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Sociology

Sociology is to study about social activities, action and about society. The other social sciences
study a particular aspect of the society but sociology studies all aspects i.e. society as whole.
What
is
Sociology?
It is a subject of social science. It has been coined by Augste Comte in 1839 as a separate discipline
and so he is called the father of Sociology. He was a French Philosopher and used this term first
time in his book Positive Philosophy. He used it as 'Social Philosophy" in 1838 but in 1939 he used
Sociology.
The study of Sociology as a separate discipline to study society as a whole spread slowly to all
countries. In 1876 it started in United States as a separate discipline
1889 - France
1907 - Great Britain
1919 - India it started hereafter World War I in the University of Bombay. After that it spread in
other universities in 1930.
1924 - Poland
1925 - Egypt and Mexico
1947 Sweden
It is the youngest of the social sciences. This term has been derived from two words i.e. Societies
and logos. The 1st is Latin and the 2nd Greek. The 1st means society and logos means study or
science. As a result sociology is the science or study of society.
Why
there
was
a
need
to
start
Sociology?
Before this there were many social sciences which studied about society but they only studied a
particular aspect i.e. from different angles or point of view. A need to study society as a whole arose
and this is when Augste Comte used this term.
The term sociology has been criticized by J.S. Mill. It should be called Ethnology (to study of social
behavior). Hurbert Spencer supported the term sociology and did not quite agree with J.S. Mill.
Aristotle 'Man is a social animal" and he is bound to live in society. Both necessity and nature
impels man to live in society. Man is by nature social. At birth a human is a plastic and pliable
identity.
When we live in society we interact with each other and we have different relationships with different
people. Sociology tells us about the type of relationship we should have with others. As a social
being we have relationship with the economic, psychological or political aspect.

Define

Sociology:

(Nature

of

sociology)

It is very difficult to define sociology because it studies society as a whole but our society is on the
wheel of change and our behavior, society estimate many sociology in different ways according to
their views.
I.

Sociology as a study of society:


L.F. Ward "Sociology is a science of society and social phenomena".
Giddings : "Sociology is the systematic description and explanation of society as a whole.

II.

Sociology as a system of social relationship


According to Mc. Iver & Page:
"Sociology is the science of social relationship, the network of social relationship, we call it society".
A.W. Green "Sociology is the synthesizing & generalizing science of man, of all his social
relationship".
J.F.Cuber "Sociology may be defined as a body of scientific knowledge about human relationship".

III.

Sociology about Social Interaction & action:


Gillin & Gillin "Sociology in its broadest sense may be said to be the study of interactions arising
from the association of living beings".
Geore Simmel "Sociology is the science of the forms of human interactions".
Merris Ginsberg "Sociology is the study of human interaction & interrelations, their conditions and
consequences".
Max Weber "Sociology is the science which attempts the interpretative understanding and social
action".

IV.

Sociology about Social events, social life, social activities & social function Ogburn & Nimkoff
"Sociology is the scientific study of social life".
Bennet & Tumin "Sociology is the science of the structure and function of social life".
P.A. Sorokin "Sociology is a generalizing science of socio cultural phenomena viewed in their
general forms, types and many fold interconnections, i.e. it is the theory of the structure and
dynamics of social system, cultural system & personality".

V.

Sociology about social groups


H.M. Johnson "Sociology is the science that deals with social groups, their internal forms and
modes of organization, the process that tend to maintain or change this form of organization &
relation between groups.

VI.

Collective representation
Emile Durkhiem- "Sociology is the science of collective representation". By collective representation
he means these collective symbols that are accepted by the majority of the people. Since they are
social facts, they are instrumental in guiding and controlling the individual behavior.

Auguste Comte is called the father of sociology because he was the 1st man who sought to
establish a science which would embrace the totality of human life and activities. He is the 1st
French Philosopher used this term in 1839. According to Comte and other thinkers ignorance about
society is the root of all social evil and he believed that knowledge about society. Obtained by
scientific method would make possible the develop of a good society and he predicted that man
would become the master of his social destiny as soon as he develops a science of society. He said
that the science of society should be studied through scientific methods i.e. it should be observed,
examined, classified and so on.

Scope of Sociology
If the social being etc are changing then it is difficult to find its scope. Due to its changing nature it is
difficult to say what the scope is moreover we cannot even define sociology.
V.F.

Cabberton:

"Social is an elastic science, it is very difficult to determine from where its boundaries begin and
end". As it studies the human life therefore the scope should be very wide. Some say it is a science
so some scholars say it should have a limited scope, because studying a vast scope can pose
difficulties (i.e. conducting experimentation), observation ect are necessary for a scientific study.
These
are
supporters
of:
Formalistic school Some scholars say it should have limited school because studying a vast
scope can face difficulties (i.e. conducting experiments) George Simmel supports this and is the
head
of
this
and
says
form
of
social
interaction
should
be
studied.
Synthetic school They say since this sociology studies so many aspects such as political,
biological, psychological etc. therefore we should have a wider scope.
I.Specialistic School the name is so because sociology is a special science to study society.
George Simmel is the supporter. Society has form and content according to him and there can be
no society without form and content and they can be separated i.e. form and content. He says
sociology only studies the form but not the content. Eg. Competition social studies the factor, result
and this is the form the area of competition is the content and it is not studied. Sociology does not
study the content because there are other social sciences which study the contents. Eg. By him
Tables 3 types of glass of similar forms fill them with different types of content but this does not
change the form of the glass. Then now you take one glass and fill it by 3 different liquids one by
one. Now the form does not change and the content too does not change and therefore these forms
and contents can be separated. Similarly sociology studies the form and if there is a change in the
content there is no change in the form and thus in the study
supporters of formal school
1.

Max Webber

2.

Vonwiese

3.

Vierkandt

4.

F.Tonnis

1.

He demarketed sociology from other branches of social studies. (Write the difference here)
when he says social is only the study of social action he limits it to the human's social behavioral
(action and interaction in society). An action is a social action when there is a meaning is it also
when there is an action and a reaction until unless there is a reaction to a particular action is aims a
social action sleeping is a an action but not a social action i.e. if you react in the nothing but this
reaction is towards your property but not with the thief. It will be a social action only when you get up
just when the thief is stealing and you chase him.

2.

He said it was a science and so should not be wide. He has divided society into many
groups (650) and said social should only study these groups.

3.

He defined social as, "Social is the study of the ultimate form of mental and psychic
relationship which link one to another". He gives important to emotional relationship.

4.

He believes sociology to be a pure science. He said that sociology is pure and independent.
He divided society into two groups 1. Society and 2. Community. He said society is urban society
whereas community is rural society and in sociological terms he called it as Gescelschaft and
Gescelschaft.
Criticisms:
Sociology is a science & it's new in origin and so not a pure science.
1. P.A. Sorokin says that it isn't necessary to say it is a science and not correct to study
scientifically.
2. What is society? There are difference aspects in society and all these combined make
society. These different social sciences are studied in different ways or by other social
sciences. These social sciences are specialized in studying these aspects.
3. George Simmel separated forms from content but this too is not correct. It may be correct in
other sciences such as the physical sciences. If the form changes the content also changes.
There is a difference in the ideas of the supporters of this group or school.
II.Synthetic School: It means mixed. The supporters of this school say that sociology is a general
science. They believe in the organic structure. When other aspects of the society combines together

then the society is formed. Sociology cannot be studied independently, it should be studied with
other social sciences. They study the organic structure of society.
Supporters: Durkhein, P.A. Sorokin, Hobhouse, Giddings
1. Durkhien: "Sociology is a science of collective representation". He believes in the collection
of people in society. When there is collection there must be wider scope for collective
representation there must be majority of people hence it will be social facts. Since it has a
social fact they are instrumental in guiding and controlling the behavior of society. (Those
collective symbols accepted by the majority and what they say become social facts. These
will help). These social facts will later become a part of society. When we study a collective
representation the whole picture of society comes before us.
2. P.A. Sorokin "Sociology is the generalizing science". He is the profounder of systematic
study. In his book 'contemporary sociology' he observes that social is a general science. It
studies the general characteristics of the society of the relationship of social and non-social
phenomena. He constructs a formula to describe his theory.
Sociology - a, b, c
Economics - a, b, c, d, e, f
Political Science - a, b,c,g,h,i
Religion - a, b, c, L, M, N
Constitutional - a, b, c, n, y, Z
A, b, c, are found in all social sciences.
3. Hobhouse "Social is the synthesis of various social sciences". He means social is a
general study which studies society as a whole from all aspects i.e. the combination of all
social sciences Sociologist must pursue his study from a particular part of society (social
friend). When he studies thus he must interconnect his result with the results arrived from
other social sciences and then he should interpret society as a whole.
Conclusions
Ginnesberg's
Conclusion:
Subject matter of social should have both the aspects because it is quite impossible to study society.
A specialist cures a special disease but that doesn't mean he knows nothing about other diseases.
Now a general doctor can cure a special disease likewise sociology studies some special aspects
which may not be studied in other social sciences. (Say we study all the aspects in details). To study
of society, life, relationship and behavior is the subject matter of sociology. Sociology is a science
and it should have experimentation, etc.
Robert Stead - "Sociology is a social science not a natural science". (The [ ] is only Martindal & best
is said by Robert Stead) [Martindal by Pure science we study old principle in the light of new
problems. Applied is we apply the rules. Pure is only theoretical whereas applied is practical. We
must apply what we know (after knowing we should apply it to improve society i.e. we must know &

apply)]. Sociology is a political science (a factual study meaning sociology is the study of society
as it is) and not a normative science (i.e. telling what society is to be). "Sociology is a general
science whereas other social sciences specialize". "Sociology is based on imperial science (there
are some techniques or method to study which in sociology is to collect data and then classify we
find out the causes and effects to and then interpret the result.
Uses of Sociology:
1.

Sociology is the youngest of the social sciences. Augusta Comte's efforts enabled sociology
to be recognized as a separate social science, which is why he called the father of sociology. It was
he, who first coined the word 'Sociology'. Sociology comes from the Latin words 'socialism and
'loges', the first meaning study of science. Therefore Sociology literally means the science of society.
Japan literally, this would mean a very big scope of study for sociology which is not practical,
therefore sociologists have defined in various ways limiting its scope to a manageable extent. But
defining sociology is in itself a difficult task leading to a variety of definition.

2.

F.Ward and W.C. summer define it as 'the science of society', Giddings calls 'the science of
social phenomena to Auskhiem it is the science of institution for park' it is the science collective
behavior' and for Macdum & Pagi it the study of society which is a web of human relationship."
These definition are mostly traditional, indicating the different methods of approach to the study of
human relationships. Modern devp. in knowledge have adhered the attitude & approach to the study
of different sciences. Even in socio, viz. the study of human society as a whole, to the segmental
interpretation of social macroscopic analysis of social factors & the infrastructural analysis of human
society in different forms.

Relation of Sociology with other social sciences


It is necessary to understand other social sciences to study society and the others should also study
sociology. To understand social life in a particular aspect one must know society. Therefore sociology
and other social sciences are interdependent.
1.Sociology

&

Anthropology:

Anthropology derived from 2 words Anthropos & logos 1st means man and 2nd means science
of study. Anthro is the study of development of the human race. Sociology is study of present society
and Anthro is of past man. Anthro is divided into 3 parts (1) physical (2) prehistorical or cultural (3)
social. 1 deals with the bodily characteristics of early man. 2 It studies about the cultural remains
of the primitive people, the origin and development culture and also the culture of the living primitive
people. 3 What types of social institutions were there in primitive society and their development.
Anthro helps sociology to study past material so sociology is dependent on Anthro because the
knowledge of the old enables us to study the present day situations better. Anthro too depends on

sociology Malinonisky Morgan studied about primitive commission based on private property of our
modern times.
Anthro studies about the primitive society of man and culture of old. It studies of society which small
and static but sociology studies about man and society of the present which has a vast area and
its dynamic (studies the dynamic changing society). They are all anthropologists. Kroeber says
"Anthro and Sociology are twin sisters". Hoebel "Sociology and Social anthro are in line, broadest
senses one and the same". Even Pritchard "Sociology is a branch of social Anthro". Every social
science must be related to society or else they would not be social sciences and now since social
studies society therefore every social science must be related to society. "The Sociological attitude
has tended towards practical and present. The anthropological towards pure understanding and the
past" Kluckhonh.
2.Society
&
Psychology:
Psychology studies the mental process of behavior i.e. the effect of the individual mind on the
behavior of group of man and vise versal.
Society is related to psychology because what it studies is a important part of society & social
studies society.
Psychology depends on society and social studies. Society and psychology has to get the
knowledge of society. Society is general science and psychology is a specific science. According to
Megyver "Society gives special aid to psychology and psychology gives special aid to psychology
relationship of society and psychology is shown by social psychology". Lapiere and Fransworth
"Social psychology is to society and psychology as bio-chemistry is to Biology & Chemistry".
Karl Pearson 'There is no distinction between society and social psychology. They are two sides of
the same coin". According to Ward "There are some topics which are subject matters of both society
and psychology such as socialization, Leadership psychology mental process and society social
process.
1.Society
&
Economics:
Economics is the science of wealth. Marshall says "It is the society of economic activity, mans action
in ordinary business of life. how he gets income and spends it". It studies the material welfare of
human being in relation to society.
Economic progress and society progress, in any society goes hand in hand. Society problems such
as illiteracy or superstition. Thus economy is dependent on society and thus economic is dependent
on society. This is vise versa too. According to Thomas "Economic is the comprehensive science of
sociology".

