisis

While the politicians fight each other in Islamabad for control of Pakistan, they make no mention in their
fiery speeches of the real crisis likely to stunt prosperity for generations. According to economists and
demographers, the explosion that endangers Pakistan is not political but demographic. The UN has
projected that if fertility rates remain constant, Pakistan's population will jump to 261 million by 2030
and nearly 380 million by 2050. Pakistan's current population is around 200 million people while in 1947
Pakistan had only 33 million people. The country boasts the sixth-largest population in the world and
carries the distinction of having one of the highest fertility and birth rates.

Pakistan Affairs Special (October, 2014)

Monday, September 01, 2014

Pakistan's rapidly increasing population will strain its natural resources (especially water), government
services, infrastructure, and families, all of which are already overburdened. Considering that the
current population of Pakistan is around 185 million, think about the state of affairs in the country.
Crippling blackouts, dwindling water supplies, and natural gas shortages plague most parts of the
country both urban and rural. The future economic and political consequences of this high population
growth are dire, especially since Pakistan has not experienced the type of economic growth or
industrialization necessary to employ millions of young people.
It is also true that many of Pakistan's resource problems stem from poor planning and blatant
mismanagement. Exploiting new resources, repairing/maintaining existing infrastructure, and smart
allocation plans can reduce many shortfalls. However, even if this could be achieved the dismal
track-record of previous governments strongly suggests otherwise the exploding population will
continue to strain the country's finite resources at levels which are simply unsustainable.
This is yet another failure of Pakistani government to get its house in order and implement long-term
developmental strategies. Like many South Asian states, Pakistan's state institutions are relatively
weak, a problem compounded by the fact that it inherited little of British India's institutions. However,
instead of emphasizing governance and building up the capacity of the state, successive Pakistani
governments have neglected economic development, industrialization, education, and government
itself. As a result, Pakistan is ill-prepared to implement the sort of economic reforms needed to employ

its entire population or implement the family planning strategies necessary to curb population growth.
A comparison to Bangladesh is instructive. When both East Pakistan (today's Bangladesh) and West
Pakistan (today's Pakistan) were one country between 1947 and 1971, East Pakistan had more people
than the West Pakistan. However, today, successful family planning policies in Bangladesh have led to
an almost stable but gradually growing population of around 150 million people. Bangladesh's success
surprised many observers but is now widely upheld as an exemplar. Many of Pakistan's neighbours,
including Iran, have also managed to lower their fertility rates.
The Indus Valley and the Punjab province are among the most fertile regions in the world. The world's
largest continuous irrigation system dominates the Indus Valley. As a result, Pakistan has generally had
a greater ability to generate and absorb a larger population than many other countries with large
fertility rates. However, Pakistan's ability to sustain more people is reaching its limits.
Unfortunately, Pakistan's attitudes towards India often obscure the problem in Pakistan. On one hand,
there is some belief that Pakistan can only challenge India with a large population; therefore, it is not in
Pakistan's interest to limit population growth. On the other hand, many in Pakistan seem to believe that
Pakistan is actually just growing at a normal rate but is being sabotaged by Indian dams upriver.
However, it is obvious that Pakistan's rivers are drying up because there are simply too many people,
resulting in too much demand for water and agriculture.
In Pakistan, water availability dropped from 5,000 cubic metres per capita in the 1950s to current levels
of under 1,500 cubic metres. Furthermore, the annual water demand is expected to exceed availability
by 100 billion cubic metres by 2025, if not earlier. In a nutshell, Pakistan will likely be a water-scarce
nation within a decade.
Closely tied to dwindling water supplies is the rapid loss of agricultural land. Pakistan loses thousands
of acres of fertile land every year due to poor farming, irrigation, and drainage practices. This naturally
places great strain on remaining land resources and threatens food security.
Today, Pakistan faces a host of serious problems ranging from terrorism to economic collapse. Given
the tumultuous history of the country and the seemingly endless string of crises, it is easy to understand
why most Pakistanis remain focussed on the present and overlook long-term challenges facing the
country. Yet, if drastic measures are not taken to address the population boom and resource depletion,
the future looks very bleak indeed.
Pakistani politicians need to stop playing their game of thrones if they want to save their country.
Ultimately, implementing necessary policies is more important than pursuing individual goals, as many
of Pakistan's political actors seem to be doing today. However, human nature being what it is and given
that Pakistan in particular is so politically unstable, it is unlikely that the country's demographic
problem will be solved anytime soon. This is unfortunate because it means that Pakistan's tendency
towards extremism and violence will continue to grow as it is slowly beset by a host of other socioeconomic problems.

Globalization & Pakistan | Internal

Security Threats We Face Today
Pakistan is a consociational society where different religious groups are in conflict with
each other on petty issues. There are many horizontal and vertical cleavages in Pakistan
that keep people divided on the basis of religion, caste, creed, status and language along
with everlasting lacuna between haves and have-nots. These cleavages are not only
undermining Pakistan's economic system but are also causing socio-political instability. In
this age of globalization, media has exacerbated the crises and made Pakistan more
vulnerable by disseminating disinformation, besides fabricated and manipulated stories.
Pakistan Affairs Special (October, 2014)
Monday, September 01, 2014

Pakistan is a pluralistic society. It was attained on the basis of religion. Therefore, religion is
considered important by all though Quaid-i-Azam believed that every individual in Pakistan
would be free to live and worship according to his own religion. Untimely demise of the
founder of Pakistan, and assassination of the first premier, pushed Pakistan into quagmire of
crisis. It includes religious, linguistic, regional, provincial and cultural conflicts.

1. Dysfunctional Political System
Security threats always increase when political system becomes dysfunctional. At present,
Pakistan's democratic, political system is passing through another critical phase. All system
capabilities are at the state of abeyance thus making it vulnerable to collapse.
Politically, Pakistan is very much unstable owing to its weak political institutions, and low
profile system capabilities.
Jean Blondel defines institutions as: extractive, regulative, distributive, symbolic, and

responsive. According to Blondel, extractive capability means that a political system should
have the ability to extract its economic and natural resources at domestic and international
levels. For example, collection of taxes at home and to bring more investments from abroad
depicts that extractive capability is active.
2. Unplanned Modernization
Globalization has pierced into Pakistan's social, political and economic systems. Luxury hotels,
restaurants are sprawling in all corners of Pakistan. Shops of personal computers, laptops,
Android phones, and internet service providers exist everywhere in Pakistan. It shows that
western companies have captured a lucrative market here and their ever-available products have
more value and credibility in this country. The country, however, by itself though rich in
computers and agriculture, lacks in electricity and water sources.
3. Sense of Alienation
Inefficient system capabilities are making Pakistan very much vulnerable at home. Alienation
among common people is increasing due to misuse use of power by the authorities.
4. Medias Pole
Media is another big reason of this security threat. Media houses are run by moguls and
conglomerates who have only one-point agenda i.e. profit maximization. Fabricated and
manipulated stories on various channels are helping extremist elements. It is causing migration
of dreams and relative deprivation among common people also.
Luxurious life styles in their dramas, films and catchy advertisements attract people but their
meager resources deny buying all that stuff, therefore, they feel deprived and cause disturbance
in the system.
5. Politics: A Business
Unfortunately, Pakistan lacks professional politicians; we only have political demagogues who
always convince people with their glib of tongue. Empirical studies expose that in our country,
candidates and voters are selfish. A candidate always works for his election to the parliament by
hook or by crook and voter always casts the vote to the candidate who can go with him to the
police station at the time of his ordeal or could arrange a job for him or for his kins. This selfish
attitude makes our system selfish that does not go well for the welfare of the whole.

6. Religious Disharmony
The genesis of religious ethnicity in Pakistan can be found in different domestic and external
perspectives and factors. First, a heterogeneous character of Pakistani society, where Muslims
are predominant along with other minority groups like Christians, Sikhs, Hindus, Parsis, and
Ahmedis. All these communities are considered as religious ethnic groups in the country.
7. Rise of Non-state Actors
The unbridled sectarianism, religious intolerance and ethnicity in Pakistan have given birth to
non-political actors to act irrationally and in chauvinistic manners. They also have very much
influence in the peripheral areas of Pakistan. At times, they seem to even challenge the authority
of the state and successive governments could not curb their activities.
8. Philosophical Dichotomy
Dichotomy between the educated elites and ulema who are usually not well versed with
modern education is another reason of this fiasco. Both belong to the same socioeconomic
and political conditions but they are unable to present a unanimous solution for the development
of the country because they are unaware about of the real essence of religion
9. Illiteracy
Illiteracy among masses has compelled them to be exploited by the so-called ulema who exploit
religion for their bread and butter. Innocent and ignorant masses are unaware about the reality
of religion and easily start following the beliefs given to them by mullahs. Ultimately this blind
faith in them leads to ethnic conflicts that has a heavy toll on their lives and belongings.
10. Foreign Interference
Foreign intelligence agencies cause conflicts in many states. India, Afghanistan and Israel bribe
certain religious ethnic groups in rival states and cause disintegration in those states. The Indian
intelligence agency, Research Analytical Wing (RAW), always indulges in orchestrating
destructive activities in Pakistan.
1. Government of Pakistan should try to understand the basic needs of different religious ethnic
groups and should provide them opportunities accordingly.
2. The economic resources of the country should also be shared equally as to satisfy the
demands of all.
3. Rift between different sects and religions should be minimized by fulfilling their needs and
demands in time.
4. Extremist religious parties should be banned.
5. Education system should inculcate in students a sense to live in harmony with the people of
other religions.

