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########COMPTENCY-BASED LEARNING MATERIAL###Sector:
ICT Sector##Qualification Title:
Computer Hardware Servicing NC II
##Unit of Competency:
Install Computer Systems and Networks##Module
Title:
Installing Computer Systems and Networks###
AMA Computer Learning Center Vigan Branch3rd Floor Vigan Landmark Bldg, Jose
Singson St., Vigan City##HOW TO USE THIS COMPETENCY BASED LEARNING MATERIAL
Welcome to the module in Installing Computer Systems and Networks. This
module contains training materials and activities for you to complete.
The
unit of competency Install Computer Systems and Networks contains knowledge,
skills and attitudes required for Computer Hardware Servicing. It is one of the
specialized modules at National Certificate Level (NC II).
You are require
to go through a series of learning activities in order to complete each learning
outcome of the module. In each learning outcome are Information Sheets and
Resources Sheets (Reference Materials for further reading to help you better
understand the required activities). Follow these activities on your own and answer
the self check at the end of each learning outcome. You may remove a blank answer
sheet at the end of each module (or get one from your facilitator/trainer) to write
your answers for each self check. If you have questions, dont hesitate to ask your
facilitator for assistance.RECOGNITION OF PRIOR LEARNING (RPL)You may have some or
most of the knowledge and skills included in this learners guide because you have:
Been working in the same industry for some time.Already completed training in this
area.If you can demonstrate to your trainer that you are competent in a particular
skill, you dont have to do the same training again.If you feel that you have some
skills, talk to your trainer about having them formally recognized. If you have a
qualification or certificate of competence from previous trainings, show them to
your trainer. If the skills you acquired are still current and relevant to the
unit of competency, they may become part of the evidence you can present for RPL.
If you are not sure about the currency of your skills, discuss this with your
trainer.A Trainee Record Book (TRB) is given to you to record important dates, jobs
undertaken and other workplace events that will assist you in providing further
details to your trainer/assessor. A Record of Achievement/Progress Chart is also
provided to your trainer to complete/accomplish once you have completed the module.
This will show your own progress.QUALIFICATION:
COMPUTER HARDWARE SERVICING
NC IIUNIT OF COMPETENCY: Install Computer Systems and NetworksMODULE TITLE:
Installing Computer Systems and NetworksINTRODUCTION: This unit covers the outcomes
required in installing, assembling and testing computers and common peripherals.
NOMINAL DURATION:LEARNING OUTCOMES:After the end of the module you MUST be able to:
Plan and Prepare for InstallationInstall Equipment/Device/System
Conduct Test
ASSESSMENT CRITERIA:
Installation planned and prepared to ensure that
safety measures, policies and procedures followed, and that work is appropriately
sequenced in accordance with the industry standardsTechnical personnel consulted to
ensure that the work coordinated effectively with others involved on the worksite
Computer systems and network devices obtained in accordance with the established
procedures and to comply with requirementsLocation where devices and systems to be
installed is determined from job requirementsMaterials necessary to complete the
work obtained in accordance with established procedures and checked against job
requirementsTools, equipment and testing devices needed to carry out the
installation work obtained in accordance with established procedures and checked
for correct operation and safetyPreparatory work checked to ensure that no
unnecessary damage has occurred and that work complies with requirementsOH&S
policies and procedures for installing devices/systems are followed Devices /

systems are installed in accordance with requirements, without damage or distortion


to the surrounding environment or services Variation to devices / systems
installation is carried out in accordance to customer/client requirements Devices /
systems are terminated and connected in accordance with requirements Unplanned
events or conditions are responded to in accordance with established procedures
Approval is obtained in accordance with established procedures from appropriate
personnel before any contingencies are implemented On-going checks of the quality
of the work are undertaken in accordance with established proceduresOH&S policies
and procedures are followed Circuits and systems are checked as being isolated
where necessary using specified testing procedures Parts or connections of the
installation or service that are removed in order to conduct the test are stored to
protect against loss or damage and in accordance with established procedures
Unplanned events or conditions are responded to in accordance with established
procedures Approval is obtained in accordance with established procedures from
appropriate personnel before any contingencies are implemented Devices / systems
and/or installation is tested to determine whether it conforms to requirements
Parts, and/or connections removed for the purpose of testing are returned to pretest conditions in accordance with established proceduresFinal inspections are
undertaken to ensure the installed devices / systems conforms to requirements
Documentation in relation to the test is forwarded to appropriate personnel and/or
authority in accordance with requirementsPREREQUISITES:
Basic and Common
CompetencyLEARNING OUTCOME #1:#Plan and prepare for installation##Content: OHS
Policies and Procedures
Basic requirements for a planned installation.
Fundamentals of operating systems.
Computer components and peripherals.
Tools and equipments.##aSSESSMENT cRITERIA:Installation is planned and prepared to
ensure Occupational Health and Safety policies and procedures are followed, the
work is appropriately sequenced in accordance with requirements Appropriate
personnel are consulted to ensure the work is coordinated effectively with others
involved on the work site Devices/systems are obtained in accordance with
established procedures and to comply with requirements Location in which devices /
systems are to be installed is determined from job requirements Materials necessary
to complete the work are obtained in accordance with established procedures and
checked against job requirements Tools, equipment and testing devices needed to
carry out the installation work are obtained in accordance with established
procedures and checked for correct operation and safety
Preparatory work
is checked to ensure no unnecessary damage has occurred and complies with
requirements##CONDITIONS:The students/trainees must be provided with the following:
PC or workstationsInstructional Manuals such as: Occupational Health and Safety
policies and procedure manual, device manual and hardware diagrams and charts.
Tools, equipments and test instruments such as: protective eyewear, digital multimeter, crimping tools, pliers, screw drivers.Supplies and materials such as: UTP
cables, RJ45 connector, appropriate software applications and programs.##ASSESSMENT
METHODS:Written examinationPractical examination.##Learning Experienceslearning
Outcome #1:
plan and prepare for installationLearning Activities#Special
Instruction##1. Read Information Sheet 1.1-1 on Occupational Health & Safety (OHS)
Policies and Procedures.###2. Answer Self-Check 1.1-1#Compare Answers to Answer key
1.1-1##3. Read Information Sheet 1.1-2on basic requirements for a well planned
project based Installation Service.###4. Answer Self-Check 1.1-2.#Compare Answers
to Answer key 1.1-2.#####7. Read Information Sheet 1.1-3 on the fundamentals
structures and types of Operating System###8. Answer Self-Check 1.1-3.#Compare
Answers to Answer key 1.1-3##9. Guided by Information Sheet 1.1-4, proceed to the
tool room and do Task Sheet 1.1-5 on identifying computer components and
peripherals#Observe safety in the workplace. Trainee/trainer evaluates
performance/output using performance checklist 1.1-4 and makes
recommendations.##11. Read Information Sheet 1.1-5 on the types and functions of
different tools and equipments.###12.
Answer Self-Check 1.1-5#Compare Answers to Answer key 1.1-5##INFORMATION SHEET

NO. 1.1-1OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY POLICIES AND PROCEDURES LEARNING


OBJECTIVES: After reading of this Information Sheet, you should be able to:Identify
the basic precautions and procedures in planning, preparing, installing and testing
of computer hardware and software.Determine the effects of computers to the people,
health risk, and to the environment.
During installation and initial test,
careful planning and preparation are to be done. To avoid personal injury and
damages to wiring due to sharp pins on connectors and printed circuit assemblies,
rough chassis edges and corners, and hot components.
Adhere to warnings
and limitations regarding accessibility into areas designated only for authorized
technical personnel.CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT:SOME BASIC PRECAUTIONS AND PROCEDURES:
Before starting the installation, read carefully the documentation and procedures
on any hardware and software settings that may be required.Failure to do the proper
jumper setting may cause damage to your CPU.Without an effective cooling fan, the
CPU can overheat and cause damage to both CPU and the motherboard.Each bank must
have the same size and type of memory installed in pairs.Before adding and removing
any other system components, make sure that you unplug your power supply. Failure
to do so may cause damage to your motherboard and in the system component.Test the
computer, insuring that it meets the necessary system requirements before booting
up.If the computer does not pass any of the power on self-test (POST), the computer
will receive an irregular power on self-test. An irregular POST
is a beep code
which is different from the standard beep which can either be no beeps at all or a
combination of different beeps.EFFECTS OF COMPUTERS
Some effects of computers
relating to the violation of privacy, the impact on the labor force, health risks,
and the impact on the environment. Violation of PrivacyNearly every life event is
stored in a computer somewhere--in medical records, credit reports, tax records,
etc. It is crucial that personal and confidential records be protected properly. In
many instances, where these records were not properly protected, individuals have
found their privacy violated and identities stolen. Impact on Labor ForceAlthough
computers have improved productivity in many ways and created an entire industry
with hundreds of thousands of new jobs, the skills of millions of workers and
managers have been replaced by computers. Thus, it is crucial that workers keep
their education up-to-date. A separate impact on the labor force is that some
companies are outsourcing jobs to foreign countries instead of keeping their
homeland labor force employed. Health RisksProlonged or improper computer use can
lead to injuries or disorders of the hands, wrists, elbows, eyes, necks, and back.
Computer users can protect themselves from these health risks through proper
workplace design, good posture while at the computer, and appropriately spaced work
breaks. Another health risk, called computer addiction, occurs when someone becomes
obsessed with using the computer. Once recognized, computer addiction is a
treatable disorder. Public SafetyAdults, teen, and children around the world are
using computers to share publicly their photos, videos, journals, music, and other
personal information. Some of these unsuspecting, innocent computer users have
fallen victim to crimes committed by dangerous strangers. Protect yourself and your
dependents from these criminals by being cautious. For example, do not share
information that would allow others to identify or locate you. Impact on
Environment
Computer manufacturing processes and computer waste are
depleting natural resources and polluting the environment. The amount of resources
required to manufacture a personal computer equals that of a mid-sized car. When
computers are discarded in landfills, they release toxic materials and potentially
dangerous levels of lead, mercury, and flame retardants. Strategies that can help
protect the environment include recycling, regulating manufacturing processes,
extending the life of computers, and immediately donating replaced computersSELFCHECK NO. 1.1-1IDENTFICATIONDirection:
Identify the Precautions and Procedures
write TRUE if the statement is correct and FALSE if the statement is wrong.#Failure
to do the proper jumper setting may cause damage to your CPU.#After adding and
removing any other system components, make sure that you unplug your power supply.
#Test the computer, insuring that it meets the necessary system requirements before
booting up.#With an effective cooling fan, the CPU can overheat and cause damage to
both CPU and the motherboard.#After starting the installation, read carefully the

