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CLCULO VECTORIAL

CAPTULO I

INTRODUCCIN

SESIN 8

CURVA SUAVE DE RAPIDEZ UNITARIA


u' ( s) = 1

s: longitud de arco

TORSIN
PARA CURVAS REGULARES

dB
ds
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INTRODUCCIN

INTRODUCCIN

T ( s ) = K ( s ) N ( s )

B(s).T(s) = 0

B ( s ) T ( s ) = K ( s ) B ( s ) N ( s )

B ( s ) T ( s ) + B ( s ) T ( s ) = 0

B ( s ) T ( s ) = 0

B ( s ) T ( s ) = B ( s ) T ( s )

B ( s ) ortogonal T ( s )

B ( s ) T ( s ) = K ( s ) B ( s ) N ( s )

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INTRODUCCIN
B( s) = 1 B( s)

B( s ) ortogonal T ( s )

B( s ) ortogonal B ( s )

2 B ( s ) B (S ) = 0

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INTRODUCCIN

= 1 B( s) B (s) = 1,

B ( s ) ortogonal B ( s )

(1)

(1)

( 2)

B ( s ) es paralelo N ( s )

( 2)

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INTRODUCCIN

INTRODUCCIN

B ( s ) es paralelo N ( s )

Recta Binormal

no te
Pla ican
f
i
t
ec

P0

t
ec

ge
an
aT

nte

N
O s Pl a n
cu o
lad
o

Existe
Plan
N or m o
al

Re

cta

No
rm

(s) : TORSION DE LA CURVA

B( s ) = ( s ) N ( s)
al

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Torsin de la curva (s)

DEFINICION

B( s ) = ( s ) N ( s )

Sea C una curva suave de rapidez


unitaria

( s) = B( s)

B( s) = ( s) N ( s)
( s ) : TORSION DE LA CURVA EN EL PUNTO P

La torsin mide la rapidez con que una curva se


aleja de su plano osculador en el punto P.
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Torsin de la curva

(s )

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10

Torsin para una curva suave y de


rapidez unitaria

B( s) = ( s) N ( s)
(s ) =

( s ) = B ( s ) N ( s )

[ u' ( s) u' ' ( s)] u' ' ' ( s)


u' ' ( s)

s: funcin longitud de arco


Calculo Vectorial, Claudio Pita Ruiz. Pgina 528
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EJEMPLO 1

Solucin: vector binormal


x = arctan s

u( s ) = y = 22 ln (s 2 + 1)
z = s arctan s

Sea C la curva suave de rapidez unitaria,


definida por
x = arctan s

u(s ) = y = 22 ln (s 2 + 1)
z = s arctan s

B ( s) =

B ( s) =

Determine el vector Binormal y la Torsin


de C.
ROSA IQUE ALVAREZ

13

Solucin: vector binormal


1
(1 + s ) ( s ,
2

2 s, 1

u( s) =

u( s) =

1
1, 2 s, s 2
1+ s2
1

(1 + s )

u( s) =

2 2

15

[ u' ( s) u' ' ( s)] u' ' ' ( s)


u' ' ( s)

(1 + s )

2 3

u(s ) =

2, 2 2 s 3 3s ,2 6s 2

ROSA IQUE ALVAREZ

B( 0) = (0, 0, 1) = k

-1
3

2
1+ s2

B( 2) = (0,8; 0,57; 0,2 )


2
1

4
2

0
0

Y
-1 -2

curvaregular5

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SOLUCIN
u( s ) =

(6s

( 2 s, 2 (1 s ),2s)

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(s ) =

2 s, 1

B( 2) = (0,8; 0,57; 0,2)

SOLUCIN

Curva
u(0)
u(2)
Vector Binormal

1
B(2) = 4, 2 2 ,1
5

u(2) = (1,11; 1,14; 0,89 0)

)(s ,

14

Solucin

B( 0) = ( 0, 0, 1) = k

u(0) = (0, 0, 0)

1
1+ s2

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B( s) =

u' (s ) x u' ' ( s )


u' ' ( s )

(1 + s )

2 3

(6 s

[u( s)x u( s)] u(s) =

)
17

2, 2 2 s 3 3s ,2 6s 2

2 2

(1 + s )

