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Vol. XXIII

No. 6

Plot 99, Sector 44 Institutional area,


Gurgaon -122 003 (HR). Tel : 0124-4951200
e-mail : info@mtg.in website : www.mtg.in

ne had always assumed that the advance of science is logical and


based on assumptions that are verified by experimentation. This was

Regd. Office

true during the days of classical physics. However, modern physics in the

406, Taj Apartment, near Safdarjung Hospital,


Ring Road, new Delhi - 110029.

Managing Editor
Editor

:
:

is the Advance of science by Logic,


intuition or Experimentation?

June 2015

Corporate Office :

rial

twentieth century has grown by leaps and bounds flouting the ancient
logical methods. If one were to analyse the march of physics, einstein,

Mahabir Singh
Anil Ahlawat (Be, MBA)

Bohr, Louis de Broglie, Dirac, Schrodinger, Max Born and many other did
not wait for experimentation for the formulation of theories.

contents
Physics Musing (Problem Set-23)

According to einsteins photoelectricity, photon is both a particle and a


wave. Diffraction and interference of light as well as that of electrons were

unified by Max Born. Max Born developed quantum mechanics based on

AIPMT
Solved Paper 2015

10

the probability waves suggested by einstein. Diracs contribution of his

Exam Prep

23

Physics Musing (Solution Set-22)

29

Target PMTs
Practice Questions 2015

31

Kerala PMT
Solved Paper 2015

41

Brain Map

46

Ace Your Way CBSE XII


Series 1

51

Core Concept

62

Intuition has proved to be more powerful than logic, assumptions and

WB JEE
Solved Paper 2015

65

experimentation.

Thought Provoking Problems

76

Concept Based FAQs

80

You Ask We Answer

84

Crossword

85

idea of Dirac vacuum consisting of all particles and antiparticles is near


the idea of Soonya of Indian Philosophy. However our philosophy says
that it is Poorna or infinity.
Infinity + infinity = infinity, according to modern mathematics. But
infinity infinity is undefined. According to our concept, if one takes
Poorna from Poorna, Poorna remains.
einsteins concept of c, the velocity of light and his enunciation that the
mass of a body increases with velocity are beyond classical physics and
transcends normal logic. einstein, Bohr, Louis de Broglie and Max Born
set right the controversy of whether light is a particle or wave, by their
correction that particles and light are simultaneously matter and wave.

Owned, Printed and Published by Mahabir Singh from 406, Taj Apartment, New Delhi - 29 and
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MTG does not vouch or subscribe to the claims and representations made by advertisers. All
disputes are subject to Delhi jurisdiction only.
Editor : Anil Ahlawat
Copyright MTG Learning Media (P) Ltd.
All rights reserved. Reproduction in any form is prohibited.

Anil Ahlawat
Editor
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Physics for you | june 15

PHYSICS

MUSING

hysics Musing was started in August 2013 issue of Physics For You with the suggestion of Shri Mahabir Singh. The aim of Physics Musing is
to augment the chances of bright students preparing for JEE (Main and Advanced) / AIIMS / Other PMTs with additional study material.
In every issue of Physics For You, 10 challenging problems are proposed in various topics of JEE (Main and Advanced) / various PMTs. The detailed
solutions of these problems will be published in next issue of Physics For You.
The readers who have solved five or more problems may send their detailed solutions with their names and complete address. The names of those
who send atleast five correct solutions will be published in the next issue.
We hope that our readers will enrich their problem solving skills through Physics Musing and stand in better stead while facing the competitive
exams.

single option correct type


1.

2.

A disc of radius R is rolling purely on a flat horizontal


surface, with constant angular velocity. The angle between
the velocity and acceleration vectors at point P is
(a) zero
(b) 45
(c) 135
(d) tan1(1/2)
A solid ball of radius r rolls inside a hemispherical shell
of radius R without slipping.
It is released from rest from
point A as shown in figure.
The angular velocity of centre
of the ball in position B about
the centre of the shell is
(a) 2
(c)

3.

4.

g
5(R r)
2g
5(R r)

(b)
(d)

5.

Two glass plates are touching at one end and separated


by a thin wire at the other end. When a monochromatic
parallel beam of wavelength 4200 incident normally
on the glass plates is reflected, an interference pattern of
30 fringes is observed. If the wavelength of light used is
taken 7000 instead of 4200 , the number of fringes
observed will be
(a) 50
(b) 40
(c) 30
(d) 18

7.

Consider a YDSE that has different slits width, as a result,


amplitudes of waves from slits are A and 2A, respectively.
If I0 be the maximum intensity of the interference pattern,
then intensity of the pattern at a point where phase difference
between waves is f, is
(a) I0 cos2 f

5g
2(R r)

(b) w =

a
(c) w = 0 w0

6.

10 g
7(R r)

An object is moving towards a converging lens on its


axis. The image is also found to be moving towards the
lens. Then, the object distance u must satisfy
(a) 2f < u < 4f
(b) f < u < 2f
(c) u > 4f
(d) u < f
A uniform solid brass sphere of radius a0 and mass m
is set spinning with angular speed w0 about a diameter
at temperature T0. If its temperature be increased to T
without disturbing the sphere, its new angular speed,
assuming that its new radius is a, will be
(a) w = w0

same diameter and attain the same terminal velocity, the


ratio of viscosity of water to that of the liquid is
(a) 2.0
(b) 0.5
(c) 4.0
(d) 0.25

T
w
T0 0

T T0
w0
T0

(d) w =

A metal ball A (density 3.2 g cm3) is dropped in water,


while another metal ball B (density 6.0 g cm3) is dropped
in a liquid of density 1.6 g cm3. If both the balls have the

(c)

I0
f
sin 2
3
2
I0
[5 + 8 cos f]
(d)
9

(b)

I0
[5 + 4 cos f]
9

subjective type

8.

Two identical sonometer wires have a fundamental


frequency of 500 Hz when kept under the same tension.
What fractional increase in the tension of one wire would
cause an occurrence of 5 beats per second, when both
wires vibrate together?
9. Find the temperature at which the fundamental
frequency of an organ pipe is independent of small
variation in temperature in terms of the coefficient of
linear expansion (a) of the material of the tube.
10. A uniform rope of length 12 m and mass 6 kg hangs
vertically from a rigid support. A block of mass 2 kg is
attached to the free end of the rope.
A transverse pulse of wavelength
0.06 m is produced at the lower end
of the rope. What is the wavelength
of the pulse when it reaches the top
of the rope?

By Akhil Tewari, Author Foundation of Physics for jee Main & Advanced, Senior Professor Physics, RAO IIT ACADeMY, Mumbai.

physics for you | june 15

Here, the references of few are given :

Exact Questions

Exam Q. No.

MTG Book

Q. No.

P. No.

Exam Q. No.

