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AOS 2: SUMMARY- COVALENT

BONDING
A covalent bond is formed when non-metallic atoms share electrons. There are 3
different types of substances which contain covalent bonds.

(1)
THE COVALENT MOLECULAR MODEL
Are together by strong covalent bonds within the molecule (Intramolecular)
Relatively weak forces of attraction between molecules (Intermolecular)
When two or more atoms share electrons, a MOLECULE is formed
VSEPR- Valence Shell Electron
Pair Repulsion Model
States that electron pairs (bonding
and non-bonding) in the outer shell of
an atom in a molecule will repel one
another due to their negative charge
and assume positions as far apart as
possible, whilst remaining attached to
the atom.
Shapes of Common Molecules
Although lone pairs help to determine
the shape of a molecule, they are not
included in the description of that
shape. Shape describes the position of
atoms only.

Intramolecular Forces
When two non-metal form a covalent bond, one atom usually attracts the bonding
electrons more strongly than the other atom. This is because different atoms have
different Electronegativities.
Trends in Electronegativity in the Periodic Table (Noble gases are excluded)

Electronegativity increases from left to right


across a period
Electronegativity increases from top to bottom in
a group

Increasing
Electronegativity
Periodic Table

in the

Non-Polar and Polar Covalent Bonds


Non-Polar Bonds- The bonding pair electrons are shared evenly between the
nuclei of the two atoms. These occur when two atoms have the same
electronegativity
Polar Bonds- The
bonding pair electrons are shared unevenly between the two nuclei. This occurs in
bonds with atoms of with significantly different Electronegativities The atom with

AOS 2: SUMMARY- COVALENT


BONDING
the higher electronegativity gains a slightly negative charge (-), lower
electronegativity slight positive charge (+)
In general:

Linear and tetrahedral models with equal polar bonds will be non-polar
V-shaped or pyramid shaped molecules will be polar molecules, their polar
bonds dont cancel
Intermolecular Forces

Intermolecular forces hold molecules to each other. These attractive forces are
weaker than metallic, ionic or covalent bonds, but they are responsible for whether
the molecular compound exists in the solid, liquid or gaseous state.
Dipole-Dipole Attractions- If the molecules are polar, the positive end of one
molecule attracts the negative end of the next molecule, which attracts the next
and so on. Bw polar molecules
Hydrogen Bonding- This is stronger than dipole-dipole bonding. Three things
must be present in the molecule for Hydrogen to
occur:

- Hydrogen
with
Oxygen
- Fluorine
- Nitrogen

1. One of: Nitrogen, Oxygen or Fluorine must be


2. At least one lone pair must be attached to N, O
3. Hydrogen must be present
Dispersion

present
or F
Forces

The weakest bonding force, in all substances. Only force between non polar
molecules. It arises due to the constant movement of electrons within atoms.
Using the Covalent Molecular Model to Explain Properties
PROPERTY
Low melting and boiling points
Exist as soft solids, liquids or gases

EXPLANATION
Very weak forces of attraction between
molecules
Very weak forces of attraction between
molecules
No free moving charges particles present

Non-conductors of electricity in the


solid and liquid state
May conduct in the aqueous state
No free moving charged particles present
(Only if it reacts with water to
in covalent molecules. Ions must first be
produce ions)
produced with water
(2)
COVALENT NETWORK LATTICE

AOS 2: SUMMARY- COVALENT


BONDING
A small number of non-metallic compounds form
Covalent Network Lattices, strong covalent bonds
exist throughout the entire lattice which is make up of
countless atoms.
Eg. Diamond- is made up of only carbon atoms.
-

This is one allotrope of carbon.


Each carbon atom is bonded to 4 other, bonding
exists throughout the entire lattice.
Using the Covalent Network Lattice Model
to Explain Properties

PROPERTY
Very high melting temperatures
Exist as very hard solids
Non-conductors of electricity in
the solid and liquid state
Brittle

(3)

EXPLANATION
Very strong covalent bonding exists throughout
the lattice
Very strong covalent bonding exists throughout
the lattice
No free moving charges particles present
When the covalent bonds break the lattice is
distorted

COVALENT LAYER LATTICE MODEL

Consist of layer lattices of atoms held strongly by


covalent bonds in 2-D layers. These layers are held
together by weak dispersion forces
Eg. Graphite
-

Graphite is another allotrope of carbon


Each carbon has 4 valence electrons. 3
electrons form covalent bonds with OTHER
carbon atoms In a layer. The 4th electron from
ea carbon is delocalised ,free to move b/w
layers.
Using the Covalent Layer Model to Explain Properties

PROPERTY
Very high melting
temperature
Conductor of Electricity
Metallic Sheen
Soft, Flaky and Slippery to
touch

EXPLANATION
It is very difficult to break the strong covalent bonds
between the atoms of the layers
Delocalised electrons can move across layers
Light interacts with delocalised electrons
Weak dispersion forces between the layers allow
them to slide over each other.

AOS 2: SUMMARY- COVALENT


BONDING
Chemical Reactivity of Covalent Substances
Small covalent molecules are more reactive than covalent network lattices and
covalent layer lattices. The chemical reactivity of a molecules is dependent on the
strength and stability of its bonds.

AOS- KEY TERMS


CHAPTER 05
ALLOY- a substance formed when other materials are mixed with a metal
DUCTILE- able to be drawn into a thread
QUENCHING- heating a metal to a moderate temperature and then cooling
it rapidly to more it harder and more brittle
ANNEALING- heating a metal to a moderate temperature and then allowing
it to cool slowly to make it softer and more ductile.
INTERSTITIAL ALLOY- small atoms occupy some of the space within the
metal lattice
SUSTITUTIONAL ALLOY- atoms of similar size replace some of the atoms
within the lattice
BRITTLE- shatters when given a sharp tap
ION- a positively or negatively charged atom or group of atoms
TEMPERING- after a metal has been quenched, it is warmed again to a
lower temperature to reduce its brittleness whilst retaining its hardness
CATION- a positively charged ion
LATTICE- a regular arrangement of numbers or atoms, ions or molecules
DELOCALISED ELECTRONS- electrons that are not restricted to a region
between two atoms
MALUABLE- able to be bent or beaten into sheets

CHAPTER 06
ANION-a negatively charged ion
EMPIRICAL FORMULA- a formula of a compound that shows the elements
present and their ratio
IONIC BOND- the electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions
CONDUCTIVITY- (of electricity) allows and electrical current to pass through
ELECTROVALENCY- The electric charge of an ion
SALINITY- the presence of salt in water and soil that can damage plants and
inhabit their growth

CHAPTER 07
ALLOTROPE- different physical forms of the same element
DIPOLE- a molecule that has two oppositely charges poles or ends
SUBLIMES- a substance that goes from the solid state to the gaseous phase
without passing through a liquid phase
DISPERSION FORCE- the attraction that exists between molecules because
of the instantaneous dipoles that form as electrons move randomly

AOS 2: SUMMARY- COVALENT


BONDING
POLARISED BOND- a covalent bond in which the electrons are not shared
equally between the two atoms.