6. All efforts should be directed to ensure peoples' participation in political process of the
7. Democracy, in letter and spirit, must be the basis for country's political and administrative
8. Fast and easy dispensation of justice should be ensured across the country without any
9. Constitution of Pakistan should be implemented and abided fully, not in parts.
10. By all continuation of a robust economic system is the direst need of the hour.
In this age of globalization, old and outdated gimmicks won't be, at all, sufficient to cope with
the threats faced by Pakistan. Equality, fraternity and justice, glorious pristine canons of Islam,
should be adopted by all of us. It is high time for us to consider that panacea of all our ills lies
in developing democratic institutions, specialization of functions, sustainable human
development that are only possible in good governance which can only be achieved through
independence of judiciary and rule of law.
Tolerance towards other communities is sine qua non for all individuals. It will boost national
consensus and enhance solidarity among peoples. On the part of the state, it is indispensable to
perform its duties efficiently without any biased and egoistic approach. Unless rule of law is
observed in Pakistan, internal security threats will remain even in this age of globalization.
Aftab Ahmed

10 Questions with Muhammad

Musa Ali Bokhari
14th Position CSS 2013 | JWT provides a shortcut to prepare better and that too in a lesser time through
the quality stuff. Before actually taking the CSS exam, I combed through previous issues of JWT.

Pakistan Affairs Special (October, 2014)

Monday, September 01, 2014

Jahangir's World Times (JWT): First of all, for the interest of JWT readers and CSS, PMS
aspirants, please tell us about your academic background.
Mohammad Musa Ali Bokhari (MMAB): I got schooled at the Aitchison College, Lahore where I
had a wonderful experience in activities, ranging from curricular to co- and extracurricular ones
including swimming, horse riding, athletics, etc. Being an Aitchisonian is the force behind what I am
today, and I have the fondest of memories regarding this most prestigious institution of the country.
Through your esteemed publication, Jahangir's World Times, I take this opportunity to pay tribute and
homage to Aitchison College and its principal, Sir Shamim Saifullah Khan, as he always strives to
instil in students the cherished qualities of discipline, hard work, integrity and reverence for moral
After completing my O Levels, I did intermediate from Government College University (GCU),
Lahore. Later, I go admitted to the five-year programme of B.A LL.B (Hons) offered by the Punjab
University Law College. My experience as chief editor of the student magazine and as Secretary Law
Moot Society at the university helped me a lot in widening my thought horizons.
JWT: Was joining the Civil Services always the top priority for your future career plans?
MMAB: Actually, I belong to a family of officers. My great-grandfather and grandfather were wellknown police officers. My father had served as a Judge. I always felt a great charm in police uniform,
and I would often wear my grandfather's police cap. So yes, you can say, joining the Civil Services has
always been my top priority as I wanted to become an officer just like my elders. I am proud that I have
carried on the legacy of my family.

JWT: Why PAS was your first choice?

MMAB: Yes, it was. Because, I feel all occupational groups in Central Superior Services are unique in
some way or the other. Nevertheless, Pakistan Administrative Service (PAS) offers a broad spectrum

for serving the masses as PAS officers get the opportunities to serve in various departments at national
level including health, education, law and order, industry, economy, etc. The PAS officers reach the
highest posts of Pakistan's federal bureaucracy and they have the power and influence to leave a
positive impact on and contribution to the welfare of general public.
JWT: What would you advise the readers and CSS aspirants because your thoughts would surely
inspire them to go for the CSS? And, how Jahangir's World Times (JWT) can be a source of
fruitful guidance for them?
MMAB: It is said that to enjoy the rainbow, one must endure the storm and this should suffice as my
advice to aspirants. I would say that CSS requires patience, perseverance and motivation. This makes
CSS exam a severe game of nerves.
As far as JWT is concerned, I must say that it provides a shortcut to prepare better and that too in a
lesser time through the quality stuff penned by eminent writers like former Foreign Secretary Mr
Shamshad Ahmed. Before actually taking the CSS exam, I combed through previous issues of JWT.
JWT: Do you think seeking guidance from an academy or a mentor is inevitable to get through
MMAB: I believe proper guidance is absolutely necessary for new aspirants to be on the right track. I
am fortunate to have my mentor at home in form of my father, Dr Syed Ali Sana Bokhari. He had the
honour to top his batch of PCS judiciary exam. So, I mean guidance is necessary; academy or
individual mentor, choice is yours.
JWT: To whom would you credit with your success?
MMAB: I thank Allah for being so generous and very kind to me. After Allah Almighty, I am
extremely grateful to my parents as well as my siblings. The prayers of my mother and her support
lifted me to this position.

JWT: How one can create a difference in written exam? And, what was your strategy for the
English essay?
MMAB: I think when you make things easy for the examiner, you are actually making things fruitful

for yourself. Make the presentation of your answer prim and proper. Do give headings, use highlighters
and write to the point. Just avoid beating about the bush. And, most importantly, do comprehend the
questions before answering it. Detailed analyses and neatly-drawn diagrams do pay off.
As regards strategy for essay paper, frankly speaking, I strongly believed that Essay is one question and
it has only one correct answer. So, I consistently practiced essay writing while preparing for the exam.
I think it's a drill which has to be done regularly. Flaunting vocabulary is not needed at all.
JWT: What could be the best way to select optional subjects? What was the main feature of your
strategy for International Law as your score in it was simply excellent?
MMAB: I think CE-2013 was a shut-up call to all those who indulge in the rhetoric of scoring and
non-scoring subjects. It also debunked the myth that cramming can be the key to success. I would
advise all the aspirants to choose subjects that are of interest to them. A choice of overlapping subjects
e.g. Indo-Pak History and Pakistan Affairs, would help a great deal. Now, coming to my score in
International Law, I would say that I was my most favourite subject and studying it was no ordeal for
JWT: You managed to score well in Current Affairs but not in Muslim Law. What were the
reasons for this?
MMAB: As far as Current Affairs is concerned, a great deal of reading went into it. I studied the
important topics of the time at great length. Correct expression and deep critical analyses also helped
me fetch good marks.
For Muslim Law, neither I ignored the subject nor was I ill prepared. But, I could not get the scores I
had expected.
JWT: How would you describe the Psychological Assessment and Viva Voce phase of the CSS?
MMAB: I must admit that I was a bit nervous while entering the room but I got settled within no time.
The panellists also put me at ease of course they grilled me but I confidently answered their
questions. I believe my answers were original, rational and impressive. If I didn't know the answer to a
question, I simply excused by saying sorry. I believe I managed it quite well and during the conclusive
minutes, I almost began to enjoy it.
For feedback: waqasiqbal083@gmail.com
Waqas Iqbal

Governance and Human Development

Governance and human development are closely intertwined as sustainable human development
is almost impossible without good governance. No doubt, income plays a fundamental role, as
argued by Nobel laureate Amartya Sen, in facilitating the access of individuals to opportunities

and capabilities. However, the relationship between income and capabilities is neither automatic
nor constant, meaning good governance is a must to translate income/growth (if we can achieve it
at all in a setting of bad institutions) into human development. In this context, reform of
institutions to promote good governance is highly significant so that people may be pulled out of
poverty and deprivation.
Pakistan Affairs Special (October, 2014)
Monday, September 01, 2014

A majority of our population is faced with deprivations of acute nature. According to a UNDP
estimate, about 51 percent of our population is living in multidimensional poverty and as many as 54
percent of the people are living in intense deprivation. The capabilities approach to human
development places high reliance on good governance to reduce such deprivations. The report of the
commission (that included two prominent economists of our times i.e. Joseph Stiglitz of Columbia and
Amartya Sen currently at Harvard) on the 'Measurement of Economic Performance and Social
Progress', appointed by former French President, Nicholas Sarkozy, has advocated a new approach,
based on the multidimensionality of wellbeing, for measuring and achieving human development.
Only two points of the report need to be emphasised here to make the point. First, we need to go
beyond the GDP as a measure of human welfare as well being is multidimensional. The
multidimensionality of wellbeing should inter alia include elements like material living standards
(income, wealth and consumption), health, education, social connections and relationships,
environment and insecurity (both economic and physical) that shape people's wellbeing.
Second, the role of the state cannot be downplayed in human development as the state plays an
important role in the provision of services in today's complex economies. The state is responsible for
the provision of public services like education, law and order, justice, and infrastructure etc. But the
state is always faced with a scarcity of resources. Performance of the state can be enhanced only if
service delivery is made efficient in terms of cost efficiency, reach and quality. It requires that the state
not only allocate sufficient resources for the provision of such services but, at the same time, uses such
resources efficiently. It would only be possible if the institutions are strong, government is committed
in controlling corruption and effective accountability mechanisms are in place.
The state has also got a crucial role in enforcing and defining the rules and policies designed to reduce
social exclusion and discrimination. If governance is poor, the intended objectives of such rules 'how
grandiose they are' will not be achieved. For example, education is one of the most important
dimensions of development from the capabilities perspective of development. In our case, the state of

