Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 12

INTERNATIONAL

JOURNAL
OF ADVANCED
RESEARCH
IN 0976
International
Journal of Advanced Research
in Engineering
and Technology
(IJARET), ISSN
6480(Print), ISSN 0976

6499(Online)
Volume
3,
Number
2,
July-December
(2012),

IAEME
ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY (IJARET)
ISSN 0976 - 6480 (Print)
ISSN 0976 - 6499 (Online)
Volume 3, Issue 2, July-December (2012), pp. 214-225
IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijaret.asp
Journal Impact Factor (2012): 2.7078 (Calculated by GISI)
www.jifactor.com

IJARET
IAEME

A REVIEW ON PHASE CHANGE MATERIALS & THEIR


APPLICATIONS
Ajeet Kumar RAI, Ashish KUMAR*
Department of Mechanical Engineering, SSET, SHIATS-DU Allahabad-211007, India
*Email id: raiajeet@rediffmail.com ashish.05408@gmail.com
ABSTRACT
The objective of present work is to gather the information from the previous works on the phase change
materials and latent heat storage systems. The use of latent heat storage system incorporating phase
change material is very attractive because of its high energy storage density with small temperature
swing. There are varieties of phase change materials that melt and solidify at a wide range of temperature
making them suitable for number of applications. The different applications in which the phase change
method of heat storage can be applied are also reviewed in this paper.
Keywords- phase change materials, latent heat storage system, solar energy
1. INTRODUCTION
Fast depletion of conventional energy sources and high rise of demand of energy have increased the
problem with high rise of environmental concern due to green house effect. Scientists all over the world
are in search for new & renewable energy source to deal with.
Solar thermal energy is the most available renewable source of energy and is available as direct and
indirect forms [1]. The sun consists of hot gases and has a diameter of 1.39 109 m; it has an effective
blackbody temperature of 5762 K [2], the temperature in its central region ranges between 8 106 and 40
106 K [3]. The Sun emits energy at a rate of 3.8 1023 kW, of which, approximately 1.8 1014 kW is
transmitted to the earth; only 60% of this amount reaches the earths surface. The other 40% is reflected
back and absorbed by the atmosphere. If 0.1% of this energy is converted with efficiency of 10%, then it
can generate amount of energy equivalent to four times of the worlds total generated electricity.
Moreover, the total annual solar radiation falling on the earth is more than 7500 times of the worlds total
annual primary energy consumption that is 450 EJ. There is 3,400,000 EJ, approximately, of total annual
solar radiation reaches the surface of the earth which is greater than all the estimated conventional energy
sources [2].
Since these sources of energy are less intensified, unpredictable and intermittent in nature, this requires
efficient thermal energy storage so that the surplus heat collected may be stored for later use. Similar

214

International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976
6480(Print), ISSN 0976 6499(Online) Volume 3, Number 2, July-December (2012), IAEME

problem arises in heat recovery systems where the waste heat, availability and utilization periods are
different, requires some thermal energy storage.
The energy crisis of the late 1970s and early 1980s left a fervent question which was later answered by
the concept of PCM as given in 1940s by Dr Telkes. This concept has given an access to a new gateway
for energy storage devices. However, the first ever known application of PCM is documented by Dr
Telkes [4] for heating and cooling of buildings. Lane [5] has also worked in the same direction. Telkes et.
al [6] published the idea of using PCMs in walls known as Trombe walls.
Thermal energy can be stored as a change in internal energy of a material as sensible heat , latent heat or
combination of these two. In sensible heat storage (SHS), thermal energy is stored by raising the
temperature of a solid or liquid. SHS utilizes the heat capacity and the change in temperature of the
material during the process of charging and discharging. The amount of heat stored depends on the
specific heat of the medium, the temperature change and the amount of storage material [7].