documentation and procedures on any hardware and software settings that may be
required.MATCHING TYPEDirection:
Select your answer on the choices below that
will correspond on the statement. Write the letter of your answer on the space
provided.
Violation of PrivacyImpact on the EnvironmentPublic Safety Health Risk
Impact on Labor Force#Computer manufacturing processes and computer waste are
depleting natural resources and polluting the environment.#Although computers have
improved productivity in many ways and created an entire industry with hundreds of
thousands of new jobs, the skills of millions of workers and managers have been
replaced by computers.#It is crucial that personal and confidential records be
protected properly.#Adults, teen, and children around the world are using computers
to share publicly their photos, videos, journals, music, and other personal
information.#Prolonged or improper computer use can lead to injuries or disorders
of the hands, wrists, elbows, eyes, necks, and back.
Compare your answers with
the Answer Key on the next page. If you get 80% and above, then you may proceed to
the next activity but if not, master the lesson and take the Self-Check again.##
ANSWER KEY 1.1-1IDENTIFICATIONTRUEFALSETRUEFALSEFALSEMULTIPLE CHOICEBEACD
INFORMATION SHEET NO. 1.1-2BASIC REQUIREMENTS FOR A PLANNED INSTALLATION LEARNING
OBJECTIVES:After reading this Information Sheet, you should be able to:Prepare the
required documents or forms before you do a well planned installationIdentify the
qualifications to be a certified hardware professional so that you could be allowed
and authorized to do a well planned installationAre you the person everyone calls
when they have a computer problem? Have you considered getting paid for fixing
near-fatal errors and turning your PC prowess into a business? According a recent
report, sales of computer services are expected to exceed $47 billion this year in
the U.S. alone, with PC repair leading the way. But there are some requirements
that you need to know before joining the bandwagon of Computer Hardware Servicing
trade, like document/forms (e.g. Job Orders, Request Forms, and Report Sheets) and
qualifications for personnel in repairing computers.REQUIRED DOCUMENTS/FORMS:Job
Order
AJob order(known asworks orderoutside of the United States
because the work is produced in a manufacturing area known asthe works) orjob
order(sometimesjob ticketorwork ticket, as it often has some type of ticket
attached) is an#HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Order_(business)" \o
"Order (business)"#order#received by an organization from a#HYPERLINK
"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Customer" \o "Customer"#customer#or client, or an
order created internally within the organization. A work order may be for products
or services.
In a manufacturing environment, a work order is converted from
a#HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sales_order" \o "Sales order"#sales
order#to show that work is about to be begin on the manufacture, building or
engineering of the products requested by the customer. In a service environment, a
work order can be equivalent to a service order where the WO records the location,
date and time the service is carried out and the nature of work that is done. The
type of personnel (e.g. job position) may also be listed on the WO. A rate (e.g.
$/hr, $/week) and also the total amount of hours worked and total value is also
shown on the work order.
A work order may be a maintenance or repair request
from students, faculty or staff in a university. Orders received from outside an
organization are often#HYPERLINK
"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dispatch_(logistics)" \o "Dispatch
(logistics)"#dispatched#(reviewed and scheduled) before being executed. Work
orders may be for #HYPERLINK
"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Preventive_maintenance" \o "Preventive
maintenance"#preventive maintenance#
Contractors may use a single job work
order and invoice form that contains the customer information, describes the work
performed, lists charges for material and labor, and can be given to the customer
as an invoice.
A job order is an internal document extensively used by projectsbased, manufacturing, building and fabrication businesses. A job order may be for
products and/or services. In a manufacturing environment, a job order is used to
signal the start of a manufacturing process and will most probably be linked to a
bill of material. Hence, the job order will probably state:the quantity of the
product to be manufactured, built or fabricatedthe amount of raw material to be

used, its price and amountthe types of labor required, rate (per hour or per unit)
and amountthe machine utilization for each machine during the routing process, its
rate and amountIn a service environment, a job order can be the equivalent to
a work or service order where the job order records the location, date and time
the service is carried out and the nature of service that was carried out. The type
of personnel (e.g. job position) may also be listed on the job order. A rate (e.g.
$/hr, $/week) and also the total amount of hours worked and total value is also
shown.Sample Job Order FormComputer Repair Job Order FormTeacher Clients Name
School Perpetual Help CollegeDate January 12, 2011
Computer # 001Service Tag# 001
Model Intel Pent
IVSerial # 4737Z
Computer Problem: (Brief
Description of the Problem)***Blue Screen Error***
___________________________________________________________________________For
Technical Department Used Only Fax No. (02)922-5566Computer Fixed By: Ronaldo
SupetranDate Sent Back to School: ________________Memory Transcend 1 GHz
Processor Pentium Dual-Core 2 GHzHard Drive Space Hitachi Sata 80 Gig
Windows Windows XP Pro##Request Form and Report SheetComputer Hardware Servicing
maintenance, which includes planned installation, main objective is to keep and
improve production facilities, to keep and improve production facilities stable and
efficient at the lowest life cycle cost with the active participation of all
members in the company. A Request Form is used to put this objective into action.
And the Report Sheet and Request Form bring to life this maintenances purposes
which are:To increase productivity through maximum utilization and improvement of
all equipmentTo develop maintenance system to reduce life cycle cost of machinery
and equipment through the involvement of everybody in the organizationTo develop
the operators capability to be competent in maintenance activities through
education, training and motivation.To enhance capability for advanced and
sophisticated technology that would reinforce competitive power. Sample Request
FormUNIT NO. 5-2#Description: Acer Aspire 4736Z Laptop Computer##Observation/s:##
***Corrupted Operating System***#Date Reported:January 01, 2012###Reported by:
Ronaldo Supetran##Activity: Reformat Laptop##Date Completed: January 03, 2012##
Sign:####Sample Report Sheet Repair Report SheetArea/Section: Computer Hardware
LaboratoryFacility TypeNature of BreakdownRecommendationLaptop No Operating System
ErrorViral Corruption Refer to the Technical Department for Reformatting of the
Operating System
Reported by: Ronaldo Supetran
Date:
March 15, 2012##REQUIRED QUALIFICATION FOR A COMPUTER HARDWARE
PERSONNEL:What Qualifications Do You Need to Become a PC Repair Technician?
Education
Employers prefer applicants who have completed formal
electronics training in a vocational school, community college or similar setting,
reports the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Training programs may last from 6 months to
two years. Some employers require at least a high school diploma or GED.
Certifications
Trainees can take the TESDA NC II Computer Hardware
Servicing assessment to demonstrate their competency for entry-level jobs to
employers. The Technical Education and Skills Development Authority or TESDA offers
a variety of certification programs. In addition, technicians can achieve
certifications even for trainership.Physical and Personal Traits
PC
technicians must be able to squat, bend and reach to access the computer equipment
requiring repair. They should be physically able to lift at least 50 pounds of
computer components. Employers look for technicians who can stand for long periods
of time and have the ability to perceive a variety of colors. Employers want
technicians who think analytically, are organized and pay attention to detail. They
should feel comfortable working under tight deadlines, and companies may expect
them to work overtime or on weekends.Knowledge and SkillsApplicants should know how
to use a variety of standard office software, and some jobs also require knowledge
of networking. Companies prefer candidates with previous PC repair experience, and
they may look for candidates with experience repairing specific brands of
computers. Technicians need strong oral communication skills and should be able to
explain their findings to customers using common terms.SELF-CHECK NO. 1.1-2
IDENTIFICATIONDirection: the Precautions and Procedures write TRUE if the statement

is correct and FALSE if the statement is wrong.#_________ 1. Anyone can perform a


