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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION TO CLOTHING AND MENS WEAR


CLOTHING
HISTORY
Clothing is fiber and textile material worn on the body. The wearing of clothing is mostly
restricted to human beings and is a feature of nearly all human societies. The amount and
type of clothing worn is dependent on physical stature, gender, as well as social and
geographic considerations.
Different cultures have evolved various ways of creating clothes out of cloth. One
approach simply involves draping the cloth.
Examples of garments consisting of rectangles of cloth wrapped to fit include
the dhoti for men and the sari for women in the Indian subcontinent, the Scottish kilt and
the Javanese sarong. The clothes may simply be tied up, as is the case of the first two
garments; or pins or belts are used to hold the garments in place, as in the case of the
latter two. The cloth remains uncut, and people of various sizes or the same person at
different sizes can wear the garment.
Another approach involves cutting and sewing the cloth, but using every bit of the cloth
rectangle in constructing the clothing. The tailor may cut triangular pieces from one
corner of the cloth, and then add them elsewhere as gussets. Traditional European
patterns for men's shirts and women's chemises take this approach.

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MENSWEAR
A SHIRT is a cloth garment for the upper body. In British English, a shirt is more
specifically a garment with a collar, sleeves with cuffs, and a full vertical opening with
buttons or snaps (North Americans would call that a "dress shirt", a specific type of
"collared shirt"). A shirt can also be worn with a necktie under the shirt collar.
The world's oldest preserved garment, discovered by Flinders Petrie, is a "highly
sophisticated" linen shirt from a First Dynasty Egyptian tomb at Tarkan, c. 3000 BC: "the
shoulders and sleeves have been finely pleated to give form-fitting trimness while
allowing the wearer room to move. The small fringe formed during weaving along one
edge of the cloth has been placed by the designer to decorate the neck opening and side
seam."
Add Image from A.doc file
The shirt was an item of men's underwear until the twentieth century.
In the middle Ages, it was a plain, undyed garment worn next to the skin and under
regular garments.

Camp shirt : a loose, straight-cut, short sleeved shirt or blouse with a simple placket
front-opening and a "camp collar."
Dress shirt : shirt with a formal (somewhat stiff) collar, a full-length opening at the
front from the collar to the hem (usually buttoned), and sleeves with cuffs
Dinner shirt : a shirt specifically made to be worn with male evening wear, e.g. a black
tie or white tie.
Guayabera : an embroidered dress shirt with four pockets.
Poet shirt :
a loose-fitting shirt or blouse with full bishop sleeves, usually with large
frills on the front and on the cuffs.
T-shirt :
also "tee shirt", a casual shirt without a collar or buttons, made of a
stretchy, finely knit fabric, usually cotton, and usually short-sleeved.
Originally worn under other shirts, it is now a common shirt for everyday
wear in some countries.
Ringer T-shirt : tee with a separate piece of fabric sewn on as the collar and sleeve hems
Half shirt :
a high-hemmed T-shirt
Sleeveless shirt : a shirt manufactured without sleeves, or one whose sleeves have been
cut off
A-shirt or vest or
singlet :
essentially a sleeveless shirt with large armholes and a large neck
hole, often worn by laborers or athletes for Increased movability.
Sometimes called a "wife beater" when worn without a covering
layer.
Polo shirt :
a pullover soft collar short-sleeved shirt with an abbreviated button

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placket at the neck and a longer back than front (the "tennis tail").
Rugby shirt : a long-sleeved polo shirt, traditionally of rugged construction in thick
cotton or wool, but often softer today
Henley shirt : a collarless polo shirt
Baseball shirt
(jersey) : usually distinguished by a three quarters sleeve, team insignia,
and flat waist seam
Sweatshirt : long-sleeved athletic shirt of heavier material, with or without hood
Tunic :
primitive shirt, distinguished by two-piece construction. Initially a men's
garment, is normally seen in modern times being worn by women

PARTS OF SHIRT
Many terms are used to describe and differentiate types of shirts (and upper-body
garments in general) and their construction. The smallest differences may have
significance to a cultural or occupational group. Recently, (late twentieth century) it has
become common to use tops to carry messages or advertising. Many of these distinctions
apply to other upper-body garments, such as coats and sweaters.

SHIRTS MAY:

Have short sleeves, varying from cap sleeves (covering only the shoulder and not
extending below the armpit) to half sleeves (elbow length), with some having quarterlength sleeves (reaching to a point that covers half of the biceps and triceps area)
Have three-quarter-length sleeves (reaching to a point between the elbow and the wrist)
Have long sleeves (reaching a point to the wrist to a little beyond wrist)

CUFFS
Shirts with long sleeves may further be distinguished by the cuffs:
No buttons : a closed placket cuff
Buttons:
single or multiple. A single button or pair aligned parallel with the cuffhem
is considered a button cuff. Multiple buttons aligned perpendicular to
the cuff hem, or parallel to the placketconstitute a barrel cuff.
Buttonholes: designed for cufflinks
A French cuff: where the end half of the cuff is folded over the cuff itself and fastened
with a cufflink. This type of cuffhas four buttons and a short placket.
A link cuff: fastened like a French cuff, except is not folded over, but instead hemmed,
at the edge of the sleeve.

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LOWER HEM

Hanging to the waist

Leaving the belly button area bare (much more common for women than for men).
Covering the crotch
Covering part of the legs (essentially this is a dress; however, a piece of clothing is perceived
either as a shirt (worn with trousers) or as a dress (in Western culture mainly worn by
women)).
Going to the floor (as a pajama shirt)

BODY

Vertical opening on the front side, all the way down, with buttons or zipper. When fastened
with buttons, this opening is often called the placket front.
Similar opening, but in back.
Left and right front side not separable, put on over the head; with regard to upper front side
opening:
V-shaped permanent opening on the top of the front side
No opening at the upper front side
Vertical opening on the upper front side with buttons or zipper
Men's shirts are often buttoned on the right whereas women's are often buttoned on the
left.