affairs of public sector education is not that ideal mainly due to weak governance.
How does weak governance contribute towards this unsavoury situation? The vicious circle starts from
the inability of the state to raise sufficient revenue due to weak governance. Capacity of the state to
raise taxes is now taken as a good proxy for governance in empirical literature. If a state fails to collect
due taxes, then it implies that governance is weak. Low revenue collection means that our needs
outstrip our resources, hence low allocations for social sectors like education. Budget allocation for
education is then spent mainly on two broad expenditure heads: first, for building new infrastructure
(schools and colleges) and maintenance of old institutions and second operational expenditure
including salaries of teachers and other staff.
The story of ghost schools is not that old. It is very likely that such schools exist even today especially
in far-flung areas due to weak accountability and corruption; both indicators of poor governance.
Merely scaling up public investment in the education sector will not yield high returns unless efforts
are made to improve governance at each and every level of the government. The rapid deterioration of
infrastructure, negligence in the provision of basic necessities such as clean water, toilets etc is not due
to resource constraints only rather poor governance is equally responsible for this pathetic state of
affairs. The same applies to other public service institutions that are directly responsible for human
development, where even given resources are not put to their optimum use due to poor governance.
Poor governance threatens the physical safety of the people as they can become easy prey for criminals
and highhandedness of state institutions. Corruption, violence and weak governance in society impact
the poor more and impose heavy costs on them. Insensitivity of law, enforcing agencies, poor
administration of justice due to mechanical and labyrinthine procedures of the courts, weak
enforcement of property rights resulting in violence/fight over land grabbing by the land mafia, poor
law and order, lack of meritocracy and rule of law all are big stumbling blocks to human development.
All these symptoms owe their genesis to bad governance and weak institutions. Poor governance thus
becomes a big hurdle in the realisation of the true potential of the people.
While addressing a conference on governance, Mr Kofi Annan, the former UN Secretary General, once
said, "Good governance and sustainable development are indivisible. Without good governance,
without rule of law, predictable administration, legitimate power and responsive regulation, no amount
of funding, no amount of charity will set us on the path to prosperity." Mr Annan's remarks are very
true in our case. Good governance is the most fundamental prerequisite for the socioeconomic
development of the people. It is only through better institutional mechanisms and good governance that
we can put the development process on the right track.
It is, therefore, required that improving governance be our top most agenda both at the micro as well as
macro level. At the micro-level, all the processes, procedures and laws of public service delivery
institutions should be examined to make them efficient and pro-development. Supremacy of the rule of
law, introduction of strong accountability mechanisms and tackling corruption must be the top priority
areas at the macro level for improving governance and gearing it towards human development.
Jamil Nasir

Agriculture in Pakistan | An Overview

The foremost objective of Agriculture sector in Pakistan is to ensure adequate production
and availability of food for the population. It is the main source of livelihood for the rural
population and it also ensures food availability to rural and urban inhabitants. It is a key
sector of the economy as it provides raw materials to main industrial units of the country and
also has a major contribution in export earning of the country. The attainment of sustainable
growth in agriculture sector fulfils macroeconomic objectives through its forward and
backward linkages with the other sectors.
Pakistan Affairs Special (October, 2014)
Monday, September 01, 2014

Pakistan has a rich and vast natural resource base, covering various ecological and climatic zones;
hence the country has great potential for producing all types of food commodities. Agriculture has
an important, direct and indirect, role in generating economic growth. This sector is truly the
backbone of Pakistan's economy. It is a considered opinion of experts that Pakistan has a huge
untapped potential for grabbing a significant share of the world agro-food exports.
The foremost objective of Agriculture sector in Pakistan is to ensure adequate production and
availability of food for the population. It is the main source of livelihood for the rural population
and it also ensures food availability to rural and urban inhabitants. It is a key sector of the economy
as it provides raw materials to main industrial units of the country and also has a major contribution
in export earning of the country. The attainment of sustainable growth in agriculture sector fulfils
macroeconomic objectives through its forward and backward linkages with the other sectors.
The agriculture sector accounts for 21.0 percent of GDP and absorbs 43.7 percent of labour force.
The potential role for agriculture in development is to reduce poverty and drive growth for
countries whose economies are agriculture-based. Growing population size requires agriculture
growth compatible to meet required level of food. The potential role for agriculture in development
is to reduce poverty and drive growth.

Subsectors and Their Performance in 2013-14

The performance of Agriculturde sector in previous fiscal year remained moderate. During fiscal
year 2013-14, agriculture sector recorded a growth of 2.1 percent against the growth of 2.9 percent
in 2012-13. The decline in its growth was due to drop in cotton production and other minor crops
due to extreme weather conditions. Let's have a brief analysis of all four subsectors of the
agriculture sector:
1. Crops
The agriculture's crop subsector component, which includes important crops, grew by 3.7 percent
while other crops and cotton ginning showed a negative growth of 3.5 percent and 1.3 percent,
respectively. Important crops accounted for 25.6 percent of agricultural value added and has
experienced a growth of 3.7 percent in fiscal year 2013-14 against growth of 1.2 percent during the
same period of 2012-13.
2. Livestock
Livestock sector is the mainstay of farming communities. It plays an important role in poverty
alleviation as it can uplift the socioeconomic conditions of countrys rural masses. Livestocks
contribution to agriculture value added stood at 55.91 percent while it contributed 11.8 percent to
the national GDP during 2013-14 as compared to 55.5 percent and 11.9 percent during the
corresponding period last year, respectively.
3. Fisheries
Fisheries contribute directly to food supplies, a source of livelihood for the coastal inhabitants,
export earnings and boosting the economy. This subsector has 2.03 percent contribution in
agriculture and it registered a growth of 0.98 percent as compared to the growth of 0.65 percent last
year. The sub-components of fisheries such as marine fishing and in-land fishing contributed to an
overall increase in value addition in the fisheries subsector. The growth is expected to rise further
in coming year due to lifting of the ban by EU in fish export from Pakistan.
4. Forestry
The forestry sector of Pakistan is a main source of lumber, paper, fuel wood, latex, medicine as
well as food and of ecotourism. Growth of the forestry subsector in 2013-14 stood at 1.52 percent
as compared to the growth of 0.99 percent last year.

Problems and Their Solutions

Despite the popular lamentations about the neglect of agriculture in the country, the performance of
the sector has been simply impressive. Here is a cursory look at the problems, which have been
impediments to the growth of agriculture in Pakistan, alongwith some solutions:
1. Irrigation System
Agriculture production in Pakistan is dependent on one of the world's most elaborate system of
irrigation from surface canals and groundwater. In other countries, this advantage would have been
of immense value in transforming the pattern of agriculture. But, in Pakistan, this resource has not
been optimally utilized and has produced much lower return than its potential. A comparison of
wheat yields in the Indian Punjab and Pakistani Punjab shows that the productivity in Pakistan can
be raised by 40 percent through better use of irrigation water. Inefficient irrigation application at
the field level can be curbed through zero tillage, laser levelling and regular de-weeding.
2. Water Resources
Water is now becoming scarce and has reached the stress level of 1000 cubic metre per capita and
is on a downward slope. The situation has been aggravated by the latest findings arising out of the
studies on climate change. Pakistan is among South Asian countries going to be adversely affected
by the melting of glaciers in Himalayas from where most of the Indus Basin System draws its
sustenance. As water availability decreases, cropping patterns get disrupted due to changes in the
monsoons. With the risks of floods and droughts increasing, the prospects of decreased agriculture
productivity and food insecurity will face us starkly.
3. Education
The education status of those engaged in the agriculture is a key factor. Farmers with even five
years of average schooling demonstrate higher productivity as compared to those with no or only a
little schooling. They are able to follow the instructions for the use of fertilizers, seeds and planting
techniques better than the illiterate farmers. Expansion in schooling facilities in the rural areas is an
area of public policy that will have a high pay off.
4. Storage and Marketing Facilities
The inadequacy of marketing and processing facilities needs to be looked into as well. Small
farmers are found to suffer relatively higher losses due to a lot of waste, particularly in perishable
commodities such as fruit and vegetable, milk, etc. because of inadequate storage facilities, absence
of agro processing and packaging facilities nearby and lack of farm-to-market roads and transport
infrastructure. Private sector should be allowed to set up rural markets and the Government's
exclusive monopoly in this respect should be dismantled.
5. Private Investment
Empirical studies have found that public development expenditure leads to enhancement in private
investment in agriculture. The implementation of well-targeted public investment in infrastructure

projects complements and stimulates private investment in agriculture. Provincial governments

should allocate resources for undertaking public infrastructure projects such as farm-to-market
roads, on-farm storage, silos and cold storages, lining of water channels, etc. in the rural areas.
Small farmers would thus be able to store, and transport, their goods to the nearest markets. They
would not make distress sales to the middlemen who procure the produce directly by visiting the
farms soon after the harvest and pay much lower prices than the prevailing market prices.
6. Credit Facilities
Next comes the issue of credit to small farmers that has been a major constraint in the adoption of
new technologies and productivity-enhancing inputs such as fertilizers, seeds, pesticides, renting
agriculture machinery, etc. In recent years, microfinance services have also reached the rural
areas. Their penetration rate is still quite low. The availability of credit on time would facilitate
them to purchase certified seeds, fertilizers and other inputs.
7. Cropping Pattern
The cropping pattern in Pakistan hasn't changed very much during the last 67 years. The same four
major crops figure prominently. Diversification into high value products such as fruits and
vegetables, oil seeds, pulses, etc. should form the main plank of our agriculture development
strategy as the demand of higher household incomes shifts from cereals and staples to meat, fruits,
vegetable, etc. The economics of irrigation also dictates that water should be utilized for high value
8. Livestock
The potential in livestock subsector has not been fully exploited because of a number of constraints.
Limited supply of forage and fodder, more physical exertion of animal during grazing, frequent
incidence of diseases, drought cycles, lack of access to veterinary health services and vaccination,
limited marketing opportunities for milk, meat and poultry and non-existence of milk preservation
facilities with the herders are some of the difficulties faced by the farmers. Income from livestock
production should be enhanced as it is a powerful means for poverty reduction.
Agriculture sector faces certain challenges which require immediate and focused attention at
research as well as policy level. Sustainable agricultural growth based on paradigm that secure
more profitable farming, high productivity of major farming systems, diversification of high value
crops and demand-based production is the need of the hour.
Rizwan Rafique