2 3

ROSA IQUE ALVAREZ

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x = arctan s

u( s ) = y = 22 ln s 2 + 1
z = s arctan s

Solucin: Torsin
(s) =

( s) =

[ u' ( s) u'' (s)] u'' ' (s )


u' ' ( s)

(s) =

u(0) = (0, 0, 0),

19

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2
1 + s2

u(0) = (0, 0, 0),

2
= 0,28
5
1
B(2) = 4, 2 2 ,1
5

u(2) = (1,11; 1,14; 0,89), (2) =

21

2 s, 1

2
(s ) =
1+ s2

22

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Curva
u(0)
u(2)
Vector Binormal

3
2
Z

1
B(1) = 1, 2 ,1
2
1
B(2) = 4, 2 2 ,1
5
1
B(3) =
9, 3 2 ,1
10

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(0) = 2 = 1, 41

B(0) = (0, 0,1) = k

(
(

Solucin

RESUMEN
2

(0) = 2 = 1,41
B (0) = k

(0) = 2 = 1,41

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x = arctan s

u( s ) = y = 22 ln (s 2 + 1)
z = s arctan s

RESUMEN

2
u(2) = (1,11; 1,14; 0,89), (2) =
= 0,28
5

)( s ,

2
1+ s 2

lim ( s ) = 0

2
1+ s2

Solucin: Torsin

1
(1 + s2

( s) =

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B( s ) =

2
= 0.71
2
2
(2) =
= 0, 28
5
2
(3) =
= 0,14
10
(1) =

B(0) = ( 0, 0,1) = k

1
0

u(0) = (0, 0, 0) , (0) = 1, 41

-1
3

B( 2) = ( 0,8; 0,57 ; 0,2)

2
1

4
2

0
0

Y
-1 -2
23

u(2) = (1,11; 1,14; 0,89), (2) = 0, 28

curvaregular5

X
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CURVA SUAVE DE RAPIDEZ


ARBITRARIA

Curva
u(0)
u(1)
u(2)
u(3)
Vector Binormal

3
2.5
2

(0) = 2 = 1,41

1.5

dB dB 1
=
ds dt ds
dt

dB dB dt
=
ds dt ds

2
= 0.71
2
2
(2) =
= 0,28
5
2
(3) =
= 0,14
10
(1) =

0.5
0
-0.5
2.5
2

2.5

1.5

2
1.5

0.5

0.5
0

0
Y

-0.5
-0.5

-1

curvaregular5

B(t )
dB B(t )
=
=
ds
s(t )
r (t )

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25

CURVA SUAVE DE RAPIDEZ


ARBITRARIA

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CURVA SUAVE DE RAPIDEZ


ARBITRARIA

B(t )
dB B(t )
=
=
ds
s(t )
r (t )
(t ) =

(t ) =

B(t )
r (t )

[r' (t ) r' ' (t )] r' '' (t )

27

EJEMPLO 2

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Solucin

Dada la ecuacin de siguiente curva


regular
3

T (t ) =

Determine los vectores que


conforman el triedro mvil y calcule
la Torsin de C.
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r' (t ) r' ' (t )

Calculo Vectorial, Claudio Pita Ruiz. Pgina 529

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t
C : r ( t ) = 2 t , t 2 ,
3

26

T (t ) =
29

28

Vector Tangente

r' ( t )
r' ( t )

(2 , 2 t , t )
2

t2 + 2

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Vector Binormal

Solucin

r' ( t ) x r' ' ( t )


r' ( t ) x r' ' ( t )

B (t ) =

(t

B (t ) =

N (t ) = B (t ) x T (t )
N (t ) =

, 2t, 2
t2 + 2

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Solucin
TRIEDRO MOVIL

N (t ) =

( 2t

t3
C : r ( t ) = 2 t , t 2 ,
3

(t ) =

B (t ) =

(t

(t

+2

, 2t , 2
t2 + 2

(t ) =

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r' (t ) r' ' (t )

(t

(t ) =

(t

32

+ 2)

Solucin

lim (t ) = 0
t

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+ 2)

33

Grafica de la Torsion de C

[r' (t ) r' ' (t )] r' ' ' (t )

t + 2

4 t ; t 4 + 4; 2 t 3 + 4 t

+ 2

Solucin: Torsin

(t

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( 2t

4 t ; t 4 + 4; 2t 3 + 4 t

31

(2 , 2 t , t )