NECK

With Polo-Neck
With "Scoop" Neck
With V-Neck But No Collar
With Plunging Neck
With Open Or Tassel Neck
With Collar
Windsor collar or Spread collar: a dressier collar designed with a wide distance
between points (the spread) to accommodate the Windsor knot tie. The standard
business collar.
Tab collar : a collar with two small fabric tabs that fasten together behind a tie to
maintain collar spread.
Wing collar : best suited for the bow tie, often only worn for very formal occasions.

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Straight collar or point collar: a version of the Windsor that is distinguished by a


narrower spread to better accommodate the four-in-hand knot, Pratt knot, and the halfWindsor knot. A moderate dress collar.
Button-down collar : A collar with buttons that fasten the points or tips to a shirt. The
most casual of collars worn with a tie.
Band collar: essentially the lower part of a normal collar, first used as the original collar
to which a separate collar piece was attached. Rarely seen in modern fashion. Also
casual.
Turtle neck collar: A collar that covers most of the throat.

OTHER FEATURES

Pockets: how many (if any), where, and with regard to closure: not closable, just a flap, or
with a button or zipper.
With or without hood

TYPES OF FABRIC USED FOR SHIRT


There are two main categories of fibers used: natural fiber and man-made fiber (synthetics or
petroleum based).
Some natural fibers are linen; the first used historically, cotton, the most
used, ramie, wool, silk and more recently bamboo or soya. Some synthetic fibers
are polyester, tinsel, viscose, etc. Polyester mixed with cotton (poly-cotton) is often used.
Fabrics for shirts are called shirting. The four main weaves for shirting are :
Plain weave, Oxford, Twill and Satin. Broadcloth, poplin and end-on-end are variations of the
plain weave. After weaving, finishing can be applied to the fabric.

TROUSERS
Trousers are an item of clothing worn from the waist to the ankles, covering both legs separately
(rather than with cloth extending across both legs as in robes, skirts, and dresses).
In most of the Western world, trousers have been worn since ancient times and throughout
the Medieval period, becoming the most common form of lower-body clothing for males in the
modern world, although shorts are also widely worn, and kilts and other garments may be worn
in various regions and cultures.
Since the mid-20th century, trousers have increasingly been worn by females as well. Jeans,
made of denim, are a form of trousers for casual wear, now widely worn all over the world by
both sexes. Shorts are often preferred in hot weather or for some sports, and also often by
children and teenagers.
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Trousers are worn at the hips or waist, and may be held up by their own fastenings, a belt,
or suspenders
(braces). Leggings are form-fitting trousers,
of
a
clingy
material,
often knitted cotton and spandex (elastane).
Trousers first enter recorded history in the 6th century BC, with the appearance of horseriding Iranian peoples in Greek ethnography. At this time, not only the Persians, but also allied
Eastern and Central Asian peoples such as the Bactrians, Armenians, Tigraxauda Scythians and
Xiongnu Hunnu, are known to have worn them.
Trousers are believed to have been worn by both sexes among these early users. The oldest
preserved pair of trousers are thought to be from the 10th to 13th centuries BC and were found in
the Yanghai graveyard in Chinas Tarim Basin. It is believed the garments were invented to
make horse riding easier.

PARTS OF TROUSERS

Pleats
Cuff
Fly

Fig 1.1

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CONSUMERS

Consumers are changing. This is nothing new, in fact, its a reliable constant. A decade
ago clothing was the need of the consumers, they shopped whatever was required. The
purchase pattern was basic in nature, which included Shirts, Trousers, Jackets, Sari,
Salwar Kameez, denims.
Then slowly the change took place and variations took place, prints, textures, colors
fabrics started getting more trendy with the time passed.
Customers taste changed. Western outfits were given more preference.
Currently customers prefer variety in their wardrobe for different occasions. Customers
need appropriate garments that they can wear suiting as per the occasion they need to be
in.
Like now the new concepts have come in :
Travel Wear: When consumers travel, it can also be considered as Casual Wear
Sports/Gym wear: for the Work Out time
Leisure Wear: includes Party wear, evening wear for dinner and other occasions, casuals,
semi formals
Work Wear: to be worn while going to work
And Board Wear

MEN CONSUMERS:

Fig1.2

(This study given below is taken from the study of men consumers from european
countries)
When men were men, as the saying goes, masculinity was clearly defined. Today,
gender conventions are blurring and men are formulating a more nuanced idea of what it
means to be a man. The manly man is portrayed winkingly these days, even as retro
elements of masculinity enjoy a revival.
Redefining Masculinity:
1. Gender gets more fluid

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2. The image-conscious man


3. The multidimensional man
4. Retro sexuals
5. Men to admire
6. The new midlife crisis
1. GENDER GETS MORE FLUID:
Conventional ideas about male and female domains, activities, behaviors and styles are evolving:
Were moving toward a more nuanced concept of gender that questions some stereotypes and
revises old assumptions. Millennias are leading the way, less confined to traditional gender roles
and more willing to break long-standing norms to express their individuality. And Gen Z is
poised to hold the least rigidly defined view of gender as they reach adulthood.
3/4
of men agree that
Men and women dont need to conform to traditional roles and behaviors anymore
Gender doesnt define a person as much as it used to

WHATS ACCEPTABLE IN GROOMING AND IN FASHION

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Fig 1.3

Fig 1.4
This is the result found in the JWT study on changing mens consumer behavior.

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2. THE IMAGE-CONSCIOUS MAN:


Guys are starting to take a little bit more pride in their appearance and are more willing to dress
up on occasions that they might not have to. They are seeing the value in looking and feeling
their best. There is this antiquated notion that its manlier to not care about the way you look.
Now, more guys are starting to realize that when you look good, you feel good. That is an idea
that is really starting to catch on.

Fig 1.5

THE MULTI-DIMENSIONAL MEN:


What makes a man? Being a man is much less about power, literally and figuratively, and more
about being honorable. The size of his paycheck is far less important on its own than the ability
to support his familyand being a good parent is a bigger defining factor of manhood than
career success.