MTG Book

Q. No.

P. No.

AIPMT Guide

28

103

24

AIPMT Guide

39

651

AIPMT Guide

33

650

27

AIPMT Guide

26

294

AIPMT Guide

45

720

29

NCERT Fingertips

38

119

12

AIPMT Guide

28

579

36

AIPMT Guide

81

217

13

AIPMT Guide

56

449

37

AIPMT Guide

56

141

18

AIPMT Guide

21

200

43

AIPMT Guide

120

20

22

AIPMT Guide

314

44

AIPMT Guide

153

456

Q. No.

P. No.

Similar Questions
Exam Q. No.

MTG Book

Q. No.

P. No.

Exam Q. No.

NCERT Fingertips

17

291

20

MTG Book
Physics For You May'15

39

34

AIPMT Guide

118

615

32

NCERT Fingertips

54

94

AIPMT Guide

88

345

34

AIPMT Guide

73

256

21

609

39

NCERT Fingertips

38

208

AIPMT Guide
AIPMT Guide

34

535

41

AIPMT Guide

85

345

15

Physics For You Jan'15

21

15

45

AIPMT Guide

18

446

and more such questions


1.

Three blocks A, B and C, of masses 4 kg, 2 kg and


1 kg respectively, are in contact on a frictionless
surface, as shown. If a force of 14 N is applied on
the 4 kg block, then the contact force between
A and B is
A

(a) 8 N
(c) 2 N
2.

RAl

(d)

(a)

1/3

13
(b)
53

RAl

5
R
3 Al

Which of the following figures represent the


variation of particle momentum and the associated
de-Broglie wavelength?
p

(b) 18 N
(d) 6 N

Physics for you | june 15

3.

If radius of the 27
13 Al nucleus is taken to be RAl,
then the radius of 125
53Te nucleus is nearly
3
(a) RAl
5

10

1/3

53
(c)
13

(b)
p

(c)

(d)

4.

5.

6.

The two ends of a metal rod are maintained at


temperatures 100C and 110C. The rate of heat
flow in the rod is found to be 4.0 J/s. If the ends are
maintained at temperatures 200C and 210C, the
rate of heat flow will be
(a) 8.0 J/s
(b) 4.0 J/s
(c) 44.0 J/s
(d) 16.8 J/s
For a parallel beam of monochromatic light of
wavelength l, diffraction is produced by a single
slit whose width a is of the order of the wavelength
of the light. If D is the distance of the screen from
the slit, the width of the central maxima will be
Da
2Da
(a)
(b)
l
l
Dl
2Dl
(c)
(d)
a
a
Which logic gate is represented by the following
combination of logic gates?

(a) AND
(c) OR
7.

A particle is executing SHM along a straight line.


Its velocities at distances x1 and x2 from the mean
position are V1 and V2, respectively. Its time period
is
(a) 2 p

(c) 2 p
8.

9.

(b) NOR
(d) NAND

V12 + V22
x12

+ x22

x12
V12

+ x22
+ V22

(b) 2 p

(d) 2 p

m0n2e
r
m0ne
(c)
2 pr
(a)

(b)

(d) Zero

10. A particle of unit mass undergoes one-dimensional


motion such that its velocity varies according to
v(x) = bx2n,
where b and n are constants and x is the position
of the particle. The acceleration of the particle as
a function of x, is given by
(a) 2b2 x2n + 1
(b) 2nb2 e4n + 1
2
2n

1
(c) 2nb x
(d) 2nb2 x4n 1
11. The electric field in a certain region is acting
radially outward and is given by E = Ar. A charge
contained in a sphere of radius a centred at the
origin of the field, will be given by
(a) 4pe0Aa3
(b) e0Aa3
2
(c) 4pe0Aa
(d) Ae0a2
12. A radiation of energy E falls normally on a
perfectly reflecting surface. The momentum
transferred to the surface is (C = Velocity of light)
2E
E
(a) 2
(b) 2
C
C
2E
E
(c)
(d)
C
C
13. A, B and C are voltmeters of resistance R, 1.5R and
3R respectively as shown in the figure. When some
potential difference is applied between X and Y, the
voltmeter readings are VA, VB and VC respectively.
Then

V12 V22
x12

x22

x22
V12

x12
V22

Two identical thin plano-convex glass lenses


(refractive index 1.5) each having radius of
curvature of 20 cm are placed with their convex
surfaces in contact at the centre. The intervening
space is filled with oil of refractive index 1.7. The
focal length of the combination is
(a) 50 cm
(b) 50 cm
(c) 20 cm
(d) 25 cm
An electron moving in a circular orbit of radius r
makes n rotations per second. The magnetic field
produced at the centre has magnitude

m0ne
2r

B
X

(a) VA = VB VC
(c) VA = VB = VC

(b) VA VB VC
(d) VA VB = VC

14. A rod of weight W is supported by two parallel


knife edges A and B and is in equilibrium in a
horizontal position. The knives are at a distance d
from each other. The centre of mass of the rod is at
distance x from A. The normal reaction on A is
(a)

W (d x )
x

(b)

W (d x )
d

(c)

Wx
d

(d)

Wd
x

Physics for you | june 15

11

15. A wire carrying current I has the shape as shown


in adjoining figure. Linear parts of the wire are
very long and parallel to X-axis while semicircular
portion of radius R is lying in Y-Z plane. Magnetic
field at point O is
Z

I
R
I

Y
I

m I ^ ^
(a) B = 0 p i + 2 k
4p R

m I ^ ^
(b) B = 0 p i 2 k
4p R

m I ^ ^
(c) B = 0 p i + 2 k
4p R

m I ^ ^
(d) B = 0 p i 2 k
4p R

16. A wind with speed 40 m/s blows parallel to the


roof of a house. The area of the roof is 250 m2.
Assuming that the pressure inside the house is
atmospheric pressure, the force exerted by the wind
on the roof and the direction of the force will be
(rair = 1.2 kg/m3)
(a) 2.4 105 N, upwards
(b) 2.4 105 N, downwards
(c) 4.8 105 N, downwards
(d) 4.8 105 N, upwards
17. In a double slit experiment, the two slits are
1 mm apart and the screen is placed 1 m away.
A monochromatic light of wavelength 500 nm
is used. What will be the width of each slit for
obtaining ten maxima of double slit within the
central maxima of single slit pattern?
(a) 0.5 mm
(b) 0.02 mm
(c) 0.2 mm
(d) 0.1 mm
18. A mass m moves in a circle on a smooth horizontal
plane with velocity v0 at a radius R0. The mass is
attached to a string which passes through a smooth
hole in the plane as shown.
v0
R0

12

Physics for you | june 15

The tension in the string is increased gradually


R
and finally m moves in a circle of radius 0 . The
2
final value of the kinetic energy is