Q= 

(1)

=
  

(2)

LHS is based on the heat absorption or release when a storage material undergoes a phase change from
solid to liquid or liquid to gas or vice versa. The storage capacity of the LHS system with a pcm medium
[7] is given by



Q=  +  +  

(3)

Q=[
   +  + 
 ]

(4)

2. PHASE CHANGE MATERIALS


Materials that can store latent heat during the phase transition are known as phase change materials. Due
to the compactness of PCMs the latent heat is much higher than the sensible heat. These materials are
still a point of interest for researchers. Lorsch et. al. [8], Lane et. al. [9] and Humphries and Griggs [10]
have suggested a wide range of PCMs that can be selected as a storage media keeping following attributes
under consideration[11]. In order to select the best qualified PCM as a storage media some criterias are
also mentioned by Furbo and Svendsen [15].
1. High latent heat of fusion per unit volume so that a lesser amount of material stores a given
amount of energy.
2. High specific heat that provides additional sensible heat storage effect and also avoid sub-cooling.
3. High thermal conductivity so that the temperature gradient required for charging the storage
material is small.
4. High density so that a smaller container volume holds the material.
5. A melting point is desired operating temperature range.
6. The PCM should be non-poisonous, non-flammable and non-explosive
7. No chemical decomposition so that the system life is assured.
8. No corrosiveness to construction material.
9. PCM should exhibit little or no sub-cooling during freezing.
10. Also, it should be economically viable to make the system cost effective.
215

International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976
6480(Print), ISSN 0976 6499(Online) Volume 3, Number 2, July-December (2012), IAEME

2.1.

Working of PCMs

Any material can dwell into three basic forms viz solid, liquid and gas. A material changes its state on the
expenses of its latent heat.
Kuznik et. al [12] has given a good explanation of how PCM stores and releases latent heat. The external
heat supplied to a PCM is spent in breaking the internal bonds of lattice and thereby it absorbs a huge
amount of latent heat at phase temperature. Now, when the PCM cools down, temperature goes below
phase change temperature (known as sub-cooling or under-cooling) to overcome the energy barrier
required for nucleation of second phase. Once phase reversal starts, temperature of P.C.M. rises (due to
release of latent heat) and subsequent phase reversal takes place at phase change temperature by releasing
back the latent heat to environment. Requirement of sub-cooling or under-cooling for phase reversal is an
important property of P.C.M. governing its applicability in particular application.
Latent heat of P.C.M. is many orders higher than the specific heat of materials. Therefore P.C.M. can
share 2-3 times more heat or cold per volume or per mass as can be stored as sensible heat in water in a
temperature interval of 20oC. As heat exchange takes place in narrow band of temperature the
phenomenon can be used for temperature smoothening also.

2.2. PCM classification


Abhat et.al.[13] has given a detailed classification of PCMs along with their properties. Lane [5], Dinser
and Rosen [14] have also exercised the same. A large number of phase change materials (organic,
inorganic and eutectic) are available in any required temperature range. A classification of PCMs is given
in Fig.1.

Figure 1: Classification of Phase Change (Latent Heat Storage) Materials

2.2.1. Organic phase change materials


Organic materials are categorized as paraffin and non-paraffin materials. These materials include
congruent melting, means melt and freeze repeatedly without phase segregation and consequent
degradation of their latent heat of fusion.

216

International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976
6480(Print), ISSN 0976 6499(Online) Volume 3, Number 2, July-December (2012), IAEME

Melting
point (oC)

Latent
Heat
(kJ/kg)

Melting
point (oC)

Latent
Heat
(kJ/kg)

Category

Category

n-Dodecane

-12

n.a.

P.

N-Pentacosane

53.7

164

P.

n-Tridecane

-6

n.a.

P.

Myristic acid

54

199

N.p.

n-Tetradecane

5.5

226

P.

Oxolate

54.3

178

N.p.

Formic acid

7.8

247

N.p.

Tristearin
O-Xylene
dichloride

54.5

191

N.p.

N-Pentadecane

10

205

P.

55

121

N.p.

Oleic acid

13.5-16.3

n.a.

N.p.

n-Hexacosane

56

257

P.

Acetic acid

16.7

273

N.p.

Chloroacetic acid

56

147

N.p.

N-Hexadecane

16.7

237

P.

N-hexaacosane

56.3

255

P.

n-Heptadecane

22

215

P.

Nitro naphthalene

56.7

103

N.p.

D-Lactic acid

26

184

N.p.

Chloracetic acid

61.2

130

N.p.

n-Octadecance

28.2

245

P.

N-Octacosane

61.4

134

P.

n-Nonadecane

31.9

222

P.

Palmitic acid

61.8

164

N.p.

Paraffin wax

32

251

P.

Bees wax

61.8

177

N.p.

Capric acid

32

152.7

N.p.