Economic is related to economic activities thus specific whereas society is the study of social
progress. Production, consumption and distribution comes in economics. But all these happen in
relation to society i.e. social process but social studies these social procedures.
Society & Politics: (The above notes are under this) Political science is the study of state origin,
function, importance, govt. contribution, rules & regulations, political parties, institutions, social group
sovereignty.
State is a part of society and society makes a general study of society. In a democracy we have by
the people, of the people and for the people. i.e. of, for & by society. So is the welfare state which
looks to the welfare of the society. Aristocracy with Queen and King. The king is a politician in a way.
He rules for the good of the people and makes laws in view of doing good to his people. If he
happens to do things contrary to the welfare of his people then he is criticized by his people i.e.
society.
Society is dependent of politics. The Second World War brought about drastic changes in the
society. It had a political origin but it had its effects on society political problems and events are
related to society. Therefore since society is dependent in politics therefore society is dependent on
political science.
Society is a science of society and it studies both organized as well as unorganized community
whereas political science is the science of politics and it studies only the organized community.
Political science only studies political institutions whereas social studies all social institutions.
Therefore political science is specialized and society is generalized.
Society

and

Geography:

Geography studies the environment and atmosphere conditions etc. How this geography conditions
environments etc. are important for society. How the people of different geography conditions differ.
How their culture differentiates from people of the place with another as regards modes, cultures and
standards of living. The way the adjust to the environment. Say Antarctica the geography
conditions does not suit man. Thus society is related to geography. For society there must be
suitable geography conditions which for example is the desert. Man or society has captured
geography conditions in quite a few cases. The example that the 1st settlements took place near
river banks clearly shows the physical features of the earth i.e. the geographical conditions affect the
people. The culture of man develops according to his surroundings.
Society too affects the environment and moulds and uses these conditions. By capturing the
geography conditions society is bringing about a great change in his environment and since
geography studies. This environment, naturally when it changes the theories of geography too
changes thus both geography and society are interdependent.

Conclusions

Barnes & Becker: "Society is neither the hand made nor the mistress of other social sciences but
their
sister".
L.F. Ward "Society is the combination of other special social sciences". He gives an example
Blue & Yellow = Green, likewise society studies the general characteristic of all other social sciences
and
emerges
as
a
separate
science.
H. Spencer: "As the organismic theory the different social sciences are related to each other as are
the different organs of the body". Social Darwinism's theory Any living being enter in the struggle
for survival & those who are the strongest of the fittest survive till the last. So also is the case with
society. Those who adjust to the different institutions of society stay for long (till the last). The accept
things last while those we discard (things in society) dies away. Socialism differ too shows this
relation of all social sciences with society evolutionary how from small units it grew.
According to Simpson "Social science is a unity, but is not fictitious unity, it's a dynamic unity of
operating parts and these parts are indispensable to each and all others".

Social Groups
What is Group? It is a collection and a number of the units. Then social group is the collection of
individuals with common interest binding them. Group is important for human beings to exist
because no man can live in isolation. Man by nature is social and he has certain needs for which he
joins groups. He is not only a member of one but many groups to fulfill his different wants or needs.
There should be mutual awareness too without which common interest alone cannot form a social
group. The society relationship of man is very wide.
"Society is a web of social relationship". - Mac Iver
In family itself there are 15 types of social relationship as said by a psychologist. In society there is
both co-operation and conflict & both area important for group and some society. The group should
have some likeness and they should have a social goal for the good of societies.
Animals too live in group but they do not learn it, but it is inborn in them but man learns to forms
groups so as to fulfill his desires.
Difference in society is a must because there would be not society without it. A man co-operates and
only then can a group be formed. This can be direct or indirect. The mutual awareness too can be
direct or indirect. Conflict too is important. If everyone was to co-operate then there would be no
society.
a.

Definitions of Group

b.

Characteristics of the Group

c.

Classification of Social Group

d.

Reference Group

Questions on Group
1.

What is group? Classify groups according to various sociologists?

2.

What do you mean by social group. Describe summer's classification of social group?

3.

Define group? Describe Coole's classification of social group

4.

What do you understand by reference group? How it affects the personality of the individual.

Definitions of Group
According to Mac Iver & Page "By group we mean any collection of human beings who are
brought into social relationship with one another.
Elliot & Merril "The social group may be defined as two or more persons who are in combination
over one applicable period of time and who act in accordance with a common function or purpose.
Ogburn & Nimkoff 'Whenever two or more individual come together and influence one another,
they may said to constitute a social group'.
Bogardus "A social group may be thought of as a number of persons, two or more, who have
some common objects of attention, who are stimulating to each other, who have common loyalty and
participate in similar activities.
Bennet & Tumim "A group is a number of people is definable and persisting interaction directed
towards common goal and using agreed upon means".
Biersteadt Social groups are those in which people actually associate with one another and have
social relationships with one another.
Elridge & Merril "A social group may be defined as 2 or more persons who are in communication
over an appreciable period of time and act in accordance with common function or purpose".
Sheriff & Sheriff - "A group is social unit which consists of a number of individuals, whose stand in
(more or less) definite status and role relationship to one another & posses a set of values or nouns
of its own regulating the behavior of the individual member at least in matter of consequences of the
group".
R.M. Williams "A social group is a given aggregate of people, playing interrelated roles &
recognized by themselves or others as a unit of interaction".

Edward Sapir "Any group is constituted by this fact that there is some interest which holds in,
members together. The essence of social group is not physical closeness but a consciousness of
joint interaction".
a.

Social Groups

b.

Characteristics of the Group

c.

Classification of Social Group

d.

Reference Group

Characteristics of the group


For a group there should be two or more persons. Man cannot do things himself for the realization of
his wishes he needs co-operation and help from others which leads to the formation of groups.
There should be reciprocal activity in it and there should be a give and take attitude. Each individual
should follow the rules & norms of the group. This is a voluntary action and any individual can enter
and leave a group when he pleases. When small a child has relationship with family then
neighborhood, village, countries etc social goals is a must for group and this goal must be for the
good of society and not against the society such groups are not social groups but anti-social
group. Every individual works for the others in the group. For group there should be we feeling and a
feeling of integrity (unity). The group not only consists of the physical aggregation but also of mutual
agreement etc.
1.

For a group there is necessity of two or more people. It cannot be formed if there is one
person because one man cannot fulfill his aims or desires. So there must be more than one person.

2.

It is reciprocal group satisfies our wants give and take relationship.

3.

Voluntary or organization Nature & necessity impels man to live in society.

4.

Social goals Goals for the society, it won't be against the group people will work for the
welfare of society. There must be some goals which has to be fulfilled.

5.

Sense of the feeling for a group there must be sense of unit. If we feeling is not there then
the group members will clash among themselves.

6.

Norms & Regulations They must follow the norms and regulations of the group. He won't
be allowed to stay in the group if he fails to follow the norms and regulations of the group.

7.

If not only consists of physical aggregation but also of mutual agreements etc. (mutual
awareness).

a.

Social Groups

b.

Definitions of group

c.

Classification of Social Group

d.

Reference Group

Classification of Social Group


A person; is a member of different groups and these groups satisfy our desires we may either start a
group or become a member. Many sociologists have classified
According to G.Simmel he has divided group on basis of number of people in the group. He is a
German sociology. According to him there are two groups (i) smaller collection of people (ii) larger
scale collection of people
Dwright Sanderson classifies group on the basis of structure of the group. According to him there
are three groups.
i.

involuntary group

ii.

voluntary group

iii.

delegate group

iv.

in which people become the member involuntarily. People have no choice like family If we
are born in the family we belong to the family.

v.

people have their own choice membership of one's own choice to become or join any group
like professional group (can join or resign)

vi.

Representative If a person becomes a member he has to represent the whole group or


whole group should make him the representative of the group like Parliament (M.P.), Legislative
Assembly (M.L.A.)
Miller Classifies group on the basis of stratification in the society 1. Vertical 2. Horizontal

1.

Differences in position, ranks, status vertically. Like class or caste. Some think that there is
higher caste. Caste is divided into sub-caste and even in that they think they are above in the
society, post and prestige.

2.

All equal. Every member is equal like teachers same qualification (economic position may
differ a criciticsm).
Summer On the basis of intimacy of relationship 1. In group 2. Out group.

1.

Intimacy in your own, oneness on feeling. I am in this group i.e. we feeling. Any person of
any group should be in group (a member of), friendliness, solidarity, loyalty among members &
sympathy towards each other, pleasure on feeling should also be there. Members do not like to hurt
anyone and to be hurt by anyone.

2.

There is indifference. The group from which I maintain a distance and out group (in which I
don't like to be a member). These express themselves as 'they'. We are democratic and they are
communist. Lack of sympathy to an extent, solidarity, avoidance, indifference, competition instead of
co-operation, conflict. All this is found in out group. Eg. Caste, color difference. White think that
they are superior. In religion there are social distances. We are Indian and he is Chinese. So caste,
religion, nationality are its example.
F,Tonms basis of community and society. His classification into 2 is :

1.

Gemienschaft Urban character industrialization

2.

Gesselschaft Mental standard low rural

3.

Temporary group which is formed for some time like crowd, public mob-

4.

Permanent group Village, State we live permanently.

5.

Regional group State, nation

6.

Cultural group groups for some cultural purpose, recreational, educational group, religion.
Fichter in his book "Sociology" describes about 4 types of group.

1.
2.

Common Ancestry Group (related with blood group, almost same to Gillin)
Common Territory Group (regional group, permanent group) same as Gillin only leading
different.

3.
4.

Similar bodily characteristic age sex social group


Common interest group related with cultural group fulfill some Common culture purpose
Recreation group, education group, religious group, economic group, political group.
According to Mac Iver & Page He mentions 3 groups

1.

On the basis of territory and interest territorial unities (you live in a particular territory like
village, town, country or city).

2.

Interest conscious unities without definite organization people have the same interest and
are conscious about the aim but they don't have a definite organism. Like Refugee group. People
have different psychological group.

3.

Interest conscious unities with definite organization (here they have responsibility towards
each other. Members are limited in this group. Everyone one same aim like cricket club, relationship
with each other good.
Murdock into 3 groups

1.

Structural or quasi structural group. Any group has some structure, organized and
developed spontaneously developed automatically. Here he says about tribes, state or class group.

2.

Occasional or circumstantial group Transitory group, temporary public mob (we feeling but
no definite organization) crowd.

3.

Artificial group The groups formed and we become members deliberately like political
group, educational group etc.
George Hasan into 3 groups

1.

Unsocial group - Aloof from other groups, you don't go to other group

2.

Pseudo social group - People in that group go to other group but for their own interest.

3.

Antisocial group - against the interest of society. You become against the interest of society
and make your own group e.g. Terrorist, strike group etc.
Charles Cooley: On the basis of relationship (1) primary and (2) secondary. He classified these 2
groups in his book "Social Organization". He is an American sociologist in 1909.

C.H. Cooley: American sociologist classified group as primary and secondary in 1909 in his book
"Social organization". Primary group small in size, intimate relationship, co-operation among
members family, play group. There should be limited, own interest, should fulfill the need of others,
mutual understanding direct (face to face) relationship for a common decision, closeness is there,
spirit of give and take. 'Face to face' is not a characteristic of primary group some sociologists
have said. R.C. Farris has criticized he says physical proximity is not primary group like Kinship. In
this we do not have a face to face relation but while taking a decision we keep everyone in mind with
whom we have blood relationship. R.C. Farris another e.g. in a court the judge lawyer, criminal all
are face to face but not a primary group because there is no feeling.

Definition of Primary Group


Cooley "By primary group I mean those characterized by intimate face to face association and cooperation. They are primary in several senses, but chiefly they are fundamental informing social
nature & ideals of the individual"
Lundberg in his book "Sociology" "Primary group means two or more person behaving in relation
to each other in a way that is intimate, cohesive and personal.
Bierstead in his book 'social order' says "By primary group meant the intimate personal face to
face groups in which we find our companions and comrades the members of our family and our daily
associates.

Definition of Secondary Group


Secondary Group: Always goal oriented. There is co-operation but this co-operation is indirect.
Impersonal and indirect relationship. It is optional membership. Eg. Trade Union, City, person, etc.
Large in size. There is seldom face to face relationship no mutual identification.
According to Cooley There are groups wholly backing in intimacy of association and usually most
of
the
other
primary
and
quasi

primary
characteristic.
According to Kinsley Davis "Secondary group can roughly be defined as opposite of everything
said
about
primary
group".
Oglourn & Nimkoff "The group which provides experience lacking in intimacy are called
secondary
group.
(If difference between primary and secondary group is asked then start the answer with K. Davis's
difference.)
Characteristics of secondary group

1.

To fulfill some common goal

2.

Lacking in intimacy

3.

Indirect relationship

4.

Optional membership.

a.

Social Groups

b.

Definitions of group

c.

Characteristics of the Group

d.

Reference Group

Reference Group
This group has developed recently Hyman used it in 1942 in his book "Psychology of status". Man a
social being, belongs to many groups and wants to belong to some other groups for which he tries to
follow the rules and norms of that particular group so that he too may be identified as a member of
that group this group is reference group. R.K.Murton, Newcomb, Turner, Johnson, Sherieff &
Sherieff also used the term 'ref group'. Thinking broadly we find only two kinds of groups (1)
Membership group and (2) Reference group.
1.

Any group of which we are member i.e. I belong to that group and I am member and satisfy
my aims. R.K. Murtonse book goal for ref. group

2.

Not members but we are psychologically attached to that group (the adivasis feel they
belong to the Kshatriya Class & of which they indeed are members then this is membership group.
Now the example of (2) is the students admire the personality of their teacher and want to imitate i.e.
they are psychologically attached to the group that the teacher belongs to i.e. perhaps the fashion).
In this there is a physical presence. Sometimes it so happens that the reference group becomes a
membership group this changes with time, place and situation.
Sherieff & Sheriff "Reference group is the group to which an individual relates himself or aspires
to relate himself psychologically".
H.M. Johnson "A reference group is based on the psychological association of a person or group
to other group".