1 2
mv
2 0
1 2
2
(c) mv0
(d) mv0
4
19. Keplers third law states that square of period
of revolution (T) of a planet around the sun, is
proportional to third power of average distance
r between sun and planet i.e. T2 = Kr3 here K is
constant.
If the masses of sun and planet are M and m
respectively then as per Newtons law of gravitation
force of attraction between them is
GMm , here G is gravitational constant.
F=
r2
The relation between G and K is described as
1
(a) K = G
(b) K =
G
(c) GK = 4p2
(d) GMK = 4p2
2
(a) 2mv0

(b)

20. Three identical spherical shells, each


of mass m and radius r are placed
as shown in figure. Consider an axis
XX which is touching to two shells
and passing through diameter of
third shell. Moment of inertia of
the system consisting of these three
spherical shells about XX axis is
16 2
mr
(a)
(b) 4mr2
5
11 2
mr
(c)
(d) 3mr2
5
21. A ship A is moving Westwards with a speed of
10 km h1 and a ship B 100 km South of A, is
moving Northwards with a speed of 10 km h1.
The time after which the distance between them
becomes shortest, is
(a) 5 2 h
(b) 10 2 h
(c) 0 h
(d) 5 h
22. The ratio of the specific heats

Cp

Cv
degrees of freedom (n) is given by
2
(a) 1 +
n

n
(b) 1 +
2

1
(c) 1 +
n

n
(d) 1 +
3

= in terms of

23. If in a pn junction, a square input signal of 10 V is


applied, as shown,

(a) 90 J
(c) 100 J

(b) 1 J
(d) 99 J

28. One mole of an ideal diatomic gas undergoes a


transition from A to B along a path AB as shown in
the figure,
then the output across RL will be
(a)

(c)

5 V

(b)

5V

P(in kPa) 2

B
4

(d)

V(in m3)

24. A certain metallic surface is illuminated with


monochromatic light of wavelength, l. The
stopping potential for photo-electric current for
this light is 3V0. If the same surface is illuminated
with light of wavelength 2l, the stopping potential
is V0. The threshold wavelength for this surface for
photo-electric effect is
l
p
(a)
(b)
6
4
(c) 6l
(d) 4l
25. A parallel plate air capacitor of capacitance C is
connected to a cell of emf V and then disconnected
from it. A dielectric slab of dielectric constant K,
which can just fill the air gap of the capacitor, is now
inserted in it. Which of the following is incorrect?
1
2

1 .
K

(a) The change in energy stored is CV 2

(b) The charge on the capacitor is not conserved.


(c) The potential difference between the plates
decreases K times.
(d) The energy stored in the capacitor decreases
K times.
26. A particle of mass m is driven by a machine that
delivers a constant power k watts. If the particle
starts from rest the force on the particle at time t is
1
mk t 1/2
(a) 2mk t 1/2
(b)
2
mk 1/2
t
(c)
(d) mk t 1/2
2
1
27. A Carnot engine, having an efficiency of =
as
10
heat engine, is used as a refrigerator. If the work
done on the system is 10 J, the amount of energy
absorbed from the reservoir at lower temperature is

The change in internal energy of the gas during


the transition is
(a) 20 J
(b) 12 kJ
(c) 20 kJ
(d) 20 kJ
29. A block of mass 10 kg, moving in x direction with
a constant speed of 10 m s1, is subjected to a
retarding force F = 0.1x J/m during its travel from
x = 20 m to 30 m. Its final KE will be
(a) 275 J
(b) 250 J
(c) 475 J
(d) 450 J
30. Consider 3rd orbit of He+ (Helium), using nonrelativistic approach, the speed of electron in this
orbit will be [given K = 9 109 constant, Z = 2 and
h (Placks Constant) = 6.6 1034 J s]
(a) 0.73 106 m/s
(b) 3.0 108 m/s
6
(c) 2.92 10 m/s
(d) 1.46 106 m/s
31. A resistance R draws power P when connected
to an AC source. If an inductance is now placed in
series with the resistance, such that the impedance
of the circuit becomes Z, the power drawn will be
R
(a) P
(b) P
Z
R
(c) P
Z

(d) P

R
Z

32. A block A of mass m1 rests on a horizontal table. A


light string connected to it passes over a frictionless
pully at the edge of table and from its other end
another block B of mass m2 is suspended. The
coefficient of kinetic friction between the block
and the table is mk. When the block A is sliding on
the table, the tension in the string is
m m (1 mk ) g
m m (1 + mk ) g
(a) 1 2
(b) 1 2
(m1 + m2 )
(m1 + m2 )
(c)

(m2 + mk m1 ) g
(m1 + m2 )

(d)

(m2 mk m1 ) g
(m1 + m2 )

Physics for you | june 15

13

33. The refracting angle of a prism is A, and refractive


index of the material of the prism is cot (A/2). The
angle of minimum deviation is
(a) 90 A
(b) 180 + 2A
(c) 180 3A
(d) 180 2A
34. On observing light from three different stars P, Q
and R, it was found that intensity of violet colour
is maximum in the spectrum of P, the intensity of
green colour is maximum in the spectrum of R
and the intensity of red colour is maximum in the
spectrum of Q. If TP, TQ and TR are the respective
absolute temperatures of P, Q and R, then it can be
concluded from the above observations that
(a) TP < TR < TQ
(b) TP < TQ < TR
(c) TP > TQ > TR
(d) TP > TR > TQ
35. A conducting square frame of side a and a long
straight wire carrying current I are located in the
same plane as shown in the figure. The frame
moves to the right with a constant velocity V. The
emf induced in the frame will be proportional to

(a)
(c)

1
2

(2 x + a)
1
x2

(b)
(d)

1
(2 x a)(2 x + a)
1
(2 x a)2

36. Two spherical bodies of mass M and 5M and radii


R and 2R are released in free space with initial
separation between their centres equal to 12R. If
they attract each other due to gravitational force
only, then the distance covered by the smaller body
before collision is
(a) 7.5R
(b) 1.5R
(c) 2.5R
(d) 4.5R
37. Two similar springs P and Q have spring constants
KP and KQ, such that KP > KQ. They are stretched
first by the same amount (case a), then by the
same force (case b). The work done by the springs
WP and WQ are related as, in case (a) and case (b)
respectively
(a) WP > WQ ; WQ > WP
(b) WP < WQ ; WQ < WP
(c) WP = WQ ; WP > WQ
(d) WP = WQ ; WP = WQ
14

Physics for you | june 15

38. Two particles of masses m1, m2 move with initial


velocities u1and u2. On collision, one of the
particles get excited to higher level, after absorbing
energy e. If final velocities of particles be v1 and v2
then we must have
1
1
1
1
(a) m1u12 + m2u22 e = m1v12 + m2v22
2
2
2
2
1 2 2 1 2 2
1 2 2 1 2 2
(b) m u1 + m u2 + e = m v1 + m2 v2
2 1
2 2
2 1
2
(c) m12u1 + m22u2 e = m12v1 + m22v2
1
1
1
1
(d) m1u12 + m2u22 = m1v12 + m2v22 e
2
2
2
2
39. The approximate depth of an ocean is 2700 m.
The compressibility of water is 45.4 1011 Pa1
and density of water is 103 kg/m3. What fractional
compression of water will be obtained at the bottom
of the ocean?
(a) 1.2 102
(b) 1.4 102
2
(c) 0.8 10
(d) 1.0 102
40. Figure below shows two paths that may be taken by
a gas to go from a state A to a state C.

