Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 14

Agricultural Scenario in

Andhra Pradesh
DIVYA
BODDU
090202420
07 MBA-AB
09-11
AGRICULTURAL
INTRODUCTION ECONOMICS
ASSIGNMENT
Agriculture is the bedrock of the State’s economy. Out of the total
population, over 72.7% live in rural areas seeking their livelihood from
Agriculture and allied sectors. Andhra Pradesh “the bejewelled rice bowl
ON
of India”. It is the largest and the most populous state. Agriculture is the
major source of income to the State’s economy. Two important rivers of
India, the Godavari , and Krishna, flow through the State providing
irrigation. Andhra Pradesh is agrarian in character, and it is considered as
the most progressive state w.r.t. agricultural development, maintaining
high levels of crop production compared to other states.

Around 13.4% contribution of advance estimates at constant prices of the


state GDP is from Agriculture during 08-09 and 15.4% during 07-08,
whereas at current prices 14% during 08-09 and 15.5% in 07-08.
Agriculture in AP provides employment to 65% of the population.

RAINFALL SCENARIO
Agriculture in Andhra Pradesh is mostly dependent on rainfall.
Agricultural production depends upon the seasonal distribution of
rainfall. In the State, South-West and North-East Monsoons are the
two important periodic winds, which are the important sources of
the rain. South-West Monsoon (66%) is spread over the period
from June to September and North-East Monsoon (24%) (From
October to December).

The normal annual rainfall of the State is 940 m.m. Major portion
(66%) of rainfall is contributed by South-West Monsoon (June-
Sept) followed by (24%) North-East Monsoon (Oct-Dec). The rest
10% of the rainfall is received during the winter and summer
months.

The Normal rainfall distribution in the three regions of the State


differs with the season and Monsoon. The influence of South-West
Monsoon is predominant in Telangana region (716m.m) followed
by Coastal Andhra (620 m.m) and Rayalaseema (407 m.m),
whereas the North-East Monsoon provides high amount of rainfall
in Coastal Andhra area (324 m.m) followed by Rayalaseema (238
m.m) and Telangana (129 m.m). There are no significant
differences in Normal distribution of rainfall during winter and hot
weather periods among three regions. The State receives major portion
of its rainfall from South-West Monsoon. The season-wise decadal rainfall is as
follows:
S.N South-West North-East Monsoon including Winter and Hot Weather Total Rainfall
YEAR
o Monsoon period (in mm)
% % Norma Actua %
Normal Actual Normal Actual
dev dev l l dev
1 1966-67 600 643 7 290 305 5 891 947 6

2 1976-77 602 673 -12 293 352 20 895 1025 15

3 1986-87 602 597 -1 294 271 -8 896 868 -3


4 1996-97 634 737 16 291 373 28 925 1109 20
5 2005-06 624 690 11 316 457 45 940 1147 22

6 2006-07 624 627 0.5 316 231 -27 940 858 -9


+1
7 2007-08 624 747 +20 316 333 +5 940 1080
5
2008-
8 624 666 +7 274 149 -45 898 815 -9
09(*)
(*) (from 1.6.08 to 1.4.09)

LAND UTILIZATION

The total geographical area of the State is 275.04 lakh hectares. Out of the total
geographical area, net area sown, 22.6 percent is under forests, 9.8 percent is
under current fallow lands, 9.6 percent is under non-agricultural uses and 7.5
percent is under barren and uncultivable land. During the year 2007-08, the net
area sown is increased to 108.43 lakh ha.(5.9%)from 102.39 lakh ha. during
2006-07. This is attributed to favourable seasonal conditions prevailed in the
State during 2007-08.

The decadal land utilization particulars are given below:

% to total
Sl. 1966- 1976- 1986- 1996- 2005- 2006- 2007-
Category geographical
No. 67 77 87 97 06 07 08
area to 2007-08
1 Geographical Area 274.40 274.40 274.40 274.40 274.40 275.04 275.04 100.0
2 Forest 61.17 63.82 58.35 62.45 61.99 61.10 62.10 22.6
Barren & Uncultivable
3 20.83 22.87 22.68 20.83 20.84 20.97 20.59 7.5
land
Land put to Non
4 20.56 21.04 22.60 24.72 26.15 25.91 26.37 9.6
Agricultural uses
5 Cultivable Wastes 13.74 9.56 8.64 7.22 6.92 6.95 6.59 2.4
6 Permanent Pastures 11.57 9.72 8.81 7.63 6.76 6.02 5.71 2.1
7 Land under Misc 3.05 2.73 2.64 2.47 2.78 3.20 3.06 1.1
8 Other fallow lands 8.66 12.16 14.96 15.47 16.23 15.83 15.00 5.5
9 Current Fallow lands 21.74 26.47 35.23 24.43 24.34 31.66 27.19 9.8
10 Net Area Sown 113.43 106.02 100.47 108.34 108.39 102.29 108.43 39.4
Source: Director of Economics & Statistics, Hyderabad.