R.K. Murton "Man act in social frame of reference provided by which they are member, they may
or may not belong to that group but psychologically attached towards that group". He pays focus to
structure function to the social environment in which they are located. People takes the standard of
signifying others as self appraisal. He uses the term 'Marginal Man'. While discussing reference
group i.e. the person who belongs to the reference group and he wants to relate to the reference
group. He imitates the reference group in every manner but he is a member of the reference group
but since he is so much like the reference group that he is considered out of the reference group and
therefore he is left nowhere and has to go through a lot of tension. He wants to be a member of the
reference group to raise his status a position in his group i.e. he aspires to that group 'Relative
deprivation' is another term he uses. When a man feels deprived within his group and so he wants to
refer to another group to get emotional satisfaction. (he feels his views and wants are not paid
attention to he thinks the other group may be sympathetic and thus gives his emotional support).
Norms too is important for reference group. Every group has its own rules, norms, regulations and
procedures. This man follows the rules and regulations of his own group as well as that of the other
group. The terms 'Westernization', Sanskritization are used by Srinivas A Kshatriya if he wants to
become a Brahmin he imitates the Brahmin group and wants to be considered are this is
sanskritization (all this is as an example for reference group). Ionization - Indians try to imitate the
English and thus the English become the reference group.
Turner describes reference group as role taking process i.e. our changes one's role according to the
group from which he wants to identify himself psychologically (Turner is in reference to ionization).
Newcomb Explains 2 types of reference group (1) +ve & (2) ve. 1. Positive the group with
which we want to identify myself to raise my status, position and to have my emotional satisfaction. I
am positively related to that group. 2. Negative the group I belong to the ve group for the +ve
group.
H.Hymen "There are some particular individuals in society whose standards or values become the
ideal for the other people and are imitated by them". (He stresses on reference group behavior). In
general a reference group is one which an individual perceives as holding interests, attitudes and
valves in common. He takes that group as a basis for self evaluation. A attitude formation.

Characteristics of Reference Group


1.

Psychological attachment

2.

Certain norms, rules & regulations we follow these of our own group and also that of the
reference group. This gives emotional satisfaction. Sanskritisation is an example (the lower castes
follow rules and regulations of higher casters).

3.

Ideal Person Example of Mahatma Gandhi when you read about the Mahatma you want
to be like him. He is the ideal person in your view.

4.

Every person or group may have different reference group. One may like or dislike a
particular group. If you like you imitate and if you don't you don't imitate.

5.

Reference group changes with time, situation etc. For a particular time you may have one
reference group and at another time you may not like that group and do don't make it your reference
group.

6.

When he is not satisfied with the group to which he belongs he wants to join another group
and so you imitate. This gives rise to 'Marginal Man'.

7.

Mahatma Gandhi and reference group may vary from time to time therefore sometimes the
reference group could become your Mahatma Gandhi.

8.

Social adjustment when we follow the norms etc. of the reference group we are actually
adjusting to that group and this leads to us adjust more easily to our society.

9.

Social control

10.

Social transformation development a betterment of society.


Murton There are 3 criteria for the formation of reference group.

1.

Relative or comparative depreciation

2.

Visibility of norms of acceptability

3.

Design of living

1.

When you feel you are being ignored in your group you make another group your
reference group so that you may be paid attention to.

2.

Following the norms of your reference group like Adivasis try to follow norms of
higher classes to be like them.

3.

When you don't like the standard of living in your group you try to live like the
reference group which you prefer like Indians live in a ionized manner.

4.

What is the use of reference group? Is it impact one never refers to a group ranking
lower than his own group

James Lange Theory [Common Sense]


Started independently by two psychologists in two parts of the world. William James found this
theory in America. Carl Lange was doing the same things. What do you mean by a common sense
view of emotions? This theory of James & Lange states just opposite facts to this question.
The common sense says you have perception of emotion provoking stimulus. After perception you
have ideation this leads to emotion. You experience emotion. After the experience comes the bodily
changes (organic changes) Tiger Experience (fear) Running (changes) James Lange say just
the opposite 1st perception then followed by bodily changes and because of the bodily changes you
feel fear. These bodily changes are produced in a reflexive way.
Whatever happens to our body outside or inside our brain knows it. Say you have a burning
sensation then the sensory neurons report it to the brain. The reporting of these bodily changes is
emotion. So perception of the bodily changes is emotion. In William Jame's own words 'My theory
is that the bodily changes follow directly the perception of the exciting fact and that our feeling of the
same changes as they occur is the emotion". If perception according to James Lange theory was not
followed by bodily sensation (changes) then the perception would remain cold and colorless. In other
words An emotion is a mass of organic sensations due to organic changes in the internal organs
following upon the perception of an exciting object. The emotional warmth comes from the organic
sensations. This theory sates two things as we implement 1. The cerebral cortex & 2. The bodily
changes William James gives the following points in favour of his theory.
1.

Say you were walking alone in dark wood & suddenly you hear a noise than for a fraction of
a second you stop or your heart stops and this is a bodily change and reflexive too and then you
realize the fear and do the needful.

2.

If you imagine that you have a feeling of emotion. When you feel anger and you feel the
bodily changes and if you deliberately than the emotion stops.

3.

When actors come on stage they have to do different kinds of roles like angry, sad etc. They
now have to show the bodily changes he says those then they actually feel it.

4.

Bodily changes can be produced artificially and when this is done they exhibit emotions.
Criticising against this theory weighs much more than its praises.

1.

The emotion according to this is identified with bodily changes. It says there is no emotion
without bodily changes (a corresponding bodily change). Here it means each one has its own bodily
changes meaning the other emotion cannot have the same bodily change as the earlier one, but in
reality this does not happen Say we cry when we are sad but then we also cry when we are happy
or even angry.

2.

According to this theory bodily changes are produced by the reflex action. While saying this
he does not consider the situational characteristic of image. Say you see a tiger in the open you are
afraid but you are not so when you see the same tiger inside the cage you are not frightened so
the bodily changes which according to him should be same are in reality not so.

3.

According to this theory the viscera gets excited 1st (bodily changes) and then you have the
emotion. But experiment show that the visceral parts (bodily changes) are less sensitive and they
take sometime in being stimulated at least 1 second and emotional experience takes less than 1
second meaning emotions come before bodily changes thus contrary to this theory.

4.
5.

When you inject ordinate in the body it produces bodily changes but not emotion.
It is true that most of the time when we have emotion we also have the knowledge of bodily
activities and were not always aware of such activities meaning e very time there may not be such
bodily activities.

6.

Research shows you can show emotion without the cerebral cortex contrary to the theory. P
Sherrington did this experiment on a dog and he found when the dogs sympathetic nerves were cut
the dog still expressed emotion. Also it has been found when parts of the hypothalamus are
artificially or electrically stimulated it showed different patterns of behavior. When one part was
stimulated they were angry and in other parts when touched they were passive. This means some
paths of the hypothalamus is connected to emotion. The important work of the cerebral cortex is to
control the emotion but most of the emotion is in hypothalamus.

7.

When all these criticism was leveled against James Lange. He sort of changed it
somewhat. He accepted the situational the affective tone of perception the produces organic
changes.

Family
Family - most important universal institution. It is the core of the social structure and fundamental
unit of the society. In general its consists of father, mother & children.
According to Charles Cooley -Family is the primary group and we are member of primary group.
History of mankind is the history of family. At birth child is only biological being. His needs are fulfilled
by his family. Right from the birth to death, the family exerts a constant influence on the child.
According to Anderson - There is not a single person who is not a member of a family in one form or
the other. According to him there are two types of family (i) family of orientation (ii) family of
procreation.
i.

Where we are born, we are a member.

ii.

In the family urge is fulfilled to give birth to another. Family in which we procreate we give
birth.

The origin & Division of Family


Morgan - He has listed to successive forms of family. He has postulated a sequential growth of the
division and origin of family. He has divided on the basis of distinctive type of marriage.

1.

Consanguine - How this family originated and developed. This type of marriage was not well
organized because at that time institutions of marriage were not well developed. It was based on
system of promiscuity or sex communism. Men were free to have sex-relationship with any woman.

2.

Punabran family - It succeeds the consanguine. In this type of marriage, group of boys
married a group of girl. In one way it is a type of pair marriage. In this type of family it was not well
organized. Any girl could have sex relationship with any boy of the same group. This existed for a
long time.

3.

Syndiasmian Family It succeeds 2. Here one female married one male in a family but the
man was allowed to have sexrelationship with anyone he wants. Woman also had permission to
have sex-relationship with others outside the family.

4.

Patriarchal Family - Male dominated family. Authority gives to male especially the eldest
male of the family. Dominated by the eldest male. Here male can have more than one wife but
female can have only one husband and they unlike men can't have sex-relationship with other men.

5.

Meonogamous (Modern family) one male can marry only one female. According to
Vnkevouic there are 2 types of marriages. The males were allowed to marry again if his first wife
died. According to Vnkevouic Monoganous family is that family in which males are allowed to marry
only once even if his wife died he cannot marry again. 9.2.88 Prefour in Book Mother the first form of
family was matriarchal family. In this the full responsibility of a family was on mother. Later on every
required the help of males as they could not fulfill their families desires alone and hence slowly the
males group began to dominate the women group by giving their support and help. They began to
think themselves as superior in a family.

6.

Westermark In his book "History of Marriage" said that first form of family was patria cal
because only sex was considered more important. Males group felt jealousy that their wife cannot
have sex with other males. They must be satisfied with one male. Thus in this way they were
dominated very much in the family.

7.

Tylor was the supporter. Before there was only sex and hence a family was not well
organized at all. But males were allowed to have sex with other female group even though the bad
wives already.

Needs for Origin: It originated to fulfill the needs of oneself. The various needs can only be fulfilled
in a family. Everyone is a member of a family in one way or the other. To exist a family or a society
reproductive usage or sexual relationship is very necessary. There are some needs to form a family
they are (1) Reproductive urge: that is to have sexual relationship to have a family of our own.
Unless there is sexual relationship, family cannot exist. To have children and for this sex is
necessary. This is a psychological aspect. People want to continue their family tradition, name etc.
(2) Biological needs sexual urge varies according to age. If one wants to have sex he cannot have
anywhere or at any time he wants so to have sex or to satisfy sexual urge marriage is very
necessary. (3) Economic provision - when a child is born he is fully dependent on a family (specially
for a biological needs like hunger etc.) economically.
Definition

of

Family

Mac Iver & Page In their book 'The society' family is a group defined by sex relationship,
sufficiently precise and enduring to provide for the procreation and upbringing of the children.
Dgbourn & Nimkoff In their book 'A hand book of sociology' "Family is more or less a durable
association of husband and wife with or without children or of a man or woman along with their
children".
Kingsley Davis In his book "Human society" defines family as "Family is a group of persons
whose relation to one another are based upon consequinity and who are therefore kin to one
another". He means where there is blood relationship although hubby and wife have sex relation.
Gisbert "Family of ordinarily a man and woman permanently united with one or more children.
Biesenz & Biesenz "The family in one sense may be defined as a woman with a child and a man
to look after them.
Burguess & Locke In his book 'Family' "Family is a group of persons united by ties of marriage,
blood or adoption, constituting a single household, interacting and intercommunicating with each
other in their respective social roles of husband & wife, mother and father, son & daughter, brother &
sister creating a common culture".

Characteristics of Family (General)

1.

Sex relationship should be their between husband and wife. Or making relationship or if this
relationship breaks then the family slowly breaks according to Mac Iver.

2.

It provides care to children like economic needs. Emotional basis i.e. family is based on
emotion. If this is absent the family breaks.

3.

A system of Nomenclature i.e. according to Anderson there are two kinds of family and both
these give importance to Nomenclature. This means that the children relates to the families name.

4.

A single household for a well organized family.

5.

Durable association of hubby and wife according to Anderson & Nimkoff.

6.

Husband and wife with or without children.

Nature of Family (distinctive characteristics)


1.

Universality family is found in each stage of society and everywhere. There is no society
without family. There is not a single man who does not belong to one or other kind of family".
Anderson.

2.

Emotional basis There should be an emotional relationship love, affection, sympathy, cooperation. If there is no such basis the family breaks up.

3.

Formative influence Each family has a certain form. Orientation and Procreations (Mac
Iver). If you are a member of one family you inherit your parents characteristic. Frand said "In
adulthood man has the characteristic of parents". In pro you give birth to children and they are
influenced by your personality.

4.

Limited in size Gisbert "Husband, wife and children". Family is limited in size in comparison
to other groups. Joint family is large whereas nuclear family is small.

5.

Nuclear position in the society According to Charles Cooley "Family is a primary group and
is the fundamental unit of society (the network of social relationship we call it society)". It is the
primary cell of society. Society is an aggregation of families.

6.

Sense of Responsibility The function of the family is to provider economic needs of the
children. It is the responsibility of the parents to look after the children of the family. At the time of
crisis man is ready to die for country but for his family he is always ready to protect the family's
prestige etc.

7.

Social control family is a mechanism of social control. When one is small he does not know
what's wrong or right. If you follow good you are praised otherwise you are punished. This makes
you think that you must relate to the good and when you grow up you relate to the good of society.

8.

Permanent and Temporary in nature Family is an institution as well as association. As an


institution family is permanent cause it's found everywhere and at every stage of history. As
association family is or close kint group (when the child has his own family he separates from the

original & so temporary) one family consists of father, mother and children. Generally the children
make their own family and the family disintegrate. This happens in case of divorce or death of a
parent.

Types of Family
Types of Family or Classification of Family According to Anderson there is no man who does not
belong to a family no matter in which form. According to Mac Iver and Page there are two kinds of
family Orientation & Procreation..
On the basis of authority there are 2 types of family Patriarchal or Matriarchal. P- male dominant
especially father or the eldest male. He is the supreme authority the property is in his hands and he
does its dist. M-authority on the hand of mother.
On the basis of residence 1 Patrilocal and Matrilocal . P members stay in father's house M
members stay in mothers' house GORO & KHASIS
On the basis ancestors Patritinial & Matrilinial P demanded from pap's side M from mother's
side.
On the basis of Marriage
1.

Monogamous is based on marriage between one male and one female and the male is
allowed to marry again if his wife. According to Wichmavic or whatever quote him.

2.

Polygamy refers to that family which has one male, two female or one female two male.
This is subdivided into 2.

3.