In process AB, 400 J of heat is added to the system


and in process BC, 100 J of heat is added to the
system. The heat absorbed by the system in the
process AC will be
(a) 460 J
(b) 300 J
(c) 380 J
(d) 500 J
41. The fundamental frequency of a closed organ pipe
of length 20 cm is equal to the second overtone of
an organ pipe open at both the ends. The length of
organ pipe open at both the ends is
(a) 120 cm
(b) 140 cm
(c) 80 cm
(d) 100 cm
42. When two displacements represented by
y1 = a sin(wt) and y2 = b cos(wt) are superimposed
the motion is
a 2 + b2
(a + b)
(b) simple harmonic with amplitude
2
(c) not a simple harmonic
a
(d) simple harmonic with amplitude
b
(a) simple harmonic with amplitude

43. If energy (E), velocity (V) and time (T) are chosen
as the fundamental quantities, the dimensional
formula of surface tension will be
(a) [EV2T2]
(b) [E2V1T3]
2
1
(c) [EV T ]
(d) [EV1T2]

h
3. (d) : de-Broglie wavelength, l =
p
1
or l , lp = constant
p
This represents a rectangular hyperbola.

44. Across a metallic conductor of non-uniform cross


section a constant potential difference is applied.
The quantity which remains constant along the
conductor is
(a) drift velocity
(b) electric field
(c) current density (d) current

4. (b) : Rate of heat flow through a rod is given by


dQ
dT
= KA
dt
dx
Let length of the rod be L.
110 100 10
Case I : dT = DT =
=
dx Dx
L
L
dQ1
10
(i)
\
= KA
dt
L
dQ1
Also,
= 4 J s 1
(ii)
dt
dT DT 210 200 10
Case II :
=
=
=
dx Dx
L
L
dQ2
10
(iii)
\
= KA
dt
L
So, from equations (i), (ii) and (iii)
dQ2 dQ1
=
= 4 J s 1
dt
dt

45. A potentiometer wire has length 4 m and resistance


8 W. The resistance that must be connected in series
with the wire and an accumulator of e.m.f. 2 V, so
as to get a potential gradient 1 mV per cm on the
wire is
(a) 44 W
(b) 48 W
(c) 32 W
(d) 40 W
solutions
1. (d) :
Here, MA = 4 kg, MB = 2 kg, MC = 1 kg, F = 14 N
Net mass, M = MA + MB + MC = 4 + 2 + 1 = 7 kg
Let a be the acceleration of the system.
Using Newtons second law of motion,
F = Ma
14 = 7a \ a = 2 m s2
Let F be the force applied on block A by block
B i.e. the contact force between A and B. Free body
diagram for block A

5. (c): Given situation is


shown in the figure.
For central maxima,
l
sin q =
a
Also, q is very-very small so
y
sin q tan q =
D
lD
y l
\
= , y=
a
D a
Width of central maxima = 2 y =

Again using Newtons second law of motion,


F F = 4a
14 F = 4 2
14 8 = F
\ F = 6 N
A1/3

2. (d) : Radius of the nucleus R = R0


\

1/3

RAl AAl
=
RTe ATe

Here, AAl = 27, ATe = 125, RTe = ?


1/3

RAl 27
=

RTe 125

5
3
=
RTe = RAl
3
5

6. (a) :

2lD
.
a

The Boolean expression of this arrangement is


Y = A + B = AB = AB
Thus, the combination represents AND gate.
7. (d) : In SHM, velocities of a particle at distances
x1 and x2 from mean position are given by
V12 = w2(a2 x12 )
V22

= w (a

x22 )
Physics for you | june 15

(i)
(ii)
15

From equations (i) and (ii), we get


V12

V22

w=

=w

(x22

V12 V22
x22 x12

x12 )

\ T = 2p

x22 x12

V12 V22

8. (a) : Given combination is equivalent to three


lenses. In which two are plano-convex with refractive
index 1.5 and one is concave lens of refractive
index 1.7.

10. (d) : According to question, velocity of unit mass


varies as
v(x) = bx2n
(i)
dv
2n 1
(ii)
= 2nbx
dx
Acceleration of the particle is given by
dv dv dx dv
a=
=

=
v
dt dx dt dx
Using equation (i) and (ii), we get
a = (2nbx2n 1) (bx2n)
= 2nb2 x4n 1
11. (a) : According to question,
electric field varies as E = Ar
Here r is the radial distance.

Using lens maker formula,


1
1
1
= (m 1)
f
R1 R2
For plano-convex lens
R1 = , R2 = 20 cm,
1
1
1 0. 5 1
1
\
= = (1.5 1)
=
=

f1 f2
20 20 40
So, f1 = f2 = 40 cm
For concave lens,
m = 1.7, R1 = 20 cm, R2 = 20 cm
1
1
1
\
= (1.7 1)

f3
20 20
7
2
= 0. 7 =
20
100
100
So, f3 =
cm
7
Equivalent focal length (f eq) of the system is given by
1
1 1
1
1
1
1
= + +
=
+
+
feq f1 f3 f2
40 100 / 7 40
1
7
2
1

=
=
20 100
100
50
\ feq = 50 cm
=

e
9. (b) : Current in the orbit, I =
T
e
we (2pn)e
I=
=
=
= ne
(2p/w) 2p
2p
Magnetic field at centre of current carrying circular
coil is given by
m I m ne
B= 0 = 0
2r
2r
16

Physics for you | june 15

At r = a, E = Aa
(i)
Net flux emitted from a spherical surface of radius
a is
q
net = en
e0

(Aa) (4pa2) =

\ q = 4pe0Aa3

q
e0

[Using equation (i)]

12. (d) : Energy of radiation, E = hu =


Also, its momentum p =

hC
l

h E
= = pi
l C

E
C
So, momentum transferred to the surface
E E 2E
= pi pr = =
C C C
pr = pi =

13. (c) : The current flowing in the different branches


of circuit is indicated in the figure.

VA = IR

2I 3
VB = R = IR
3 2
I
VC = 3R = IR
3
Thus, VA = VB = VC
14. (b) : Given situation is shown in figure.
N1 = Normal reaction on A
N2 = Normal reaction on B
W = Weight of the rod
In vertical equilibrium,
N1 + N2 = W
(i)
Torque balance about centre of mass of the rod,
N1x = N2(d x)
Putting value of N2 from equation (i)
N1x = (W N1)(d x)
N1x = Wd Wx N1d + N1x
N1d = W(d x)
W (d x)
\ N1 =
d
15. (a) : Given situation is shown in the figure.