LAND HOLDINGS

Agriculture production depends, to a considerable extent, upon


the size of the unit of cultivation. The data on land holdings in
the State was collected from1970-71 through Agricultural
Census. According to the census, the average size of the land
holding per farmer in the State as per the Census of 1995-96
(1.36 hectares), 2000-01 (1.25 hectares), 2005-06 was at 1.20
hectares and the same is likely to fall below due to further
fragmentation of the family holdings, since more than 70% of
rural population is dependent on Agriculture only. Hence it is
difficult to implement any innovative practice or organize
marketing of the produce on a collective basis from such small
holdings particularly under rain fed conditions.
The distribution of land holdings and area according to different size classes is
shown below.

% %
No. of holdings % to
Area operated
variation variation Average Average
% to total total
Category of no.of of area size of size of
holdings area
of size Holdings operated holding holding
group 2000- 2005- for 2005- in 05-06 2000- 2005- of in 05-06 (ha) for (ha) for
01 06 06 01 06 2005-
over over 2000-01 2005-06
06
2000-01 2000-01

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

Marginal 7023 7418 62 5.62 3104 3290 23 5.98 0.44 0.44

Small 2518 2639 22 0.81 3565 3731 26 4.67 1.42 1.41

Semi-
1424 1444 12 1.42 3795 3834 26 1.02 2.67 2.66
Medium

Medium 501 487 4 -2.75 2855 2757 19 -3.46 5.7 5.66

Large 66 56 0 -15.13 1080 877 6 -18.7 16.3 15.64

ALL 11532 12044 100 4.44 14400 14489 100 0.62 1.25 1.2

The total number of operational holdings in the State are found


to be 120.44 lakhs covering an area of 144.89 lakh hectares as
against 115.32 lakh holdings in 2000-01 census and thereby
accounting for an increase of 4.44 percent.
The area operated showed a marginal increase of 0.62 percent
from 144.89 lakh hectares in 2005-06 to 143.99 lakh hectares
in 2000-01. The average size of holdings in the State was 1.25
hectares in 2000-01 and declined showing 4% to 1.20 hectares
in 2005-06.

SOILS
Andhra Pradesh is endowed with a variety of soils ranging from poor
coastal sands to highly fertile deltaic alluviums. Red soils occupy over
66% of the cultivated area and are mostly situated in Rayalaseema
districts. These soils have a low nutrient status. Red earths which are
commonly termed as Red soils can be sub-classified as (a) Dubba soils
(loamy sands to sandy loams) (b) Chalkas (Sandy loam soils) (c) Sandy
clay loams (d) Loams including silty soils (e) Deep loamy sands and (f)
Sandy loams with clay subsoil. Chalkas occur mostly in the Telangana
districts while red loams combined with sands are present in the upland
regions of coastal districts.

Black soils cover nearly 25% of the cultivated area and are generally
associated with poor drainage. They are also called as Regurs or
Vertisols and are of two types. The first category is in-situ soils while
the other one is transported soils. While the first category can be
noticed in the Coastal districts and parts of Telangana and
Rayalaseema, the second category occur in the valley regions of the
slopes with calcareous concentrations. The in-situ soils are generally
heavy in texture and high in salt concentration.

The alluvial loamy clay soils found in Krishna and Godavari deltas cover
5% of the cultivated area. The coastal sands occupy only 3% while the
remaining 1% is covered by laterite soils in certain pockets of the
State.

IRRIGATION
The gross area irrigated by all sources in the State during the
year 2007-08 is increased to 62.85 lakh hectares from 60.69
lakh ha during 2006-07, which is the increase 4% over 2006-
07. The increase is showing under all sources of irrigation
except tanks and other sources. The Net area under irrigated
also increased to 46.44 lakh ha. in 07-08 from 44.52 lakh ha
during 2006-07.
Source-wise irrigation

Gross irrigated area Net irrigated area


Sl. No. Source of irrigation
2007-08 2006-07 2007-08 2006-07
1 Canals 22.50 22.98 16.10 16.22
2 Tanks 6.69 6.96 5.85 6.02
3 Wells 31.74 28.91 22.87 20.73
4 Other sources 1.92 1.84 1.62 1.55
Total 62.85 60.69 46.44 44.52

The net area irrigated in the State increased to 46.44 lakh ha.
during 2007-08 from 44.52 lakh ha. during 2006-07. Net area
irrigated during 2007-08 under wells accounted a share of 49
% (22.87 lakh ha.), followed by canals 35% (16.10 lakh ha.)
and tanks 13%(5.85 lakh ha) and other sources accounted a
share of 3% (1.62 lakh ha.). About 64.82 lakh ha was area
covered under irrigated conditions during the year 2008-09.
3.13 % increased over 2007-08 due to brought the irrigated
areas through the projects through JALAYAGNAM .