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WHAT DEFINES A MAN TODAY

Fig 1.6

Women are rising, but for men this is less the end than the driver of major shifts in gender
roles, behavior, attitude and mindset. Some men are welcoming the new options that a less
prescribed model of masculinity opens up. For others, the lack of a clear model for manhood is
anxiety-producing, as are the new expectations to spend more time on everything from child care
to chores to skin care.
We can say that men are changing, in some cases quite significantlybut theyre in no danger of
becoming chicks. Indeed, men are putting a masculine stamp on child care, housework and
even skin care.

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CHAPTER 2
COMPANY PROFILE
INTRODUCTION
Future group is Indias leading multi format retailer established in 1987. Future groups business
focuses on developing and operating modern retail, brands and distribution networks for the
consumption sector in India. In existence in India over more than two decades, the group
operates 2 distinct businesses Value retail & Fashion retail. Future Lifestyle Fashion limited
focuses on Fashion business and Future Retail limited focus on Value business respectively.

GROUP VISION
Future group shall deliver Everything, Everywhere, Every time for Every Indian Consumer in
the most profitable manner.

GROUP MISSION
We share the vision and belief that our customers and stake holders shall be served only by
creating and executing future scenarios in the consumption space leading to economic
development.
We will be trend setters in evolving delivery formats, creating retail reality, making consumption
affordable for all customer segments-for classes and for masses.
We shall infuse Indian brands with confidence and renewed ambition.
We shall be efficient, cost conscious and committed to quality in whatever we do.
We shall ensure that our positive attitude, sincerity, humility and united determination shall be
the driving force to make us successful.

GROUP VALUES

Indianness ;Believing in the Indian way and in oneself.

Leadership;To be leader both in thought and business.

Respect and Humility;In dealing with everyone within and outside the organization.

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Introspection;For continuous learning, self-development and personal excellence.

Openness;Open to new ideas, knowledge, and information across the organization and seamless
flow of the same.

Valuing and Nurturing Relationships


With customers, business associates, communities, and society.

Simplicity and Positivity


To foster innovation speed and imagination.

Adaptability
Be proactive in meeting challenges emerging from changing business scenarios.

Flow
Learn and be inspired from the universal laws of nature.

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FUTURE LIFESTYLE FASHION LIMITED


Future lifestyle fashions sets trends styles and idioms for Indian lifestyle fashion business
through integrating some of Indias most popular lifestyle retail destination like central, brand
factory, planet sports and many other domestic and global fashion brands with talented business
professionals, fashion designers and entrepreneurs.
Future Lifestyle Fashions Limited [FLF] has been formed through the demerger of the lifestyle
fashion businesses of Future Retail Limited (formerly Pantaloon Retail (India) Limited) and
Future Ventures India Limited in June 2013.

Four Key Components of FLF In The Fashion Industry

A strong portfolio of owned and licensed brands


A well-established retail presence
A pan-India reach for its brands through a strong distribution network
And investments in fast growing fashion brands into a single entity.

It thus creates a unique player in the fashion industry that is primed to gain leadership in
building both fashion brands and fashion retailing in India. As an integrated fashion company
with presence across all key segments within the fashion industry.

VISION
To be the leading lifestyle fashion company in India by creating exceptional brands and shopping
Experiences that will bring alive the Indian idiom of fashion

MISSION
Future Lifestyle Fashion aim to create a globally recognized fashion organization here in India
by bringing alive the Indian idiom of fashion.
They strive to:
Be the most preferred fashion destination of India
Create the most preferred portfolio of fashion brands
Be as the most innovative, efficient, and profitable retailer
Be the preferred employer in the fashion space
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Be the trendsetter in Indian fashion through superior understanding of the


culture, style code, passion and aspirations of Indian consumers
Create happiness for customers, colleagues, business partners and every
stakeholder

FLF APPROACH

Live, Breathe & Think Fashion : Fashion is ever-evolving and we will be sensitive, agile
and open to the rapidly evolving fashion market
Consumers at our Core : We create exceptional brands and experiences that reflect the
various identities and aspirations of Indian consumers and their spoken and unspoken needs,
wants and desires
Design is our Soul : The spirit of our design-thinking lies not only in the brands and
experiences we create but also in building relationships, leading innovation, setting trends
and providing utmost fulfillment to consumers
Pursuit of Happiness : Above all, we will collaborate and strive to bring smiles on the
faces and happiness in the lives of our colleagues, customers, business partners and
communities we work in.

FASHION RETAIL
The Company is an integrated fashion company with presence across key segments within
the fashion industry i.e. designs to distribution. Companys business has been designed to
capture the trend of consumers getting more attuned to fashion and brand preferences. We have a
portfolio of fashion brands that cover the entire gamut of sub-categories including formal
menswear, casual wear, active or sportswear, womens ethnic wear, womens denim wear,
womens casual wear, footwear and accessories and are present across various price points.

The Companys flagship retail format, Central is a chain of department stores located in central
areas of large Indian metropolises and cities. There are 22 Central stores located in large cities
like Mumbai, Bengaluru, Hyderabad, Pune, Ahmedabad and Gurgaon, as well as smaller cities
like Baroda, Indore, Vizag and Surat. These are large-format stores measuring anywhere
between 60,000 square feet to 230,000 square feet and offering over 500 brands across every
category including men-wear, casual wear, ethnic-wear, women-wear, kids wear, footwear,
accessories, home products, health and beauty

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Brand Factory is an outlet store, positioned as a stopover hub for graduating to lifestyle fashion.
Brand Factory targets the cost-conscious aspirational youth segment. This format also acts as
a reverse logistics chain to Central, selling the same brands and products available at Central, at
smart prices. Brand Factory has 26 stores in 11 cities covering 0.9 million square feet.

Planet Sports is Indias leading multi-brand sportswear and sports goods chain with over 80
specialty stores. Planet Sports is a one-stop destination for the latest global trends in the sports
segment offering apparel, footwear, sports-wear, equipment and accessories. This format has a
footprint in 30 cities, majorly concentrated around Tier I and Tier II cities.

Launched in 2005, aLL A Little Larger format has established itself in the niche plus size
clothing category. aLL houses a wide range of ready to wear fashionable western and ethnic
wear and accessories that are otherwise not easily available for brand conscious plus size
customers. Currently present in 14 cities across India through a network of 23 exclusive brand
outlets (EBOs), it also operates through store-in-stores (SIS) in Pantaloons, Central and Brand
Factory.