Parallel wires 1 and 3 are semi-infinite, so magnetic


field at O due to them

m I ^
B1 = B3 = 0 k
4pR
Magnetic field at O due to semi-circular arc in
YZ-plane is given by

m I^
B2 = 0 i
4R
Net magnetic field at point O is given by

B = B1 + B2 + B3
m I ^ m I^ m I ^
= 0 k 0 i 0 k
4pR
4R
4pR
m I ^ ^
= 0 (p i + 2 k)
4pR
16. (a) : By Bernoullis theorem,
1
1
P1 + rv12 = P2 + r v22
2
2


inside

outside

Assuming that the roof width is very small


Pressure difference,
1
P1 P2 = r(v22 v12 )
2
Here, r = 1.2 kg m3, v2 = 40 m s1, v1 = 0,

A = 250 m2
1
P1 P2 = 1.2 (402 02 )
2
1
= 1.2 1600 = 960 N m2
2
Force acting on the roof F = (P1 P2) A = 960 250
= 2.4 105 N upwards
17. (c): For double slit experiment,
d = 1 mm = 1 103 m, D = 1 m, l = 500 109 m
Dl
Fringe width b =
d
2lD
Width of central maxima in a single slit =
a
As per question, width of central maxima of single
slit pattern = width of 10 maxima of double slit
pattern
2lD
lD
= 10
d
a
2d 2 103
a=
=
= 0.2 103 m = 0.2 mm
10
10
18. (a) : According to law of conservation of angular
momentum
mvr = mvr
R
v0 R0 = v 0 ; v = 2v0
2
1 2
K 0 2 mv0 v0 2
\
=
=
K 1 2 v
mv
2
2
K v
=
= (2)2
or
K 0 v0
K = 4K0 = 2mv 02

(i)

(Using (i))

19. (d) : Gravitational force of attraction between sun


and planet provides centripetal force for the orbit
of planet.
GMm mv 2
\
=
r
r2
GM
(i)
v2 =
r
Time period of the planet is given by
2pr
4p2r 2
, T2 = 2
v
v
2 2
4p r
T2 =
[Using equation (i)]
GM
r
4p2r 3
T2 =
GM
T=

Physics for you | june 15

(ii)
17

According to question,
T2 = Kr3
Comparing equations (ii) and (iii), we get
K=

n
C p = + 1 R
2

(iii)

n
+1 R n + 2
2
2
\ =1 +
=
=
=
n
(n/2)R
Cv
n

4p2
\ GMK = 4p2
GM

Cp

20. (b) : Net moment of inertia of the system,


I = I1 + I2 + I3
The moment of inertia of a shell about its
diameter,
2
I1 = mr 2
3
The moment of inertia of a shell about its tangent
is given by
2
5
I2 = I3 = I1 + mr 2 = mr 2 + mr 2 = mr 2
3
3
2

12mr
5
2
= 4mr 2
\ I = 2 mr 2 + mr 2 =
3
3
3
21. (d) : Given situation is shown in the figure.

23. (b) : Diode is forward bias for positive voltage


i.e. V > 0, so output across RL is given by

24. (d) : According to Einsteins


equation
hc hc
eVs =
l l0
where Vs = Stopping potential
l = Incident wavelength
l0 = Threshold wavelength
or Vs =

photoelectric

hc 1 1

e l l0

For the first case


hc 1 1
3V0 =
e l l0
For the second case
Velocity of ship A
vA = 10 km h1 towards west
Velocity of ship B
vB = 10 km h1 towards north
OS = 100 km
OP = shortest distance
Relative velocity between A and B is

hc 1
1

e 2 l l0
Divide eqn. (i) by (ii), we get
V0 =

1 1
l l
0
3=
1
1
2 l l
0

v AB = v 2A + v B2 = 10 2 km h 1
cos 45 =

1 1 1
1
=

3
2 l l0 l l0
3
3 1 1

=
2 l l0 l l0
1
2
=
or l0 = 4 l
2 l l0

OP 1 OP
;
=
OS 2 100

100 100 2
=
= 50 2 km
2
2
The time after which distance between them equals
to OP is given by
OP =

t=

OP 50 2
=
t = 5h
vAB 10 2

22. (a) : For n degrees of freedom, C = n R


v
2
Also, Cp Cv = R
n
C p = Cv + R = R + R
2
18

25. (b) :

Physics for you | june 15

q = CV V = q/C
Due to dielectric insertion, new capacitance
C2 = CK

...(i)

...(ii)

Initial energy stored in capacitor, U1 =

q2
2C

1+

q2
Final energy stored in capacitor, U 2 =
2KC
Change in energy stored,
DU = U2 U1

Q1 = 90 J
So, 90 J heat is absorbed at lower temperature.

q 1

1
2 1
1 = CV 1
K
2C K
2
New potential difference between plates
q
V
V =
=
CK K
26. (c): Constant power acting on the particle of mass
m is k watt.
or P = k
dW
= k ; dW = kdt
dt
W
t
DU =

Integrating both sides,

dW = k dt
0

W = kt
Using work energy theorem,
1
1
W = mv 2 m(0)2
2
2
1 2
kt = mv
[Using equation (i)]
2

(i)

2kt
m
dv
Acceleration of the particle, a =
dt
1 2k 1
k
a=
=
2 m t
2mt
mk
mk 1/2
Force on the particle, F = ma =
=
t
2t
2
27. (a) : For Carnot engine,
v=

T 1
T
Efficiency, = 1 1 ; = 1 1
T2 10
T2
T1
1
9
=1 =
10 10
T2

(i)

or

5nR PBVB PAVA

[ PV = nRT ]
2 nR
nR

5
5
= (PBVB PAVA ) = (2 103 6 5 103 4)
2
2
5
3
= ( 8 10 ) = 20 kJ
2
29. (c): Here, m = 10 kg, vi = 10 m s1
Initial kinetic energy of the block is
1
1
K i = mvi2 = (10 kg ) (10 m s 1 )2 = 500 J
2
2
Work done by retarding force
30
x2
30
x2
W = Fr dx = 0.1 xdx = 0.1
2 20
20
x
1

900 400
= 0. 1
= 25 J

2
According to work-energy theorem,
W = Kf Ki
Kf = W + Ki = 25 J + 500 J = 475 J
30. (d) : Energy of electron in He+ 3rd orbit
4
Z2
E3 = 13.6 2 eV = 13.6 eV
9
n
= 13.6

Q2 T2
=
Q1 T1

Q1 + W T2
=
Q1
T1

Q1 + 10 10
=
Q1
9

28. (d) : We know, DU = nCv DT


5R
5R
= n (TB TA ) [for diatomic gas,Cv = ]
2
2

4
1.6 1019 J 9.7 1019 J
9
As per Bohrs model,
Kinetic energy of electron in the 3rd orbit = E3
1
\ 9.7 1019 = mev 2
2