Gross Irrigated Areas During Net Irrigated Areas During


2007-08 2007-08

AGRO-CLIMATIC REGIONS
Based on the climate parameters i.e., rainfall and temperature,
the State is broadly divided into 9 distinct Agro-Climatic Zones.
The agriculture planning for each zone is supported with the
research and recommendations of a Regional Agriculture Research
Station of ANGRAU set up with in the particular zone.

In an attempt to plan the agricultural operations in much more


focused way, these 9 agro climatic zones have been divided into
322 farming situations, which are unique in terms of micro-
environment and need specific practices under each situation.

No. of
Sl. head Geographic No. of
Name of Res.
No Districts quarter al area mandal
the Zone Stations
. s (lakh ha) s
.
North Srikakulam, Vizianagaram, Anakapal
1 18.5 88 5
Coastal Zone Visakhapatnam le
Godavari
2 East Godavari, West Godavari Maruteru 17.5 96 6
Zone
3 Krishna Zone Krishna, Guntur, Prakasam Lam 37.70 161 12
Southern
4 Chittoor, Kadapa, Nellore Tirupati 41.70 161 8
Zone
Northern
Karimnagar, Nizamabad,
5 Telangana Jagtial 35.50 144 6
Adilabad
Zone
Central
6 Telangana Warangal, Khammam, Medak Warangal 30.60 132 7
Zone
Southern
Mahbubnagar, Nalgonda,
7 Telangana Palem 39.30 164 6
Rangareddy (+ Hyderabad)
Zone
Scarce
8 Kurnool, Anantapur Nandyal 36.2 117 5
Rainfall zone
High Altitude & Tribal Areas of
High Altitude
Srikakulam, Visakhapatnam, Chintapal
9 & Tribal 18.0 40 3
East Godavari, Khammam and li
Areas Zone
Adilabad districts
Total 275.00 1103 58

CROPPING SCENARIO
i) SEASON AND CROP WISE AREA (AREA IN LAKH HECTARES)
II)CROP WISE SEASON WISE PRODUCTION (PRODUCTION IN LAKH
TONNES)
III)CROP WISE PRODUCTIVITY (KG/HA)
IV) PROJECTED FIGURES FOR 09-10
VARIOUS SCHEMES AVAILABLE
ii) Farm Mechanisation
iii) ISOPOM- Integrated Scheme Of Oilseeds, Pulses, Oil Palm And
Maize
iv) ICDP- Integrated Cereals Development Programme(Rice)
v) ICDP-Coarse Cereals
vi) Technology Mission On Cotton Under Mini Mission II
vii) Jute Technology Mission Under Mini Mission II (Mesta)
viii) Agriculture Credit
ix) Crop Insurance
x) Polambadi
xi) ATMA-Agricultural Technology Management Agency
xii) Media Production
xiii) NWDPRA-National Watershed Development Programme for Rain fed
Areas
xiv) RVP- River Valley Project
xv) Natural Calamities
xvi) RKVY- Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana
xvii) NFSM-National Food Security Mission
xviii) Agriculture Intensification & Diversification of APWSIP in Nagarjuna
Project
xix) SAMETI-State Agriculture Management and Extension Training Institute

QUALITY CONTROL MEASURES


Seeds Act, 1966

Seeds Rules, 1968

Seeds (Control) Order 1983

Protection of Plant Varieties and Farmers Rights Act, 2001

Environmental Protection Act, 1986

Environmental Protection Rules, 1986

Rules for the Manufacture, Use/Import/Export and Storage of hazardous micro


organisms /Genetically Engineered organisms or cells, 1989
AP Cotton Seeds (Regulation of supply, Distribution, Sale and fixation of sale
price) Act, 2007
AP Cotton Seeds (Regulation of supply, Distribution, Sale and fixation of sale
price) Rules, 2007

Essential Commodities Act 1955

Fertilizer (Control) Order 1985

Insecticides Act, 1968

Insecticides Rules, 1971

Dangerous Machines (Regulation) Act, 1983

Dangerous Machines (Regulation) Rules, 2007

Central Rules, Namely the Dangerous Machines (Regulation) Rules, 1984

REFERENCES

www.agri.ap.nic.in
www.agristat.com
www.wikipedia.com
www.scribd.com
www.nabard.org