planned installation as long as he knows it. #_________ 2. The Department of
Education, Culture and Sports facilitates the
competency
assessment for computer technicians. __________3. Computer Technicians are given
the TESDA NC II Computer
Hardware Servicing by TESDA after
successfully taking the
Assessment. _________ 4. Computer
Technicians need not to have strong oral
communication skills for
they only repair computers.__________5. Companies prefer candidates with previous
PC repair
experience,
and they may look for candidates with
experience repairing specific
brands of computers.__________6.
A job order is an external document by a project based
Business. __________7. A job order can be the equivalent to a work or service
order
where the job order records the location, date and time
the
service is carried out and the nature of service that
was carried
out.
Compare your answers with the Answer Key
on the next page. If you get 80% and above, then you may proceed to the next
activity but if not, master the lesson and take the Self-Check again.##ANSWER KEY
1.1-2IDENTIFICATION1. FALSE2. FALSE3. FALSE4. FALSE5. FALSE6. FALSE7. TRUE
INFORMATION SHEET 1.1-3FUNDAMENTALS OF OPERATING SYSTEMLEARNING OBJECTIVES:After
reading this Information Sheet, you should be able to:Identify fundamentals of
operating systemsDetermine the different types of operating systemsAnOperating
System(OS) is a set of#HYPERLINK
"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computer_program" \o "Computer
program"#programs#that manage#HYPERLINK
"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computer_hardware" \o "Computer hardware"#computer
hardware#resources and provide common services for#HYPERLINK
"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Application_software" \o "Application
software"#application software#. The operating system is a vital component of
the#HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/System_software" \o "System
software"#system software#in a computer system. Application programs require an
operating system which are usually separate programs, but can be combined in simple
systems.Time-sharing operating systems schedule tasks for efficient use of the
system and may also include accounting for cost allocation of processor time, mass
storage, printing, and other resources.For hardware functions such as input and
output and#HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dynamic_memory_allocation" \o
"Dynamic memory allocation"#memory allocation#, the operating system acts as an
intermediary between application programs and the computer hardware, although the
application code is usually executed directly by the hardware and will frequently
make a #HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/System_call" \o "System
call"#system call#to an OS function or be interrupted by it. Operating systems are
found on almost any device that contains a computerfrom#HYPERLINK
"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cellular_phone" \o "Cellular phone"#cellular
phones#and#HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Video_game_console" \o "Video
game console"#video game consoles#to #HYPERLINK
"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Supercomputers" \o
"Supercomputers"#supercomputers#and#HYPERLINK
"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Web_servers" \o "Web servers"#web servers#.
TYPES OF OPERATING SYSTEMS:Real-timeA#HYPERLINK
"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Real-time_operating_system" \o "Real-time operating
system"#real-time operating system#is a multitasking operating system that aims at
executing real-time applications. Real-time operating systems often use specialized
scheduling algorithms so that they can achieve a deterministic nature of behavior.
The main objective of real-time operating systems is their quick and predictable
response to events. They have an event-driven or time-sharing design and often
aspects of both. An event-driven system switches between tasks based on their
priorities or external events while time-sharing operating systems switch tasks
based on clock interrupts.Multi-user
A multi-user operating system allows
multiple users to access a computer system concurrently. Time-sharing system can be
classified as multi-user systems as they enable a multiple user access to a

computer through the sharing of time. Single-user operating systems, as opposed to


a multi-user operating system, are usable by a single user at a time. Being able to
use multiple accounts on a Windows operating system does not make it a multi-user
system. Rather, only the network administrator is the real user. But for a Unixlike operating system, it is possible for two users to login at a time and this
capability of the OS makes it a multi-user operating system.Multi-tasking vs.
Single-tasking
When only a single program is allowed to run at a time, the
system is grouped under a single-tasking system. However, when the operating system
allows the
execution of multiple tasks at one time, it is classified as a multi-tasking
operating system. Multi-tasking can be of two types: pre-emptive or co-operative.
In pre-emptive multitasking, the operating system slices the CPU time and dedicates
one slot to each of the programs. Unix-like operating systems such as Solaris and
Linux support pre-emptive multitasking, as does#HYPERLINK
"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/AmigaOS" \o "AmigaOS"#Amiga OS#. Cooperative
multitasking is achieved by relying on each process to give time to the other
processes in a defined manner.#HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/16-bit" \o
"16-bit"#16-bit#versions of Microsoft Windows used cooperative multitasking.#HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/32-bit" \o "32-bit"#32bit#versions, both Windows NT and Win9x, used pre-emptive multi-tasking. Mac OS
prior to OS X used to support cooperative multitasking.Distributed
A
distributed operating system manages a group of independent computers and makes
them appear to be a single computer. The development of networked computers that
could be linked and communicate with each other gave rise to distributed computing.
Distributed computations are carried out on more than one machine. When computers
in a group work in cooperation, they make a distributed system.Embedded
#HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Embedded_system" \o "Embedded
system"#Embedded#operating systems are designed to be used in embedded computer
systems. They are designed to operate on small machines like PDAs with less
autonomy. They are able to operate with a limited number of resources. They are
very compact and extremely efficient by design. Windows CE and Minix 3 are some
examples of embedded operating systems.EXAMPLES OF OPERATING SYSTEMS:Unix and Unixlike operating systems
#HYPERLINK
"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ken_Thompson" \o "Ken Thompson"#Ken
Thompson#wrote#HYPERLINK
"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/B_(programming_language)" \o "B (programming
language)"#B#, mainly based on#HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BCPL" \o
"BCPL"#BCPL#, which he used to write Unix, based on his experience in
the#HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MULTICS" \o
"MULTICS"#MULTICS#project. B was replaced by#HYPERLINK
"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/C_(programming_language)" \o "C (programming
language)"#C#, and Unix developed into a large, complex family of inter-related
operating systems which have been influential in every modern operating system
(see#HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_operating_systems" \o
"History of operating systems"#History#).#The#HYPERLINK
"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unix-like" \o "Unix-like"#Unix-like#family is a
diverse group of operating systems, with several major sub-categories
including#HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/System_V" \o "System V"#System
V#,#HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BSD_(operating_system)" \o "BSD
(operating system)"#BSD#, and#HYPERLINK
"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GNU/Linux" \o "GNU/Linux"#GNU/Linux#. The name
"#HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/UNIX" \o "UNIX"#UNIX#" is a trademark of
#HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Open_Group" \o "The Open Group"#the
Open Group#which licenses it for use with any operating system that has been shown
to conform to their definitions. "Unix-like" is commonly used to refer to the large
set of operating systems which resemble the original Unix.Unix-like systems run on
a wide variety of#HYPERLINK
"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computer_architecture" \o "Computer
architecture"#computer architectures#. They are used heavily for #HYPERLINK

"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Server_(computing)" \o "Server
(computing)"#servers#in business, as well as#HYPERLINK
"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Workstation" \o "Workstation"#workstations#in
academic and engineering environments.#HYPERLINK
"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Free_software" \o "Free software"#Free#Unix
variants, such as#HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GNU/Linux" \o
"GNU/Linux"#GNU/Linux#and#HYPERLINK
"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Berkeley_Software_Distribution" \o "Berkeley Software
Distribution"#BSD#, are popular in these areas.Four operating systems are certified
by the#HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Open_Group" \o "The Open
Group"#The Open Group#(holder of the Unix trademark) as Unix. HP's#HYPERLINK
"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HP-UX" \o "HP-UX"#HP-UX#and IBM's#HYPERLINK
"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/AIX_operating_system" \o "AIX operating
system"#AIX#are both descendants of the original System V Unix and are designed to
run only on their respective vendor's hardware. In contrast,#HYPERLINK
"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sun_Microsystems" \o "Sun Microsystems"#Sun
Microsystems's##HYPERLINK
"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solaris_Operating_System" \o "Solaris Operating
System"#Solaris Operating System#can run on multiple types of hardware,
including#HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/X86" \o
"X86"#x86#and#HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sparc" \o
"Sparc"#Sparc#servers, and PCs. Apple's#HYPERLINK
"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mac_OS_X" \o "Mac OS X"#Mac OS X#, a replacement for
Apple's earlier (non-Unix) Mac OS, is a#HYPERLINK
"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hybrid_kernel" \o "Hybrid kernel"#hybrid kernel#based BSD variant derived from#HYPERLINK
"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NeXTSTEP" \o "NeXTSTEP"#NeXTSTEP#,#HYPERLINK
"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mach_(kernel)" \o "Mach (kernel)"#Mach#, and
#HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/FreeBSD" \o "FreeBSD"#FreeBSD#.Unix
interoperability was sought by establishing the#HYPERLINK
"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/POSIX" \o "POSIX"#POSIX#standard. The POSIX standard
can be applied to any operating system, although it was originally created for
various Unix variants.BSD and its descendants#A subgroup of the Unix family is
the#HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Berkeley_Software_Distribution" \o
"Berkeley Software Distribution"#Berkeley Software Distribution#family, which
includes #HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/FreeBSD" \o
"FreeBSD"#FreeBSD#,#HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NetBSD" \o
"NetBSD"#NetBSD#, and#HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OpenBSD" \o
"OpenBSD"#OpenBSD#,#HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PC-BSD" \o "PCBSD"#PC-BSD#. These operating systems are most commonly found on#HYPERLINK
"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Webserver" \o "Webserver"#web servers#, although they
can also function as a personal computer OS. The Internet owes much of its
existence to BSD, as many of the protocols now commonly used by computers to
connect, send and receive data over a network were widely implemented and refined
in BSD. The#HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_wide_web" \o "World wide
web"#world wide web#was also first demonstrated on a number of computers running
an OS based on BSD called#HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NextStep" \o
"NextStep"#NextStep#.BSD has its roots in Unix. In 1974,#HYPERLINK
"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/University_of_California,_Berkeley" \o "University of
California, Berkeley"#University of California, Berkeley#installed its first Unix
system. Over time, students and staff in the computer science department there
began adding new programs to make things easier, such as text editors. When Berkely
received new#HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/VAX" \o "VAX"#VAX#computers
in 1978 with Unix installed, the school's undergraduates modified Unix even more in
order to take advantage of the computer's hardware possibilities. The#HYPERLINK
"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Defense_Advanced_Research_Projects_Agency" \o
"Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency"#Defense Advanced Research Projects
Agency#of the US#HYPERLINK
"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Department_of_Defense" \o "United