For refrigerator,
\

10 10 10 10
1
= ;
= 1=
Q1 9 Q1 9
9

[Using equation (i)]

v=

2 9.7 1019
9.1 1031

= 1.46 106 m s 1

Physics for you | june 15

19

31. (c): Case I : P = VrmsIrms


A
cot =
2

V
= Vrms rms
R
V2
2
= PR
P = rms Vrms
R

...(i)

Case II : Power drawn in LR circuit


V
R
P = Vrms Irms cos = Vrms rms
Z
Z
R
R
2
= Vrms 2 = PR 2
Z
Z

m = cot 2

A+d
A
sin
2
2
=
A
A
sin
sin
2
2

cos

A d p A A d
p A
sin = sin + ; = +
2 2 2 2 2 2
2 2
\ d = p 2A = 180 2A

[Using eqn (i)]


2

R
P = P 2
Z
32. (a) : Given situation is shown in the figure.
Here, N = m1g
f = mkN = mkm1g

A+d
sin
2
A
sin
2

(i)

34. (d) : According to Weins displacement law


lmT = constant
(i)
For star P , intensity of violet colour is maximum
For star Q, intensity of red colour is maximum.
For star R, intensity of green colour is maximum.
Also, lr > lg > lv
Using equation (i), Tr < Tg < Tv
TQ < TR < TP
35. (b) : Here, PQ = RS = PR =QS = a

Let a be the acceleration of blocks.


Equation of motion for A and B
T f = m1a
m2g T = m2a
Adding equation (ii) and (iii), we get
m2g f = (m1 + m2)a
a=

(ii)
(iii)

m2 g f
m1 + m2

Put this value of a in equation (iii)


(m g f )
T = m2 g m2 2
m1 + m2
m1m2 g + m1m2mk g m1m2(1 + mk )g
=
=
m1 + m2
m1 + m2
(Using (i))
A+d
sin
2
33. (d) : As m =
A
sin
2
20

Physics for you | june 15

Emf induced in the frame


e = B1(PQ)V B2(RS)V
=

m0 I
m0 I
aV
aV
2p(x + a/2)
2p(x a/2)

m I 2
2
aV
= 0

2p (2x a) (2x + a)
m I
2a

= 0 2
aV

2p
(2x a)(2x + a)
1
\ e
(2x a)(2x + a)
36. (a)
37. (a) : Here, KP > KQ
Case (a) : Elongation (x) in each spring is same.
1
1
WP = K P x 2 , WQ = K Q x 2
2
2
\ WP > WQ

Case (b) : Force of elongation is same.


So, x1 =

400 20 = DQAC (2 104 2 103 +

F
F
and x2 =
KP
KQ

1
1 F2
KP x12 =
2
2 KP
1
1 F2
WQ = KQ x22 =
2
2 KQ

1
2 103 4 104 )
2
380 = DQAC (40 + 40), DQAC = 380 + 80 = 460 J

WP =

\ WP < WQ

38. (a) : Total initial energy of two particles


1
1
= m1u12 + m2u22
2
2
Total final energy of two particles
1
1
= m2v22 + m1v12 + e
2
2
Using energy conservation principle,
1
1
1
1
m u2 + m u2 = m v 2 + m v 2 + e
2 11 2 2 2 2 11 2 2 2
1
1
1
1
\
m1u12 + m2u22 e = m1v12 + m2v22
2
2
2
2
39. (a) : Depth of ocean d = 2700 m
Density of water, r = 103 kg m3
Compressibility of water, K = 45.4 1011 Pa1
DV
=?
V
Excess pressure at the bottom, DP = rgd
= 103 10 2700 = 27 106 Pa
DP
We know, B =
(DV /V )
1
D
V
D
P

= K . DP K =
=

V
B
B
= 45.4 1011 27 106 = 1.2 102

40. (a) : As initial and final


points are same so
DUABC = DUAC
AB is isochoric process.
DWAB = 0
DQAB = DUAB = 400 J
BC is isobaric process.
DQBC = DUBC + DWBC
100 = DUBC + 6 104 (4 103 2 103)
100 = DUBC + 12 10
DUBC = 100 120 = 20 J
As, DUABC = DUAC
DUAB + DUBC = DQAC DWAC

41. (a) : For closed organ pipe, fundamental frequency


is given by
v
uc =
4l
For open organ pipe, fundamental frequency is
given by
v
uo =
2l
2nd overtone of open organ pipe
3v
u = 3uo ; u =
2l
According to question, uc = u
v 3v
=
4l 2l
l = 6l
Here, l = 20 cm, l = ?
\ l = 6 20 = 120 cm

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Physics for you | june 15

21

42. (a) : Here, y1 = asinwt


p

y2 = b cos wt = b sin wt +

flow of electrons will be uniform so current will be


constant.
45. (c): Required potential gradient = 1 mV cm1
1
= V m 1
10
Length of potentiometer wire, l = 4 m

Hence, resultant motion is SHM with amplitude


a 2 + b2 .
43. (a) : Let S = kEaV bTc
where k is a dimensionless constant.
Writing the dimensions on both sides, we get
[M1L0T2] = [ML2T2]a[LT1]b [T]c

= [M a L2a + b T2a b + c ]
Applying principle of homogeneity of dimensions,
we get, a = 1
... (i)
2a + b = 0
... (ii)
2a b + c = 2
... (iii)
Adding (ii) and (iii), we get
c=2
From (ii), b = 2a = 2
\ S = kEV2 T2 or [S] = [E V2T2]

44. (d) : The area of cross section of conductor is non


uniform so current density will be different but the

So potential difference across potentiometer wire


1
(i)
= 4 = 0. 4 V
10
In the circuit, potential difference across 8 W
=I8=

2
8
8+R

(ii)