Martial Laws in Pakistan

Since achieving independence from the British yoke on August 14, 1947, Pakistan had been
under army rule for almost a half of the period of its life. Martial law was declared in this period
for three times. These coups happened because initial years of Pakistan's life were tumultuous to
such an extent that country's first premier, Nawabzada Liaquat Ali Khan, was assassinated in
Rawalpindi on October 16, 1951, and after him no government was allowed to work freely. Here
is a brief overview of the military rule in Pakistan:
Pakistan Affairs Special (October, 2014)
Monday, September 01, 2014

1. First Martial Law (1958)

After Governor General Ghulam Muhammad was compelled to go on a two-month leave to the United
Kingdom, Major General Iskander Mirza entered the office of the Governor General on August 7,
1955. President Iskander Mirza could not develop proper working relations with all the coming
premiers. Muhammad Ali Bogra (April 17, 1953 to August 11, 1955) was the first prime minister under
Mirza but he soon resigned and was replaced by Chaudhry Muhammad Ali (August 11, 1955 to
September 12, 1956), Hussain Shaheed Suhrawardy (September 12, 1956 to October 18, 1957), I.
I.Chundrigar (October, 18, 1957 to December 16, 1957) and Malik Feroze Khan Noon (December 18,
1957 to October 7, 1958).
During Mirza's rule, the new Constitution was approved by the Constituent Assembly on February 29,
1956, and was promulgated on March 23, 1956. The Constitution was based on the Objectives
Resolution, which was adopted on March 12, 1949. This constitution proclaimed the Dominion of
Pakistan as Islamic Republic of Pakistan and Iskander Mirza was sworn in as its first president.
Then came the fateful day of October 7, 1958 when Iskander Mirza proclaimed martial law throughout
the country and appointed the Army Chief, General Muhammad Ayub Khan, as Chief Martial Law
Administrator. The constitution was abrogated, central and provincial governments were dismissed,
National and provincial assemblies stood dissolved, and all political parties were abolished. Next day,
the president appointed an Advisory Council, consisting of secretary-general and seven secretaries of
ministries. However, on October 10, the president promulgated an Order stating that notwithstanding
abrogation of 1956 Constitution, Pakistan shall be governed as nearly as may be in accordance with the
late Constitution.

On October 24, 1958, President Mirza constituted a 12-man Central Cabinet, including General Azam
Khan, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto and Manzoor Qadir. General Ayub Khan was appointed prime minster.
Iskander Mirza relinquished his office of president on October 27, 1958, and handed over all powers to
CMLA Ayub Khan, who promulgated the Presidential Cabinet Order next day according to which the
Cabinet would have no prime minister and it would work directly under the president.
Exactly one year after taking power (October 27, 1959), General Ayub became Field Marshal and
promulgated Basic Democracies Order, providing for constitution of Basic Democratic institutions
ranging from the Union Councils to Provincial Development Advisory Councils. He held the elections
for Basic Democracy Units on January 2, 1960, electing their 80,000 members by adult franchise.
These BD members went to the polls on January 14, to express, through secret ballot, their confidence
or lack of it, in President Ayub Khan.
Ayub Khan was sworn in as elected President on February 17, 1960. On June 8, 1962, he announced to
lift martial law after nearly four years, and also took oath of the office of the President under the new
Constitution, enacted by him on March 1, 1962, providing presidential form of government.
On January 2, 1965, he was re-elected president in presidential election against MS Fatima Jinnah,
sister of Father of the Nation, Quaid-i-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah, and a candidate of Combined
Opposition Parties. However, the COP had refused to accept the election results.
Declaration of martial law in 1958 was solely due to unpleasant and uncertain situation as well as
political instability because of fast political manoeuvres and changes that took place in the country.

2. Second Martial Law (1969)

The second instance was when the then Army Chief, General Agha Muhammad Yahya Khan, declared
Martial law, dissolved the assemblies and assumed the office of the president after Ayub Khan stepped
down as President on March 25, 1969, and handed over powers to him. On April 3, he formed a threemember Council of Administration with himself as its Chairman, and next day issued Provisional
Constitution Order, providing basis for governance of country. On April 8, he ordered that Martial Law
Administrators of East and West Pakistan will also perform duties of the governors.
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, Chairman Pakistan People's Party, took over as president and the first civilian
Chief Martial Law Administrator on December 20, 1971.

3. Third Martial Law (1977)

The army staged third coup when General Ziaul Haq overthrew the Bhutto government and took over
as CMLA on July 5, 1977. The federal and provincial governments were dismissed; political parties
were banned; National and provincial assemblies were dissolved; the constitution was put in abeyance;
civil courts continued to function as usual but fundamental rights were suspended.
On July 15, 1977, Justice Mushtaq Hussein of the Lahore High Court was appointed chairman of a
committee to formulate election procedures and laws. Two days later, Justice Mushtaq Hussein also
took over as the Chief Election Commissioner and announced that elections would be held in the first
fortnight of October 1977 under the supervision of the armed forces and the judiciary. October 18 was
fixed for the general elections and nomination papers were invited between August 7 and 18, 1977.
On September 21, 1977, General Zia issued a 15-point code of ethics to regulate the election campaign
which started from September 18. The code prohibited all actions and deeds, including words,
symbolic representations, which were likely to prejudice the solidarity of Pakistan and its Islamic
On October 1, the elections were postponed indefinitely. On November 10, 1977 the Supreme Court
unanimously validated the imposition of martial law, under the doctrine of necessity.
In its judgement dismissing Begum Nusrat Bhutto's petition challenging detention under martial law of
former Prime Minister Z.A. Bhutto and 10 others, the nine-member court headed by Chief Justice
Anwarul Haq observed that after massive rigging of elections followed by complete breakdown of law
and order situation bringing the country on the brink of disaster, the imposition of martial law had
become inevitable.
Zia's martial law came to an end on December 30, 1985.
4. 1999 Coup
Pakistan came under military rule again on October 12, 1999, when General Pervez Musharraf seized
power in a bloodless coup and dissolved elected government of Nawaz Sharif. However, no Martial
law was imposed. As announced by him on July 11, 2002, general elections were held on October 10,
2002. But before the elections, a referendum was held on April 30, 2002 for him to be elected as the
president for another five years. On November 3, 2007, he declared the state of emergency in the
country which is claimed to be equivalent to the state of martial law as the constitution was suspended.
On November 12, 2007, Musharraf issued some amendments to the Military Act, which gave the
armed forces some additional powers.
Pervez Musharraf, who ruled Pakistan as Chief Executive from 1999-2002 and as president from 200108, resigned on August18, 2008 in the face of impeachment. Mir Zafarullah Khan Jamali, Chaudhry
Shujaat Hussain and Shaukat Aziz served as elected prime ministers during his era.
Politics in Pakistan has been tarnished by corruption, inefficiency, domestic political upheavals and
wrong policies of the ruling elite; and alternating periods of civilian and military rule have, so far, not
been able to establish stability. Due to their unrealistic policies, supplemented by anti-Pakistan
elements, we could not maintain its integrity and their actions resulted into the unfortunate break-up of
the hard-earned country in 1971.

Education in Pakistan
Quotes | Education is the most powerful weapon which you can use to change the world.
(Nelson Mandela). The roots of education are bitter, but the fruit is sweet. (Aristotle).
Education is not the filling of a pail, but the lighting of a fire. (William Butler Yeats)
Pakistan Affairs Special (October, 2014)
Monday, September 01, 2014

Oxford Dictionary
The process of receiving or giving systematic instruction, especially at a school or university.
Merriam-Webster Dictionary
The knowledge, skill, and understanding that you get from attending a school, college, or
Common Usage
The delivery of knowledge, skills and information from teachers to students. It is, however,
inadequate to capture what is really important about being and becoming educated.
Proper Definition
The process of becoming an educated person; it means acquiring optimal states of mind
regardless of the situation you are in.
Education began in the earliest prehistory, as adults trained the young of their society in the
knowledge and skills they would need to master and eventually pass on.
Story-telling was also another major tool to educate.
Plato founded the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in Europe.

University of Karueein, founded in 859 AD in Fez, Morocco, is the oldest existing, and
continually operating educational institution in the world.

Education in Pakistan
States Responsibility
Article 25-A reads:
The State shall provide free and compulsory education to all children of the age of five to
sixteen years in such manner as may be determined by law.