Future Lifestyle Fashion Ltd


FLF

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FRL

CENTRAL

BIG BAZAR

BRAND FACTORY

FOOD BAZAR

ALL

HOME TOWN

LEE COOPER

E-ZONE

INDUS LEAGUE

KBS FAIR PRICE

PLANET SPORTS

FASHION AT BIG
BAZAR

FASHION BRANDS
The company has 24 domestic and foreign brands that were developed independently of the retail
presence of the group. These brands are present in every segment within the fashion space
including, menswear, activewear, partywear, womens ethnic and formal wear, kidswear,
footwear and accessories and are present across various price points. While many of the brands
have been developed by the company over a decade, the company also has exclusive licensees
and joint ventures of global brands.
While all the companys brands are sold through the companys retail chains, these brands also
distributed through independent distribution channels, exclusive brand outlets and other modern
retail chains like Lifestyle, Shoppers Stop, Reliance Trends, Pantaloons, Prateek and Mega
Mart.

BRANDS

Fig 2.1

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DOMESTIC BRANDS

Indigo Nation
RIG
BARE Casuals
JOHN
MILLER
All
Scullers
Jealous 21
LOMBARD
Urban Yoga
spunk
URBANA
MOHR

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FOREIGN BRANDS

Daniel
Hetcher
Spalding
CONVERSE
Manchester
United
Lee Cooper
UMM

JOINT VENTURES

Clarks
Holii
CELIO

INVESTMENTS

mother
earth
AND
DESIGNS
tresmode
TURTLE
Mineral
BIBA

CENTRAL
Central is the largest business within FLFL having 25 stores handling 2000 crores business all
over India. Launched in May 2004 at Bangalore, Central is a showcase, seamless business and
the first of its kind in India. The thought behind this pioneering concept was to give customers an
unobstructed, pure shopping experience by ensuring the best brands in the Indian market are
available to the discerning Indian customer.

Fig 2.2
Central offers everything to the urban aspired shoppers. Located in the heart of the city, Central
believes, its customers should not travel long distances to reach us. Instead, we must be present
in popular customer destinations.
Central houses over 300 brands across categories such as apparel, footwear and accessories for
women, men, children and infants apart from a whole range of Music, Books, Coffee Shops,
Food Courts, Restaurants etc. The mall also has a separate section for services such as
Concert/Cinema Ticket Booking, Bill Payments and other services. The caption of Central is
BRAND.NEW which is a clear focus by the business to have the latest in fashion being available
in the stores to the customers.
Central delivers fashionable merchandise in all categories. Other major players in the market are
Shoppers Stop and Lifestyle. Now the format aims to grow to be no1 in fashion retail and
thereby to be the most preferred fashion destination in the country.
With an aim to become the most profitable fashion departmental retail business in the country in
the next 36 months, it is looking at its business stock organization with renewed focus and
attention to details within itself.

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People and customer service being a key differentiator in customer centric business, the
organization is spending energy, time and resources to strengthen its people function, thereby
gives renewed focus on people stock employs in the system and customer outside the
organization. The stores are the front end where a customer interacts with the business.

Fig 2.3

Superior Customer Connect- Shopping is Rewarding

Fig 2.4

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Multi-partner loyalty program, Payback, backed by American Express has members like ICICI
Bank and HPCL among its member companies, apart from the company
Under this program customers can earn points against their purchases and
Redeem accumulated points at our as well as other Payback partner establishments
Members account for 42 % of sales
Ticket size of the member is 33% higher at `2,400 than the average ticket size
of `1,800 for non-member
85,000 members added every week

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ORGANIZATIONAL HIERARCHY
CEO

People
Office

IT

Compensati
on, benefit
&
Performance
Management

Business
Excellenc
e Central

Talent
Developmen
t Capability
Building
Talent
Acquisition
and People
hygiene

Business
Excellenc
e Brand
Factory
Business
Intelligence

Chief
Finance
Officer

Chief
Merchandis
e Officer
Lifestyle

Planning &
Reporting

Planning

Chief
Merchandise
Officer
Apparels

Buying

Buying

Brand Partners
Management

Moving
Team

Moving
Team

Strategic
Initiatives

Head
Operation
ns

Design

Marketing
BTL

Projects

VM
Execution

Space
Planning

People
Office

Planning

Commercial
accounting

Taxation
and
Stewardship

Project &
Design

Space
Planner
Brand In &
Brand Out
Operational
Excellence

Regional
Heads

Chart 1

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FUNCTIONING OF THE DEPARTMENTS


INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY TEAM:
Business Excellence Team :
The Business Excellence Team works for both CENTRAL and Brand Factory. They look after
the whole IT setup in the Stores across India. This covers up the Data Management of the Store.
The Data from brands like Louis Philippe, Van heusen etc. is migrated to the data of CENTRAL
by this Team. They also look after all the Promotional activities of the store through IT and the
Billing process and other softwares required in the stores.
Business Intelligence Team:
The business intelligence team is the team which does the MIS report work and the Analysis of
the data by all the Departments in the organisation as per their requirements.
Strategic Initiatives:
This team come up with the various strategies using new tools for the analysis for the category
teams.
CHIEF FINANCE OFFICER:
There are four teams that comes under the CFO

Planning and Reporting:


This the the Planning team of the finance who does all the Fund Planning for the
organization. The fund planning includes the Profit and loss A/c, the Diwali Bonus,
Taxes to be paid when the budget is revised and other funds required in the oraganisation.
Commercial Accounting:
This is the Accounts department who looks at the Day- In, Day-Out Cash Flow of the
organisation. They also look after the Maintainence charges .
Brand Partner Management:
Brand Partner management is the team where in they look after all the Payments and the
accounting issues of the brands that comes under Central and Brand Factory.
Taxation and Stewarding:
This team looks after all the Tax payments and reciepts like the Service tax, VAT, Octroi
and others.