Using equation (i) and (ii), we get


2
8
8+R
4
16
=
, 8 + R = 40
10 8 + R
\ R = 32 W
0. 4 =

nn

AIPMT keys leaked, students get answers via bluetooth vests


Haryana police have nabbed four people, including two dentists and an MBBS
student, from Rohtak for allegedly passing on answer keys to students using
vests with SIM card units and bluetooth-enabled earpieces during the All India
Pre Medical Test (AIPMT).
Apart from probing how 90 answer keys to the highly competitive all-India
test were leaked, police are also investigating at least nine candidates who
allegedly paid the gang around Rs 15-20 lakh for the help in their bid to
become doctors.
Police said the gang may have spread its reach to other states too, particularly
Bihar and Rajasthan. They added that the accused claimed they had purchased
the engineered vests from a shop in new Delhi.
Of the four arrested, police have identified two as BDS doctors Sanchit and
Bhupender, one as second-year MBBS student Ravi and the fourth as Rajesh.
The alleged kingpin of this racket, Roop Singh Dangi, is on the run, police
said.
Another MBBS doctor his identity has been withheld is also under the
scanner for acting as a mediator between the accused and the students.
Shrikant jadhav, Inspector General of Police (Rohtak range), said the arrests
followed a tip-off. We alerted the examination authorities and ordered a
thorough frisking of every student. Also, we received concrete information
about the four accused who were staying in a hotel in Panipat. We tracked their
mobile phones to the jhajjar bypass in Rohtak and caught them, jadhav told
The Indian express.
elaborating on the special vests, one of the investigating officers said, They
had sim card units linked to earpieces via bluetooth. Specially configured
phones were also supplied to some students. Soon after the exam began, the

accused started sending answer keys to the nine students from whom they had
allegedly taken Rs 15-20 lakh each. For students with phones, answer keys
were sent through WhatsApp, and for those using the earpieces, they were
passed on through phone calls.
Police said the engineered vests and keys to the 90 questions were recovered
from the four accused who were produced in a Rohtak court they were sent
to police custody for four days for further interrogation.
So far, we have received a list of nine students who appeared in the AIPMT
exams by allegedly paying money to the accused. Raids are being conducted to
nab all those involved, jadhav said.
We have also sent teams to nab those who sold these vests to the accused.
each vest was purchased by the accused at a cost of approximately Rs 9,000
each, he added.
Police also suspect that at least one of the accused Ravi, the MBBS student
may have resorted to similar means to pass his own medical entrance test.
He undertook PMT coaching from an institute in Kota, Rajasthan in 2005-06
and got through the exam in 2007. But after eight years, he is still in the second
year. It appears from interrogation that he might have got through the exam
using unfair means, the investigating officer said.
As for Dangi, the alleged kingpin, police said he is a Meham resident who
operates from Alwar in Rajasthan. They believe that he allegedly procured and
supplied the answer keys to the four accused.
During their interrogation, police said, the accused also claimed that the shop
from where they purchased the vests had sold 700 such units in Bihar. There
could be a possibility that the magnitude of this racket is much larger in Bihar
and Rajasthan, jadhav said.
Courtesy : The Indian Express

22

Physics for you | june 15

chapterwise McQs for practice

Useful for All National and State Level Medical/Engg. Entrance Exams
units and MeasureMent

1. Which of the following units denotes the dimensions


[ML2Q2], where Q denotes the electric charge?
(a) weber (Wb)
(b) Wb/m2
(c) henry (H)
(d) H/m2
2. In an experiment of simple pendulum, the errors
in the measurement of length of the pendulum (L)
and time period (T)
T) are 3% and 2% respectively. The
T
L
maximum percentage error in the value of
is
T2
(a) 5%
(b) 7%
(c) 8%
(d) 1%
a
a t2
in the equation P =
,
b
bx
where P is pressure, x is distance and t is time are
(a) [M2LT3]
(b) [ML0T2]
3
1
(c) [ML T ]
(d) [MLT3]

3. The dimensions of

4. In the following equation, x,


x t and F represent
displacement, time and force respectively,
1
F = a + bt +
+ A sin(wt + f)
c + dx
The dimensional formula for Ad
d is
1
1
1
(a) [T ] (b) [L ] (c) [M ] (d) [TL1]
5. What is the number of significant figures in
0.310 103?
(a) 2
(b) 3
(c) 4
(d) 5
6. The study of the earths surface is normally
performed with
(a) rectangular cartesian co-ordinates
(b) gaussian system
(c) cartesian co-ordinates, but spherical
(d) none of these
7. Which one of the following is dimensionally
incorrect?

Capacitance C = [M1L2T4A2]
Magnetic field induction B = [ML0T2A1]
Coefficient of self-induction L = [ML2T2A1]
Specific resistance r = [M L3T3A2]
DV
, where e0 is the
8. A quantity X is given by e0 L
Dt
permittivity of free space, L is length, DV is potential
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

difference and Dt is time interval. The dimensional


formula for X is the same as that of
(a) resistance
(b) charge
(c) voltage
(d) current
9. The moment of inertia of a body rotating about a
given axis is 12.0 kg m2 in the SI system. What is the
value of the moment of inertia in a system of units
in which the unit of length is 5 cm and the unit of
mass is 10 g?
(a) 2.4 103
(b) 6.0 103
5
(c) 5.4 10
(d) 4.8 105
10. A wire has a mass (0.3 0.003) g, radius
(0.5 0.005) mm and length (6 0.06) cm. The
maximum percentage error in the measurement of
its density is
(a) 1%
(b) 2%
(c) 3%
(d) 4%
11. Match List I with List II and select the correct
answer :
List I
List II
A. spring constant
1. [M1L2T2]
B. pascal
2. [M0L0T1]
C. hertz
3. [M1L0T2]
D. joule
4. [M1L1T2]
A B C D
(a) 3 4 2 1
(b) 4 3 1 2
(c) 4 3 2 1
(d) 3 4 1 2
Physics for you | june 15

23

12. Which of the following statements is incorrect


regarding significant figures?
(a) All the non-zero digits are significant.
(b) All the zeros between two non-zero digits are
significant.
(c) Greater the number of significant figures in a
measurement, smaller is the percentage error.
(d) The power of 10 is counted while counting the
number of significant figures.
13. The length and breadth of a rectangular sheet are
16.2 cm and 10.1 cm, respectively. The area of the
sheet in appropriate significant figures and error is
(a) 164 3 cm2
(b) 163.62 2.6 cm2
2
(c) 163.6 2.6 cm
(d) 163.62 3 cm2
14. The density of a material in CGS system of units is
4 g cm3. In a system of units in which unit of
length is 10 cm and unit of mass is 100 g, the value
of density of material will be
(a) 0.04
(b) 0.4
(c) 40
(d) 400
15. Distance Z travelled by a particle is defined by
Z = a + bt + gt2. Dimensions of g are
(a) [LT1]
(b) [L1T]
2
(c) [LT ]
(d) [LT2]
KineMatics

16. A cricketer can throw a ball to a maximum


horizontal distance of 100 m. With the same speed
how much high above the ground can the cricketer
throw the same ball?
(a) 50 m
(b) 100 m
(c) 150 m
(d) 200 m
17. A particle moving along the x axis has position given
by x = (24t 2.0t3) m, where t is measured in s. What
is the magnitude of the acceleration of the particle
at the instant when its velocity is zero?
(a) 24 m s2
(b) zero
2
(c) 12 m s
(d) 48 m s2
18. When the angle of projection is 75, a ball falls
10 m short of the target. When the angle of
projection is 45, it falls 10 m ahead of the target.
Both are projected from the same point with the
same speed in the same direction, the distance of
the target from the point of projection is
(a) 15 m
(b) 30 m
(c) 45 m
(d) 10 m