T (t ) =

Vector Normal Principal

Solucin

34

C : r (t ) = 2t , t 2 ,

0.5

t3
3

0.45

0.4

Torsion

r(t)

0 P0(0, 0, 0)

0.35

T(t)

N(t)

B(t)

Torsin

(1,0,0)

(0,1,0)

(0,0,1)

=0.5

1
( 2, 2, 1)
3

1
( 2, 1, 2)
3

1
(1, 2, 2 )
3

2/9=0.2

1
( 2, 1, 2)
3

1
( 2, 2, 1)
3

1/18=0.06

0.3

1 P1(2, 1, 1/3)

0.25
0.2

2 P2(4, 4, 8/3)

0.15

1
(1, 2, 2)
3

0.1
0.05
-2

-1.5

-1

-0.5

0
t

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0.5

1.5

35

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VECTORES BINORMALES

VECTORES BINORMALES,PLANOS
OSCULADORES y TORSIN

Curva
puntos
Binormal

(0) = 0.5
(1) = 0.2
(2) = 0.06

r(2)

0
-2
10

(0) = 0,5
(1) = 0, 2
( 2) = 0,06

r(1)
r(0)

t=2

-2
8

t=1
6

0
Y

t=0

-5

-2

0
-2

-2

curvaregular8
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Torsin:

38

Vector Tangente y Binormal de


la Espiral Circular

EJEMPLO 3 ESPIRAL CIRCULAR


r (t ) = (a cos t , a sent , bt ), t [0, 6 ]
Curvatura:

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r (t ) = (a cos t , a sent , bt ), t [0, 6 ]

K (t ) = a 2 +b 2
a

(t ) =

b
a2 + b2

T (t ) =
La torsin depende
del signo de b

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B (t ) =
39

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, cos t ,1
2

, b cos t , a
a +b
2

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B (t ) =

( sent

40

Hlice Circular

, cos t ,1
2

20

15

sent , cos t , 1 )
2

( sent

( bsent

Caso I: a = b= 1

Caso I: a = b= 1

B (t ) =

a2 + b2

r (t ) = (a cos t , asent, bt ), t [0, 6 ]

r (t ) = ( a cos t , asent , bt ), t [0, 6 ]

T (t ) =

a sent , a cos t , b )

TORSIN DE LA ESPIRAL CIRCULAR

Vector Tangente y Binormal de


la Espiral Circular

b
(t ) = 2 2
a +b

10

0
1
0.5

1
0.5

1
(t ) = > 0
2
41

-0.5
Y

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-0.5
-1

-1

42

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r (t ) = (cos t , sent , t ), t [0, 6 ]

a = 1, b = 1

(t ) =

Vector Tangente y Binormal de


la Espiral Circular

1
>0
2

ESPIRAL,( >0)

r (t ) = ( a cos t , asent , bt ), t [0, 6 ]

Curva
vector tangente
binormal

20

Caso II: a = 1, b= -1

15

10

T (t ) =

0
1.5

1.5
1

B (t ) =

1
0.5

0.5
0

0
-0.5

-0.5
-1

ESPIRALasd

-1
-1.5

sent , cos t , 1 )

-1.5

sent , cos t , 1
2

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TORSIN DE LA ESPIRAL CIRCULAR

r (t ) = ( cos t , sent , t ), t [0, 6 ]

a = 1, b = - 1

r (t ) = (a cos t , asent, bt ), t [0, 6 ]

44

(t ) =

1
<0
2

ESPIRAL,( <0)
Curva
vector tangente

Caso II: a =1, b= -1

( sent

, cos t , 1
2

ESPIRAL,( <0)

-5

0
Z

B (t ) =

bi normal
5

-5

b
a 2 + b2

(t ) =

-10

-10
-15

-15

(t ) =

-20
1.5

1
<0
2

-20
1

0.5

-1

-0.5

-1

-1
-1.5

-1.5

-0.5
-1

-0.5

-0.5

ESPIRALdes

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CONCLUSIONES: ESPIRAL

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CONCLUSIONES: ESPIRAL

C : r (t ) = ( a cos t , asent, bt ), t [0, 6 ]

C : r (t ) = ( a cos t , asent, bt ), t [0, 6 ]