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HEAD OPERATIONS:

Marketing BTL:
This is the marketing team which looks after the In- Store and Around the store
Marketing through the Radio Announcements at the Store and various Visuals like
banners, T-stand posters, table talkers etc. and other Promotional Activities.
VM Execution:
The VM execution team gets all the information from the HO about the Season Launch
and the theme to be setup ,the festive offers, the EOSS setup and other changes that has
to be made in the Store. And the VM team has to execute this on the floor.
People Office:
As CENTRAL and Brand Factory are the huge departmeantal stores where many
employees work under one roof, so there is a HR at the Store Level who looks after the
Employees , their welfare, leaves, problems , training etc.
Space Planner Brand-In, Brand-Out:
These are the Space planners at the store level. Whenever any brand is performing well or
vice versa, they do the space planning for that brand which would improve their
performance in future.
Operational Exellence:
Operational Excellence looks after the operational activities that takes place in the store
wether they are followed as per the SOP standards of the company or not
Regional Officer:
The regional officer is been allocated in all the regions all over india, where the malls in
one region comes under him. The store managers of each store has to report to the
regional manager.

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THE DEPARTMENT HIERARCHY

VICE PRESIDENT OR
MANAGER

SENIOR
MANAGER

ASSISTANT
MANAGER

DEPUTY
MANAGER

SENIOR
EXECUTIVE

EXECUTIVE

Chart 2

ORGANISATIONAL DESIGN PEOPLE OFFICE


Chief People
Officer - FLFL

Learning &
Development

Corp Office
PO, Talent
Mgmt, PMS,
Comp & Ben

People
Factory,
Payroll

Talent
Acquisitio
n

Central PO
Ops

Admin

Chart 3

FUNCTIONING OF THE PEOPLE OFFICE


There were four HR in the People office in FLF Bangalore.

LEARNING AND DEVELOPMENT:


The HR here gives the new joined employee the induction program about the
organization and the required training. They also help in learning and development of
their employees throughout the organization whenever required.

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CORPORATE OFFICE PO, TALENT MANAGEMENT :


The corporate HR looks after the Performance Appraisal of the employees and all other
beneficiaries to be given to the employees and the corporate responsibilities.
ADMIN:
They look after the recruitment of the new employee and other administrative work

CHIEF MERCHANDISE OFFICER APPARELS AND LIFESTYLE

Chart 4

FUNCTIONING OF THE CMO Team


Three teams come under the CMO:

PLANNING
BUYING
MOVING

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PLANNING TEAM:

The Planning Team has to work on two seasons that is Autumn Winter and the Spring
Summer.
They also have to work on EOSS.
As per the upcoming Seasons, the planning team does the trend forecast and analysis on
the previous seasons sales.
The annual budget plan is been provided to each department which includes the overall
budget, the store wise budget and the time line budget
With the help of all this data the planning team decides what to buy, how much to buy.

Trend Forecast
Annual Budget Plan of
the Department
Budget Distribution

Overall Budget
Estimation

Store Wise

Timeline

Chart 5

BUYING TEAM:

The buying team work starts from the range planning to weekly sales tracking.
The buyer goes for the buying meeting in the Brands co. which comes under CENTRAL
The Designer gives the range presentation and the buyer further proceeds with the buying
decision.
A buyer keeps all the possible records and tracks of all the activities of the vendors of
different brands. They also look forward to the issue of PO to the vendors.
The stock quantity that has to be purchased is decided by the buying team
They also demand for the changes to be made in the styles and patterns of the
merchandise.

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WORK FLOW OF BUYING UNIT


Range Presentation by the Designers of the Brand
Range Planning
Style Approval
Merchandise Category Classification

Spacing
Range Chart
Hand Over
Article Creation
P.O. Process
Monitoring
Samples
Range Shoot

Stock Inward Qty and


Sales Tracking
Chart 6

MOVING TEAM:
The moving team keeps the records of all the buying procedures wether they are implemented or
not as per the PO.
They have a check wether the stock is size wise etc.

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Chart 6

PROJECT DESIGN TEAM


The Project Designing team is a group of Architects and Interior Designers, who works for
creating a unique and value oriented retail ambience for its customers. The team also works on
all the basic touch points of the respective concept/brand that they are working on. Like,

Touch and feel of the store


The store aura (Lighting, interiors etc.)

TEAM FUNCTIONING

SITE VISIT :
Once the property has been finalized by the Mumbai Project team, the designing team
visits the site and designs a complete layout of the store. A complete plan / survey is
created with all the necessary specifications and on the basis of which the further
requirements like Graphics, Lighting, Fixtures, etc., are listed out.
PROJECT EXECUTION TEAM :
All the GFC drawings and BOQs & BOIs are passed down to the respective Site persons.
Then they take care of Project Execution as per designs. They generate daily site reports
& follow ups and ensures the handing over the site to the operations.

STORE DESIGN AND SPACE PLANNER

There are 4 designers in FLF Bangalore working for the Store Design and Space
Planning.
Once the Project design team executes the plan and the design, they work on the space
planning for the brands. How much space is to be allocated to the particular brand and
where would be that space located in the store.
They also work on the store designs.

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VISUAL MERCHANDISING DESIGN TEAM

The VM team does the internal highlights and the Graphic designs of the store.
They also work on the themes on every season launch and for other festive season to be
done in the stores.
Then the store VM team executes these designs as per the budget given.(vm flowchart)

The Store Hierarchy

Chart 7

Hierarchy at stores
Store
Manager

Store People
Officers

Department
Managers

Chart 8

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Fashion
Consultants

STORE MANAGER
Handling the daily responsibilities of a store is the job of a Store Manager. They effectively
lead and manage all employees who work within the store and oversee their recruitment and
training.
A General Store Manager usually performs many of the following tasks:
Fostering a healthy team environment
Doing store management
Developing weekly store schedules
Coordinating store activities
Securing the store environment
Dispersing internal communications
Dealing with customer issues
Maintaining payroll budget
Controlling expenses

STORE PEOPLE OFFICER


Every store has a People Officer who is the human resource manager for the entire store.
Store People Officers are the head all the Department Managers who in turn are the heads
for different departments or categories. Central has various categories at its stores all
which require category wise development.