63

109

N.p.

n-Eicosane

37

247

P.

P-Bromophenol

63.5

86

N.p.

Caprilone

40

260

N.p.

Azobenzene

67.1

121

N.p.

Docasyle bromide

40

201

N.p.

Acrylic acid

68

115

N.p.

40.5

161

P.

Stearic acid

69

202.5

N.p.

Phenol

41

120

N.p.

Dintro toluene(2,4)

70

111

N.p.

N-Lauric acid

43

183

N.p.

n-Tritricontane

71

189

P.

P-Joluidine

43.3

167

N.p.

Phenylacetic acid

76.7

102

N.p.

Cynamide

44

209

N.p.

Thiosinamine

77

140

N.p.

N-Docosane

44.5

157

P.

Benzylamine

78

174

N.p.

N-Tricosane

47.6

130

P.

Acetamide

81

241

N.p.

48

118

N.p.

Alpha napthol

96

163

N.p.

Cetyl alcohol

49.3

141

N.p.

Quinone

115

171

N.p.

O-Nitroaniline

50

93

N.p.

Succinic anhydride

119

204

N.p.

Camphene

50

239

N.p.

Benzoic acid

121.7

142.8

N.p.

Diphenyle amine

52.9

107

N.p.

Benzamide

127.2

169.4

N.p.

P-Dicchlorobenzene

53.1

121

N.p.

Alpha glucose

141

174

N.p.

Material

N-henicosane

Hydrocinnamic acid

Material

Glyolic acid

P. Paraffin
N.P. Non paraffin
n.a. Not available

Table 1: List of Organic Materials [7] [11] [13] [17] [18]


217

International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976
6480(Print), ISSN 0976 6499(Online) Volume 3, Number 2, July-December (2012), IAEME

Paraffin are chemically known as hydrocarbons which are generally found to be as wax at room
temperature whereas non-paraffin encompasses fatty acids, glycols, esters and alcohols etc. Paraffin
consists of a mixture of mostly straight chain n-alkanes CH3(CH2)CH3. The crystallization of the
(CH3)- chain release a large amount of latent heat. Both, the melting point and latent heat of fusion,
increase with chain length. Paraffin qualifies as heat of fusion storage materials due to their availability in
a large temperature range. System-using paraffin usually has very long freezemelt cycle. Apart from
some several favorable characteristic of paraffin, such as congruent melting and good nucleating
properties, they show some undesirable properties such as:
(i)
(ii)
(iii)

low thermal conductivity,


non- compatible with the plastic container and
moderately flammable.

All these undesirable effects can be partly eliminated by slightly modifying the wax and the storage unit.
Non-paraffin materials are flammable and should not be exposed to excessively high temperature, flames
or oxidizing agents.
Some of the features of these organic materials are as follows:
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
(v)
(vi)

high heat of fusion,


inflammability,
low thermal conductivity,
low flash points,
varying level of toxicity, and
instability at high temperatures.

Fatty acids have high heat of fusion values comparable to that of paraffins. Fatty acids also show
reproducible melting and freezing behavior and freeze with no supercooling. The general formula
describing all the fatty acid is given by CH3(CH2)2n COOH Their major drawback, however, is their
cost, which are 22.5 times greater than that of technical grade paraffins. They are also mild corrosive.
Some fatty acids are of interest to low temperature latent heat thermal energy storage applications.

2.2.2.

Inorganic phase change materials

Inorganic materials are further classified as salt hydrate and metallics. These PCMs do not super cool
appreciably and their heats of fusion do not degrade with cycling.

218

International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976
6480(Print), ISSN 0976 6499(Online) Volume 3, Number 2, July-December (2012), IAEME

Name

Melting
point (0C)

Latent
Heat
(kJ/kg)

POCl3

85

FeBr3.6H2O

318

Cs

33

CaCl2.6H2O

253

Ga

D2O

3.7

SbCl5

LiClO3.3H2O

H2SO4

Name

Melting
point (0C)

Latent
Heat
(kJ/kg)