Polyandrous (a) polygynous a one male and more than one female marriage After 1955
the Hindus were restricted to having more than one at a time. The muslims are allowed to have upto
4. This came into being because of the ratio of man and women women's ratio being more. (I can
keep 4 or 5 wives). Also the Rajputs in war married the queens of the kings and defeated or kept
them as mistresses. (b) The women & many hubbies again divided into two (i) Fraternal (ii) Nonfraternal. (i) the hubbies are brothers like Draupadi the ratio of man and women that of man being
___. (ii) Matrilocal It is usually so the hubbies are not brothers. This type is still found in the tribal
like the Todas of Nilgiris, Nayars of Malabar in Kerala.
Family based on No. of members of family: 1. Nuclear family & 2. Joint family 3. is specially an
important characteristics of the Indian society. A group of families living together eating food, cooked
under a single (same) roof, holding property in common, worship a common deity and the members
are related to each other by some particular type of kinder. The head is the father and he decides
everything in the family.

Write

the

merits

and

demerits

but

just

mentioned

don't

go

into

details.

In this family there is a generation depth of 3 or more generations. It is also called as an extended
family in ____ society (i) Gisbert deff. It is that family where hub, wife and mostly unmarried
children. This is due to civilization and industrialization on the basis of relationship. There are 2 types
(1) consanguineous (ii) conjugal (i) refers to the family with blood relation. The hubby and wife too
are blood relations, in Muslim. Marriage in your own claim (ii) The hubby and wife come from
different class or families (i.e. family of procreation)
Before that introduce write some things about family. Its origin

Function of Family
According to Mac Iver and Page - There are 3 functions of family
1.

Gratification of family

2.

Procreation

3.

provision of economic means (needs)

Functions in General:
1.

Satisfaction of sex urges though the institution of marriage.

2.

Procreation for psychological satisfaction for having children to succeed them.

3.

Provision of food, clothes and shelter give the diff. of Mac Iver and Page.

Social Functions:
1.

Socialization

2.

Social control

1.

When the child & born he is just a biological entity. His character is moulded his family. He
leaning the customs manners etc. Farm is a process of socialization. There is the education function.
Family's the 1st school for the child. He 1st school for the child. He 1st learns the long of his family.

2.

Farm is a mechanism of social control farm has particular customs & traditions some rules &
regulations & if the child follows there he is praised or punished if he doesn't follow. This gives him
an idea of the difference of good & bad. Some times the family removes bad habits & sometimes
even bad habits. Extremes control is there in a joint family because there are too many people of
higher status (cha-cha, mama etc)

Economic Function
1.

Unit of production & consumption

2.

Division of labour

1.

India is a country of village. In these simple farms there is unit of production like
those in agriculture. They produce consumption is in both type of farm. Much as well as joint.
According to Anderson each man's a member of family & every man is a consumer.

2.

Labour is divided in the Farms on the basis of age & sex usually the female has the
household work & the man the outside work. The head is the oldest in the farm.

Cultural Functions
1st School is the family. He learns the long and customs & traditions of his family. Culture is different.
from one family to another. This culture is passed on from one generation to the next generation. To
exist in society culture is very important to distinguish the society from another. Culture also provides
physical security. The duty of the family is to take care of children who are physical & mentally
handicapped. Also the old & ill are too the liability of the families. The general notion is that the
young ones take care of the old.
Recreational
Function
Family is the centre of recreation in a simple family or for the joint farm in this there are journal
relations the that of Bhabi & Dewar etc., When the tired member (usually men) return home these
are met with a smile & kindness. This gives them pleasure and makes life easy as well as
pleasurable.
Acc.

to

Beirstead

"Family has functions for both the individual & society" which are related to each other.
Societies

Individual

Continuation

Life & survival

Sexual control through the inst. Of marriage

Sexual opportunity through the inst. of


marriage.

Cultural transmission status ascription (one is ascribed to the


Social identification & socialization
status of his family)

Modern Family

(Actually we are supposed to do the pools of the med. Farm). A med. Farm & always a nuclear farm
i.e. Mother, Father and children who are unmarried. This is due to industriation & urbanization, it is
increasing & developing with these why is it due to industriation. & urbanization. People go to
industrial & urban areas for work or so this locates up the patriarchal farm. Everyone seems to want
to stay in these areas but the space is less & the rent high. This leads to a two room home & this is
one of the problems of med. Farm. In Urban areas there are many facilities like education, water
supply electricity & various other things which attracts people. For this they are breaking their joint
families & make a nuclear farm. This leads to congestion and the prob. of stability arises (Farm is a
compact close kind group, in general, in which each member's psychologically related. In the
patriarchal farm there is a sense of stability because they know they got stay there no matter what,
for her parents are not going to accept her for she's married off to that man (In these areas there are
job opportunity). But today women feel they are equal partners with equal rights & so they are not
going to bear all up silently. 2. Now women too have the right to divorce (1955 marriage act) if he
teachers her or does anything disagreeable in the eyes of laws. 3. In 1956 the Hindu succession act
gives the girl the right to get an equal share of the parents property this poses danger to the stability
of the farm & disintegrates. Problem of maladinstment disciplining the family due to urbanization- &
industriation. (This is for equal jobs opportunity).
[Secular Education Parents provides equal education. To both daughter & son. This liberated the
women. This was an influence of conization. 2. In this she is no longer afraid that she has nothing to
fall back on after the hubby disowns her].
All these were for the good but this had some disadvantages too because families broke up all the
more easily. An old custom was to entertain one's guest, this has changed and guests are
considered more of a burden. Now people would rather go to others place than entertain people
themselves.
Problem of Adjustment (Mal. Adjustment)

a.

Economic independence of women


Equal opportunity of job to both men & women, she has equal rights. This makes the women feel
she is a wage earner than why should she listen to her hubby, instead he should listen to her. This
cause conflict because the hobby does not care how much the wife earns but she must obey him
because she is an inferior.

b.

Now the children try to get their own by persuading the parent that is most sympathetic on
that matter. Now one parent may disagree & this causes conflict because both hubby & wife are
important. & so insist on being obeyed or atleast get yes.

c.

Changes in values & attitudes of Farm


Earlier marriage was in front of a God taking the oath to remain together for this birth & the coming
ones. But now you can just go to court on an hour's decision & get married.

d.

Prob. or working Women


Now people think that if both hubby & wife work they will be happier but the poor wife has to work as
well as look after, the house and children. The hubby's ego does not allow him to do all this. This
causes unhappiness & ill feeling.

e.

Prob. of Aging Parents


Earlier it was the function of the family to take care of the dependents (those dependent on them). It
was one's duty to take care of the parents. The married son was supposed to care for his aging
parents but now this is going. Now the son lives separately. This creates can emotional problem for
the old.

f.

Prob. of neglected children


As both parents work children hardly have any emotional support and there is no one to look after
them. The parents are too lived to listen to all their problem. This also results in practical
delinquency.

g.

Sex relationship
In this one's free to have sexual relationship i.e. women too can have extra-marital relationship as
the men. This again leads to the breaking up of the family. However this is not very much prevalent
in our society i.e in India.

h.

Future of the Farm


i.e. Is farm disintegrating! The med. Families concept is increasing day by-day and joint farm's
loosing group. Family has changed its farm & structure don't is not disintegrating. There is also a
change in the functions of the farm. The concept of religious rituals too is changing. Also the function
of providing security is changing (like old part in old homes etc). Also these days one can't think of
having a baby born in the house. It must be in a hospital. Also the family is hardly the 1st school
because children when hardly grown are put in schools. But the main function of the farmily which is
procreation is restored.

Social Stratification
The word stratification means division when we say social stratification it means divisions in society.
division in language, culture, wealth, property, birth, status, age & sex. This social stratification is
found in society in some form or another in the world. This social stratification in simple society
based one sex & age. In complex society it is based on capabilities, birth, wealth, property, inequality
of prestige or difference in ranking system. Hierarchy system, status, position & power prestige is

involved in ranking system of social stratification refers to the ranking system, status, position &
power in society. Inequality exits.
Sorokin said that unstratific society is a myth. In our societies, social stratification is to caste &
class.
Acc. to P.Kinsberg "Social Stratification linked is the division of society into permanent group or
categories linked with each other by the relationship of superiority & sub-ordination."
Sorokin explained social stratification means the differentiation of the given population. Into
hierarchally superposed class; it is manifested in existence of upper & lower social layers." He
further says unstratified society with social equality of its members is a myth which has never been
realized in the history of mankind." According. to Raymond necessary - Stratification is a horizontal
division of society into higher or lower social units. Lundberg describes about social stratification
as a stratified society is marked by inequality, by difference as among people that are evaluated
about them as been lower & higher. Kurt B.Mayor "Social stratification is a system of differential
which includes a hierarchy of social position whose occupants are treated as superior, equal or
inferior to one another in socially imp. respects. Max Webter-"Social stratification is an organized
manifestation of unequal power in society."
Basis on Forms of Social Stratification Biological stratification on Biological basis age, sex,
birth, race.
a.

age childhood, youth, adult & old (superior or experienced)

b.

Sex male & female. In the Indian context males are considered to be superior.

c.

Birth refers to the caste system. This is divided into sub-castes. There are above 3000
castes & sub-castes. The Brahmin gets the highest position.

d.

Race-white & black usually white are superior. Caucasian white, monoxide yellow &
Negroid block. Socio Cultural Basis Education, wealth, property, business, occupation.

e.

Education literate, illiterate. In this too is divided into many stratus

Paper - II
o

Caste System

Functions & Merits of caste System

Features of Caste System

Class System

Social Change

Urban Sociology

Scope of Urban Sociology

Slums and Deprivation in Urban Areas

Urbanization & Crime

Rural and Agrarian transformation in India

Caste System
Birth determines the caste. Mostly in ancient but is still present in med. India. It is a particular
characteristic of Indian society & without understanding the caste system Indian Society is not fully
understood. The word caste comes from 'Casta' a portugese word & it means difference in birth a
race. It (syst.) is based on 'Varna system ? means colour syst. They are mainly Four Brahmin,
Kshastriyas, Vaishya & Sudra. But of course these have many sub-castes
Analog marriage in the same caste and pratilog marriage but low & high caste Analog home of
any & pratilog hyper gamy.

Definition of Caste System


According to Mazumdar & Madan 'Caste is a closed class' i.e. class refers to people based on
property, business, occupation i.e. one can't change his own caste system by can change the class
system & can be a member of many classes at the same time. You belong to a caste by birth & can't
change it later & one has is follow the set rules & regulations & gets punishment on their violation &
one can even be thrown out of his caste. i.e. If one dares to go out of his caste he can never return.
In class one may change it with effort like in a illiterate class one can became literate & therefore go
over to the literate class i.e. caste is hereditary in nature & once born in a caste one can't change it.
The development of 4 castes took place from is Varnas Varna was not strictly based on birth & one
could change his Varna. It was based on "Karma theory" Parashurama became kshatriya by karma
from a Brahmin Vishwamitra was a Kshatriya & became Brahmin. This is not allowed in caste
system.
According to Herbert Kisley "Class is a collection of families or group of families bearing a common
name which usually denotes or is associated with specific occupation, claiming descent from a
mythical ancestor, human or divine, professing to follow the same heredity callings & regarded by
those who are competent to give an opinion as forming a single homogenous communities."
According to Charles Coole "When a class is somewhat strictly hereditary, we may call it a caste."
Ketekar in his book "History of caste in India' 'Caste is a social group having two characteristics
(a) membership is confined to those who are born of members & includes all persons no born (b) the
members are forbidden by an inexorable social law to marry outside the group."
E. Blunt - "Caste is an endogamous group bearing a common name, membership of which is
hereditary, imposing on its members certain restrictions in the matter of social intercourse, either
following a common traditional occupation a claiming a common origin & generally regarded as
forming a single homogenous community.

Characteristics
1.

Based on birth or birth is the determinant factor of caste system. Once born in a caste he has
to remain the same. Status, position prestige is fixed according to his caste. i.e. A scribed. The
castes are divided into sub-caste.

2.

Endogamy & exogamy In a caste syst. There is restriction on marriage. Westermarck"Restriction on marriage Endogamy & Exogamy are the essence of the caste system. "Endogamy
their one's own caste or sub-caste. Exogamy same caste but not same clean i.e. Gotra.

3.

Social Hierarchy is found in caste syst. Brahmin is high & sudra have the inferior position &
prestige. Prof. Bhurey Sanskritisation in this the lower caste people can initiate the upper caste.
De-Sanskritisation Upper caste can initiate the lower caste.

4.

Occupational restriction & hereditary occupation your occupation is fixed by your caste. A
black smith son will always be a black smith.

5.

Economic disparity The higher caste people are generally economically better off & the
lower caste people work harder & yet they get little benefit i.e. they are poorer.
Prof. Ghuray - According to him.

1.

Segmental division of society i.e. society is divided into diff. castes. Earlier there were 4 but
now over 3000 & work education etc, are associated with it. Role, prestige etc, is fixed according to
his caste. Every caste has moral obligation. All people are morally obliged to their own castes & subcastes i.e. there are certain rules & regulations which one has to follow & are punished if they don't.
They are not so much to that society or community but more to his caste.

2.

Social Hierarchy In caste system, Hierarchy is found & the Brahmin are it the highest level
& the Indra's are the lowest and therefore are the untouchables & even unseables. Sanskritisation is
Ghuray's concept i.e. this can initiate the higher caste & therefore change their position.

3.

Restriction on faced In thro caste syst. There is restriction in the food too. The members of
the higher caste can't take food from the lower caste. Kalahari- fruits can be eaten by the higher
caste from anyone & nothing will happen. Pakka Khana from the Kshtriya & Vaishya. Tried in ghee
etc. Kachna Bhajan rice or Kheer This can be taken only from his own caste. All these are the 3
types of food & this is in ref. to the Brahmin, the highest class. There is no restriction in water too.
Only the kahar can give them water & they can drink from no other caste generally the maids are
Ramani Kahar, & because of this they feel somewhat proud cause they are not so backward so that
their touched food may not be eaten.