The education system in Pakistan is generally divided into five levels
1. Primary (grades one through five)
2. Middle (grades six through eight)
3. High (grades nine and ten, leading to the Secondary School Certificate)
4. Intermediate (grades eleven and twelve, leading to a Higher Secondary School Certificate)
5. University programs leading to graduate, post graduate and advanced degrees

Education Policies
All Pakistan Educational Conference 1947
In a message to All-Pakistan Educational Conference at Karachi on November 27, 1947, Quaidi-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah said:
There is no doubt that the future of our State will and must greatly depend upon the type of
education we give to our children and the way in which we bring them up as future citizens of
Quaid-i-Azam provided the basic guidelines for future education development by stressing:
1. The system of education should suit the genius of our people
2. It should be consonant with our history and culture
3. It should instil the highest sense of honour, integrity, responsibility and selfless service to the
4. It should also provide scientific and technical knowledge for economic uplift of the new
(a) Education should be inspired by Islam;

(b) Free and compulsory elementary education; and

(c) Emphasis on technical education.
National Education Conference 1951
It was held in 1951. It led to the formulation of a Six Year National Plan for Educational
It failed to evoke political commitment and financial resources for achieving its objectives.
National Commission on Education 1959
The Ayub era saw high-level commissions to examine and guide all walks of life.
The National Commission on Education dealt comprehensively with the system of education
and made recommendations to emphasise
(a) character development through compulsory religious instructions,
(b) compulsory schooling for age group 6-11 within 10 years and for 11-14 within 15 years
(c) diversification of curricula to introduce technical/vocational subjects in secondary stages and
enhancement of middle level technical (poly-technical) education
(d) extension of degree programmes at the Bachelor's level from 2 to 3 years.
The Commission's recommendations were incorporated in the Second Five-Year Plan (196065).
Quantitatively, the Plan was an exceptional success, as its implementation was up to 96 percent
of planned investments.
Nevertheless, the targets for primary education and technical education were still far from
Education Policy and Nationalisation 1972
The national objectives were identified as:
(a) Equalising the opportunities for education;
(b) Arresting the declining educational standards; and
(c) Correcting the growing imbalance between various types of education.

Statement of Goals
The statement of goals was accompanied by broad-based guidelines which were to provide a
framework within which the Provincial Government and non-government agencies were to
prepare detailed plans and programmes.
From the goals so designed, the roles assigned to education were:
(i) the role of education in the preservation and inculcation of Islamic values as an instrument of
national unity and progress;
(ii) reorientation of educational programmes in the light of economic needs of the society
particularly by shifting the emphasis to scientific, technical and vocational education;
(iii) role of education as an instrument of social change and development, and as a factor in the
creation of a democratic social order by ensuring an equal access to opportunities of education;
(iv) the paramount importance of quality in education and the crucial role of teachers in the
improvement of educational quality; and
(v) decentralisation of educational administration to ensure academic freedom and
administration and financial autonomy required for healthier and efficient growth of educational
institutions, particularly those of higher education.
All these objectives and lofty goals remained empty rhetoric and the major change made by the
Pakistan People's Party (PPP) government was to nationalise private educational institutions.
National Education Policy 1979
A National Educational Conference was convened by the President of Pakistan, Mr Fazal Ilahi
Chaudhry, in October 1977 for evolving a set of fresh recommendations for a new education
policy which was later announced in 1979.
The major aims focused on:

Fostering deep and abiding loyalty to Islam,

Creating awareness that a Pakistani is also a part of Universal Muslim Ummah,
Inculcation of character in accordance with Quran and Sunnah,
Providing equal opportunities to all citizens for cultural and religious development,
Development of creative and innovative faculties of people,
Functional literacy to all citizens,
Fostering discipline and promotion of scientific and technological education needed for
socio-economic growth.

1. Curricular revisions with a view to reorganising the entire content around Islamic thought.
2. Possibility of merging the traditional Madrassah Education with modern education.
3. Use of National Language as medium of instruction.
4. Training for productive work.
5. Mobilisation of community resource such as mosques, civic buildings factories etc. for
education purposes; effective participation of community in literacy/education programme.
6. Linking scientific and technical education with production.
7. More emphasis on quality improvement and consolidation and opening new institutions only
where demand is reasonable.
8. Separate educational institutions for female students up to highest level with specially
designed curricula.
Integrated curriculum was introduced.
The medium of instruction reverted to English after eighth class.
Secular subjects were introduced in the Deeni Madaris.
Mosques were used as part of formal primary education system. Literacy Ordinances were
introduced but not implemented..
The non-formal approach to primary education through Nai Roshni Schools did not achieve its
The Federal Government took over the financing responsibilities of universities all over
Pakistan on the understanding that Provincial Government will reallocate the saved resources
for the promotion of primary education.
National Education Policy 1992
The reform proposed in the 1992 policy were aimed at bringing about the following major
(i) Structuring the society as dictated by teaching of Islam.

Universalising primary education, eliminating drop-out by the year 2002.


Raising the literacy ratio to 70 percent by the year 2002.

(iv) Improving the quality of education by reassuring the role of teachers in the teaching
running process by modernising curriculum by tax book.

Use of community for the promotion of basic education in the country.

(vi) Intensifying vocationalisation of general education, and introducing a new stream of

technical education in middle and high schools; inviting the private sector for participation in
educational programmes, and allowing progressive privatisation of nationalised institutions.
(vii) Initiating procedures leading to de-politicisation of campuses and enforcement of
(viii) Streamlining the examination system and establishing the merit-based valid admission
procedures to be devised by the National Testing Services.

This policy could not achieve the desire targets. However the following are the major
achievements emanating from the policy:
1. Establishment of School Management Committee at the lowest administrative unit for the
promotion of basic education.
2. Establishment of quality Model Primary School at the Union Council Level so as to provide
quality education to the rural female children.
3. The concept of mixed Primary School was introduced in provinces.
4. The qualifications of the teachers have been lowered in order to attract the female population
towards the teaching profession.
5. Literacy Programme in selected areas of Pakistan was launched in order to enhance the
literacy rate the country.
6. Nation-wide teachers competition were held to give awards to the best Primary School
Teachers at the national level.
7. The examination method was changed by giving weightage of 25 percent to multiple choice
questions at secondary and higher secondary exams.

8. During this period the Supreme Court gave an historic decision by banning the students
unions in the university campuses and obliging all parents to give certificate of good behaviour
for their children attending colleges and universities.
National Education Policy 1998-2010
To prepare the nation to gracefully enter the 21st Century, a new Education Policy was
launched from June, 1998.
Basic Covenants
Jihad against illiteracy to accelerate the literacy rate.
Curriculum revision in accordance with the requirements of 21st Century.
Introduction of computer education in schools and greater emphasis on technical education.
Minimizing disparities in rural and urban schools and between males and females.
Active participation and contribution of local communities in educational management via the
District Education Authorities, School Management Committees and Village Education
Easy access to education at all levels.
Encouraging the private sector to invest in education.
Bring in the element of competition in the preparation and selection of text-books.
Provision of financial support to deserving students.
Promotion of research in higher education.
Professionalization and improvement of the examination system at all levels.
Library services and facilities shall be improved, expanded and strengthened.
The Policy proposed
To construct 190,000 new formal primary schools, 250,000 non-formal basic education centres,
and 57,000 mosque schools,
To upgrade 60,000 primary schools,
To begin double shifts in 20,000 existing primary schools, and

To recruit 527,000 additional teachers.

To launch a National Literacy Movement on an emergency basis in every village, tehsil and
To increase the existing Non-Formal Basic Education (NFBE) community schools/centres from
7000 to 82,000,
To render it mandatory for all industrial units and federal and provincial agencies, like
WAPDA, Pakistan Steel, OPF, PTV, PBC, etc., to make their employees and their dependents
To put Boy Scouts and Girl Guides at the service of literacy programs,
To establish Literacy Corps comprising College/University students/teachers for literacy
programs during vacations,
To issue driving and ammunition licenses only to literate persons,
To condone the duration of a prisoners term of imprisonment if s/ he becomes literate,
To utilize radio and television for social mobilization and promotion of the cause of basic
education, particularly amongst rural females, and for imparting skills to neo-literates,
To ask khanakah s/Mazars to donate a portion of their earning to the literacy fund, and
To link development grants to local governments with literacy programmes.
National Education Policy 2009
The thinking process for the development of this policy was initiated in 2005 and finalised
through a series of consultative workshops and deliberations before being presented to the
cabinet in May 2008.
Policy's Vision
Education is a categorical imperative for individual, social and national development that
should enable all individuals to reach their maximum human potential. The system should
produce responsible, enlightened citizens to integrate Pakistan in the global framework of
human-centred economic development.
Education to be allocated seven per cent of GDP.
Literacy rate to be increased to 85 per cent by 2015.

Grades 11 and 12 (intermediate education) will no more be part of college education but will be
merged into the school system.
All primary schools will be upgraded to the middle level.
Enrolment in higher education to be increased from to 10 per cent by 2015, and to 15 per cent
by 2020.
The inter-provincial forum of education ministers was given a supervisory role.
Academic and administrative cadres will be separated
District education boards will be set up to promote education at grassroots level.
Syllabus of public sector schools would be improved in consultation with private sector schools
to reduce disparity between the two sectors.
A regime of strict uniform examination system will be introduced across the country.
Teachers with matriculation and intermediate level education would be gradually phased out
and replaced with qualified teachers.
Salary structure of teachers will be improved.
There will be special focus on gender equality and bridging urban-rural divide.
A project called Apna Ghar' residential schools to provide free education to poor students will
be started.
A national merit programme would be introduced to reward bright students.

Present Situation
According to the Pakistan Economic Survey 2013-14 Social, the literacy rate of the population
(10 years and above) is 60 percent
Punjab leads with 62 percent followed by Sindh with 60 percent, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa with 52
percent and Balochistan with 44 percent.

Vision 2025 on Education

Vision 2025 aims at substantial expansion in levels of education as well as improvements in the
quality of education. A larger share of the GDP, at least 4% to education and at least 3% to
health, would have to be allotted. Key goals under this pillar are;

Universal primary education with 100% net primary enrolment.