States Department of Defense"#Department of Defense#took interest, and decided to


fund the project. Many schools, corporations, and government organizations took
notice and started to use Berkeley's version of Unix instead of the official one
distributed by AT&T.#HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Steve_Jobs" \o "Steve
Jobs"#Steve Jobs#, upon leaving Apple Inc. in 1985, formed#HYPERLINK
"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NeXT" \o "NeXT"#NeXT Inc.#, a company that
manufactured high-end computers running on a variation of BSD called#HYPERLINK
"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NeXTSTEP" \o "NeXTSTEP"#NeXTSTEP#. One of these
computers was used by#HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tim_Berners-Lee" \o
"Tim Berners-Lee"#Tim Berners-Lee#as the first web server to create the World Wide
Web.Developers like#HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Keith_Bostic" \o
"Keith Bostic"#Keith Bostic#encouraged the project to replace any non-free code
that originated with Bell Labs. Once this was done, however, AT&T sued. Eventually,
after two years of legal disputes, the BSD project came out ahead and spawned a
number of free derivatives, such as#HYPERLINK
"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/FreeBSD" \o "FreeBSD"#FreeBSD#and#HYPERLINK
"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NetBSD" \o "NetBSD"#NetBSD#.Mac OS X#
Mac OS
X is a line of#HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Open_core" \o "Open
core"#open core#graphical operating systems developed, marketed, and sold
by#HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apple_Inc." \o "Apple Inc."#Apple
Inc.#, the latest of which is pre-loaded on all currently shipping#HYPERLINK
"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Macintosh" \o "Macintosh"#Macintosh# computers. Mac
OS X is the successor to the original#HYPERLINK
"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mac_OS" \o "Mac OS"#Mac OS#, which had been Apple's
primary operating system since 1984. Unlike its predecessor, Mac OS X is
a#HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/UNIX"
\o "UNIX"#UNIX#operating system built on technology that had been developed
at#HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NeXT" \o "NeXT"#NeXT#through the
second half of the 1980s and up until Apple purchased the company in early 1997.The
operating system was first released in 1999 as#HYPERLINK
"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mac_OS_X_Server_1.0" \o "Mac OS X Server 1.0"#Mac OS
X Server 1.0#, with a desktop-oriented version (#HYPERLINK
"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mac_OS_X_v10.0" \o "Mac OS X v10.0"#Mac OS X v10.0
"Cheetah"#) following in March 2001. Since then, six more distinct "client" and
"server" editions of Mac OS X have been released, the most recent being#HYPERLINK
"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OS_X_Mountain_Lion" \o "OS X Mountain Lion"#OS X 10.8
"Mountain Lion"#, which was first made available on February 16, 2012 for
developers, and to be released to the public late summer 2012. Releases of Mac OS X
are named after#HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Big_cat" \o "Big cat"#big
cats#.The server edition,#HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mac_OS_X_Server"
\o "Mac OS X Server"#Mac OS X Server#, is#HYPERLINK
"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Software_architecture" \o "Software
architecture"#architecturally#identical to its desktop counterpart but usually
runs on Apple's line of Macintosh#HYPERLINK
"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Server_(computing)" \o "Server (computing)"#server#
hardware. Mac OS X Server includes work group management and administration
software tools that provide simplified access to key#HYPERLINK
"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Network_service" \o "Network service"#network
services#, including a#HYPERLINK
"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mail_transfer_agent" \o "Mail transfer agent"#mail
transfer agent#, a#HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samba_software" \o
"Samba software"#Samba server#, an#HYPERLINK
"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/LDAP" \o "LDAP"#LDAP#server, a#HYPERLINK
"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Domain_Name_System" \o "Domain Name System"#domain
name server#, and others. In#HYPERLINK
"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mac_OS_X_Lion" \o "Mac OS X Lion"#Mac OS X v10.7
Lion#, all server aspects of Mac OS X Server have been integrated into the client
version. Linux and GNU
#HYPERLINK
"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linux" \o "Linux"#Linux (or GNU/Linux)#is a Unix-

like operating system that was developed without any actual Unix code, unlike BSD
and its variants. Linux can be used on a #wide range of devices from supercomputers
to wristwatches. The#HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linux_kernel" \o
"Linux kernel"#Linux kernel#is released under an open source license, so anyone
can read and modify its code. It has been modified to run on a large variety of
electronics. Although estimates suggest that Linux is used on 1.82% of all personal
computers, it has been widely adopted for use in serversand embedded systems(such
as cell phones). Linux has superseded Unix in most places, and is used on the 10
most powerful supercomputers in the world. The Linux kernel is used in some
popular distributions, such as#HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Red_Hat" \o
"Red Hat"#Red Hat#,#HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Debian" \o
"Debian"#Debian#,#HYPERLINK
"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ubuntu_(operating_system)" \o "Ubuntu (operating
system)"#Ubuntu#,#HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linux_Mint" \o "Linux
Mint"#Linux Mint#and#HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Google" \o
"Google"#Google#'s#HYPERLINK
"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Android_(operating_system)" \o "Android (operating
system)"#Android#.The GNU project is a mass collaboration of programmers who seek
to create a completely free and open operating system that was similar to Unix but
with completely original code. It was started in 1983 by #HYPERLINK
"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Stallman" \o "Richard Stallman"#Richard
Stallman#, and is responsible for many of the parts of most Linux variants.
Thousands of pieces of software for virtually every operating system are licensed
under the#HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GNU_General_Public_License" \o
"GNU General Public License"#GNU General Public License#. Meanwhile, the Linux
kernel began as a side project of#HYPERLINK
"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linus_Torvalds" \o "Linus Torvalds"#Linus Torvalds#,
a university student from Finland. In 1991, Torvalds began work on it, and posted
information about his project on a newsgroup for computer students and programmers.
He received a wave of support and volunteers who ended up creating a full-fledged
kernel. Programmers from GNU took notice, and members of both projects worked to
integrate the finished GNU parts with the Linux kernel in order to create a fullfledged operating system.#Microsoft WindowsMicrosoft Windows is a family
of#HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proprietary_software" \o "Proprietary
software"#proprietary#operating systems designed by#HYPERLINK
"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microsoft_Corporation" \o "Microsoft
Corporation"#Microsoft Corporation# and primarily targeted to Intel architecture
based computers, with an estimated 88.9 percent total usage share on Web connected
computers. The newest version is#HYPERLINK
"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Windows_7" \o "Windows 7"#Windows 7#for workstations
and#HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Windows_Server_2008_R2" \o "Windows
Server 2008 R2"#Windows Server 2008 R2#for servers. Windows 7 recently overtook
Windows XP as most used OS. Microsoft Windows originated in 1985 as an application
running on top of#HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MS-DOS" \o "MS-DOS"#MSDOS#, which was the standard operating system shipped on most Intel architecture
personal computers at the time. In 1995,#HYPERLINK
"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Windows_95" \o "Windows 95"#Windows 95#was released
which only used MS-DOS as a bootstrap. For backwards compatibility, Win9x could run
real-mode MS-DOS and 16 bits Windows 3.xdrivers.#HYPERLINK
"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Windows_Me" \o "Windows Me"#Windows Me#, released in
2000, was the last version in the Win9x family. Later versions have all been based
on the#HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Windows_NT" \o "Windows NT"#Windows
NT##HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kernel_(computing)" \o "Kernel
(computing)"#kernel#. Current versions of Windows run on#HYPERLINK
"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IA-32" \o "IA-32"#IA-32#and#HYPERLINK
"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/X86-64" \o "X86-64"#x86-64##HYPERLINK
"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microprocessors" \o
"Microprocessors"#microprocessors#, although Windows 8 will support#HYPERLINK
"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ARM" \o "ARM"#ARM#architecture. In the past, Windows