4.

Restriction regarding marriage & social inter course One should not marry within one's own
clan. There is restriction even in social relationship & Bihari may marry a Bihari only & a Bengali a
Bengali only.

5.

Occupational Restriction In a caste syst. There is hereditary in occupation.


N.K. Dutta In a caste system. There is supremacy of the Brahmin. The other parts. He mentioned
on the same.
Factors for the Dev of Caste & of theories regarding the origin of C.S.

1. Traditional Theory Vedas, mainly Rig Veda, Maha Bharat, Geeta, Upanishad, Manu
Smuriti. It says caste syst. Originated from the of body Bramha i.e. from the month came
Brahmin, Keshahiya, arms, Vaishyas thighs & Shudras from feet. And the place was given
to the hierarchy of organs in the body. Varma, status & position is fixed according to this.
Therefore 1st come Brahmins then Kshatriyas then Vaishayas & last Sudras. The month for
preaching, learn, ceremonial performation, the arms protections, thighs to cultivate or
business feet helps the whole body therefore the duty of the Sundras is to serve all the
others. Manu C.S. has developed due to Auolay & pratilog.
2. Religious theory given by Hocart' C.S. Originated due to religious factor a due to
performance of various religious rites. In India religion plays an imp. place. Everything is
based on this religion. He gave pure work i.e. to perform religious work. Those who do
Yagya they are Brahmins, the ones who gather flower messages impure work those
who sacrificed the low caste (Dasas).
3. Political theory Abbe Dubois, - C.S. originated due to the supremacy of Brahmins the
Brahmanism, theory. To maintain their superiority diff. castes & sub-castes came into being
Ghuray 'Caste is the Brahmin child of the Indo-Arjun culture, cradled in the Ganges &
Yamuna & then transferred in other parts of the country'.
4. Occupational Theory by Nesfield C.S. is based on occup. The hierarchy is according to
occupation. The higher the occupation the higher the position & status in societies. If the
according is considered good in a place that caste is high but it may necessarily be higher in
another place. In general C.S. originated from the Varmas & then in marriage but these
varmas of Anolog & Pralilog & sub-caste were formed.

Functions & Merits of caste System


1.

It determines the status of an individual in the society, i.e. According to the Ca. S. Ones
prestige, status role etc. is fixed acc. to his birth. A Brahmin's son will inherit the status, position of
his father & status. J.S. Huttou unless a person violates the caste rule he remains in the C.S. Neither
poverty no wealth can change ones status in the caste society neither success or disaster.

2.

It fixes the occupation or hereditary occupation is an important characteristic of C.S. One


acquires the occupation. Of his ancestors & he has not to wonder about in search of it.

3.

Division of labour In each caste or sub-caste has fixed roles, function in society i.e. it is
based on Karma theory. Everyone thinks & beliefs that god has fixed his occupation which is the
scout of his karma in earlier birth & he lives to do his occupation well so that he may have a good
occupation in his next birth.

4.

Social security as well psychic security `we feeling' is strong in all castes & sub-castes.
Whenever one of the caste member is ill or orphaned or has some other problem they whole caste
members are compelled to help them. Castizm /Caste patriotism induces them to help their own
castes.

5.

Unity in diversity society is divided different stratas. Demerits (i) C.S. is undemocratic &
therefore contradictory to the Indian democratizes. Peoples sales, status etc are fixed in C.S. but not
in a democracy. (ii) Social Disparity C.S. brings a social disparity in society. It minders social life or
economic life. Due to fixed occupation person with I.Q in other occupation can't go into it & this
hinders optimum productivity. (iii) Barrier to National Unity In this all acc. equal whereas in C.S.
there is no equality. It gives support to casterism which is limited to their own caste. Ex votes are
given to the person of one's own caste. Every man wants the people of his caste to go ahead & this
creates problems (iv) Untouchability lower than sudras are untouchable & unseable & they are
exploited by the higher caste. There are certain privileges & disabilities in caste system. The
Brahmin's get more privilege. Brahminsm there- C.S. came into being due to Brahmin supremacy.
Changes in C.S. There are many changes in med. India. There is no restriction on occupation in the
C.S. due to industrialization & urbanization. Now restriction on food concept has changes because
now they buy from the market (all castes). Inter-caste marriage too is taking place. Under the special
marriage act of 1154 inter-caste marriage is allowed. Their change in the caste endogamy &
exogamy. Untouchability offence act (1955) has been abolished i.e. changes in the civil & religious
disability of the C.S.
Factors for change

1.

Industrialisation & urbanization have brought a tremendous change in the rigid characin of
the C.S.

2.

The influence of our education the concept of equality.

3.

Legislative measures, govt. policies & effort, special marriage act 1954 untouchability
offence act 1955.

4.

Social reforms Brahma Samaj, Raja Ram Mohan Roy, Gandhi

5.

Religious movement.- Christian missionaries


Future

of

C.S.

It is still prevalent although in a subdued manner mainly due to urban & Indus. On the name of caste
educational institutions.

Features of Caste System

(a) From times immemorial human society has been riddled with inequalities & discrimination from
the beginning of civilization we find some or other form of hierarchy in society. The society has
always been divided into various classes having different rights & privileges & each enjoying a
unique distinction & status in society. The classification & stratification in society have always been
governed by some definite principle. As a matter of fact neither all persons in a society are equal nor
are the various functions in the society of equal value. Therefore, in order to maintain some system
& order in society it is necessary to establish a hierarchy of functions in society. In different societies
the principal behind the hierarchical arrangement of functions in different. In some societies the
distinction between classes is based on the relationship of master classes. Still in some other
societies the governing principle of this distinction is caste system. In the modern industrial society,
the classification & stratification of society is based upon the concept of economic classes. The
society today divided into the classes of capitalists & labour.
As refused to above, the basis of distinction between classes in society is different in different
countries & different times. This basis is sometimes biologic, sometimes biologic, sometimes historic
& sometimes religious. As a matter of fact in the stratification any society are reflected its values &
ideals. In a religious society the genus & god men enjoy a place of pride. In a martial society warriors
& conquerers occupy top positions. On the other hand, in a capitalist society the wealthy persons are
on top. In some industrialized societies like the Japanese, the technocrats occupy privileged
positions. Thus it is apparent that in different societies the basis of distinction among classes is
different.
In the Indian society the caste system has had a unique role & importance. The social stratus of a
person was determined by his caste. The urbanization has diminished the role of caste. Falls are the
salient features of the impact of urbanization upon the Indian caste system. (Kumar P-124).
(b) The status system of developing countries generally change at a slower pace than these of
industrialized countries class & caste lines & other status distinctions were hardened by centuries of
observance. But with the introduction & application of modern forms of technology & organization,
together with the diffusion of ideologies favorable to social change, the tradition ally rigid status
system has been undermined, although not necessarily abandoned. Much of this change has
occurred in cities, but the values & life styles associated with a more flexible status system have
filtered into the rural sectors, planting the seeds of the "revolution of rising expectations". The caste
system of India has existed in its pristinely rigid forms in the villages more than in the cities. Although
the system is still intact as a group concern, its functions & to some extent to structure has changed
considerably in recent decades. No longer is it the tyrant that determines the status & life chances of
the individual Hindu. The society has moved more in the direction of an open class system with
emphasis an achievement rather than ascription.
In most urban-industrial societies there has been a long-time trend towards equalization of rights &
privileges for all classes in which the power of the elite has been reduced. Almost every industrial

country & many developing societies have extended voting rights to adults on all social levels,
minimum ways laws to "improve the economic position of the working classes & graduated income
taxes utilized as a 'share the wealth' principle. Numerous other institutional devices to equalize
opportunities have been adopted including, social security for the unemployed, children, the
physically handicapped & ill & retired persons; education for the masses, free public recreational
facilities & a judicial system to protect the rights of individual whatever their position in the social
structure may be. Yet the concentration of economic & political power in most urban industries is still
formidable. Cutting across the various levels of a class structure are such components as race
ethnicity & religion, each adding to the complexity of the system

Class System
It is a system of stratification on the basis of education, etc, Karl Max- 'Man is a class animal' i.e. his
status age, education etc are not same in the society property capitalist & the poor the haves &
the have notes.
Education Illiterate & literate
Business
or
occupationfarmers,
clerk
officers,
industrialists
etc.
In general, class consciousness is a must in the class system. There must be the we feeling. The
charade of in group given by summer is found in the class system summer I belong ? identifying
oneself in a particular group or family. The behavior of a person is fixed due to their class
consciousness. Trade union is a result of class consciousness. These is feeling of superiority &
inferiority in class syst. The higher has the feeling superiority & the lower class feels inferior. In these
classes too there is sub classes as Upper Open class, middle upper class, lower upper class; lower
middle class, middle class; upper lower class, middle lower class, to lower2 class. Class system is
open in character. Because it is based on a variety of things like age, sex etc. Also one can change
one's less easily. The people of lower class may enter the upper class & those of the upper class
may become members of the lower class.

Definition Of Class
P.Gisbert - "A social class is a category or group of persons having a definite status in society which
permanently determines their relation to other group feeling of superiority & inferiorities. The
relative position of the class in the social scale arises from the degree of prestige attached to the
status.
Mac Iver & Page - "A social class is any portion of community marked off the from the rest by social
status 'Ongburn & Nimk off. A social class is the aggregate of persons having essentially the same
social status in a given society." i.e. a class consciousness.

Max weber held that "classes are aggregate of individuals who have the same opportunities of
acquiring goods. The same exhibited standard of lining.
Hoebal defines "A social class is a group within a society, whose members hold a no. of distinctive
status in common & who trough the operation of roles associated with these status, develop are
awareness of the life interest as against the unlike trait & interest of other groups."
In general "A social class consists of group of individuals who are ranked by the members of the
community in socially superior inferior position."

Characteristics of class system:

1.
2.

Class system is based on occupation, wealth, education, age, sex


Hierarchy of status group. In general there are 3 class upper middle & tower. Status,
prestige & role is attached. Upper class are less in no in comparison to the other two whereas their
status & prestige is most. This is like a pyramid. Karl max (Rich & poor) preliterate &

3.

Feeling of superiority & inferiority. In these 3 classes there are such feelings the upper class
people feel they are superior to the other two whereas the lower class feels it is inferior to the upper
class.

4.

Class consciousness wherever a class is formed this feeling a consciousness is a must.


There should be feeling of in group i.e. I belong class conflict is due to this the people of the
preliterate class feel the upper class exploits them their they unite revolt. The behavior action is
determined by this class consciousness.

5.

Sub-classes, class is divided into different groups. Similar to caste system, the class system
is divided.

6.

Class system is an open system.

7.

There's social restriction in this too. In general there is endogamy in a class. To maintain
their status & position they mix among themselves & it is seldom that marriage between upper &
lower class is wished. Distinction between Caste & class. They are the two phenomena of social
stratification (Stratification is division of society on the basis of birth).

S.No.

Caste

Class

1.

Based on birth

Birth, educ. Wealth etc.

2.

In general there are 3000 castes & sub- Whereas class has subclasses (based on
castes in India.
different things)

3.

Define class syst. Discuss its character

4.

Distinguish between Caste & class

5.

Caste & class there are the 2 phenomena


of social stratification. How?

6.

Caste is a closed class. Discuss.

Caste is a closed group whereas Class is an open system. Even Sanskritisation is unable to change
caste
whereas
class
can
be
changed
quiet
easily.
Caste System. Caste is hereditary but there is no such thing in class. A child of Brahmin will always
be
a
Brahmin
but
not
so
in
class.
Status is inborn and ascribed in Caste System whereas in class system, it is acquired & achieved.
i.

Define social stratification? How can you stratify society on the basis of birth?

ii.

What is Caste System Describe the character of the Caste System

iii.

What are the factors that had to change in the rigid characteristics of the caste system.

iv.

Define Caste System? In caste character into class comment

Social Change
Change means differentiation in anything observation over sometime. If we feel that there's come
alteration we call it changes. It this change is in contest to social structure, institution etc, i.e. social
context then it is social change.
According Fictor "Change means variations from previous state or mode of existence.

Change is an universal phenomena i.e. it is a law of native. There's always a change in nature.
Society is a part of nature & so society also changes & static society is unthinkable. Society is on the
wheel of change, which may occur due to various factors (like demography, ideas etc. If there is any
change in Technology etc there's change in society) out the change varies in speed & farm.
In some places the change is rapid whereas in other places it may be slow. These days due to
industriation & urbanization the change is rapid as compared to earlier times. The form may be
economic, political, social (instriation) religious (instriation), change in any part of society affects all
the other parts of society. Eg. An individual is the fundamental unit of society & there's change in the
life of the individual which is called evolutionary process of social change (birth to death). This is a
slow process.

Definition of Social Change


Ginsberg (By social change I understand a change in the social structure).
Kingsley Doris "By social change is meant only such alternations as occur in social organization i.e.
the structure & functions of society".
Merril & Elbridge "Social change means, that large no. of persons are engaging in activities that
differ from those which they or their immediate fore-fathers engaged in some time before."
Gillin & Gillin "Social changes are variations from the accepted mode of life, whether due to
alteration in geographical condition, in cultural equipment, composition of the population. Or
ideologies & whether brought about by diffusion or inventions within the group."
Jones' "Social change is a term used to describe variations in or modification of any aspect of social
process, social patterns, social interaction or social organization."
M.D.Jenson Describes Social change as "modification in ways of doing & thinking of people."

Characteristics of Social change


1.

Social change is universal or it is an essential law.

2.

Change with diff. in speed & form simple society change was slower.

3.

4.

Change is unpredictable in general Revol is a process of social change. What speed & in
what form the change takes place is not easily predictable.
Social change is change in community

5.

Social change generally changes in direction. There are 3 patterns of social change.

i.

linear failure change generally leads to progress (change for good) can't cycle car
train plain

ii.

Fluctuating change the change may be upward & downward. The demographic
change is such also economic change,

iii.