Increase Higher Education coverage from 7% to 12 %
Increase proportion of population with access to improved sanitation from 48% to 90%

Education plays an important part in shaping a society and in determining its development
trajectory. Unfortunately, as the numbers show, this is an area of colossal failure for Pakistan.
Consider the following facts:
Nearly half of Pakistans population cannot read or write. The ratio for females is abysmally
lower, especially for certain parts of Pakistan such as in rural Sindh and Balochistan, where the
ratio for female literacy is 23pc and 16pc respectively.
There are only 13 countries in the world with a lower adult literacy rate than Pakistan,
according to data compiled by the United Nations. These countries include Benin, Burkina
Faso, Chad, Ethiopia, Guinea-Bissau, Sierra Leone and Mali collectively some of the poorest
countries in the world.
Depending on source used, the number of children out of school in Pakistan amounts to
anywhere from seven million to nearly 25 million. The average number of years of schooling
completed is 4.9 years in the case of Pakistan, slightly ahead of Angola and Bangladesh.
In terms of public spending, the combined budget allocation for education by all tiers of
government in Pakistan is the equivalent of around 2pc of GDP. It has stagnated around this
level for the past several years, and remains so despite the passage of Article 25-A of the
Constitution that guarantees the right to free education for every child in Pakistan.
At this level, Pakistan ranks 177th globally in terms of public spending on Education, according
to the Human Development Report 2013 issued by UNDP.
Only seven developing countries in the world have lower public spending on education. These
include Bangladesh, Central African Republic, Dominican Republic, Eritrea, Lebanon, Sri
Lanka and Zambia.
However, as experts and commentators have pointed out time and again, the amount allocated
for education in public budgets is just one element of the issue.
Reforming Education in Pakistan
Sporadic attempts to deal with the education problem have largely failed in Pakistan. Keeping
in view the ground realities following recommendations can be fruitful in this regard.
Formulate a widely accepted common curriculum for schools across the country, both private

and public.
Concerned authorities must be directed to mould the system into one that encourages skill
development and discourages old, unhealthy habits like rote learning.
As the subjects and syllabi are revised, so too must the examination system into one whose
integrity is beyond question.
The proposed modification must make room for children whose work is essential for survival of
their families.
Running dual shifts and accommodating distance learning must therefore be an integral part of
education reform.
Coordinated teachers training programmes should be undertaken to ensure that the quality of
education is not compromised.
A credible school evaluation system like the Office for Standards in Education (Ofsted) in the
UK should be set up to provide independent advice on matters of policy to the government.
This evaluation body should carry out regular inspections of each school, public or private.
Recommendations should be given for improvement in teaching, learning and management of
Vocational and technical education should be encouraged so that what the students learn is
linked to enhancement of their skills.
One of the most important questions that confront education reform planners is the madrassa
system. Their curricula ill should be modernised.
These institutions provide boarding, lodging, education and meals for their students. Thats why
marginalised groups prefer enrolling their children in madrassas. So, similar facilities should be
provided for in mainstream public schools as well.
On the whole, we should be spending eight per cent of our GDP on education annually.
By investing in the children and youth of today, we make an active investment in the Pakistan
of tomorrow.

Democracy in Pakistan
In Pakistan, democracy zigzagged over time. It got overrun by the top brass and it bounced
back only to be pushed aside by the establishment, time and again. It is a sad story of
ambitious generals, inept politicians, docile judges, some weak-kneed civil servants, wayward
youth, insufferable feudal lords, myopic clerics and an ineffectual civil society as well as
international interventions.
Pakistan Affairs Special (October, 2014)
Monday, September 01, 2014

Democracy is when the indigent, and not the men of property, are the rulers.
The best weapon of a dictatorship is secrecy, but the best weapon of a democracy should be the
weapon of openness.
Niels Bohr
Freedom and democracy are dreams you never give up.
Aung San Suu Kyi
It has been said that democracy is the worst form of government except all the others that have
been tried.
Winston Churchill
Democracy arises out of the notion that those who are equal in any respect are equal in all respects;
because men are equally free, they claim to be absolutely equal.
The tyranny of a prince in an oligarchy is not so dangerous to the public welfare as the apathy of a
citizen in a democracy.
Charles de Montesquieu

The term is derived from the Greek dmokrati, which was coined from dmos (people) and
kratos (rule) in the middle of the 5th century BC to denote the political systems then existing in
some Greek city-states, notably Athens.
In essence, democracy implies that the man must take the responsibility for choosing his rulers and
representatives, and for the maintenance of his own 'rights' against the possible and probable
encroachments of the government which he has sanctioned to act for him in public matters. [Ezra
Pound, ABC of Economics, 1933]

Oxford Dictionary
A system of government by the whole population or all the eligible members of a state, typically
through elected representatives.
United Nations
1. Democracy, and democratic governance in particular, means that people's human rights and
fundamental freedoms are respected, promoted and fulfilled, allowing them to live with dignity.
2. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted by the General Assembly in 1948, clearly
projected the concept of democracy by stating the will of the people shall be the basis of the
authority of government.
General Definition
Democracy is a form of government wherein citizens are allowed to govern themselves by letting
them participate in the formulation and passage of laws and in deciding what is best for them. Its
most basic characteristics are freedom and equality.
Democracy is a form of government in which all eligible citizens are meant to participate equally
either directly or, through elected representatives, indirectly in the proposal, development and
establishment of the laws by which their society is run.

Types of Democracy
There are two types:
1. Direct Democracy
2. Representative Democracy

Direct Democracy
It is a type of democracy where the people govern directly. Athenian democracy or classical
democracy refers to a direct democracy.

There are no extant direct democracies. Switzerland is a federation of cantons with elements of
direct democracy.

Representative Democracy
It is a form of government founded on the principle of elected individuals representing the people.
It is an indirect democracy where sovereignty is held by the people's representatives.
Pakistan, USA, India, Bangladesh, Japan and all modern Western-style democracies

Vehicles and Tools of Democracy

1. Supremacy of Constitution
Constitution of the country should be held supreme and it should be implemented in letter and spirit
with no discrimination towards anyone.
2. Political Parties
Political parties are the most important tool to guard the democratic spirit. They should also hold
intraparty elections in order to make sure that young blood is infused into country's body politic.
3. Legislature
Federal as well as provincial legislatures must be efficient so that strategies are carved out to meet
the emerging challenges.
4. Free and Fair Elections
Elections to national as well as provincial legislatures must be conducted after a specified limit. It
helps new people with fresh ideas in taking the country forward on the path of development.
5. Independent Election Commission
An independent election commission is indispensable to conduct free and fair elections.
6. Independent Judiciary
Judiciary should be independent in all respects so that it may dispense justice and ensure the
supremacy of law.
7. Free and Responsible Media
Media is often called the fourth pillar of the state. It points out the flaws, lacunae and misdeeds of
the officials. This helps make every person accountable for his deeds.

8. Vibrant civil society

Civil society should always be vigilant and proactive because their chosen representatives are
answerable to them.

Ingredients of Democracy in Pakistan

Quaid-i-Azam's Views
Democracy is in the blood of Muslamans who look upon complete equality of man. I give you an
example. Very often when I go to a mosque, my chauffeur stands side by side with me. Muslamans
believe in fraternity, equality and liberty.
(Speech at Kingsway Hall, London. 14.12.1946)
There are no people in the world who are more democratic even in their religion than the
Muslamans. (All India Muslim League Session, Lucknow, 1916)
It is my belief that our salvation lies in following the golden rules of conduct set for us by our great
law-giver the Prophet of Islam (Peace Be Upon Him). Let us lay the foundation of our democracy
on the basis of the truly Islamic ideals and principles. Our Almighty has taught us that our decisions
in the affairs of the state shall be guided by discussions and consultations. (Sibi, 14.02.1948)
Constitution of Pakistan
Preamble of the Constitution of Pakistan 1973 articulates the ingredients of democracy to be
functional in Pakistan in the following words:
1. Whereas sovereignty over the entire Universe belongs to Almighty Allah alone, and the authority
to be exercised by the people of Pakistan within the limits prescribed by Him is a sacred trust;
2. And whereas it is the will of the people of Pakistan to establish an order :a. Wherein the State shall exercise its powers and authority through the chosen representatives of
the people;
b. Wherein the principles of democracy, freedom, equality, tolerance and social justice, as
enunciated by Islam, shall be fully observed;
c. Wherein the Muslims shall be enabled to order their lives in the individual and collective
spheres in accordance with the teachings and requirements of Islam as set out in the Holy Quran
and Sunnah;
d. Wherein adequate provision shall be made for the minorities freely to profess and practise
their religions and develop their cultures;
e. Wherein the territories now included in or in accession with Pakistan and such other territories
as may hereafter be included in or accede to Pakistan shall form a Federation wherein the units will
be autonomous with such boundaries and limitations on their powers and authority as may be

f. Therein shall be guaranteed fundamental rights, including equality of status, of opportunity and
before law, social, economic and political justice, and freedom of thought, expression, belief, faith,
worship and association, subject to law and public morality;
g. Wherein adequate provision shall be made to safeguard the legitimate interests of minorities
and backward and depressed classes;
h. Wherein the independence of the judiciary shall be fully secured;
i. Wherein the integrity of the territories of the Federation, its independence and all its rights,
including its sovereign rights on land, sea and air, shall be safeguarded;
3. So that the people of Pakistan may prosper and attain their rightful and honoured place amongst
the nations of the World and make their full contribution towards international peace and progress
and happiness of humanity:
History of Democracy in Pakistan
In Pakistan, democracy zigzagged over time. It got overrun by the top brass and it bounced back
only to be pushed aside by the establishment, time and again.
It is a sad story of ambitious generals, inept politicians, docile judges, some weak-kneed civil
servants, wayward youth, insufferable feudal lords, myopic clerics and an ineffectual civil society
as well as international interventions.
Nevertheless, it merits attention and recognition that among the Muslim states and developing
world, Pakistan is one of those few states, where people have shown vigour and some vitality to
adopt a democratic parliamentary system and through popular mass movements demonstrated
disapproval of military dictatorships.
The passion for democracy continues to resurge, despite ethnic, social class, religious cleavages,
strong authoritarian tendencies and prolonged military rule.
Causes of Failure of Democracy
Causes of failure of democracy in Pakistan lie in our socio-political system. Here are some main
impediments to the growth of democracy in Pakistan:
1. Feudalism
Most people, who get elected, tend to be feudal landlords or the descendants of long deceased holy
men called peers.
2. Illiteracy
The plant of democracy can thrive only where the people are well educated. In Pakistan, a lot of
MPs are illiterate. That's why many of them are mostly yesmen who blindly follow their leaders.
3. Apathetic People