27

105

28.3

15

29-30

170-192

30

80

10.4

100

AsBr3

30

38

NH4Cl.Na2SO4.10H2O

11

163

BI3

31.8

10

K2HO4.6H2O

14

108

TiBr4

38.2

23

50

H4P2O6

55

213

286

SbCl3

73.4

25

MOF6

17

NaCl.Na2SO4.10H2O

18

KF.4H2O

18

330

NaNO3

307

17-199

K2HO4.4H2O

18.5

231

KNO3

333-380

116-266

P4O3

23.7

64

KOH

380

149

148

MgCl2

714-800

452-492

289

KF

857

452

147

K2CO3

897

235

Mn(NO3)2.6H2O

25

LiBO2.8H2O

25.7

H3PO4

26

Table 2: List of Inroganic Materials [7] [11] [13] [17] [18]


Salt hydrates may be regarded as alloys of inorganic salts and water forming a typical crystalline solid of
general formula M.nH2O. The solidliquid transformation of salt hydrates is actually a dehydration of
hydration of the salt, although this process resembles melting or freezing thermodynamically. A salt
hydrates usually melts to either to a salt hydrate with fewer moles of water, i.e.
M.nH2O M.mH2O + (n - m) H2 O

(5)

or to its anhydrous form


M.nH2O  M+ nH2O

(6)

At the melting point the hydrate crystals breakup into anhydrous salt and water, or into a lower hydrate
and water. One problem with most salt hydrates is that of incongruent melting caused by the fact that the
released water of crystallization is not sufficient to dissolve all the solid phase present. Due to density
difference, the lower hydrate (or anhydrous salt) settles down at the bottom of the container.
The most attractive properties of salt hydrates are:
(i)
(ii)
(iii)

high latent heat of fusion per unit volume,


relatively high thermal conductivity (almost double of the paraffins), and
Small volume changes on melting.

They are not very corrosive, compatible with plastics and only slightly toxic. Many
sufficiently inexpensive for the use in storage.

219

salt hydrates are

International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976
6480(Print), ISSN 0976 6499(Online) Volume 3, Number 2, July-December (2012), IAEME

Disadvantages:
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
(v)

Incongruent melting
Irreversible melting-freezing cycle
Poor nucleating properties
Supercooling.
Phase segregation

Metallic includes the low melting metals and metal eutectics. Because of its larger weight, metallics are
not of prime importance However, when volume is a consideration, they are likely candidates because of
the high heat of fusion per unit volume. They have high thermal conductivities. A major difference
between the metallics and other PCMs is their high thermal conductivity. A list of some selected materials
is listed in table 2. Some of the features of these materials are as follows:
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
(v)

low heat of fusion per unit weight


high heat of fusion per unit volume,
high thermal conductivity,
low specific heat and
relatively low vapor pressure

2.2.3.

Eutectics

A eutectic is a minimum-melting composition of two or more components, each of which melts and
freeze congruently forming a mixture of the component crystals during crystallization. Eutectic always
melts and freezes without segregation since they freeze to an intimate mixture of crystals, leaving little
opportunity for the components to separate. On melting both components liquefy simultaneously, again
with separation unlikely.

Name

Composition

Melting
Point

Latent
Heat
of
Fusion
(kj/kg)

Na2SO4+NaCl+KCl+H2O

31+13+16+40

234

Na2SO4+NaCl+NH4Cl+H2O

32+14+12+42

11

C5H5C6H5+ (C6H5)2O

26.5+73.5

Na2SO4+NaCl+H2O
Ca(NO)3.4H2O
Mg(NO)3.6H2O
NH2CONH2 + NH4 NO3

Composition

Melting
Point

Latent
Heat
of
Fusion
(kj/kg)

Mg(NO3)2.6H2O +
NH4 NO3

61.5+38.4

52

125.5

n.a.

Mg(NO3)2.6H2O +
MgCl2.6H2O

58.7+41.3

59

132.2

12

97.9

Mg(NO3)2.6H2O +
Al(NO3)2.9H2O

53+47

61

148

37+17+46

18

n.a.

Mg(NO3)2.6H2O +
MgBr2.6H2O

59+41

66

168

47+53

30

136

Napthalene
Benzoic Acid

67.1+ 32.9

67

123.4

n.a.

46

95

AlCl3+NaCl+ZrCl2

79+17+4

68

234

Name

n.a. Not available

Table 3: Melting point and latent heat of some Eutectics material. [7] [11] [13] [17] [18]

Some segregation PCM compositions have sometimes been incorrectly called eutectics, since they are
minimum melting. Because of the components undergoes a peritectic reaction during phase transition,
220

International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976
6480(Print), ISSN 0976 6499(Online) Volume 3, Number 2, July-December (2012), IAEME

however, they should more properly be termed peritectics. Th eutectic point of laboratory grade
hexadecane tetradecane mixture occurs at approximately 91.67% of tetradecane.