NT supported non-Intel architectures.Server editions of Windows are widely used. In


recent years, Microsoft has expended significant capital in an effort to promote
the use of Windows as a server operating environment. However, Windows' usage on
servers is not as widespread as on personal computers, as Windows competes against
Linux and BSD for server market share.SELF-CHECK NO. 1.1-3IDENTIFICATIONDirection:
Identify the Precautions and Procedures write TRUE if the statement is correct and
FALSE if the statement is wrong.________1) An operating system is a set of
programs that manage computer
hardware resources and provide
common services for application
software.________2) Operating
system is not a vital component of the system software in
a
computer system. Application programs require an operating
system
which are usually separate programs, but can be combined
in simple
systems.________3) Time-sharing operating systems schedule time for efficient
use of the system and may also include accounting for cost
allocation of processor time, mass storage, printing, and other
resources.________4) For software functions such as input and output and
memory allocation, the operating system acts as an intermediary
between application programs and the computer hardware.________5) Operating systems
are found on almost any device that contains a
computerfrom
cellular phones and video game consoles to
supercomputers and web
servers
Compare your answers with the Answer Key on the next page. If you get
80% and above, then you may proceed to the next activity but if not, master the
lesson and take the Self-Check again##ANSWER KEY 1.1-3IDENTIFICATIONTRUEFALSEFALSE
FALSETRUEINFORMATION SHEET NO. 1.1-4COMPUTER COMPONENTS AND DEVICESLEARNING
OBJECTIVES:After reading this Information Sheet, you should be able to:Classify of
the hardware and software components of a computer with its corresponding
functions.Determine the various computer components and peripheralsA computer
system is a special subsystem of an organization's overall information system. It
is an integrated assembly of devices, centered on at least one processing mechanism
utilizing digital electronics, which are used to input, process, store, and output
data and information. Putting together a complete computer system, however, is more
involved than just connecting computer devices. In an effective and efficient
system, components are selected and organized with an understanding of the inherent
tradeoffs between overall system performance and cost, control, and complexity.
CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT:Basic Hardware Components of Computer System Today, almost
everyone in our information society has a basic understanding of what a computer is
and what it can do. A contemporary
computer system consists of a central processing unit, primary storage, secondary
storage, input devices, output devices, and communications devices that work
together with software to perform calculations, organize data, and communicate with
other computers. A computer is an electronic machine, operating under the control
of instructions stored in its own memory, that can be programmed to accept data
(input), process it into useful information (output), and store it away in a
secondary storage device (store) for safekeeping or later reuse. The processing of
input into output is directed by the software but performed by the hardware. Figure
below shows some common computer hardware components. ###Common computer hardware
components##Computer system hardware components include devices that perform the
functions of input, processing, data storage; output and communication. The devices
responsible for these five areas are as follows: #Input devices. Input devices
allow you to enter data or commands in a form that the computer can use; they send
the data or commands to the processing unit. Commonly-used input devices include
keyboard, mouse, microphone, scanner, digital camera, and PC camera. Output
devices. Output devices show people the processed data--information --in
understandable and useful form. Four commonly used output devices are a printer, a
monitor, speakers, and a portable media player. Input/output devices are playing an
increasingly significant role in our lives. The number and variety of input/output
devices are expanding. Processing devices. Processing devices are the computer
electronic circuitry housed in the system unit. The circuitry in the system unit is
part of a circuit board called the motherboard. Two major components on the

motherboard are the processor and memory. The processor, formally known as the
central processing unit (CPU), has electronic circuitry that manipulates input data
into the information people want. Computer instructions are actually are executed
in the central processing unit. Memory is a series of electronic elements that
temporarily holds data and program instructions while they are being processed by
the CPU. Both the processor and memory consist of chips. A chip is an electronic
device that contains many microscopic pathways designed to carry electrical
current. Storage devices. Storage usually means secondary storage that can store
data and programs outside the computer itself. Storage devices hold data,
information, and programs permanently. These devices supplement memory (also called
primary storage) that can hold data and programs only temporarily. Common storage
devices include a hard disk, USB flash drives, CDs, DVDs, and memory cards. A drive
is a device that reads from and writes onto a storage medium. A storage medium is
the physical material on which data, information, and program are stored. Some
portable devices, such as digital cameras, use memory cards as the storage media.
Communications devices. Communications devices provide connections between the
computer and communications networks, and enable computer users to communicate and
to exchange data, information, and programs with other computers. Communications
devices transmit these items over transmission media such as cables, telephone
lines, satellites, and cellular radio. A widely used communications device is a
modem. In summary, we communicate with computers through input/output devices.
Input devices translate our data and communications into a form that the computer
can understand. The computer then processes these data, and an output device
translates them back into a form we can understand. The central processing unit
manipulates data and controls the other parts of the computer system. Memory
(primary storage) temporarily stores data and program instructions during
processing, while secondary storage feeds data and instructions into the central
processor and stores data for future use. The System Unit The Motherboard The
system unit is a box-like case that houses the processor, memory and other
electronic components of the computer that are used to process data. All other
computer system devices, such as the monitor, keyboard, and mouse, are linked
either directly or indirectly into the system unit. #Figure below shows some of the
components inside the system unit on a typical PC, including the processor, memory,
expansion cards, drive bays, power supply, ports and connectors. The processor is
the device that executes program instructions. The memory device is a package that
holds temporarily data and program instructions during processing. An expansion
card is a circuit board that adds devices or capabilities to the computer. Finally,
devices outside the system unit, such as a keyboard, mouse, monitor, printer, or
microphone, are attached by a cable to a port or connector on the system unit. #To
conserve on space, all-in-one computer houses the system unit in the same physical
case as the monitor. On notebook computers, the keyboard and pointing device often
occupy the area on the top of the system unit. The display attaches to the system
unit by a hinge. The system unit on a handheld computer usually consumes the entire
device. On these devices, the display is part of the system unit too. When the
cover of a system unit is removed, the motherboard, also called system board, can
be seen inside the housing. The motherboard, a single circuit board, provides the
path through which the processor communicates with memory components, other
components, and peripheral devices. In a typical personal computer, the components
attached to the motherboard include processor, memory chips, support electronic
circuitry, and expansion boards. It is the processor that is the most important
component of the motherboard. ###Many electronic components attach to the
motherboard##A computer chip is a small piece of semi conducting material, usually
silicon, on which one or more integrated circuits are etched. The various chips
have standard-sized pin connectors that allow them to be attached to the
motherboard and, there, to a common electrical path, called bus, that enables data
flow between the various system components.An integrated circuit (IC) contains many
microscopic pathways capable of carrying electrical current. Each integrated
circuit can contain millions of elements such as resistors, capacitors, and
transistors. Transistors act as electronic switches that may or may not allow

current to pass through. If current passes through, the switch is on, representing
the 1 bit. If current does not pass through, the switch is off, representing a 0
bit. Thus, combinations of transistors can stand for combinations of bits, which
represent numbers, letters, and other characters. The motherboard in the system
unit contains many different types of chips. A miniaturized central processing unit
can be etched on a chip, then the term computer on a chip. A central processing
unit on a chip is called a microprocessor. On a personal computer, the central
processing unit (CPU) usually is contained on a single chip. On the larger
computers such as mainframes and supercomputer, the various functions performed by
CPU are spread across many separate chips. Today's popular Pentium microprocessor
contains more than one hundred million transistors. Ultimately, the type of
processor and the amount of RAM placed on the motherboard define the computers
speed and capacity. The processor is generally not made by the manufacturers of
PCs. It is made by companies that specialized in the development and manufacture of
microprocessors. A number of companies make microprocessors, including Intel, IBM,
Motorola, Advanced Micro Devices (AMD), and Cyrix. Most chips are no bigger than
one-half-inch square. Manufacturers package chips so the chips can be attached to
a circuit board such as a motherboard, memory module, or adapter card. ###Some
common chip packages##A variety of chip packages exist. One type, called a dual
inline package (DIP), consists of two parallel rows of pints that attach the chip
package to the circuit board. A pin grid array (PGA) package holds a larger number
of pins because the pins are mounted on the surface of the package. A flip chip-PGA
(FC-PGA) package is a higher-performance PGA packaging that places the chip on the
opposite side of the pins. Another high performance packaging technique does not
use pins. A single edge contact (SEC) cartridge connects to the motherboard on one
of its edges. The Central Processing Unit The central processing unit (CPU), also
called processor, interprets and carries out the basic instructions that operate a
computer. The CPU significantly impacts overall computing power and manages most of
a computer's operations. On larger computers, such as mainframes and
supercomputers, the various functions performed by the processor extend over many
separate chips and often multiple circuit boards. On a personal computer, all
functions of the processor usually are on a single chip. Most processor chip
manufacturers now offer multi-core processors. A multi-core processor is a singlechip with two or more separate processors. Two common multi-core processors used
today are dual-core and quad-core. A dual-core processor is a chip that contains
tow separate processors. Similarly, a quad-core processor is a chip with fourseparate processors. Each processor on a multi-core chip generally runs at a slower
clock speed than a single-core processor, but multi-core ships typically increase
overall performance. Memory While performing a processing operation, a processor
needs a place to temporarily store instructions to be executed and the data to be
used with those instructions. The CPU cannot process data on an input device or
disk directly; the
data must first be available in memory. A computer's memory in the system unit,
located physically close to the CPU (to decrease access time), provides the CPU
with a working storage area for program instructions, data and information. Memory
is also known as primary storage or internal storage. Memory usually consists of
one or more chips on the motherboard or some other circuit board in the computer.
The major feature of memory is that it rapidly provides the instructions and data
to the CPU. Memory stores three basic categories of items: (1) the operating system
and other system software that control or maintain the computer and its devices;
(2) application programs that carry our a specific task such as word processing;
and (3) the data being processed by the application programs and resulting
information. This role of memory to store both data and programs is known as the
stored program concept. #Memory and storage sizesPrograms and data are placed in
memory before processing, between processing steps, and after processing has ended,
prior to being returned to secondary storage or released as output. Recall that a
character is stored in the computer as a group of 0s and 1s, called a byte. Thus, a
byte is the basic storage unit in memory. Like the CPU, memory components contain
thousands of circuits imprinted on a silicon chip. Each circuit is either