Most people, especially belonging to upper middle class, are completely disinterested in country's
politics. This apathy and indifference leads to the influx of morons in the legislature.
4. No True Leaders
Most of the leaders in Pakistan have been of ordinary stature. No leader should even get closer to
the astuteness and statesmanship of Jinnah and other leaders of that epoch in Pakistan's history.
5. Dynastic Politics
Dynastic democracy, although an oxymoron, has increasingly become an established part of our
political system, and one in which the youthful scions of the rulers see themselves as being gifted
with a divine right to rule because of their 'exalted' birth.
6. Wide Poor-Rich Divide
Our 'elected' leaders hardly visit their constituencies and seldom meet the ordinary citizens. They
show no concern for the welfare of the deprived communities.
7. Intermittent Military Intervention
Military takeovers impede country's progress and development as continuation of democracy is
inevitable if a country wants to get strengthened in all spheres. Pakistan has been under military
rule for a period that far exceeds the democratic governments.
8. Lack of Unity and Visionary leadership
Political leaders of Pakistan always indulge in wrangling for baser interests. They hardly develop
consensus on any issue or challenge faced by the country.
9. Politicians Prioritize Their Vested Interests.
Many of our politicians are accused of getting kickbacks or commissions in government
procurements or development projects.

Getting Democracy Right

Democracy never lasts long. It soon wastes, exhausts and murders itself. There never was a
democracy yet that did not commit suicide.
(John Adams, Second President of the United States)
1. Democracy is not an event or process that can be rushed but rather a journey, involving several
transitional phases.
2. It is not a winner-takes-all system, and requires the creation of a political order that is
participatory and pluralist.
3. It also needs a society that is tolerant, humane and equitable, based on the rule of the majority
but with protection and safeguarding of the rights of minorities.
4. Building institutions is direly needed to sustain democracy.

5. Democratic forces should continually fight the culture of authoritarianism, and the ensuing
political exclusivism, divisiveness and distrust.
6. Democrats are time and again outflanked by autocrats and also by extremist oppositions. They
should stick with the true sense of democracy.
7. Pakistan must continue to nurture the growth of critical thinking and expression, the degree of
intellectual diversity and free discourse.
8. We must not only ensure effective governance but should also allow freedom of thought,
expression, belief, faith and worship.
9. Government has to deliver in terms of reducing poverty and improving the quality of life.
10. Democracy coupled with economic development and the equitable distribution of resources is
the only effective long-term antidote to authoritarianism and anarchy.
11. Judiciary and media are two most important fractions of democracy and both must perform
12. Education at the primary level is the best way to promote democracy because individual
integrity and identity at this level will lead to an improved and far better form of democracy.
13. The process of improvement in the democracy and Pakistani society should begin from the
grass roots level.
14. At this level, promotion of individual integrity and identity will give a boost to a strong
democratic setup.
15. Corruption is the root cause of every failure; we must try to get rid of it first.

Future of Democracy
Democracy has had a rough ride in Pakistan but the essentials, which fortify democracy, are clearly
discernible on the national horizon, such as the civil and the military trust; our democratic ethos;
the agents of change and the end of dynastic politics. Our people desire change in our traditional
politics. An equitable and just social order is demanded, which the true political leadership can
deliver, that would result into a grim struggle against the powerful elite who dominate politics and
power and have proven right the great philosopher, Ibn-e-Khaldun who once said: When the rich
and the powerful gain control of the government, the country declines and decays.
That is where the tipping point is: demanding balance of forces to guide the movement for change,
led by the educated youth of the country. That is the hope for democracy to survive and flourish.

Pakistan the Land of the Pure

The State Emblem of Pakistan, which was approved by the Central Government in 1954,
symbolises Pakistans ideological foundation, its cultural heritage, the guiding principles and
the basis of its economic strength. The four ingredients of the Emblem are: The crescent and
star crest at the top is a traditional symbol of Islam. The shield in the centre, with four
partitions, shows cotton, wheat, tea and jute. These are the main crops of Pakistan and signify
the strong agriculture based economy. The wreath surrounding the shield is a reproduction
of the floral designs used in traditional Mughal art. Its inclusion in the design reminds of the
nations cultural heritage.
Pakistan Affairs Special (October, 2014)
Monday, September 01, 2014

(a) The State Emblem
The State Emblem of Pakistan, which was approved by the Central Government in 1954,
symbolises Pakistans ideological foundation, its cultural heritage, the guiding principles and the
basis of its economic strength.
The four ingredients of the Emblem are:
The crescent and star crest at the top is a traditional symbol of Islam.
The shield in the centre, with four partitions, shows cotton, wheat, tea and jute. These are the main
crops of Pakistan and signify the strong agriculture based economy.
The wreath surrounding the shield is a reproduction of the floral designs used in traditional Mughal
art. Its inclusion in the design reminds of the nations cultural heritage.

National & International MCQs (Aug-Sept 2014)
Pakistan Affairs Special (October, 2014)
Monday, September 01, 2014

MCQs - National
1. On ______, PTI Chairman Imran Khan ordered his supporters to launch a Civil Disobedience
Movement against the government.
A. August 16
B. August 17
C. August 18
D. August 19
2. The incumbent Director General of Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation (PBC) is ______.
A. Saira Afzal
B. Salman Iqbal
C. Pervez Rashid
D. Samina Pervez
3. On Aug 18, India called off the upcoming meeting of foreign secretaries of both countries
because of Pakistani high commissioner's meeting with a Hurriyat leader ______.
A. Syed Ali Gilani
B. Yasin Malik
C. Shabir Shah D. Azhar Bhat
4. Major General Asim Saleem Bajwa is the present Director General of ______.
5. On Aug 20, Khwaja Shahad Ahmed took over as Chairman of ______.

6. The Azad Jammu and Kashmir Public Service Commission (AJKPSC) comprises a chairman and
______ members.
A. 7
B. 9
C. 11
D. 13
7. The Earthquake Memorial Bridge on the banks of the River Jhelum was funded by______.
A. World Bank
B. Asian Development Bank
C. Japan Bank of International Cooperation (JBIC)
D. Pak China Investment Company
8. PTI's parliamentary leader in the National Assembly, before they submitted resignations, was
A. Imran Khan B. Javed Hashmi
C. Murad Saeed
D. Shah Mehmood Qureshi
9. The incumbent Chairman of Port Qasim Authority (PQA) is ______.
A. Agha Jan Akhtar
B. Saeed Ahmed Khan
C. Mir Afsar Din Talpur
D. Rear Admiral Syed Afzal
10. Pakistan Navy inducted a second batch of Alouette Helicopters into its Fleet Air Arm on
A. August 18
B. August 22
C. August 24
D. August 27
11. On Aug 23, ______ registered a treason case against Pakistan's High Commissioner, Mr Abdul
A. Nepal
B. Sri Lanka
C. Afghanistan D. India
12. On Aug 26, a financing agreement of $588.4 million signed with the World Bank, related to
development of ______.
A. Tarbela De-silting Project
B. Attabad Lake
C. Dasu Hydropower Project
D. Manda Dam
13. The VC of Islamia University Peshawar, Prof Ajmal Khan, was kidnapped by Taliban militants
in ______.
A. 2010
B. 2011
C. 2012
D. 2013

14. The current Speaker of Balochistan Assembly is ______.

A. Mir Jan Mohammad Jamali
B. Abdul Rahim Ziaratwal
C. Kiramatullah Chaghar Matti
D. Mir Abdul Qudoos Bizenjo
15. European Union lifted the temporary cargo ban imposed on Pakistan International Airlines
(PIA) cargo shipments to Europe on ______.
A. Aug 24
B. Aug 25
C. Aug 26
D. Aug 28
16. On Aug 29, PIA became the ______ airline in South Asia to acquire the approval of the Air
Navigation Order (ANO) 145 and 147.
A. First
B. Second
C. Third
D. Seventh
17. The headquarters of Pakistan Television (PTV) was attacked by a mob of PTI and PAT
protesters on _______.
A. Aug 29
B. Aug 30
C. Aug 31
D. Sep 01
18. The headquarters of Pakistan Television Corporation is located in ______.
A. Karachi
B. Lahore
C. Quetta
D. Islamabad
19. Justice Qazi Faaiz Essa, who was appointed as judge in the Supreme Court on Sep 01, was
previously serving as the chief justice of _____ High Court.
A. Sindh
B. Balochistan
C. Peshawar
D. Islamabad
20. On Sep 01, the ______ approved $47.95 for Pakistan under the Enhanced Nutrition for Mothers
and Children project.
B. World Bank
21. International Vulture Awareness Day is celebrated on ______.
A. Sep 04
B. Sep 06
C. Sep 08
D. Sep 10
22. International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) is headquartered at ______.
A. Geneva, Switzerland
B. Gland, Switzerland
C. Rome, Italy
D. Milan, Italy
23. On Sep 11, the Balochistan Rural Support Programme (BRSP) launched a water management

programme in district ______ with the assistance of the Federal Republic of Germany.
A. Zhob
B. Qila Abdullah
C. Awaran
D. Quetta
24. International Day of Democracy is observed annually on ______.
A. Sep 06
B. Sep 08
C. Sep 12
D. Sep 14
25. The incumbent IGP Sindh is ______.
A. Fayyaz Leghari
B. Iqbal Mehmood
C. Ghulam Qadir Thebo
D. Ghulam Haider Jamali
26. The Pakistan Ex-Servicemen Association is headed by ______.
A. Fasih Bukhari
B. Ahmed Tasnim
C. Aslam Baig D. Hameed Gul