DEPARTMENT MANAGER
Retail department managers oversee the daily operations of their part of the store. For
example, typical departments in a retail clothing store include men's, women's, shoes and
accessories departments. Other types of stores might have appliance or computer
departments. A department manager is expected to know and supervise her employees as
well as their products and services. The minimum requirements are a high school diploma
and previous retail experience.

FASHION CONSULTANTS
Fashion Consultants are the frontend representatives of the organization who interfaces
with the customers at the stores. 70% of our store population consists of the frontend
Fashion Consultant. They are young, energetic boys and girls who have chosen retail as
their career and have zeal and passion to serve the discerning customers. Their role is a
coordinator role and this role requires one to be highly motivated, service oriented
customer centric and team player.
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CHAPTER 3
PROJECT
CHANGING TRENDS IN MENS WEAR
(This Project is done focusing on the CENTRAL and all the study of Malls Visit, Sales forecast
etc are done on the basis of data provided by FLFL for Central. )

TODAYS MEN
The metro sexual men of today want to keep themselves updated about the latest trends that are
sweeping the fashion world around the globe. There are magazines that are dedicated specifically
for this purpose. Television channels, too, haven't been left behind, and today we have dedicated
channels that display the trend of the times. Men's clothing, no doubt, has always been bereft of a
wide choice. The trend still keeps changing in accordance with the season and international
liking. Men today are ready to experiment with their looks and clothes, and even the color pink
can be seen being splashed away in abundance on men's shirts and T-shirts. In the last summer
(2013), pink has really done well.
It could be safe to assert that the years when it was fashionable for men to wear baggy pants with
boxers that are hanging out are taking a bow. You may have observed that you could rarely see
men who still wear that fashion. Instead, many guys are into wearing super-tight or skinny jeans.
Fashion trends are truly changing inevitably.
There was a time when one made the distinction between scarves made of silk and wool-based
mufflers. But, now the lines have blurred. In Turtle, they have acrylic, silk and cotton scarves, all
very much in demand, all the year round.
When men started with suits, they preferred sober three-piece suits as formal wear. The look is
still sober, but there is experimentation in the form of colors, bottom wear combos etc. taking an
example of Brand Turtle, in the formal blazer segment, they experimented with hounds tooth,
checked blazers, which can invariably be combined with a chinos also.
Apart from the clothes, the accessories for men too come out according to the latest trends that
are taking the worldwide rounds. Gone are the days when black was an obvious choice, brown is
the new black. A pair of formal footwear in a shade of brown goes extremely well with grey,
khaki, beige or navy suits. From embellished belts to matching wallets, and from
attractive mobile covers to coordinated ties, everything belongs to today and are the in thing
to flaunt.

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MENS TRENDS
Checks and stripes have been prints that have existed in men's fashion for an eternity now. Plains
and solids with minimal patterns have adorned a man's wardrobe from time and gain. But the
year 2014-15 has a lot to look forward to as long as prints are concerned. The modern day stylish
male is about to get transformed with a range full of bold prints which until now were flaunted
only by the fairer sex.
The menswear has evolved to become more dandy and light-hearted with prints especially like
floral becoming a staple in wardrobes from runways to the stores. Another key print for spring
summer 2014 for men is of the polka dots. Prints with a strong personality have become the new
concept of the menswear. Apart from garments, another category positively affected by this trend
is the men's socks. Kitsch and out of the box fun prints are enjoyed by male shoppers, along with
apparels.

Trends in Mens Wear 2006

Fig 3.1
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Fig 3.2

Trends in Mens Wear 2014

Fig 3.3
We can see how trends have changed since 2000s and how men are changing with the changing
trends. And so we can say that men are getting more fluid.
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DESIGN TRENDS
TREND FORECASTING
The buyers job involves predicting trends for future seasons, appropriate to the product range
and the potential customer. The ability to forecast fashion trends is necessary because the design,
development and production of most garments takes several months ,so product concepts are
usually initiated anywhere between two weeks and a year prior to going to sale . The buyer
therefore needs to predict what the retailors customers will want to buy well in advance of the
selling period. The buyer is responsible for observing rather than creating, trend information
from a variety of sources in order to select suitable looks. This information comprises garment
types, silhouettes, details, trims, fabric type and colors.

Sources of Fashion Forecasting Information


Fashion forecasting packages and magazines
Fashion trade fairs
Designer collection
Couture fashion shows
In- house design departments
Design teams
A small trend forecast was done for the A/W 14 and S/S 15. The study is given below:

AUTUMN/WINTER 2014
Autumn/Winter tells fashions stories , that carry away ,that transport ,that spellbind ,stories of
times, stories of adventure , stories of feelings .
Fabric Highlights:
Quality and relaxed velvets
Macrostructure fancy plains, giant sweaters and woolens
Textured embroideries, quiltings, and 3D embossing
Overweight broadcloths, cottons and denims, compact silkiest
Herringbone weaves, broken twills, in wool or cotton
The whole era of casual, nonchalant, unstructured clothing continues to move forward,
seeking a relaxed, everyday elegance.

In Color A/W 14

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Fig 3.4

Sports-Inspired Street Fashion


The biggest influence penetrating most of the 2014 mens street fashion trends is sportswear.
Tons of varsity jackets, sports jerseys, hoodies, and general silhouettes that reminds of sports
aesthetic

Fig 3.5

Low-hanging Shoulders
T-shirts and sweaters are moving towards oversized cuts, dropping the shoulders further
down on the arms. These cuts create a much smoothers silhouette than the straight-lined

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standard shoulders, giving sweaters and t-shirts a bit of the aesthetic we love from
bomber jackets.

Loose Pants
Fashion shows for AW14 showed us a lot of loose fitting pants, ranging from chinos to
dress pants to joggers.

Black on Black
It is no news that autumn/winter trends are dominated by dark colors, and often contain a
lot of black. But this year we see it more than ever, and a key trend will be layering of
several black items

SPRING/SUMMER 2015

Fig 3.6
EARTH BROWN
After two seasons of rich shades of chocolate and hazelnut, the key brown for S/S 2015 is rooted
in the Earth - with saturated shades of red as an undertone.