conducting electrical current (on) or not (off). By representing data as a


combination of on or off circuit states, the data is stored in memory. When
application program instructions and data are transferred into memory from storage
devices, each of bytes is placed in a precise location in memory, called an
address. This address is simply a unique number identifying the location of the
byte in memory. To access data or instructions in memory, the computer references
the addresses that contain bytes of data. The size of memory is measured by the
number of bytes available for use (Figure 4-17). A kilobyte of memory is equal to
exactly 1,024 bytes. To make storage definitions easier to identify, computer users
often round a kilobyte down to 1,000 bytes. A megabyte (MB) is equal to
approximately 1 million bytes. A gigabyte (GB) equals approximately 1 billion
bytes. A terabyte (TB) is equal to approximately 1 trillion bytes. The system unit
contains two types of memory: volatile and nonvolatile. The contents of volatile
memory are lost when the computer power is turned off. In nonvolatile memory, the
combination of circuit states is fixed, and therefore the contents of nonvolatile
memory are not lost when power is removed from the computer. RAM is the most common
type of volatile memory. Examples of nonvolatile memory include ROM, flash memory
and CMOS. The following sub-sections discuss these types of memory. RAM Random
Access Memory (RAM) is the memory chips that are mounted directly on the
motherboard or mounted on peripheral cards that plug into the motherboard. The RAM
chips consist of millions of switches that are sensitive to changes in electric
current. When the computer is powered on, certain operating system files are loaded
from a storage device such as a hard disk into RAM. These files remain in RAM as
long as the computer is running. As additional programs and data are requested,
they are read from storage into RAM. The processor acts upon the data while it is
in RAM. During the running time, the contents of RAM may change as the program is
executed. RAM comes in many different varieties. Three basic types of RAM are
dynamic RAM, static RAM, and magnetoresistive RAM. Dynamic RAM (DRAM) must be
refreshed (or recharged) constantly by the CPU or it loses its contents. Many
variations of DRAM chips exist, most of which are faster than the basic DRAM. One
type of DRAM is Synchronous DRAM (SDRAM), which is much faster than DRAM because it
is synchronized to the system clock. Double Data Rate (DDR) SDRAM chips are eve
faster than SDRAM chips because they transfer data twice for each clock cycle,
instead of just once, and DDR2 and DDR3 are even faster than DDR. Dual channel
SDRAM is faster than single channel SDRAM because it delivers twice the amount of
data to the processor. Rambus DRAM (RDRAM) is yet another type of DRAM that is much
faster than SDRAM because it uses pipelining techniques. Most personal computers
today use some form of SDRAM chips or RDRAM chips. Static RAM (SRAM) is faster and
more reliable than any form of DRAM. The term static refers to the fact that it
does not have to be re-energized as often as DRAM. SRAM is much more expensive than
DRAM, thus it is usually used for special purpose, such as used in cache. A newer
type of RAM, called magnetoresistive RAM (MRAM), stores data using magnetic charges
instead of electrical charges. Manufacturers claim that MRAM has greater storage
capacity, consumes less power, and has faster access times than electronic RAM.
Also, MRAM retains its contents after power is removed from the computer, which
could prevent loss of data for users. As the cost of MRAM declines, experts predict
MRAM could replace both DRAM and SRAM. ###A memory module being inserted in a
motherboard.##RAM chips usually are packaged on a small circuit board, called
memory module, which is inserted into the motherboard (Figure 4-19). Three types of
memory modules are SIMMs, DIMMs, and RIMMs. A single inline memory module (SIMM)
has pins on opposite sides of the circuit board that connect together to form a
single set of contacts. With a dual inline memory module (DIMM), the pins on
opposite sides of the circuit board do not connect and thus form two sets of
contacts. SIMMs and DIMMs typically hold SDRAM chips. A Rambus inline memory module
(RIMM) houses RDRAM chips. The amount of RAM a computer requires often depends on
the types of applications you plan to use on the computer. A computer only can
manipulate data that is in memory. A computer needs a certain amount of memory to
store programs, data, and information. The more RAM a computer has, the faster the
computer will respond. A software package usually indicates the minimum amount of

RAM it requires. If you want the application to perform optimally, typically you
need more than the minimum specifications on the software package. The necessary
amount of RAM varies according to the type of work you do and the type of software
applications you are using. The amount of RAM on your computer determines how many
programs and how much data a computer can handle at one time and thus affects
overall performance. Generally, home users running Windows Vista and using basic
application software such as word processing should have at least 1GB of RAM. Most
business users who work with accounting, financial, or spreadsheet programs, and
programs requiring multimedia capabilities should have 1 to 4 GB of RAM. Users
creating professional Web sites or using graphics-intensive applications will want
4GB or more of RAM. The amount of RAM in computers purchased today ranges from 1GB
to 64GB. In an advertisement, manufacturers specify the maximum amount of RAM a
computer can hold, for example, 1GB expandable to 2GB. ROM Read-only memory (ROM)
refers to memory chips storing permanent data and instructions. That is, the items
stored in ROM chips cannot be modified--hence, the name read-only. ROM is usually
nonvolatile. In ROM, the combination of circuit states is fixed, and therefore its
contents are not lost if the power is removed. The data, instructions, or
information stored on ROM chips often are recorded when the chip is manufactured.
ROM chips that contain permanently written data, instructions, or information are
called firmware. Firmware can be read and used, but cannot be changed by user. For
example, ROM contains the programs that direct the computer to load the operating
system and other files when the computer is turned on. In addition to computers,
many devices contain ROM chips. For example, ROM chips in printers contain data for
fonts. Programmable read-only memory (PROM) is a blank ROM chip on which you can
permanently place data and programs. Once the data and instructions are programmed
into PROM chip, the chip functions like a regular ROM and cannot be erased or
changed. A variation of the PROM chip, called electrically erasable programmable
read-only memory (EEPROM) chip, allows a programmer to erase the microcode with an
electric signal. EEPROM chips are where the CPU's data and instructions change, but
only infrequently, such as an industrial robot used in an automobile manufacturer.
Flash Memory Another type of nonvolatile memory is called flash memory. Flash
memory is a chip that keeps its memory when the power is shut off. Similar to a
EEPROM chip, flash memory can be erased electronically and reprogrammed. Most
computers use flash memory to hold their startup instructions because it allows the
computer easily to update its contents. For example, when the computer changes from
standard time to day-light savings time, the contents of a flash memory chip (and
the real-time clock chip) change to reflect the new time. Flash memory chips also
store data and programs on many mobile computers and devices, such as smart
telephones, digital cameras, pagers, PDAs, automotive devices, portable media
players, digital voice recorders, and printers. When you enter names and addresses
in a smart phone or PDA, a flash memory chip stores the data. Some portable media
players such as MP3 players store music on flash memorychips; others store music
on tiny hard disks or flash memory cards. The logic capabilities of these devices
can be upgraded by simply downloading new software from the Internet or a vendorsupplied disk to flash memory. CMOS Some RAM chips, flash memory chips, and other
types of memory chips use complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology
because it provides high speeds and consumes little power. CMOS technology uses
battery power to retain information even when the power to the computer is off.
Battery-backed CMOS memory chips, for example, can keep the calendar, date, and
time current even when the computer is off. The flash memory chips that store a
computer's startup information often use CMOS technology. Expansion Slots and
Adapter Cards ###An adapter card being inserted in an expansion slot##An expansion
slot is a socket on the motherboard that can hold an adapter card. An adapter card,
also called expansion card, is a circuit board that enhances functions of a
component of the system unit and/or provides connections to peripherals. A
peripheral is a device that connects to the system unit and is controlled by the
processor in the computer. Examples of peripherals are modems, disk drives,
printers, scanners, and keyboards. The adapter cards contain the electronic
circuitry for many supplemental capabilities, such as more memory, higher-quality