3. SOLUTION TO GENERAL PROBLEM RELATED WITH PCMS


Various drawbacks associated with different classes of PCM necessitate some preventive measures.
Various scholars Bauer and Wirtz [19], Mehling et. al. [20], py et. al [21] Stark [22] and Morcos [23] etc.
have remarkable contribution in this field. Few of such techniques are discussed as under:
The problem of incongruent melting can be tackled by one of the following means:
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
(v)

by mechanical stirring,
by encapsulating the PCM to reduce separation,
by adding of the thickening agents which prevent setting of the solid salts by holding it in
suspension,
by use of excess of water so that melted crystals do not produce supersaturated solution,
by modifying the chemical composition of the system and making incongruent material
congruent .

To overcome the problem of phase segregation and supercooling of salt hydrates, scientists of General
Electric Co., NY suggested a rolling cylinder heat storage system. The system consists of a cylindrical
vessel mounted horizontally with two sets of rollers. A rotation rate of 3 rpm produced sufficient motion
of the solid content
(i)
(ii)
(iii)

to create effective chemical equilibrium,


to prevent nucleation of solid crystals on the walls, and
to assume rapid attainment of axial equilibrium in long cylinders.

Some of the advantages of the rolling cylinder method are:


(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
(v)

complete phase change,


Melting point and latent heat of fusion: salt hydrates latent heat released was in the
range of 90100% of the theoretical latent heat,
Repeatable performance over 200
cycles,
high internal heat transfer rates,
Freezing occurred uniformly.

As a single PCM cannot have all the desired properties viz thermophysical, chemical, kinetics, and at the
same time economical, one has to go for designing a suitable system to compensate for the
aforementioned inadequacy [16]. For example metallic fins can be used to compensate the poor thermal
conductivity of PCMs, supercooling may be suppressed by introducing a nucleating agent or a cold
finger in the storage material and thickness of the PCM can be optimized to compensate the poor meltfreeze cycle of the material.
In general inorganic compounds have almost double volumetric latent heat storage capacity (250400
kg/dm3) than the organic compounds (128200 kg/dm3). For their very different thermal and chemical
behavior, the properties of each subgroup which affects the design of latent heat thermal energy storage
systems using PCMs of that subgroup are discussed in detail below.

221

International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976
6480(Print), ISSN 0976 6499(Online) Volume 3, Number 2, July-December (2012), IAEME