Cyclical change the change is in a cycle. Fashion, sometimes also in economical


aspect (Karl max gave this idea. He says earlier there was no private property & we may go back to
it).

Factors of Social change


Biological

1.

Demographic factors Population plays an important role in society it there is change in the
composition of pop there is change in society by composition we mean the structure i.e. sex ratio.
For balance in society the sex ratio should be 1:1 and if there is change in the ratio there is change
in society if there are more females than the status & position goes down (because in Polygene
more wives & the hubby now their status goes down). In the other case the females position rises.
The bride price increases (in the tribunal society).
Age group childhood, adulthood, old age. If the population of children is most then increase of
population will be slower. If adults more than there will be rapid change in society cause they are the
most regulative. In case of old more there is conflict in society they don't wish for change.
Marital status in production of children. If girls are married young there will be over population & he
health is also in danger. Status of women becomes lower. And if at too late a stage a girl is married
fertility is less. Changes in demography Birth rate & Death rate. Higher birth rate creates a lot of
problems. Malthus theme of population Economics. Over population-poverty unemployment
increases. Death rate man power decreases.
Immigration & Emigration 1 is coming into country, 2 going out of the country. Causes cultural
problems leads to over population. 2 Brain drain is the problem.

2.

Natural factors now native affect society National calamities, floods, epidemics affairs
society in its social relationships (i) structure. People become selfish as during scarcities they are
more bothered feeding themselves.

3.
a.

Technological factors
Mechanization & social change machines bring about this gave women the chance
to work gave rise to women's tib.
Unemployment & such problems arose these affected cottage industries.

b.

Urbanization changed job opportunities.


Transport gave rise is social contacts. Communication gives rise to greater awareness & is beans of
recreation too.
Atomic Energy & change

4.

Cultural Factors
Write about concept of cultural tag by w.f Ougbourn book social change brings change. He says
material & non material change. Usually non-material can't cope up with material changed & gives
rise to cultural lag.
Change in values ideas & custom's changes society (Habits).
In handbook of Sociology, he said if may so happen that material behind education, unization etc.,
too brings change in marriage system etc.
Marxian theory of social change i.e. Technological Deterministic theory. On interpretative theory
change according to him is inevitable & a continuous process. He has given more important to the
economical factors. He says if there is change in economy the only tractor my (changes of
demography etc affect the individuals) there is change in society change n the production system
i.e. change in technology because it is due to change in technology that these's change in
production that's why his theme is called technological data. Two change in production system. Has
two aspect productive forces & productive relations this is due to change in technology productive
apparatuses, labour & production experience & labour still ? productive faces. Productive relations ?
Capitalists & labourers (master & slaves)

Urban Sociology
1. Write an essay on the nature and scope of rural sociology in Indian & its importance.
The word urban has been defined in the Oxford Dictionary as "pertaining to town or city life". It is
derived from the Latin 'Urals' a term used by the Roman a city. Urban sociology is the sociology of
urban living; of people in groups and social relationship in urban social circumstances & situations.

Nature Of Urban Sociology


Urban sociology is an important. Discipline of Sociology, it is a branch of Sociology. In urban
Sociology, as in general sociology, we study social relation though to a limited extent & in a shorter
context. The kind of social relation studied in Urban Sociology, as is evident from the name, are the
relations which occur in an Urban Society. Thus Urban sociology is a study of urban society. The
urban society is studied & investigated according to sociological methods & techniques, which are
ofcourse scientific. The study of urban society can be general as well as specific. In every city we
find certain features which are to be found in every urban society and are therefore, to be regarded
general. These are distinct from the features of a rural society. for example, in cities, the relations
among individuals are importantersonal. Besides the general features which are common to all
metropolises, there are certain specific features peculiar to one or more towns but inapplicable to
others. Urban sociology studies general & specific features.

An urban community may be defined as a group of people having a certain specialized economic
recognizable characteristics. In the above definition of an urban community the social characteristics
is the most distinguishing & vital. The following are the special or distinctive features of urban
community;
1.

Social heterogeneity

2.

Moderate social contacts

3.

Social tolerance

4.

Moderate control

5.

Social dynamism

6.

Voluntary association

7.

Importantersonality

8.

Lack of communal feeling

9.

Lease morals

10.

Unbalanced individuals

11.

Prevalence of crimes

12.

Dynamic life

13.

Rapid change and

14.

Artificiality in life
Urban Sociology is a study of the communities having above mentioned charges.

Scope Of Urban Sociology


1.City -City forms the central joint of urban socio. Like many other sociological categories, the city is
an abstraction composed of concrete entitled like residences & shapes & an assortment of many
functions.

The city has been defined acc. to several points. of view. A place is legally made a city by a
declaration by a competent authority. Attempts to define a city statistically, have failed due to the
absence of a representative measure. Others have defined a city as a place which has become so
large that people no longer know each other. Since the quest for a single definition has met with little
success, some authors, notably Sorokin & Zimmerman, Maurier & Sombant hold that a proper
definition must consist of a combination of factors multiple or 'compound' definitions. Sorokin &
Zimmerman enumerate & characteristics in which the urban world differs from the rural world. These
are (1) occupation (2) environment (3) size of community (4) density of population (5) heterogeneity
(6) social differentiation & stratification (7) mobility & (8) system of interactions. As occupation forms
the main basis for other social activities, we call a city an agglomeration where people are engaged
in other than agricultural occupations.
2.Urban social Actions - Urban social actions guided by urban social relationships are secondary &
specific in native. They are segmentary in character & mainly aim at the fulfillment of a single
function of an urbanite's life. Thus while in rural areas imitation of one's fathers work is work &
education combined in one, in urban centers specialized & formal education paves the way for one's
career in a technical job.
3.Urban social Relations - Urban social relations are many & diverse & formal in character. Urban
social institutions leased on these are again specialized agencies which serve particular functions,
say education through schools, law enforcement by the city govt. etc. Elaborate procedure is laid
down to guide the activities of these institutions & membership is through necessity & availability of
the service. Thus site density heterogeneity & specialization are the typically urban characteristics.
Urban sociology studies human social life in relation to these factors.
4.Urban Problems - On the other hand we have novel & peculiar urban problems which a
necessary concomitant of urbanization such as housing, sanitation, slums, preusions & recreation,
pollution of all types, fluidity of the law & order situation, increase in rise, vice & deviance, various
physical & mental disorders, increasing suicides & divorces, traffic problems, zoning anomalies etc.
The study of all these forms is an important corollary of the study of urban socio. Thus urban socio is
a study of all aspects related to man's modification of environment to subserve his varied purposes
with
all
its
implications.
Urban sociology studies all aspects of a city life such as its size, density of population social
organization, problems etc. Urban studies is a specialized discipline which been recently developing
in urban socio which exclusively deals with an analysis of urban problems. Urban problems occupy
the major attention of urban sociologists today because of its complexity & its craving for an
immediate solution. They arise at an instant much as unanticipated increase in traffic at a place in a
single

day

becomes

problem.

Thus we see that the scope of Urban Sociology is very vast because although urban socio is a
recent science, urbanism forms a major part of contemporary life patterns which is slowly

encroaching upon & engulfing the existing forms of rural life. In short, urban socio-studies the nature
& characteristics of a city, its size, density & characters of its people, its spatial pattern & changes
thereon; the peculiar type of relations & social interactions formed in the urban milieu, the nature of
primary social institutions such as family in an urban setting, the novel instructions of commercial
reaction, education etc. It moreover studies all the implications & complexities & consequences of
urban social problems, the various urban social groupings including deviant groups & the various
aspects of urban social attitudes. On short, urban sociology is a developing science which studies all
aspects of urban life.
Urban Sociology Studied:
1.

The development of towns, social disorganization, the problems of urban life & town
planning.

2.

The interaction between the urban environment & the development of human personality,

3.

The structure of family, role of family & the permanent & changing elements of a family.

4.

The institution of marriage in an urban context, the fundamentals & the trends.

5.

Factors responsible for family disorganization.

6.

Class structure & class struggle in urban societies.

7.

Such features of social disease, pollution, slums, gambling dues, recreation centers, bars &
clubs & the right life.

8.

The factors & causes of social & personal disorganization & the remedies thereof.

9.

Investigates industries & industrial relations, the causes of disharmony bet, the labour & the
management & the ways & means of bringing about harmony & peaceful constructive relations.

10.

Not only the facts of urban life but also evaluations the facts in order to understand their
causes & means of improvement.

11.

Social tensions in order to learn the real causes behind them. If we know exactly the cause
of a disability its solution automatically presents itself to us.
Thus urban socio is not merely a theoretical study but it has an applied aspect as well.
The foregoing discussion makes amply clear the value & importance of urban socio. The
metropolises of today in advanced countries are standard bearers of revolutionary changes in social,
political economic & cullinal movements. The process of urbanization has been greatly hastened in
advanced countries due to industrialization & technological change. Thus urbanization has also

given rise to a member of economic, social &cultural problems. As a result of urbanization there is
change of personal tendencies & trends, the norms & standards of marriage & family have
undergone a sea- change & there has been considerable rise in corruption & disorganization. It has
also given rise to groove problems of health psychological as well as physical. In order to
understand & remedy this sorry state of affairs we need a systematic study. And as the problems are
grave & crucial, governments. Are closely attentive to these. It is in this connection that the need of
urban socio is felt. An urban sociologist is a social doctor or engineer & like doctors & engineers he
is concerned with the organization & the disorganization of the urban society. Therefore without his
services urban problems cannot be effectively solved. That is why the services of urban sociologists
are in high demand. In order to reconstruct towns the services of urban sociologists are
indispensable.
It is very difficult to compare rural & urban society and this has prompted Gift & Halbert to write, thus
the familiar dichotomy between 'Rural & Urban' is more of a theoretical concept than a division
based upon the facts of community life. Some of the difficulties faced are that there is no universal
definition of village and town which can clearly distinguish then. For, actually the difference between
town & village is merely one of degrees, as a result of which it is very difficult is make a clear
distinction between the two. Even though the environment of the city and the village are different, a
town can have a variety of environment within itself including that of a village but obviously that part
of the city cannot be called a village. Both towns and villages influence each other and at times it
becomes difficult to decide whether a place is a town a village considering that villages have
improved electricity & education etc and the population charge also that to resemble with similar
birth rate and family size.
But, in spite of the existence of these difficulties, sociologists have shown distinction between both
the societies. The chief among them are the following.
1.Differences in social organization - The biggest distinction between rural and urban society is
that of social organization. These exhibit differences in the following respects:
i.

Family - The families in the villages & towns exhibit the following differences (a) In the
villages the families are comparatively stronger than the families in the town, where greater
importance is attached to the individual than to the family (b) In the villages the system of joint family
is to be found in greater member than in the town (c) In the villages there is greater control, intimacy
& organization than in the families in towns (d) In the towns, as compared with the village, the
functions of the family are more steadily decreasing.

ii.

Marriage - (a) In the towns there is a preponderance of love marriages in comparison with
the villages (b) In towns as compared to the villages, one finds a number of divorces (c) In towns
greater freedom is allowed in selection of a life partner.

iii.

Condition of women - Generally, the women in the villages are not much, if at all, educated &
their social status is also low.

iv.

Neighborhood - In the villages the neighborhood has a greater importance than it has in the
towns, where sometimes people do not even know their neighbours.

v.

We feeling - In the rural community the `we feeling' is found to be far stronger than in the
urban community. The influence of the community on the individual in the village is greater than in
the towns.

vi.

Inequality of classes- The inequality of classes is much more demarcated in the towns than
in the villages & there are correspondingly more conflicts in the towns. On the words of Bogardens,
"Class extremes characterize the city".
2.Differences in Social Restrictions - A great difference is evident between the social control
characteristics of the rural & urban societies. About the social control in the villages, Biesanz write,
"In the rural community custom is the king, the followings & more control most of behavior. "On the
other hand, the society does not exercise much control over the individuals in the urban society. In
the crowds & the high velocity of life in towns no one has time to look to another. In the words of
Kingsley Davis," He can escape the oppressive control of any primary group when he wishes, simply
by disappearing into the sea of strangers." But the control of police, law, court, etc., is greater in the
towns than in the village.
3.Difference in Social Interactions - The social interactions peculiar to the rural & urban societies
exhibits the following distinctions:

i.

Nature of Social Relations - In comparison with towns the social relations in the villages are
far smaller in number and those that do exist are personal (usually) with primary groups, family, near
relations etc. On the other hand, the social relations the town are numerous of which most are in
direct & impersonal (relations tend more towards secondary groups). In the words of Gist & Halloert,
"the city encourages impersonal rather than personal relationship."

ii.

Division of labour & specialization - In the towns, but not in the villages to quite the same
extent, division of labour and specialization are found to exist. In this way the scope for social cooperation is far greater in the towns than in the villages.

iii.

Competition - The activity of competition has a far greater velocity in the town than in the
villages.

iv.

Conflict - The conflict in the villages is usually direct while the conflict is comparatively
indirect in the urban context.

v.

Tolerance - When compared to villages there is greater toleration in the towns and
consequently a larger degree of accommodation.

vi.

Assimilation - The process of assimilation takes place rather slowly in the village as a result
of a near absence of cultural differences. In the towns people of different cultures live side by side &
thus the process of assimilation operates much faster.
4.Differences is social viewpoint - The following difference found:-

i.

Progressive - Acc. To New Mayer, "Rural Cultural tends to be conservative". In the words of
Ross, "The city is cosmopolitan whereas the country is nationalistic & patriotic." In this way the city is
more progressive than the village.

ii.

Politics - In the towns, more than the villages, people take interest & active part in politics.

iii.

Religion & Ritual - In the villages greater importantortance is attached to religion & ritual than
in towns. Whereas the religion of the rural people is based upon faith, the religion in the city is
relatively more based upon reason.

iv.

Fatalism - The villagers are more fatalistic than the urban people because the lives of the
villagers are affected to a very large extent by natural forces while the urban people are equipped
with scientific knowledge & techniques in handling natural calamities & catastrophes.

v.