sound devices, a modem, extra ports, or graphics capabilities. Figure shows an


expansion card being plugged into an expansion slot on a personal computer
motherboard. Figure below lists currently used types of adapter cards. Sometimes,
all functionality is built in the adapter card. With others, a cable connects the
adapter card to a device, such as a digital video camera, outside the system unit.
###Currently used adapter cards and their functions##Some motherboards include all
necessary capabilities and do not require adapter cards. Other motherboards may
require adapter cards to provide capabilities such as sound and video. A sound card
is used to enhance the sound-generating capabilities of a personal computer by
making two basic functions possible. First it enables sounds to be captured and
stored on disk. Second, it enables sounds to be played through external speakers.
The sound card can add realism to computer games with stereo music and sound
effects. It also allows us to speak commands and enter words to our PCs via speech
recognition. The typical sound card will have receptacles for a microphone, a
headset, an audio output, and a joystick. A video card, also called video adapter
or graphics card, converts computer output into a video signal that is sent through
a cable to the monitor, which displays an image on the screen. In the past,
installing a card was not easy and required you to set switches and other elements
on the motherboard. Today, many computers support Plug and Play, which refers to
the computer's capability to automatically configure adapter cards and other
peripherals as you install them. Having Plug and Play support means that a user can
plug in a new component turn on the computer, and then use or play the component
without having to configure the system manually. There are four widely used types
of removable flash memory devices: flash memory cards, USB flash drives, PC cards,
and ExpressCard modules. Unlike adapter cards that require you to open the system
unit and install the card on the motherboard, you can change a removable flash
memory device without having to open the system unit or restart the computer. This
feature, called hot plugging, allows you to insert and remove the removable flash
memory and other devices while the computer is running. #Flash memory cards and USB
flash driveA flash memory card is a removable flash memory device, which you inset
and remove from a slot in a computer, mobile device, or card reader/writer. Many
mobile and consumer devices, such as smart phones, digital cameras, portable media
players, and PDAs use these memory cards. Some printers and computers have built-in
card readers/writers or slots that read flash memory cards. In addition, you can
purchase an external card reader/writer that attaches to any computer. Flash memory
cards are available in a variety of shapes, sizes and capacities. A USB flash drive
is a flash memory storage device that plugs in a USB port on a computer or portable
device. A special type of USB flash drive, called a U3 smart drive, includes
preinstalled software accessed through a Window-type interface. Many computers have
a PC Card slot or an Express Card slot, which is a special type of expansion slot
that holds a PC Card or an Express Card module, respectively. A PC Card is a thin,
credit card-sized removable flash memory device that primarily is used today to
enable notebook computers to access the Internet wirelessly. Express Card modules
are the next generation of PC Cards. An Express Card module, which can be used as a
removable flash memory device, adds memory, communications, multimedia, and
security capabilities to computers. Both PC Cards and Express Card modules conform
to standards developed by the Personal Computer Memory Card International
Association. These standards help to ensure the interchangeability of PC Cards and
Express Card modules among personal computers. #####A PC Card slides in a PC Card
slot##Other Components Buses As previously explained, a computer processes and
stores data as a series of electronic bits. These bits are transferred internally
within the circuitry of the computer along electrical channels. Each channel,
called a bus, allows the various devices inside and attached to the system unit to
communicate with each other. Just as vehicles travel on a highway to move from one
destination to another, bits travel on a bus. ####Just as vehicles travel on a
highway, bits travel on a bus###Buses are used to transfer bits from input devices
to memory, from memory to the CPU, from the CPU to memory, and from memory to
output or storage devices. All buses consist of two parts: a data bus and an
address bus. The data bus transfers actual data and the address bus transfers

information about where the data should go in memory. A bus is measured by its
size. The size of a bus, called the bus width, determines the number of bits that
can be transmitted at one time. For example, a 32-bit bus can transmit 32 bits (4
bytes) at a time. On a 64-bit bus, 64 bits (8 bytes) are transmitted from one
location to another at a time. The larger the number of bits handled by the bus,
the faster the computer transfers data. If a number in memory occupies 64 bits, it
must be transmitted in two separate steps when using a 32-bit bus: once for the
first 32 bits and once for the second 32 bits. Using a 64-bit bus, however, the
number can be transmitted in a single step, transferring all 64 bits at once. The
wider the bus, the fewer number of transfer steps required and the faster the
transfer of data. Most personal computers today use a 64-bit bus. Every bus also
has a clock speed. Just like the processor, the clock speed for a bus is measured
in megahertz. The higher the bus clock speed, the faster the transmission of data,
which results in applications running faster. Most of today's processors have a bus
clock speed of 400, 533, 667, 800, 1066, or 1333 MHz. #####Buses allow the various
devices inside and attached to the system unit to communicate with each other##Two
basic types of buses are found in a computer: a system bus and an expansion bus. A
system bus is part of the motherboard and connects the CPU to main memory. An
expansion bus allows the CPU to communicate with peripheral devices. Data
transmitted to the CPU travels from the expansion bus and the system bus. When
computer professionals use the term bus by itself, they usually are referring to
the system bus. Since the types of expansion buses on a motherboard determine the
types of expansion cards you can add, you should understand the expansion buses
commonly found in today's personal computers: An old and slowest expansion bus is
the ISA (Industry Standard Architecture) bus. A mouse, modem card, sound card, and
low-speed network card are examples of devices that connect to the ISA bus directly
or through an ISA bus expansion slot. The PCI (Peripheral Component Interconnect)
bus is a high-speed expansion bus that connects higher speed devices. Types of
cards inserted into a PCI bus expansion slot include video cards, sound cards, SCSI
cards, and high-speed network cards. The PCI bus transfers data about four times
faster than the ISA bus. Most current personal computers have a PCI bus. The PCI
Express (PCIe) bus is an expansion bus that expands on and doubles the speed of the
original PCI bus. Nearly all video cards today use the PCI Express bus, as well as
many hard disks and network cards. Experts predict the PCI Express bus eventually
will replace the PCI bus completely. The Accelerated Graphics Port (AGP) is
actually a bus designed by Intel to improve the speed with which 3-D graphics and
video are transmitted. When an AGP video card is inserted in an AGP bus slot, the
AGP bus provides a faster, dedicated interface between the video card and memory.
Newer processors support AGP technology. The Universal Serial Bus (USB) and
FireWire bus are buses that eliminate the need to install expansion cards into
expansion slots. In a computer equipped with a USB, USB devices are connected to
each other outside the system unit and then a single cable attaches to the USB
port. The USB port then connects to USB, which connects to the PCI bus on the
motherboard. The USB hot plug feature allows peripheral devices to be connected to
or removed from the USB port while the PC is running. The FireWire bus works in a
similar fashion. With these buses, expansion slots are available for devices not
compatible with USB or FireWire. The expansion bus for a PC Card is the PC Card
bus. With a PC Card inserted into a PC Card slot, data travels on the PC Card bus
to the PCI bus. ###A system unit has many ports##Ports and Connectors A port is the
point at which a peripheral attaches to or communicates with a system unit
so that the peripheral can send data to or receive information from the computer.
An peripheral device, such as a keyboard, monitor, printer, mouse, digital camera,
and microphone, often attaches by a cable to a port on the system unit. Most of the
time, ports are located on the back of the system unit, but they also can be placed
on the front . A connector joins a cable to a port. A connector at one end of a
cable attaches to a port on the system unit, and a connector at the other end of
the cable attaches to a port on the peripheral. Most connectors are available in
one of two genders: male and female. Male connectors have one or more exposed pins.
Female connectors have matching holes to accept the pints on a male

connector.Manufacturers often identify the cables by their connector types to


assist you with purchasing a cable to connect a computer to a peripheral. Figure
show the different types of connectors you may find on a system unit. Notice that
some are color-coded to help you match the connector to the correct port. Some
system units include these connectors when you buy the computer. You add other
connectors by inserting adapter cards on the motherboard. Certain adapter cards
have ports that allow you to attach a peripheral to the adapter card. The
motherboard is designed with several port options, including at least one serial
port and parallel port each, several USB ports, and a FireWire port. A serial port
is a type of interface that connects a device to the system unit by transmitting
data one bit at a time. It usually used to connect devices that do not required
fast data transmission rates, such as a mouse or keyboard. The COM port (short for
communications port) on the system unit is one type of serial port. Some modems,
which connect the system unit to a telephone line, use a serial port because the
telephone line expects the data in a serial form. Serial ports conform to either
the RS-232 or RS-422 standard with 9-pin or 25-pin. One of the 9 or 25 lines
carries the serial signal to the peripheral device, and another line carries the
signal from the device. The other lines carry control signals. Parallel ports allow
the parallel transmission of data; that is, several bits are transmitted
simultaneously. Figure also shows how 8-bit bytes travel in parallel over 8
separate lines. Extra lines carry control signals. Parallel ports use the same 25pin RS-232C connector or the 36-pin Centronics connector. These ports provide the
interface for such devices as high-speed printers, external magnetic tape or disk
backup units, and other computers. Two newer types of parallel ports, the EPP
(Enhanced Parallel Port) and the ECP (Extended Capabilities Port), use the same
connectors as the Centronics port, but are more than 10 times faster. #####A
serial port and parallel port##USB (Universal Serial Bus) ports are used in highspeed device interfaces. Up to 127 peripheral devices can be daisy-chained to a
single USB port. USB ports are ideal for digital cameras, scanners, games
controllers, MP3 music player, CD & DVD, removable hard disk, PDA, smart phone, and
high-speed modems. Many system units have six to eight USB ports. Some newer
peripheral devices may attach only to a USB port. Others attach to either a serial
or parallel port, as well as a USB port. When connecting a device to a USB port,
you do not need to install a card in the computer. Simply plug one end of the cable
into the USB port and the other end into the device.To attach multiple peripherals
using a single USB port, you can use a USB hub. A USB hub is a device that plugs in
a USB port on the system unit and contains multiple USB ports in which you plug
cables from USB devices. Some USB hubs are wireless. The latest version of USB,
called USB 2.0, is a more advanced and faster USB, with speeds 40 times higher than
that of its predecessor. #####USB and FireWire ports are replacing traditional
ports##FireWire ports, also called IEEE 1394 port, are similar to the USB port and
can connect multiple types of devices that require faster data transmission speeds
such as digital video cameras, digital VCRs color printer, scanners, digital
cameras, and DVD drives to a single connector. Up to 63 devices can be connected
together using a FireWire port. The latest FireWire version, called FireWire 800,
is much more advanced than its predecessor, FireWire 400. The FireWire also
supports Plug and Play. Many computer professionals believe that ports such as USB
and FireWire someday will replace serial and parallel ports completely. Having
standard ports and connectors, such as USB and FireWire, greatly simplify the
process of attaching devices to a computer. In general, FireWire has replaced
parallel and SCSI ports, and USB ports have replaced mouse, keyboard, serial,
audio, and parallel ports. Some newer computers do not have a serial or parallel
port. Users plug the device in a USB or FireWire port. Figure 4-32 shows how USB
and FireWire are replacing other ports completely. There are five special-purpose
ports available: MIDI, eSATA, SCSI, IrDA, and Bluetooth. These ports are not
included in typical computers. For a computer to have these ports, you often must
customize the computer purchase order. MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface)
ports connect the system unit to a musical instrument, such as an electronic
keyboard. The electronic music industry has adopted MIDI as a standard to define