4. APPLICATIONS
Ravankar [24] presented a new testing method for satellite power using latent heat storage. PCM becomes
liquid under high temperature, which then freezes during hours of cold darkness and released its latent
heat. The released heat can used to generate electricity by driving thermoelectric units. John et al. [25]
designed a novel ventilation nighttime cooling system (a novel combination of PCM and heat pipes) as an
alternative to air conditioning. The system offers substantial benefits in terms of reducing or eliminating
the need for air conditioning. Microencapsulated PCMs can be included within textile fibers; composites
and clothing to provide greatly enhanced thermal protection in both hot and cold environments [26].
Cabeza et al. [27] reported that the PCM can be used for transporting temperature sensitive medications
and food because the PCMs capability to store heat and cold in a range of several degrees. Several
companies are engaged in the research of transporting temperature sensitive PCMs for various
applications [28-32].
Vasiliev et al. [33] developed the latent heat storage module for motor vehicle because the heat is stored
when the engine stopped, and can be used to preheat the engine on a new start. It is possible to reach an
optimized working temperature within the engine in a much shorter time using the heat storage than
without heat storage. Pal and Joshi [34] [35] recommended the PCM to restrict the maximum temperature
of electronic components. Tan et al. [36] conducted an experimental study on the cooling of mobile
electronic devices, and computers, using a heat storage unit (HSU) filled with the phase change material
(PCM) of n-eicosane inside the device. The high latent heat of n-eicosane in the HSU absorbs the heat
dissipation from the chips and can maintain the chip temperature below the allowable service temperature
of 50 OC for 2 h of transient operations of the PDA.
Climator [37] has developed a cooling vest for the athletes for reducing the body temperature. PCMs also
proposed for cooling the newborn baby [38]. Koschenz et al. [39] developed a thermally activated ceiling
panel for incorporation in lightweight and retrofitted buildings. It was demonstrated, by means of
simulation calculations and laboratory tests, that a 5 cm layer of microencapsulated PCM (25% by
weight) and gypsum surface to maintain a comfortable room temperature in standard office buildings.
Heptadecance were tried as PCM in this prototype set-up. Naim et al. [40] constructed a novel continuous
single-stage solar still with PCM. They reported that the productivity of a solar still can be greatly
enhanced by the use of a PCM integrated to the still. Huang et al. [41] used PCMs for thermal regulation
of building-integrated photovoltaic. Depending on ambient conditions, a PV/PCM system may enable the
PV to operate near its characterizing temperature (25 OC). They developed PV/PCM simulation model
and validated with experimental results. The improvement in the thermal performance achieved by using
metal fins in the PCM container is significant. The fins enable a more uniform temperature distribution
within the PV/PCM system to be maintained. An extensive experimental test has been undertaken on the
thermal behavior of a phase change material, when used to moderate the temperature rise of PV in a
PV/PCM system [42] [43] [44[ Use of PCM with photovoltaic (PV) panels and thermoelectric modules
(TEMs) in the design of a portable vaccine refrigerator for remote villages with no grid electricity was
proposed by Tavaranan et al. [45]. TEMs, which transfer heat from electrical energy via the Peltier effect,
represent good alternatives for environmentally friendly cooling applications, especially for
relatively low cooling loads and when size is a key factor. Thermoelectric refrigeration systems
employing latent heat storage have been investigated experimentally by Omer et al. [46]. Duffy and
Trelles [47] proposed a numerical simulation of a porous latent heat thermal energy storage device for
thermoelectric cooling under different porosities of the aluminum matrix. They used a porous aluminum
matrix as a way of improving the performance of the system, enhancing heat conduction without reducing
significantly the stored energy.
Weinlader et al. [48] used PCM in double-glazing faade panel for day lighting and room heating. A
facade panel with PCM shows about 30% less heat losses in south oriented facades. Solar heat gains are
222

International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976
6480(Print), ISSN 0976 6499(Online) Volume 3, Number 2, July-December (2012), IAEME

also reduced by about 50%. Facade panels with PCM improve thermal comfort considerably in
winter, especially during evenings. In summer, such systems show low heat gains, which reduces peak
cooling loads during the day. Additional heat gains in the evening can be drawn off by nighttime
ventilation. If a PCM with a low melting temperature of up to 300C is used, thermal comfort in summer
will also improve during the day, compared to double glazing without or with inner sun protection. Ying
et al. [49] developed the test standards for PCM fabrics. Three indices have been proposed to characterize
the thermal functional performance of PCM fabrics. The index of thermal regulating capability can
described the thermal regulating performance of PCM fabrics, and is strongly dependent on amount of
PCM. Khateeb et al. [50] designed a lithium-ion battery employing a novel phase change material (PCM)
for thermal management system in electric scooter. Developed Li-ion battery was suggested in order to
replace the existing leadacid battery in the electric scooter with the Li-ion battery without introducing
any mechanical changes in the battery compartment.

5. SUMMARY
This entire discussion leads to a promising solution for the problem of depleting fuel resources in the
form of latent heat storage materials. As discussed in preceding chapters, an outcome can be drawn to
focus more onto the storing the immensely available energy sources, i.e. solar radiation. This can be
stored into the various phase change materials as stated and suggested into the previous discussion.
Latent heat storage materials can store 5 to 14 times more energy as compared to other conventional
methods. This leads to a higher efficiency and considerable cost reduction in overall setup. Such materials
can store energy isothermally with minimum volume and mass which turns out into the biggest
achievement in the field of energy storage