Caso II: a =1, b= -1

Caso I: a = b= 1

( sent

0.5

1
0.5

B (t ) =

1.5

0.5

, cos t ,1
2

(t ) =

1
>0
2

B (t ) =

, cos t , 1
2

(t ) =

1
<0
2

LA CURVA C ES DESCENDENTE

LA CURVA C ES ASCENDENTE
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( sent

47

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CURVA ASCENDENTE

CURVA DESCENDENTE

EJEMPLO 4
La siguiente curva regular C esta definida
por:

ESPIRAL,( <0)

r (t ) = a cosh( t ) i + a senh (t ) j + a t k ; 1 t 1;

a0

-5

-10

-15

-20
1
0.5

1
0.5

-0.5

-0.5
-1

-1

Considerando un radio de curvatura igual a


dos, determine los valor de la constante a
en el instante que la curva C cruza el plano
XY.

EspiralAsenDes
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Solucin: radio de curvatura


r' (t ) r' ' (t )
r' (t )

50

Solucin:

a0
K (t ) =

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r (t ) = a cosh( t ) i + a senh(t ) j + a t k; 1 t 1;

1
2 a cosh 2 t

(t ) =

a0

1
= 2 a cosh 2 t
K (t )

La curva cruza el plano XY cuando z = 0


1
(t ) =
= 2 a cosh 2 t
K (t )
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z = a t = 0 si y solo si t = 0
51

Solucin: radio de curvatura t = 0


(t ) =

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Solucin:

1
= 2 a cosh 2 t
K (t )

K (t ) =

52

1
,
2 a cosh 2 t

a = 1

Curvatura de C para abs(a) = 1


0.5

0.45

0.4

(0) = 2 a = 2

0.35

0.3

a=1

0.25

0.2
-1

-0. 8

-0. 6

-0.4

-0.2

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

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EJEMPLO 5

Solucin

Si a = -1, la curva es descendente

r (t ) = a cosh( t ) i + a senh(t ) j + a t k ; 1 t 1

Considere la curva regular C definida por:

C : r (t ) = - cosh( t ) i senh(t ) j t k, 1 t 1

r (t ) = a cosh( t ) i + a senh (t ) j + a t k ; 1 t 1

t
para los valores que corresponden a la
constante a = 1 indique en que caso la
curva es ascendente o descendente.

z=-t

[-1,0)

positivo

cero, cruza el plano XY

(0,1]

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Solucin

55

Si a = 1, la curva es ascendente

r (t ) = a cosh( t ) i + a senh(t ) j + a t k ; 1 t 1

[-1,0)
0
(0,1]

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EJEMPLO 6
r (t ) = a cosh( t ) i + a senh (t ) j + a t k ; 1 t 1;

z=t
cero , cruza el plano XY
positivo

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57

Solucin

Solucin

r (t ) = a cosh( t ) i + a senh(t ) j + a t k ; 1 t 1;

( senh(t ), cosh(t ), 1)
2 cosh t

1
,
2 a cosh 2 t

a0

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B (t ) =

58

( senh(t ), cosh(t ), 1)
2 cosh t

a0

(t ) =

(t ) =

a0

Determine el vector Binormal y torsin de la


curva.

negativo

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B (t ) =

56

Considere la curva suave C definida por:

C : r (t ) = cosh( t ) i + senh (t ) j + t k, 1 t 1

negativo

1
,
2 a cosh 2 t

a0

Si a < 0,

(t ) =

1
<0
2 a cosh 2 t

Si a > 0,

(t ) =

1
>0
2 a cosh 2 t

59

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r (t ) = cosh( t ) i - senh(t ) j t k ; 1 t 1;

CASO I: a = -1< 0

CURVA,( <0)

r (t ) = cosh( t ) i - senh(t ) j t k ; 1 t 1;

curva
tangente
binormal

( senh(t ), cosh( t ), 1)
2 cosh t

(t ) =

B (t ) =

a = -1< 0

1
<0
2 cosh 2 t

-1

1
(t ) =
<0
2 cosh 2 t

-2
4
2

-0.5
-1

0
-1.5

-2

curva23
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Curva regular para a = -1