1. On Aug 19, ______ of Pakistan was appointed on the panel of advisers to the Commission on
Missing Persons and War Crimes set up by the Sri Lankan government ______.
A. Ahmer Bilal Soofi
B. Adil Gilani
C. Asma Jahangir
D. Ch Aitzaz Ahsan
2. According to the ranking compiled by China's Shanghai Jiao Tong University, the US has
______ universities in the list of world's top 500 universities.
A. 66
B. 87
C. 146
D. 158
3. The top spot in the annual Academic Ranking of World Universities was retained by ______
A. Stanford
B. Cambridge
C. California
D. Harvard
4. India's former premier Manmohan Singh had been the Finaice Minister of the country during
A. 1985-90
B. 1991-96
C. 1997-2002
D. 2002-05
5. On Aug 21, the Indian government blocked the release of a controversial film, ______, based on
the assassination of former premier Indira Gandhi.
A. Veeran Naal Sardari

B. Kirpaan: The Sword of Honour

C. Kaum De Heere
D. Fateh
6. Indira Gandhi launched Operation Blue Star against Sikhs in ______.
A. 1978
B. 1980
C. 1981
D. 1984
7. The current Prime Minister of Turkey is ______.
A. Recep Tayyip Erdogan
B. Ahmet Davutoglu
C. Abdullah Gl
D. Blent Arn
8. The headquarters of Facebook is located in ______.
A. California
B. New Jersey
C. Chicago
D. New York
9. Navi Pillay, the longest serving United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, is
replaced by Prince Zeid bin Ra'ad who belongs to ______.
A. Jordan
B. Egypt
C. Saudi Arabia D. Iraq
10. Prince Zeid bin Ra'ad is the Muslim United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights.
A. First
B. Second
C. Third
D. Fourth
11. The Pentagon is located in ______.
A. Virginia
B. Washington DC
C. New York
D. Ohio
12. According to a report by UN Human Rights Commission, nearly ______ Syrians have been
killed since the country fell into conflict in 2011.
A. 100,000
B. 150,000
C. 200,000
D. 300,000
13. French Prime Minister Manuel Valls presented his government's resignation on ______.
A. Aug 25
B. Aug 28
C. Aug 29
D. Aug 31
14. On Aug 25, ______ won the award for Video of the Year for her hit single Wrecking Ball,
at the 2014 MTV Video Music Awards______.
A. Demi Lovato B. Miley Cyrus
C. Beyonc
D. Selena Gomez
15. The headquarters of the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) is located in ______.

A. New York City

C. Bonn

B. Geneva
D. Berlin

16. Petro Poroshenko is the president of ______.

A. Serbia
B. Croatia
C. Luxemburg D. Ukraine
17. Israel and Palestine concluded a long-term ceasefire that marked the ending of 50 days of the
deadliest violence in a decade on ______.
A. Aug 22
B. Aug 23
C. Aug 25
D. Aug 26
18. Anitkabir mausoleum is the final resting place of ______.
A. Maulana Rumi
B. Mustafa Kamal Ataturk
C. Osmani King Saleem
D. lk Adatepe
19. Conference of Western Balkan States was held on Aug 28 in ______, Germany.
A. Berlin
B. Bonn
C. Essen
D. Cologne
20. Recep Tayyip Erdogan was sworn in as Turkey's president on ______.
A. Aug 26
B. Aug 28
C. Aug 30
D. Sep 04
21. On Aug 29, the United States delivered an emergency shipment of weapons to ______.
A. Lebanon
B. Syrian Rebels
C. Israel
D. Egypt
22. Antnio Guterres is the______, and the present, UN High Commissioner for Refugees.
A. 10th
B. 12th
C. 15th
D. 20th
23. On Sep 02, ______ unveiled a new surface-to-air missile, Talash-3, and two radar systems to
improve its defences.
A. India
B. Bangladesh
C. Iran
D. Pakistan
24. According to WHO, the world's most suicide-prone country is ______.
A. Suriname
B. Lithuania
C. Nepal
D. Guyana
25. On Sep 12, former commander of American forces in Afghanistan, ______ was appointed
coordinator of the international effort against the Islamic State.
A. Ray Robinson
B. John Allen

C. John Goodman D. John Kelly

26. The current Director-General of the Geneva-based World Health Organization (WHO) is
A. Sweden Anders Nordstrm
B. Lee Jong-wook
C. Margaret Chan
D. Hiroshi Nakajima
27. At present, the SCO observer countries are______, Pakistan and India.
A. Maldives
B. Iran
C. Sri Lanka
D. Bangladesh
28. The Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) comprises ______ members, 5 Observers, 3
Dialogue Partners and 3 Guests.
A. 6
B. 8
C. 10
D. 12
29. Erriadh village, also known as the 'Island of Dreams', is in ______.
A. Tunisia
B. Maldives
C. Egypt
D. Thailand
30. Indonesia got independence from _____ on 17 August 1945.
A. France
B. Great Britain
C. Russia
D. Netherlands
31. The ______ Amendment to the US Constitution guaranteed women the right of suffrage.
A. 19th
B. 20th
C. 21st
D. 22nd
32. The world's largest shipping company, Moller-Maersk, is a ______ business conglomerate.
A. Russian
B. British
C. Danish
D. Japanese
33. The Geneva Convention of 1864 for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and
Sick of Armies in the Field was adopted by ______ nations during meeting in Geneva.
A. 12
B. 14
C. 57
D. 63

1. On Aug 17, England defeated ______ to win the fifth Test, and clinch the series 3-1.
A. Pakistan
B. Australia
C. India
D. Sri Lanka
2. On Aug 18, the Swiss ace, Roger Federer, won his record______ championship in Cincinnati.

A. Third
C. Fifth

B. Fourth
D. Sixth

3. On Aug 18, former diplomat Shaharyar Khan became the ______ chairman of the PCB.
A. 28th
B. 30th
C. 34th
D. 36th
4. Shaharyar Khan previously had held the post between December 2003 and October ______.
A. 2004
B. 2005
C. 2006
D. 2007
5. In second edition of the Youth Olympic Games swimming programme, a total of ______ new
World Junior records were established.
A. 20
B. 26
C. 29
D. 32
6. On Aug 26, West Indian players, Denesh Ramdin and Darren Bravo, put on 258 runs to make a
new record for ______ wicket partnership in an ODI.
A. First
B. Second
C. Third
D. Fourth
7. On Aug 28, Wayne Rooney, was named as captain of ______ Football Team.
A. France
B. England
C. Argentina
D. Spain
8. On Sep 07, Japan's Kei Nishikori became the _____ Asian man to make a Grand Slam final in
the US Open.
A. First
B. Second
C. Third
D. Fourth
9. On Sep 08, ______ twins Bob and Mike Bryan became the first doubles pair to win 100 titles in
A. Danish
B. American
C. Canadian
D. British
10. On Sep 08, Serena Williams defeated ______ to win a third consecutive US Open
A. Maria Sharapova
B. Li Na
C. Caroline Wozniacki
D. Ana Ivanovic

1. Pakistan's first-ever world champion in any sport, squash star Hashim Khan, died on ______.
A. Aug 16
B. Aug 18

C. Aug 19

D. Aug 22

2. Former Irish prime minister, Albert Reynolds, who helped broker the IRA ceasefire in ______,
has died.
A. 1990
B. 1994
C. 1996
D. 1997
3. Famous ______ actor and film director Richard Attenborough, who appeared in films such as
Brighton Rock, The Great Escape and Jurassic Park, died on August 25.
A. American
B. Iranian
C. Canadian
D. British
4. Former Sindh Ombudsman Yusuf Jamal, who died on Sep 07, made a record by securing the
highest marks in the CSP examination in which he appeared in ______.
A. 1963
B. 1965
C. 1973
D. 1978
5. Acclaimed Indian writer Udupi Rajagopalacharya Ananthamurthy, who was famed for his novels
and poems in ______ language, died on August 22.
A. Bangla
B. Kannada
C. Tamil
D. Hindi
6. Dr Masood Baig, who was killed on ______ was a visiting faculty member in University of
A. Sep 06
B. Sep 07
C. Sep 09
D. Sep 10
7. Joan Alexandra Molinsky, a.k.a. Joan Rivers, was an ______ actress, comedian, writer, producer,
and television host.
A. American
B. British
C. French
D. Canadian
8. Parveen Saeed Haroon, the mother of Dawn Media Group CEO Hameed Haroon, passed away
on ______.
A. Sep 08
B. Sep 10
C. Sep 12
D. Sep 14
9. Dr S.M. Rab, the longest serving ______ of the country, passed away on Sep 15.
A. Scientist
B. Minister
C. Physician
D. Bureaucrat
Muhammad Usman Butt

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