REFERENCES
1. Thirugnanasambandam Mirunalini, Iniyan S., and Goic Ranko, A Review of Solar Thermal
Technologies, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 14, pp 312322 (2010).
2. Kreith F.; Kreider J.F; Principles of solar engineering, McGraw-Hill, Newyork (1978).
3. Kalogirou Soteris A., Solar Thermal Collectors and Applications, Progress in Energy and
Combustion Science, vol. 30, pp 231-295, (2004).
4. Telkes, M. Thermal storage for solar heating and cooling. Proceedings of the workshop on solar
energy storage subsystems for the heating and cooling of buildings. Charlottesville, Virginia,
USA (1975).
5. Lane G.A. Solar heat storage-Latent Heat Materials, vol. I. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, Inc; (1983)
6. Telkes, M, Trombe wall with phase change storage material. Proceedings of the 2nd national passive
solar conference. Philadelphia, PA, USA (1978)
7. Zalba Belen, Jose M Marin, Lusia F. Cabeza, Harald Mehling, Review on thermal energy storage
with phase change: materials, heat transfer analysis and applications, Applied Thermal Engineering
23, 251-283, (2003).
8. Lorsch HG, Kauffman KW, Denton JC, Thermal Energy Storage for Heating and Air Conditioning,
Future energy production system. Heat Mass Transfer Processes; 1: pp 69-85 (1976).
9. Lane GA, Glew DN, Clark EC, Rossow HE, Quigley SW, Drake SS, et al. Heat of fusion system
for solar energy storage subsystems for the heating and cooling of building. Chalottesville,
Virginia, USA, 1975.
10. Humphries WR, Griggs EI. A designing handbook for phase change thermal control and energy
storage devices. NASA Technical Paper, p. 1074, (1977).
11. Sharma S.D.; Sagara Kazunobu; Latent Heat Storage Materials And Systems: A Review,
International Journal of Green Energy, 2, pp 1-36, (2005)
223

International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976
6480(Print), ISSN 0976 6499(Online) Volume 3, Number 2, July-December (2012), IAEME

12. Kuznik F., Virgone, J. and Noel, J.: Optimization of a phase change material wallboard for building
use. Applied Thermal Engineering 28 (2008), 1291-1298.
13. A. Abhat, Low temperature latent heat thermal energy storage: heat storage materials, Solar Energy
30, pp 313-332 (1983).
14. Dincer I., Rosen M.A. , Thermal energy storage, Systems and Applications John Willey and Sons
Chichester (England), 2002.
15. Simon Fubro, Sven Svendsen; Heat storage in a solar heating system using salt hydrates. Thermal
insulation laboratory of Technical University of Denmark (1977).
16. Sharma A.; Tyagi V.V.; Chen C.R.; Buddhi D.; Review on thermal energy storage with phase
change materials and applications, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviwes, 13, pp 318-345
(2009)."
17. Farid, M.M., Khudhair, A.M., Razack, S.A.K., and Al-Hakkaj,, S., Areview on phase change
energy storage:materials and applications, Energy Conversion and Management45, pp 1597-1615
(2004).
18. Buddhi. , D. and Sawhney, R. L. Proc: Thermal energy storage and energy conversion, School of
Energy and Environment Studies, Devi Ahilya University, Indore, India (1994).
19. Bauer C, Writz R, Thermal characteristics of a compact, passive thermal energy storage device In:
proc ASME IMECE, Orlando, USA (2000).
20. Mehling H., Hiebler S, Ziegler F. Latent heat storage using a pcm-graphite composite material:
advantages and potential applications In: proc of the 4th workshop of IEA ECES IA Annes 10,
Bendiktebeuern, Germany (1999).
21. Py X, Olives S, Mauran S. Paraffin/porous graphite matrix composite as a high and constant power
thermal storage material Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer pp 442-450 (1976).
22. Stark P. PCM-impregnated polymer microcomposites for thermal energy storage. SAE (Soc
Automotive Eng.) Trans, 99, pp 517-524 (1997).
23. Morcos VH. Investigation of a latent heat thermal energy storage Solar Wind Technol, 7, pp 197202 (1990).
24. Revankar, S., 2001, Purdue University News Bulletin <http://news.uns.purdue.edu>.
25. John, T., David, E. and David, R. , 2000, "A novel ventilation system for reducing air conditioning
in buildings: Testing and theoretical modeling", Applied Thermal Engg., 20, 1019 - 37.
26. Colvin, D.P. and Bryant,Y.G., 1998, " Protective clothing containing encapsulated phase change
materials", Proceedings of the 1998 ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and
Exposition, Anaheim, CA, USA, 2332.
27. Cabeza, L.F., Roca, J., Nogues, M., Zalba, B., Marn, J.M., 2002, "Transportation and conservation
of temperature sensitive materials with phase change materials: state of the art", IEA ECES IA
Annex 17 2nd Workshop,Ljubljana (Slovenia).
28. Available from <www.va-q-tec.de>
29. Available from <www.rubitherm.de>
30. Available from <www.sogrigam.com
31. Available from <www.tcpreliable.com>
32. Available from <www.pcm-solutions.com>
33. Vasiliev, L.L., Burak, V.S., Kulakov, A.G., Mishkinis, D.A., Bohan, P.V., 2000, "Latent heat
storage modules for preheating internal combustion engines: application to a bus petrol engine",
Appl. Thermal Eng., 20, 913 - 923.
34. Pal,D., Joshi,Y., 1996, "Application of phase change materials for passive thermal control of plastic
quad flat packages: a computational study", Numer. Heat Transfer, Part A .30,19 - 34.
35. Pal, D., Joshi, Y.,1997, "Application of phase change materials to thermal control of electronic
modules: a computation study", Trans. ASME, 119, 40 - 50.
36. Tan, F.L. and Tso, C.P., 2004, "Cooling of mobile electronics devices using phase change
materials", Applied Thermal Engineering, 24, 159 - 169.
224