-4

-2.5

61

1
<0,
2 cosh 2 t

(t ) =

Solucin

-2

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a = 1

62

CASO II: a=1> 0


r (t ) = ( cosh( t ) , senh(t ) , t ); 1 t 1

Torsion de C para a = -1
-0.15

-0.2
1

-0.25

B (t ) =

-0.3

( senh(t ), cosh(t ), 1)
2 cosh t

0.5

-0.35

-0.5

2
1

-0.8

1
>0
2 cosh 2 t

(t ) =

-0.4

-1

-0.45

-1

0
-1.2
-1
Y

-1.4
-2

-0.5
-1

-1.6

-0.5

0
t

0.5

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63

r (t ) = ( cosh( t ) , senh(t ) , t ); 1 t 1

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(t ) =

Solucin

CURVA,( >0)

1
>0 ,
2 cosh 2 t

Curva regular para a = 1

a =1

Torsion de C para a = 1
0.5

curva
tangente
binormal

64

0.45

1.5
1

0.5

0.4

0
Z

a=1 > 0

-0.5

0
T

0.5

-1

(t ) =

-1.5
-2
5

1
>0
2 cosh 2 t

0.3
-1
2
1

1.8

1
-5

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0.25

1.6

0
1.4

-1
Y

curva16

0.35

-0.5

65

1.2
-2

0.2
-1

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-0.5

0
t

0.5

66

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CONCLUSIONES

CONCLUSIONES

C : r (t ) = a cosh( t ) i + a senh(t ) j + a t k ; 1 t 1;

a = -1< 0

B (t ) =

a0

C : r (t ) = a cosh( t ) i + a senh(t ) j + a t k ; 1 t 1;

( senh(t ), cosh( t ), 1)

a = 1> 0

B (t ) =

( senh(t ), cosh( t ), 1)
2 cosh t

2 cosh t

(t ) =

1
<0
2 cosh 2 t

(t ) =

LA CURVA C ES DESCENDENTE
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a0

1
>0
2 cosh 2 t

LA CURVA C ES ASCENDENTE
67

curva es plana

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68

EJEMPLO 7
Dada la siguiente curva regular

Una curva es plana si y solo si

C : r (t ) = (4 cos t , 4 sen t , 4 cos t )

=0

Determine el vector Binormal y la


Torsin de C

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69

Solucin

70

Solucin

C : r (t ) = (4 cos t , 4sen t , 4 cos t )


x = 4 cos t

C : y = 4 sent
z = 4 cos t

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C : r (t ) = (4 cos t , 4sen t , 4 cos t )


La curva C es plana y esta contenida en el
plano

Cilindro : x 2 + y 2 = 16
Plano : z = x

z=x

La curva C resulta de la interseccin del Cilindro y Plano

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20/03/2015

Solucin: curva plana

Solucin: Vector Binormal constante


C : r (t ) = (4 cos t , 4sen t , 4 cos t )

C : r (t ) = (4 cos t , 4sen t , 4 cos t )

1
(1, 0, 1)
2

B (t ) =

B(t ) = (0, 0, 0)

B (t ) = 0

B(t )
=0
r (t )

(t ) =

-2

-4
4
2

4
2

-2

-2
-4

-4

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Solucin

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CURVA CERRADA PLANA Y VECTOR BINORMAL

Torsin

C : r (t ) = (4 cos t , 4 sen t , 4 cos t )

C : r (t ) = (4 cos t , 4 sen t , 4 cos t )

CURVA PLANA
Curva
binormalconstante

(t ) = 0

C es una curva plana

NOTA: Los vectores Binormales son constantes


B (t ) =

-1

1
(1, 0, 1)
2

-2

-3

-4
4

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-2

-4

-4

-2

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X
Alvarez

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CurvaPlana1

EJEMPLO 8

RESUMEN:
CURVA SUAVE DE RAPIDEZ UNITARIA

Dada la siguiente curva regular

C : r (t ) = e t , e t ,

2t

( s ) = B( s )

Determine el vector Binormal y la


Torsin de C
(t) =

(e

2
t

+ e t

( s) = B ( s) N ( s)

PISKUNOV TOMO I
PROB 15, PAG.371
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20/03/2015

RESUMEN:

RESUMEN:

CURVA SUAVE DE RAPIDEZ UNITARIA

CURVA SUAVE DE RAPIDEZ ARBITRARIA

( s) =

[ u' (s ) u' ' (s)] u' ' ' ( s)


u' ' ( s )

(t ) =

(t ) =
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B(t )
r (t )

[r' (t ) r'' (t )] r' '' (t )


r' (t ) r' ' (t )
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