Artificiality - There is more artificiality in the urban people than in the villagers. Bogardus has
correctly written, "Rural People are frank, open & genuine; they scan the artificiality of many phases
of city life."
5.Differences in Social Mobility &Stability - There is greater social disorganization in the towns
than in the villages. To quote Sorokin & Zimmerman, "The rural community is similar to calm water in
a pail and the urban community to boiling water in Kettle. Stability is the typical trait for the one;
mobility is the typical for the other". In this way, cited posses greater mobility than the villages
(Territorial,

occupational

&

other

forms

&

soc.

mobility).

Normally the migration current carries more individuals from the country to the city and only in the
periods of social catastrophy is the migration from the city to the country greater than from the
country to the city.
6.Differences in Economics Life - There is great differences between the economic lives of the
villages & towns. In this respect the major differences are the following:
i.

Modes of living - "Two fundamentally different modes of getting a living set the rural & urban
worlds apart". In the villages the major occupation is agricultural while in the towns the major
occupations are of an industrial nature. (Commerces, professions, governing etc).

ii.

Standard of Living - Standard of living in the villages is lower than that of the towns because
the means of earning money are limited in the villages. Besides making more money the urban
people are more prodigal than the villagers. In the words, of Ross, "Country life, then suggests
'save!' city life suggests 'spend!". At the same time the villagers do not get much to spend whereas
the man in the city is at his wits end as to the means of making enough money to enable him to buy
the commodities displayed for consumption.
7.Differences in Cultural life -

i.

Static - Culture is more static in the villages than in the towns.

ii.

Caste - In the village the basis of culture is caste & purity. In the towns it has a secular basis.

iii.

Traditions - Traditions have a very important place in rural culture, while urban culture does
not attach much importance to them.
8.Physical Differences:-

i.

Environment - In the villages there is a predominance of nature ever anthropological


environment and a direct relationship to nature exists. On the other hand in cities greater isolation
from nature is seen. There is a predominance of man-made environment over the natural.

ii.

Size of community - As a rule in the same country and at the same period. The size of the
urban community is much larger than the rural community.

iii.

Density of population - In the same country and at the same period the density is lower than
in the urban country.

iv.

Heterogeneity and Homogeneity of the population compared with the urban population, rural
communities are more homogenous in social & psychological traits. The urban population. Is more
heterogeneous than the rural community of its time & country.

a.

Slums and Deprivation in Urban Areas

b.

Urbanization & Crime

Slums and Deprivation in Urban Areas


a.

Asses the nature and magnitude of slums in metropolitan cities in Indian Describe the
measures for slum improvement.

b.

Define Urbanization and discuss its consequences with regard to slum, sanitation & hygiene.
P.37.
According to the UNESCO "a slum is a building, a group of buildings or area characterized by over
-crowding, deterioration, unsanitary conditions or absence of facilities of amenities which because of
these conditions or any of them, endanger the health, safety or morals of its inhabitants or the
community". According to Bengal-"Slums may be characterized as areas of sub-standard housing
condition within a city. A slum is always an area. A single, neglected building even in the worst stage
of deterioration does not make a slum".
Traditionally the slum has been defined as a street, alloy, count etc, situated in a area of a town or
city and inhabited by people of low income classes or by the very poor; a member of these streets
and counts forming a thickly populated neighborhood of a squalid & wretched character. This term is
applicable to those parts of the Indian cities which may be considered unfit for human habitation
either because the structures are old, dilapidated, grossly, congested & cut of repairs, or because it
is impossible to preserve sanitation for want of sanitary facilities including ventilation, drainage,
water supply etc, or because of sites by themselves unhealthy. These areas with similar
characteristics features, are called 'channels in Bombay, 'busters' & 'Katra' in Delhi, 'busters' in
Calcutta, 'abadis' & 'ahats' in Kanpur and 'Cheris' in Madras.
Nearly 30 percent of the population in metropolitan cities in India lives in slums & the number is
increasing.
The development of slums have taken place as a result of industrial expansion in the fringe areas;
lack of imaginative integrated housing development; in the residential areas; & non-availability of
cheap and reasonable housing accommodation for the lower middle class people in urban centers
have forced a section of this group to seek residence in slums with Industrialization a large member
of people migrated to thee cities for gainful employment. As nothing much was done for housing
them, they started to settle on the puramboku lands that the govt. had acquired around the
industries. Since the govt. had no definite plans for these lands, slums were allowed to grow and by
the time they realized what was happening it was too late. Similarly when residential areas were
developed and people started occupying them, the poor came along to work in the houses and
shops and also to do the building work. Since no provision was made for them they started to settle
either in vacant plots, space allotted for tanks, play fields, schools or other common place and at
times even on land for roads & bus stands. Slum growth in central city areas is mainly due to the
whole sale trade in which hand carts, lorries & two wheelers are used for transport. Skilled &
semiskilled workers are employed in the loading & unloading activities as well as in lifting and
transporting of industrial & commercial goods. Since these people cannot afford proper housing they
reside on the roadside rear public offices & by the sides of important. Transport centers in the central
city area. Sometimes old & discarded building, incomplete buildings and even grave yards & other
places of non-residential nature are encroached by there people.

Slum creation has been following a set pattern in many of the cities. One common feature of slum
development has been slow encroachment into public & private plots by these poor people. After
encroaching, these people try to organize themselves to put up a common defence against eviction
by invoking sympathy through political, religious, linguistic & humanitarian appeals. In central city
area where such public or private plots are not available, they squat on the pavements less used
public parks, playgrounds & other places. During the last twenty years, two numbers of slums & the
population living in slums are increasing at a fast rate. In 1961 Madras City had 558 slums & by
1971 it had 1200 slums. Now the number of slums in Madras has crossed the 2000 mark. Madurai
city which had 48 slums areas in 1961 had 92 slums in 1971 & by 1980 had increased to 250. The
four big metros alone account for over 4.4 million slum & squatter settlements. Well established slum
dwelling are always on a lookout for potential plots for encroachment. They start on a caution note
but soon with political official influence make permanent encroachment.
Slums stand distinctly segregated from the other landscape of many cited. They are a sole to the
eye & hazard to environmental health whether they are located in the heart of the central city
residential area or in the industrial suburb. Many times slums act as a cover for hideouts for all sorts
of crimes & vices like gambling dopy, peddling, prostitution etc., Slums are also areas of constant
conflicts, family desertions & evictions. Educational & recreational facilities are conspicuous by their
absence. Juvenile delinquency & mal-socialization also is common.
Some suggestions for improving this situation have been suggested. They are: that the policy
planners, house building agencies & social scientists should make basic studies on the existing
functional use of space in slum households to find out the barest physical needs without imposing middle class value into the existing cultural orientation of the lower strata of society. So long, the
facilities provided are not in keeping with the cultural orientation of the group the chances of misuse
& abuse are great facilities which are the immediate felt needs of cultural groups are readily
accepted & put to optimum use.
The curative aspect of slum improvement should concentrate on arresting the mentality of
"slumliness" as a character among lower strata of society on the one hand & in providing some of
the basic felt needs on the group in keeping with the cultural conditions of the groups on the other.
The preventive aspects of slum improvement or clearance as it is called requires a multi-dimensional
approach. T prevent the recent trend among the lower middle class to move to slum areas for
residence in big cities, rental housing schemes for the lower strata of society should be started
immediately on a large scale. To some extent even ownership housing scheme an easy installments
could be started. A realistic rent control scheme taking into account the present cost of construction
& return for the money invested in private rental housing will go a long way in promoting private
rental housing also.
In the case of industrial areas when there are chances for the migrant unskilled casual laborers to
become regular & skilled works over a period of time, the administration should work out a phased
programme of rehousing in consultation with the industrialists & workers organization. The initial

squatter settlements can be treated as a temporary phenomenon while planning industrial sites. In
any urban neighborhood provision can be made for the temporary accommodation of casual
laborers. Even at the planning stage some reservation for industrial housing near the industrial plot
should be provided.
In the case of residential areas, integrated residential development. Should be attempted taking into
account the functional needs of the population, anticipated service facilities add the socio-economic
& cultural variations & needs of the population to be housed. In different stages to implementation,
phased use of common space can be made such as space allotted for common service facilities like
a park a play ground in the 2nd stage of the development. Can be used in the first stage as space
for the temporary accommodation of construction workers & a few hawkers & petty traders who
serve the needs of the residents who occupy housing in the 1st stage. Subsequently when pucca
shopping centers develop, the petty traders may move into shopping space & construction workers
may have the area when most of house building is completed.
In the case of the central city areas the govt. has to acquire & construct housing facilities & provide
these
to
poor
workers
at
reasonable
rent.
Slum clearance however is a difficult proposition to implement it billions & billions of money would be
required of which the state is incapable. Almost driven to the wall, the state now thinks of 'slum
improvement' as a complementary line to slum clearance. There is no other way 'slum improvement'
consists of providing basic amenities like water, light & toilet facilities. Earlier such things were not
even thought of as a temporary measure because first all slums were anyway 'waiting to be cleared
& replaced with 'decent' housing & secondly if basic amenities were offered it would have amounted
to an indirect legal recognition of the rights of the occupant. The 2nd objection has now been
overlooked in many cases because partly it is impractical & politically unprofitable hence slum
improvement slogan has become popular.

Urbanization & Crime


a.

Examine the major pathological problems of urban life. Suggest measures for their solution.
Kumar P.129-131.

b.

Write an essay on the growth of urban population & its Pathological Problem.

c.

Define Urbanization & discuss its consequences with regard to slums, sanitation & hygiene.
Urbanization has been often used to denote the process of population concentration in an urban
area. Hope Tisdale Eldridge treats urbanization as a process of population concentration & identifies
two elements in the process (i) The multiplication of points of concentration, & (ii) the increase in the
size of individual concentration. Urbanization can occurs only when the rate of growth of the urban
population is greater than the rate of growth of non-urban population in a country.

We find more mal adjustments in cities than in villages. The main reason for this is that life in the city
becomes impersonal & the sense of community & fellowship is superseded by the sense of gain,
profit and status. Therefore people in cities do not care or bother about others. The sex-oriented
entertainment provided by the cinema, the club & television keeps people in a state of perpetual
excitement. This gives rise to personal disorganization. The old restraints of religion & morality are
giving way to a sense of independence & emancipation. Everyone thinks himself quite competent &
is afraid to lean on others for help. In cities in many families' husband & wife both work out of home.
This leads to faced neglect to children. Moreover, women come to feel & think themselves equal to
men & want the husbands to share household work. The rate of crime is very high in the cities
because it is easy to buy anonymity in the cities & escape police detection. Finally the gap bet the
rich & poor is very wide in cities. The palatial mansions & the hutments exist side by side. The
spectacle of many people eating the leftover of rich people & sleeping on the pavements cannot but
deepen the bitterness & conflict set rich & poor.
Some of the major pathological problems of the urban population are discussed & some solutions
suggested below:
Crime
Crime is anti -social behavior which a group rejects and to which it attaches penalties. In this way all
those activities for which the state lays down punishments are crimes. Those activities to which no
punishments are attached may be sinful but they would not be criminal.
There is a positive correlation between crime rate and size of cities. Bigger the city, higher the rate of
crime. The types of crimes also significantly differ from rural areas to urban areas. Economic
offences such as property thefts, automobile thefts, pick pocketing, cheating etc, are more in urban
areas than in rural areas. Murder, physical violence, instance of unit cases etc, are relatively rare in
rural areas.
White collar crime is a type of criminal activity which is not totally disapproved by the upper class &
dominates political groups, though these activities are harmful to the well being of the society. The
motivating factor for white collar crime among the lower strata is a desire to gratify their economic
wants somehow. As for the well -off it is an easy way to acquire more wealth became in the present
social set up, material success is an important part of prestige and nobody bothers as to how one
has acquired his wealth.
The illegal economic activities of the upper classes of society are not severely condemned by the
society, there is even appreciation for such activities as business tactics. Therefore, in modern urban
centers corruption and white collar crimes are rampant. In recent years corruption has penetrated
every walk of life. The calm acceptance of regular practice of corrupt activities by individuals has
made it is gain the status of an institutional practice in urban centers.

Sex crimes have increased in contemporary societies with its emphasis on sex education, late
marriage, free mixing between sexes & the evidence of contraceptives. Sex crimes occupy the
attention of sociologists as they affect the moral health of the people. Sex crimes refer to the illegal
sexual relations of every kind with a without the consent of the other person. They include a wide
variety of offences such as prostitution, rape, adultery, fornication, sex perversions like
homosexuality, kidnapping of young children with a sexual motive & illegal pre-marital & extra marital
relation etc.
Some of the important means applied for the prevention of crimes are:
a.

Probation - It is the postponement, on certain conditions laid down lay the prosecuting
authority of the punishment due to a criminal by law. These individuals are kept in the guardianship
of someone instead of being imprisoned. The work of the probation officer is to assist and by to put
the criminals on the right track by convincing & cantiming them. Mostly for the minor offender of the
juvenile delinquent.

b.

Parole - It is also a means of reforming criminals. Under probation the criminal is given over
to the protection of the probation officer without being punished but a criminal is placed on parole
after he has served a short prison sentence.

c.

Reformatory- Three are two categories of reformations - Juvenile & Adult. Criminals are
confined in these reformatories and efforts are made to reform them by training and educating them.

d.

Borstal Schools - Only criminals bet the ages 16 and 21 are kept in the schools. They are
educated & efforts are made to make term good citizens.

e.