International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976
6480(Print), ISSN 0976 6499(Online) Volume 3, Number 2, July-December (2012), IAEME

37. Ulfvengren, R., 2004, Will PCM help athletes in the olympic games in athens 2004?", IEA ECES
IA Annex 17 6th Workshop, Arvika, Sweden.
38. Olsson, L., 2004, Cooling of newborn baby with PCM", IEA ECES IA Annex 17 6th Workshop,
Arvika, Sweden.
39. Koschenz, M., Lehmann, B., 2004, "Development of a thermally activated ceiling panel with PCM
for application in lightweight and retrofitted buildings", Energy and Buildings, 36, 567 - 578.
40. Naim, M.M., Kawib, M.M.A.E., 2002, " Non-conventional solar stills Part 2. Non-conventional
solar stills with energy storage element", Desalination, 153, 71 - 80.
41. Huang,M.J.,Eames,P.C.and Norton,B.,2004, " Thermal regulation of building-integrated
photovoltaics using phase change materials", International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 47,
2715 - 2733.
42. Huang, M., Eames, P.C. and Norton, B., "An experimental study into the application of phase
change materials to limit the temperature rise in build integrated photovoltaic systems", in:
Proceedings of Renewable Energy in Maritime Island Climates, September, Belfast, UK, 143150
(2001).
43. Huang, M.,"The application of CFD to predict the thermal performance of phase change materials
for the control of photovoltaic cell temperature in buildings", Ph.D. Thesis, University of Ulster, UK
(2002).
44. Huang, M., Eames, P.C. and Norton, B., "The application of computational fluid dynamics to
predict the performance of phase change materials for control of photovoltaic cell temperature in
buildings" Proceedings of VI World Renewable Energy Congress, July, Brighton, UK, 21232126
(2000).
45. Tavaranan, S., Das, A., Aurora, P., Trelles, J.P., " Design of a standalone portable solar powered
Thermoelectric vaccine refrigerator using phase change material as thermal backup", Solar
Engineering Program, University of Massachusetts Lowell, USA (2002).
46. Omer, S.A., Riffat, S.B., Ma, X., "Experimental investigation of a thermoelectric refrigeration
system employing a phase change material integrated with thermal diode (Thermosyphons)",
Renewable Energy, 21, 1265 1271 (2001).
47. Trelles,J.P., Duffy, J.P.," Numerical simulation of porous latent heat thermalenergy storage for
thermoelectric cooling", Applied Thermal Engineering, 23,1647 1664 (2003).
48. Weinlader,W., Beck,A. and Fricke, J.," PCM-facade-panel for day lighting and room heating", Solar
Energy (2004).
49. Ying, Bo-an, Kwok, Yi - lin, Li, Yi., Zhu, Q.Y., Yeung, C.Y., "Assessing the performance
of textiles incorporating phase change materials", Polymer Testing, 23, 541549 (2004).
50. Khateeb, S.A., Farid, M.M., Selman, J.R., Al-Hallaj,S., "Design and simulation of a lithium-ion
battery with a phase change material thermal management system for an electric scooter", Journal of
Power Sources, 128, 292307 (2004).

225