how devices, such as sound cards and synthesizers, represent sounds electronically.
A synthesizer, which can be a peripheral or a chip, creates sound from digital
instructions. A system unit with a MIDI port has the capability of recording sounds
that have been created by a synthesizer and the processing the sounds to create new
sounds. Nearly every sound card supports the MIDI standard, so you can play and
manipulate on one computer sounds that originally were created on another computer.
An eSATA (external Serial Advanced Technology Attachment) port, allows you to
connect an external SATA hard disk to a computer. SATA hard disks are popular
because of their fast data transmission speeds. eSATA connections provide up to six
times faster data transmission speeds than external hard disks attached to a
computer's USB or FireWire port. SCSI (Small Computer System Interface) ports are
special high-speed parallel port and provide a parallel interface that enables
faster data transmission than serial and parallel ports. Also up to 15 SCSI
peripheral devices can be daisy-chained to a single SCSI port; that is, they are
connected along a single cable. The first SCSI device connects to the computer, the
second SCSI device connects to the first SCSI device, and so on. SAS (serialattached SCSI) is a newer type of SCSI that transmits at much faster speeds than
parallel SCSI. Power Supply, Cooling Technology Many personal computers plug in
standard wall outlets, which supply an alternating current (AC) of 115 to 120
volts. This type of power is unsuitable for use with a computer, which requires a
direct current (DC) ranging from 5 to 12 volts. The power supply is the component
of the system unit that converts the wall outlet AC power into DC power. Different
motherboards and computers require different wattages on the power supply. If a
power supply is not providing the necessary power, the computer will not function
properly. #Built into the power supply is a fan that keeps the power supply cool.
Many newer computers have additional fans near certain components in the system
unit such as the processor, hard disk, and ports. Processor chips generate quite a
bit of heat, which could cause the chip to burn up. Although the computers main
fan generates airflow, many of todays processors require additional cooling. A
heat sink is a small ceramic or metal component with fins on its surface that
absorbs and disperses heat produced by electrical components such as a processor.
Because a heat sink consumes extra space, smaller device called a heat pipe cools
processors in notebook computers. #TASK SHEET. 1.1-4##Title:
Identify the
Different Computer Components and Peripherals ##Performance Objective In the tool
shop, given the supplies, computer components and peripherals, materials, and
equipment, you are required to identify the different computer components and
peripherals and their specifications in 15 Minutes.##Supplies/Materials:
Paper
and Pen##Equipment:
ComputerPPE##Steps/Procedure:Proceed to the station (with
PC Unit) assigned to youIdentify the different components and write the
specifications of each component on your paper.Submit output to trainer for
evaluation##Assessment Method:
Practicum with interview##PERFORMANCE CRITERIA
CHECKLIST TASK 1.1-4Criteria#Yes#No##Computer components and peripherals are
identified correctly####Questions about the computer components and peripherals are
answered correctly#### Personal Protective Equipment(PPE) were used
properly####The objective of the activity are achieved accordingly########
INFORMATION SHEET 1.1-5TOOLS AND EQUIPMENTSLEARNING OBJECTIVES:After reading this
Information Sheet, you should be able to:Identify the different tools and equipment
used in computer systemsand networksDetermine the different use and functions of
these tools and equipmentsOne important thing to consider before executing a well
planned computer installation is that one must be knowledgeable in the different
tools and equipments used in computer systems and networks. Furthermore, the idea
on how these tools and equipments are properly used is another important
consideration in installing computer systems.Hardware Tools/Equipments and their
Functions#Illustrations##Protective Eyewear####enclose
or protect the eye area in order to prevent particulates, infectious fluids, or
chemicals from striking the eyes###Multi-tester or Multi-meter####Amulti-meteror
amulti-tester, also known as aVOM(Volt-Ohm meter), is an#HYPERLINK
"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electronics" \o "Electronics"#electronic# #HYPERLINK
"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Measuring_instrument" \o "Measuring

instrument"#measuring instrument#that combines several measurement functions in


one unit###Pliers (Assorted)#
###Pliersis a#HYPERLINK
"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hand_tool" \o "Hand tool"#hand tool#used to hold
objects firmly, for#HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bending" \o
"Bending"#bending#, or#HYPERLINK
"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Compression_(physical)" \o "Compression
(physical)"#physical compression#.###Screwdriver####Ascrewdriveris a tool for
driving#HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Screw" \o "Screw"#screws#and
often rotating other#HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Machine_element" \o
"Machine element"#machine elements#with the mating drive system###Soldering
Gun####Asoldering gunis a#HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tool" \o
"Tool"#tool#for#HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soldering" \o
"Soldering"#soldering#metals using tin-based#HYPERLINK
"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solder" \o "Solder"#solder#to achieve a highly
conductive contact###Desoldering Tool####Desoldering tools are used for removing
the molten solder so that the joint may be separated.###Allen Wrench####Ahex
key,Allen key, orAllen wrench(also known by various other#HYPERLINK
"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allen_wrench" \l "Nomenclature"#synonyms#) is
a#HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tool" \o "Tool"#tool#of #HYPERLINK
"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hexagon" \o "Hexagon"#hexagonal#cross-section used
to drive bolts and#HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Screw" \o
"Screw"#screws#that have a hexagonal socket in the head (internal-wrenching
hexagon drive)###Flashlight####A flashlight(ortorchin#HYPERLINK
"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/British_English" \o "British English"#British
English#) is a hand-held portable electric-powered light source. Usually the light
source is a small#HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Incandescent_light_bulb"
\o "Incandescent light bulb"#incandescent light bulb#or#HYPERLINK
"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/LED_lamp" \o "LED lamp"#light-emitting
diode#(LED)#######IC Insertion and Extraction Tool###Used for extracting and
inserting BIOS Chip###Mirror####In hardware servicing a mirror is used for
inspecting the peripherals###Tweezers####Tweezersare tools used for picking up
objects too small to be easily handled with the#HYPERLINK
"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human" \o "Human"#human##HYPERLINK
"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hand" \o "Hand"#hands####Antistatic Wrist Strap####
Anantistatic wrist strap,ESD wrist strap, orground braceletis an#HYPERLINK
"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antistatic_device" \o "Antistatic device"#antistatic
device#used to safely#HYPERLINK
"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ground_(electricity)" \o "Ground
(electricity)"#ground#a person working on very sensitive#HYPERLINK
"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electronics" \o "Electronics"#electronic#equipment,
to prevent the buildup of#HYPERLINK
"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Static_electricity" \o "Static electricity"#static
electricity#on their body, which can result in#HYPERLINK
"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electrostatic_discharge" \o "Electrostatic
discharge"#electrostatic discharge#(ESD)###Gloves####Agloves are#HYPERLINK
"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Garment" \o "Garment"#garment#sfor covering and
protecting the whole#HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hand" \o
"Hand"#hand####Printer####aprinteris a#HYPERLINK
"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peripheral" \o "Peripheral"#peripheral#which
produces a text or graphics of documents stored in #HYPERLINK
"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electronics" \o "Electronics"#electronic#form,
usually on physical print media such as paper or transparencies###Computer####
Acomputeris a#HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computer_program" \o
"Computer program"#programmable##HYPERLINK
"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Machine" \o "Machine"#machine#designed to
automatically carry out a sequence of arithmetic or logical operations###Windows
Operating System CD/DVD####An operating system is used as an intermediary between
hardware and software###Device Driver CD/DVD####An application used to install the
device and peripherals of a computer systems and networks###RS 232 pin

insertion/extraction tool####RS232 and D-Sub Pin Insertion and Removal Tool###


Computer Networking Tools and Device and their Functions#Illustrations##Crimping
Tool####Acrimping toolis a tool designed tocrimp or connect a connector to the
end of a cable. For example, network cables and phone cables are created using a
crimping tool to connect the#HYPERLINK
"http://www.computerhope.com/jargon/r/rj45.htm"#RJ-45#and#HYPERLINK
"http://www.computerhope.com/jargon/r/rj11.htm"#RJ-11#connectors to the end of the
cable. In the picture to the right, is an example of what a crimping tool looks
like. This example shows a tool capable of crimping both RJ-11 and RJ-45
connectors.###LAN Tester####
A Device used for testing network cable
connectivity###UTP Unshielded Twisted Pair Cat 5 Cable####A cable used for computer
networking###RJ 45 Connector####A plastic connector used for UTP Cable to connect
computers in a network###Ethernet Switch####Anetwork switchorswitching hubis
a#HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computer_networking_device" \o "Computer
networking device"#computer networking device#that connects#HYPERLINK
"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Network_segment" \o "Network segment"#network
segments#or#HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Network_device" \o "Network
device"#network devices####