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DRY SAGE
This shade has transitioned from being slightly blue-based in S/S 2014, to warm, yellow-based
pea green in F/W 14, to finally landing as a dry sage for S/S 2015. The washed-out appearance is
more in keeping with the season's relaxed fits and techno materials
INDIGO
Multiple shades of indigo seem contemporary when styled together as a monochrome look. For
S/S 2015, there's also a subtle hint of purple under the rich shades of blue.
HEATHER BLUE
The steel blue of F/W 14 lightened up for S/S 2015, with more hints of grey thrown in to look
even more utilitarian. The color plays up lustrous surfaces on fabrics like nylon, cotton poplin,
and silk.
VINEYARD
After the super-saturated colors in F/W 14, the vineyard of S/S 2015 is more multi-faceted with
novel currents of pink and purple fused together

MENS S/S 15 THEME


DARK PARADISE
DARK PARADISE is the unexpected side of wholesome summers by the sea. With a decidedly
expressive approach, this theme celebrates moody nature and its astonishing power.

Fig 3.7

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SWEET REBEL
Patterns typically perceived as innocent like florals and teddy bears are contrasted with
aggressive leather, metallic, and pinup girl motifs.

Fig 3.8
MODERN + RECONTRUCTED
Monochromatic is a key feature in the forecast with both blue from head to toe in Summer Blue
with sports inspired clothing and black to grey print and solids in Broken Surfaces

Fig 3.9

Looks -S/S15 Menswear


LOWERING THE VOLUME
Reworking on sportswear comfort with more technical fabrics. Slimming down looks to closely
follow the body, and compose a longer, leaner silhouette.

INTERFERING WITH TAILORING


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Shifting tailoring classics with small, perceptible changes. Magnifying incomplete finishings,
displaced details, random overlapping's, subtle mismatching's and uneven lengths.

CASUAL WEAR
FRESHENING UP STREETWEAR
Oversizing casual wear, boldly cutting larger trousers, letting shirts, sweatshirts and sweaters
drip and run. Water painting trash looks with pastel washing-outs, colourful chins and subtly
crackled coatings. Giving an ashy cast to overly neat and tidy flowers and gardens.
LOOK FOR THE SEASON

Fig 3.10
The Mens Wear are further classified into

Work Wear
Board Wear
Leisure Wear
And Travel Wear

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PREVIOUS AND CURRENT SEASON


HISTORICAL DATA
The Previous and Current Season data analysis helps the buyer to make the further buying
decisions. Based on this data, the buyer get to know how much sales have we made, which
merchandise sold well, at what price point and in which region. Accordingly the purchase is
done in the next season, taking into consideration the last seasons performance. This is one of the
input for buying process.

ANALYSIS OF DATA POST SALES:


All the data is been collected from the daily sales report and consolidated
into one sheet of all brands and categories.
This data is further segregated brand wise, catgory wise, store wise and
MRP wise.
Then the sell thru is been calculated for all the Merchandise.
Further segregation can be done for the bestselling products, MRP etc.
This data is then used to understand the sales and performance of the
merchandise, which further helps in the buying process.
Here, the study is done on Major Brands that contributes a lot to CENTRAL
in Mens Wear.
In Formal Wear sales of Park Avenue and Louis Philippe is taken.
In Casual Wear Indian Terrain and Arrow Sports are taken
Park Avenue Sales Data S/s 14 MRP wise
Values
Brand DESC

Product

MRP

PARK AVENUE

Shirts

1499
1599
1699
1799
1899
1999

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Inward
1449
2494
7322
7657
4868
1876

Sales
575
1064
3718
3801
2274
479

Sell
Thru
40%
43%
51%
50%
47%
26%

2099
2199
2299
2499
2999
3199
(blank)
Shirts
Total
PARK AVENUE
Total
Grand Total

1238
193
192
859
200
497
1738
30583

573
21
41
356
67
127
650
13746

46%
11%
21%
41%
34%
26%
37%
45%

30583

13746 45%

30583

13746 45%

Table 1

Fig 3.11

Fig 3.12
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Here we can observe that the sales that have taken place in S/s14 from month of Feb to
June 2014, the sales of MRP 1799 of shirts in Park Avenue has performed well.
Park Avenue has performed well in MRP starting from 1499 to 1799.
Whereas when we see Louis Philippe sell well in MRP 1899 and 2299.

Further the same sales and sell thru analysis is been done for Park Avenue and Louis Philippe
Trousers and for Casual Wear Brands- Indian Terrain and Arrow Sports.
This gives us an overview of sales taken place which plays one of the Major roles in the buying
decisions.
Park Avenue- Trousers

Fig 3.13
Louis Philippe - Trousers

Fig 3.14

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Indian Terrain - Shirts

Fig 3.15
Arrow Sports Shirts

Fig 3.16

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Indian Terrain Trousers

Fig 3.17
Arrow Sports- Trousers

Fig 3.18
Observation:

Park Avenue Trousers are performing better sales than Louis Philippe Trousers.
In casual wear brand, both Indian Terrain and Arrow Sports shirts are selling well.
Whereas when we see Trousers, Arrow Sports is doing better job.
Through this the buyer need to plan for further buying, what changes can he make in the
patterns or styles, or the other attributes.

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Table 2
This was one of the methods of calculating the sell thru. In this the data is segregated store wise
and size wise.
In store 2401, the stock on hand for size 39 is 222 and so on. By calculating the sales ratio thru
the sell thru, we can get which size shirts are selling well in which stores and we can increase or
decrease the quantities of those size in that particular region/ store.

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MALL AND BRAND STUDY IN MENS WEAR


DEPARTMENT
BRAND STUDY
The brand study helped in understanding all Mens wear brands comes under CENTRAL.
There are almost 150 Mens Wear brands that comes under CENTRAL including Formals,
Casuals and Youth Wear.
Their major brands which contributes to their business comes from:
Madhura Garments
Raymonds
Arvind Ltd
ITC
Indus Leauge
And In house future group brands.
The brand study also helped to understand the Merchandise, their fabrics, designs, patterns, price
points.
Each brand employee keeps the records of the stock on the floor and in the stock room.