Prison - Prison is a University accepted means of preventing crime but now days efforts are
made to reform rather than to punish criminals in jail.
All these means are however are a form of one so as to prevent them from subsequent criminal
activity, which is in no guarantee against crimes. We need preventive measures. We have to take
measures to prevent all those factories from the social, economic & political life of the community in
which crimes originate.
As far as while collar crimes and corruptions concerned. In order to combat these tendencies it is
essential that political corruption be firstly eradicated and that governments should refuse to yield to
political & economically vested interests. In a democracy every government wants to retain power &
for this it is very necessary that it may not alienate any political lobby. But if the problem is to be
tackled the govt. should be prepared to take risks. The judiciary should be very well paid & selection
should be strictly on merit (this stands for every other recruitment). The judges must be persons of
high intellectual & moral caliber. They should be persons of proven integrity & must be incorruptible.
The greatest differing factor in this regard is the concentration of the economy in limited hands on

whomever the govt. depends for its survival. The aim therefore should be at enabling the money to
be more evenly distributed. It is possible to control or at least contain such crimes if liberal labour
laws have are enforced very strictly & if the govt. servants are so well paid that they have little
temptation to accept bribes.

Peasant community and the changes within it


(a) Explain the idea of peasant community. Identify & discuss the factors which are responsible for
the changes in peasant communities in the past four decades.
The term peasant is very vague and in fact it is very difficult to clearly and precisely define it. Several
rural sociologists have tried to define the term in their own way. Moore says that peasantry by history
is somewhat subordination to landed upper class, recognized & enforced by law. It has sharp cultural
distinctions as compared with the elite class & that has de-facts possession of land.
The peasant society, according to Robert Redfield, falls in between the little community and the
urban society. On the one hand, it is not as much self sufficient and isolated as the little community
and on the other hand it is not as much secular as the urban society Robert Redfield therefore calls
it "Part Societies". These part societies are those village communities which have a culture of their
own, together with wide spread relationship with other villages & cities. According to him peasantry
are such due to this long established inter-dependence with gentry & towns people.
According to Redfield the peasant society is composed of two halves, the `intelligent and' the rustic
these two parts may also be observed in distinction between the local life and the life of the state.
Both these forms a system of social relationship arranged in hierarchy. In the social system at the
bottom are the kinship and neighbor -hood relationships & at the top are mere impersonal and formal
institutional relationships. (at landlord & political elite level).
The local peasant life is bound by traditions and others. One important feature of the society is that a
peasant does not leave his basic characteristics even if he leaves the village & begins to live in the
town. We can see peasant society, dependent on the outer world in four sphere of life - economic
dependence, political dependence, administrative contact & in social organization.
In the economic field it depends on the outside would because it is to sell its products in the outside
market so that it can earn money both for paying the taxes as well as for purchasing commodities of
day to day use. Since these days barter system is not possible, therefore, sales of produce to some
extent is unavoidable.
It has political dependence in that, that it must depend and accept social & political decisions. The
decision makers are political elites & peasant society cannot completely ignore them.

In the administrative field too it has dependence on the others. It must participate in panchayat raj
institutions and activities. It must also participate in other institutions of democratic decentralization
in a reasonable way.
In the social field the dependence of this society on the others is unavoidable. It cannot have
matrimonial alliances in one village alone. Similarly it cannot expect that all its relation must be
concentration in a particular village alone. In the words of Marriott "Daughters of the village move out
& wives of the village move in at marriage, moving & from more than 300 other villages.
Thus the peasant society has its own characteristics & feature and these are not peculiar to India but
found all over the world.
The agrarian society is undergoing several changes in it structural aspects. Important changes have
taken place in family, caste, political & economic institution. Religious system also is slowly being
influenced lay modern forces. The development of modern communication & transport system,
spread of modern education, the process of industrialization & urbanization. The government's
development programme & legislative measures, the political parties & social reform movements are
some of the important factors which introduced changes in rural society. The picture of social
transformation is more visible in economic field than in cultural values. Even though the peasant
communities are changing the changes are not evenly taking place in all communities. These
changes vary from region to region depending on the nature of their exposure to modern forces but
the process of change has started in all rural communities.

Rural and Agrarian transformation in


India
Economic
Institution
The village economy has changed from subsistence to cash economy. Farmers now cultivate
commercial crops like sugarcane & cotton and send them to outside market. They produce more by
adopting new agricultural innovations. The Govt's involvement is more in village agricultural
economy through its development. Programmes & personnel. The village co-operatives try to assist
the farmers by supplying the necessary agricultural inputs. There is not much change in the land
ownership pattern in spite of passing land legislations. The tenants condition has not improved much
the agricultural laborers also continue to live in poverty in spite of the increased agricultural
production. Since the agricultural production is capitalistic economy & market oriented the farming
community never gets the benefit of more production. On the other hand industrialists and traders
who control the national politics take away the profit of agricultural yield. Still the farmer is faced with
the forced sales due to his immediate need for investment.

Religious Institution- The ritualistic life of the rural people did not change much in spite of the
social reform movements. Even those who advocate casteless & classless society in villages do not
venture to disturb the ritual relations in any way. The village traditional religious customs still follow
the same old pattern. People never go out of the traditional way in religious matters. Caste
distinction & particularly segregation of Harijans continues in village religious life marriages are
conducted with the same traditional rituals. The death & other life cycle ceremonies also follow the
traditional pattern. People are either traditional oriented or reluctant to oppose the traditions & hence
there is little change.
Political Structure - The traditional associations like caste & village councils have lost their political
influence due to the introduction of new political institution like village panchayats, mostly they have
influence only in village ritual life. The statutory panchayat with its legal powers, resources &
increased area of services reduced the importance of village traditional councils & caste councils.
The introduction of adult franchise has reshuffled the political position of several caste groups.
Economically & numerically dominant caste groups occupy the top political positions. Several caste
groups are able to improve their political status because of their voting strength. The introduction of
adult franchise & general elections have linked the village political system to the wider political
system of the nation. Now the villages vote for the different political parties & elect their
representatives to state Assembly and Parliament. Political parties slowly started entering the village
polities. The old traditional leadership has given way to modern young leadership. Now the
traditional leaders are replaced by the young leaders. The cultural values in leadership also have
changed. People prefer the ability of leader to his caste background. They give importance to the
personal qualities & skills of the leader.
Caste & Social Interaction - Most villages have started showing signs of change towards the caste
system. Still there are several villages (of remote areas) with rigid caste structure. The caste barriers
are being removed in most of the social interactions particularly among the higher caste people. Still
Harijan caste groups live as isolated units even though they have free movements in village common
places. There is considerable change in caste customs related to food & dress. The equal status
caste groups have caste free interactions in their social life except in marriage relationship. The
economic relationship of the service & occupational caste groups have changed. But the service
caste groups still render the ritual duties in life cycle ceremonies. The traditional caste hierarchy
system has lost its importance & Harijans have the disability of segregation. Untouchability prevails
in most the remote villages the govt. legislation is seen in living places of Harijan caste groups. All
these bring out the fact that our rural community are slow to change.
Critically
examine
the
role
of
caste
in
village
politics.
In rural India almost every activity revolves round caste a rich person who belongs to high caste is
always a leader & non done challenge his authority. Both directly & indirectly he commands and
dictates following of a person depends on his caste people & factions & groups in the village are
formed on caste affiliations. Since the involvement of the village in electoral politics, the caste has
crept in politics as well. The Congress claims to be the champion of the down caste, whereas the

Marxists claim that they support the cause of the poor irrespective of the caste to which they belong.
Infact every national & regional political party has some image in the village and voting pattern &
behavior of every caste depends on the cause which the party is believed to support. Every local
body, institution or organization in the village revolves or organization in the village revolves round
caste,
which
plays
even
very
effective
role
in
local
body
elections.
The elites of the backward caste groups & scheduled castes have realized the need for
consolidating the political power of these caste groups. They have either our political parties on
important positions in regional & national parties. They used pressures in electing their own caste
candidates from the areas where they function as dominant caste groups. They even pressurize the
ruling party to offer minister ship for their caste their MLA.
What is the part played by community Development./ & NES programmes in India's rural
development? Freedom will be meaningless for people if they do not have economic & social
justice. So after independence, our national leaders planned for several socio economic measures to
improve the conditions of people particularly in villages. Community Development programme is a
major step towards rural reconstruction. It was a major comprehensive programme undertaken by
the government as early as in 1952 to bring a sort of revolution in rural India. The main objective of
the whole programme being to involve the whole community in the task of rural re-construction.
However if the initiative of the people was to be lacking, efforts were to be made to arouse it and
stimulate it in order to secure the people's active & enthusiastic response. The community
Development movement's aim was to create a psychological change in the villagers. It wanted to
inculcate in two villagers new desires, now incentives, new techniques & a new confidence so that
this vast reservoir of human resources could be used for the growing economic development of the
country.
In 1952 (during the 1-plan) the Community Development Programme was launched in selected
areas of the Nation. Later in the second plan the numbers of blocks were increased & now every
village is covered by the C.D. Block. In the first phase of its starting the blocks were called
Community Projects Later the National Extension Service (NES) blocks were introduced and finally
the present community development block were introduced. Now we have Integrated Rural
Development Blocks in selected areas (the community development programmes has the following
items of programmes for rural development.
1.

Agricultural & Animal husbandry, development of communication (roads etc).

2.

Education (social edu. Etc)

3.

Health

4.

Training (of village leaders in programme of social change).

5.

Social Welfare (women & youth welfare through organization & programmes).

6.

Employment

7.

Housing.
The whole concept & plan of C.D. extension programme depend on the following important aspects.

1.

Local self help

2.

Local mobilization of natural & human resources.

3.

Govt. aid in the few of technical guidance

4.

Local initiative of people in planning & executing the programme

5.

Remuneration of community organizations for mobilizing the people's support

6.

Use of group work approach

7.

Importance of peoples' participation through local leadership

8.

Assisting role of Govt. machinery


The entire administration is composed of 4 major types-the central administration, the state admin.
The district organization & the block admin. The Block Development. Office has the Block
development activities under his leadership. The extension officer is assisted by the village level
workers.
C.D. programme was & continues to be a multi - fact one. It aims at all sided development &
advancement of the rural folkAgricultural Development. In the field of agriculture under the programme the agriculturists were
educated & new techniques of farming were exhibited. Good quality seeds & fertilizers were
procured & distributed. Old wells were repaired & new ones dug. A network f tube well was spread &
better irrigational facilities were provided cultivable land was protected from maladies & soil erosion
was checked. Efforts were made to bring barren areas under plough & reduce. The dependence of
cultivations on rain.
Economic Development.The main aim of the project is economic uplift of the people. Under the
programme cottage industries & handicrafts were encouraged. Efforts now also made to provide
employment to the unemployed.
Animals Development.Animals, particularly the bull are the most useful possession of a cultivator.
Under the programme better breed animals like oxen, cow etc. were arranged. Efforts were made to
make the people feel that there should be more dependence on mechanical equipments rather than
on the animals.

Educational Development.In order to end illiteracy stress was laid on the development of
education. Attention was paid to education of the adult, children & women alike. Primary & adult
schools were opened & efforts were made to ensure that the children got education without least
financially hindering the people & that the adult got education during their leisure time.
Development Training - Under the programme developmental training activities were undertaken
by which the village folk were training to lock after the work being undertaken by development
agencies & also to co-operate with them so that the work was satisfactorily finished.
Transport Development - Under the programme old roads were repaired & thousands of miles of
new roads were constructed. The villages were linked with the market areas. Thus efforts were
made to link villages with the cities, market places & other places of rural importance.
Cleanliness Programme- The rural areas by & large are dirty & unclean. No care is taken for
hygiene. Under the project a large number of drains were constructed in the village efforts were
made to provide pure drinking water & well ventilated houses were constructed.
Health Development - The village folk are lean & then. They do not posses good health & health
care facilities are very much lacking in the villages. The health of women & children is highly
unsatisfactory. There is shortages of both the medicines & doctor. Under the programme health
centers & new dispensaries were opened in each block, where trained midwives & muses were
posted. In addition, qualified doctors & mobile dispensaries were also arranged.
Attention was paid to games & entertainments so that the people usefully used their time & did not
waste that in drinking & gambling: Good deal of work was done in the field of co-operation & ending
of rural in debtedness.
Shortcomings - Though the project was done considerably good work yet it has done considerably
good work yet it has not achieved the desired purpose. The whole programme when in full swing
was badly criticized for its failures. The programme could not go far in the field of irrigation,
distribution of fertilizers & setting up of cooperative societies. It has no programme of distribution of
land & other rural wealth. The bureaucracy did not get involved in the successful working of the
project. It paid no attention to the problem of landless labour & backward conditions of cottage
industries.
The programme also failed to solve many local problems or to provide any solution to these, which
shock the faith of the people. There was no proper harmony between the bureaucracy & rural
people. Necessary agricultural equipments were always in short supply & the co-operation of the
people, which would have made the whole programme a success could not be obtained. Thus it
remained only an imposed & not people's programme. The programme also suffered became there
was acute shortage of women workers.
Thus in spite of the fact that the whole programme wanted to achieve much, it could achieve very
little & was badly criticized both inside & outside the Parliament various committees set up to review

the working of the programme also pin pointed that the whole programme was not satisfaction
progressing. They gave the following reason.
The govt. officials did not understand the time spirit underlying the program. Instead of developing
community effort & local leadership, they were functioning as executives, with target orientation. The
officials did not follow the principles of extension work & the government did not take roots in village
community. People developed more reliance on the govt. instead of developing the attitude of selfreliance because of their feeling that govt. has to provide everything for them. The leaders & people
were not involved in the decision making process. The decisions were taken by the top officials & the
lower officials implemented them there was no co-ordination between the different departments
which were involved in the development work. Inter department -rivalry was the common feature.
The programme benefits were not equally shared by the people of the village community & only the
rich section of the village go benefited much by the agriculture road development programmed. The
poor people were exploited through Sharamdan progrgrammes. The poor & the depressed classes
did not get representation in community development organizations like statutory panchayat &
village co-operatives. Only the rich were able to dominate these institutions & they further
strengthened their economic & political dominance according to the evaluations the failure of
community development programmes is mainly due to ignorance & lack of will on the part of officials,
faculty organizational principles, disinterest of the villagers, lack of technical & social skills, the
selection of programmes which did not have relevance to the felt needs of the community failure to
use effective communication media to make the villagers to understand the programme.