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This helps in knowing the


number of full size and
broken size in each style.
Full size is the whole size
set eg. S,M,L,XL
Broken sizes are less size
available eg. S,M

MALL STUDY
The Mall study included:

Understanding the Store Operations.


Observation of customers and their buying behavior
Ambience and Visual Merchandising of the brands
Selling strategies

The CENTRAL Mall Ambience is quite good. The Visual Merchandising of Central Mall
is very attractive and presentable.
All the brands VM is also very presentable by all the Brands and their employees.
The lighting is appropriate for the Merchandise.
Stocks are replenished in few of the brands most of the time.
More customers are found in Mens Wear Dept. as per the observation.

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BUYING AND MERCHANDISING


The Role of the Fashion Buyer
At Future Lifestyle Fashion ltd, the buyers are responsible for overseeing the development of a
range of products aimed at a specific type of customer and price bracket. Buyers usually buy
merchandise for a specific project area. The experiment buyers role invariably involves
travelling, mainly to attend the buying meetings with the suppliers and to gather trend
information and further make the buying decisions.
Liaising with suppliers
Buyers liaise with garment suppliers on a regular, often basis. A buyer may spend more time
speaking to a representative from one of the companys manufacturers, probably from the design
or sales department. It should be remembered the retailers and manufacturers both have the same
aim: to sell as many garments as possible by meeting customers requirements. To liaise
effectively both the buyer and supplier need to form a relationship based on integrity, reliability
and respect. Buyers liaise with suppliers for numerous reasons throughout the buying cycle in
relation to selecting, ordering and delivery of garment.
Negotiation
One of the major aspects of the buyers role in dealing with suppliers is to negotiate prices and
delivery dates .the buyers calculates how much the garment needs to be sold for in the store to
achieve the retailors mark up , which is the difference between the manufacturers cost price and
selling price. Buyers should be able to estimate from past experience how much the consumer
will expect to pay for a particular garment, and therefor can calculate the optimum cost price
which they would be prepared to pay.
The Buying Team
Buyers need to work closely with the rest of their buying colleagues, as their ranger need
to be sold alongside each other in the same store, and are likely to be purchased to be
worn together. The buying Teams work is divided. As CENTRAL is a big retail chain and deals
with various brands, the brands are divided to the buying team members. And each member take
care of few brands under them, starting from planning to buying and moving.

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The buying usually contains the following main elements


Review of previous seasons sale
Budget planning
Range planning
Garment sourcing
Range selection
Garment production
Delivery to stores

Fig 3.19
At FLF buying teams have regular, perhaps weekly, meetings under the guidance of a buying
manager .The buyers here travel together on business trips and can therefore consult each other
for advice on the range.

The Buying Cycle


The fashion industry traditionally splits the year into two main seasons:

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Spring/Summer (February to July) and Autumn /Winter (August to January).


The buying cycle refers to the key events and processes in which the fashion buyer is involved
in order to buy a garment range in for retail or mail order Company.
The main events in buying are:

Fig 3.20
The length of buying cycle varies between companies but usually takes a year between reviewing
the current seasons sale and delivering into stores. The buying cycle is that the customer will
want to purchase the products, so the requirements of the potential customer must be taken into
consideration by the buyers at every stage. The buying cycle can take unto a year. There are two
main ranges to be bought annually, so the buyer is always working on at least two seasons ranges
simultaneously.

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Review of Current Seasons and Budget Planning


The buyer constantly reviews sales figures, which are available at least once a week , to be aware
of how the garment range is performing .the merchandise department takes responsibility for
compiling a review of the whole previous seasons performance of the range so that the
bestsellers and poor sellers can be identified . The assistant does this presentation by acquiring
relevant garment samples.
After review of the sales figures the buyer acquires the knowledge of which style the customer
currently likes and dislikes and framework is done for the new season. The buyer avoids
including in the new range of garment which previously sold poorly, but this this needs to be
viewed within the context of current trends. It is possible that the style was offered too early for
the customer, so the garment with low sales is not completely dismissed. Low sales may be
caused by low quality standards of fabric or garment manufacture.
Merchandisers plan the budgets with the buyer. The framework for the budget is largely based on
last seasons performance as discussed at the range view. The buyer should be informed about
the type of fashion trend than the merchandising or finance departments and therefore needs to
utilize the information to influence budget setting.
Critical Paths for Product Development, Production and Delivery
The schedule of key dates for product development and production is known as critical
path. The key dates for the season are planned by the Senior Manager and Merchandise
Manager. These dates are communicated to the buying and merchandise teams in order to plan
visits and meetings with the suppliers. The schedule is usually planned in reverse chronological
order, beginning with the launch date of the range and working back to the deadlines necessary
to achieve delivery on time.

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Learning and Outcome

The project has helped in understand the concept of buying and merchandising and its
process. The design trends and the sales data analysis are the inputs for the buying
decisions.
The finance department- budgeting, investments, the stock management departmentstock availability, requirement, the VM dept. how to present the merchandise, all play a
major role to buy and sell the merchandise.
Learnt, how an organization works as a whole.
What role each department plays, their functioning and how they all are inter-related to
each other, where the aim is one and that is SELLING.
Attended a Buy Meet with Arvind. Ltd which gave a brief idea of the buying process.
Learnt excel sheet and calculations of Sell thru which also plays important role for
buying decisions.
The outcome Sell thru calculations made in various different methods were applied for
further buying decisions.
The qualities required of the buyer to fulfill this role include
Stamina
Enthusiasm and motivation
Product knowledge
Creativity
Calculations

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REFERENCES
http://s.wsj.net/public/resources/images/OB-KN134_1020th_HV_20101020013622.jpg
http://www.fashionbeans.com/2013/ss-office-wear-boardroom-corporate-smart/
http://www.topman.com/webapp/wcs/stores/servlet/TopCategoriesDisplay?storeId=12555&catal
ogId=33056
http://lookbook.nu/

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