19. Six vectors, a through f have the magnitudes and


directions indicated in the figure. Which of the
following statements is true?
24

Physics for you | june 15

(a) b + c =

(b) d + c =

(c) d + e =

(d) b + e =

20. A particle is projected vertically upwards from a


point A on the ground. It takes time t1 to reach a
point B, but it still continues to move up. If it takes
further time t2 to reach the ground from point B.
Then height of point B from the ground is
1
2
(a) g (t1 + t2 )
(b) gt1t2
2
1
1
(c) g (t1 + t2 )2
(d) gt1t2
2
8
21. A rectangular vessel when full of water, takes
10 min to be emptied through an orifice in its
bottom. How much time will it take to be emptied
when half filled with water?
(a) 9 min
(b) 7 min
(c) 5 min
(d) 3 min
22. Time taken by the
projectile to reach
u
from A to B is t, then
60
the distance AB is
30
A
equal to
(a) 2ut
(b) 3 ut
(c)

3
ut
2

(d)

ut
3

23. A ball A is thrown up vertically with a speed u and


at the same instant another ball B is released from a
height h. At time t, the speed of A relative to B is
(a) u
(b) 2u
(c) u gt

(d)

u2 gt

24. A car covers the first one-third of a distance x at a


speed of 10 km h1, the second one-third at a speed
of 20 km h1 and the last one-third at a speed of
60 km h1. Find the average speed of the car over
the entire distance x.
(a) 10 km h1
(b) 12 km h1
1
(c) 18 km h
(d) 20 km h1
25. The co-ordinates of a moving particle are x = at2,
y = bt2 where a and b are constants. The velocity of
the particle at any moment is
(a) 2t a2 + b2

(b) 2t a + b

(c) 2t a2 b2

(d) 2 a2 + b2

26. The speed of a projectile when it is at its greatest


height is 2 / 5 times its speed at half the maximum
height. What is its angle of projection?
(a) 30
(b) 60
(c) 45
(d) 0
27. A passenger is walking on an escalator at a speed of
6 km/h relative to escalator. The escalator is moving
at 3 km/h relative to ground and has a total length
of 120 m. The time taken by him to reach the end of
the escalator is
(a) 16 s
(b) 48 s
(c) 32 s
(d) 80 s
28. A body is projected such that its kinetic energy at
the top is (3/4)th of its initial kinetic energy. What is
the angle of projection with the horizontal?
(a) 30
(b) 60
(c) 45
(d) 120
29. A particle is moving on
circular path as shown in the
figure. Then displacement
from P1 to P2 is
(a) 2r cos

q
2

(c) 2r sinq

P2
P1

q
2
q
(d) 2r sin
2

(b) 2r tan

30. A particle moves in x-y plane. The position vector

2
of particle at any time t is r = {(2t )i + (2t )j} m. The
rate of change of q at time t = 2 s (where q is the
angle which its velocity vector makes with positive
x-axis) is
2
1
rad s 1
rad s 1
(a)
(b)
17
14
4
6
rad s 1
rad s 1
(c)
(d)
7
5
solutions

1. (c) : [ML2Q2] = [ML2T2A2]


[Wb] = [ML2T2A1]
Wb
2 1
2 =[M T A ]
m
[henry] = [ML2 T2 A2]
H
2 2
2 = [MT A ]
m

ML2
Obviously henry (H) has dimensions
.
Q2

2. (b) : Time period of simple pendulum is


T = 2

L
g

Squaring both sides, we get


L
\ T 2 = 42
g
or g = 4 2

T2
The maximum percentage error in g is

...(i)

Dg
DL
DT
100 =
100 + 2
100
g
L
T
= 3% + 2 2% = 7%
From (i), we get
g
L
=
2
T
4 2
L
The maximum percentage error in
is
T2
L
D

T 2 100 = Dg 100 = 7%
L
g
2
T
3. (b) : P =

a t2
bx

[a] = [T2], as t2 is subtracted from a.


From, P =

a t2 t2
=
bx
bx

t2
[T2 ]
[b] = =
= [M1L0T4]
Px [ML1T 2 ][L]
\

[T2 ]
a
=
= [ML0T2]
b
[M 1L0 T 4 ]

1
+ A sin(wt + f)
c + dx
As sin(wt + f) is dimensionless, therefore A has
dimensions of force.
\ [A] = [F] = [MLT2]
As each term on RHS represents force
1
\
=F
c + dx
1
=F
c
1
1
\ [c] =
=
= [M 1L1T2 ]
[F ] [MLT2 ]

4. (b) : F = a + bt +

Physics for you | june 15

25

As c is added to dx, therefore dimensions of c are


same that of dx.
\ [dx] = [c]

[c] [M 1L1T2 ]
=
= [M 1L2 T2 ]
[x]
[L]
The dimensional formula for Ad is
[Ad] = [MLT2][M1L2T2] = [L1]
or

5. (b)
6. (c) : Spherical cartesian co-ordinates are used with
latitudes and longitudes.
Carte also means map in French. This is derived
from Descrate the great mathematician.
7. (c) : [C] =
[B] =

12.
13.

...(i)

(Using (i))

Physics for you | june 15

(r 2 )L

F [MLT 2 ]
=
= [M1L0 T2 ]
[L]
x
pascal = unit of pressure
F [MLT 2 ]
= =
= [M1L1T2 ]
A
[L2 ]
1
hertz = unit of frequency = T = [M0L0T1]
joule = unit of work = force distance =[MLT2] [L]
= [M1L2T2].
(d) : The power of 10 is irrelevant to the
determination of significant figures.
(a) : Let length and breadth of a rectangular sheet
are measured by using a metre scale as 16.2 cm and
10.1 cm respectively. Each measurement has three
significant figures.
\ Length l can be written as
l = 16.2 0.1 cm = 16.2 cm 0.6%
Similarly, the breadth b can be written as
b = 10.1 0.1 cm = 10.1 cm 1%
Area of the sheet, A = l b = 163.62 cm2 1.6%
=163.62 2.6 cm2
Therefore, as per rule, area will have only three
significant figures and error will have only one
significant figure. Rounding off, we get
A = 164 3 cm2
(c) : As n1u1 = n2u2
100 g
g
4
= n2
n2 = 40
cm3
(10 cm)3
(c) : By homogeneity of dimensions of LHS and
RHS,
2
Distance (LHS) = [g] [T]2 \ [ g] = [LT ]

11. (a) : Spring constant =

e0 A

C =
L

Dm 0.003 Dr 0.005 DL 0.06


=
,
=
,
=
m
0. 3
r
0. 5
L
6
m

= 1 + 2 + 1 = 4%

[R][ A] [ML2T3A 2 ][L2 ]


=
= [ML3T3A 2 ]
[L]
[L]

M L T
9. (d) : n2 = n1 1 1 1
M2 L2 T2
Dimensional formula of moment of inertia
= [ML2T0]
\ a = 1, b = 2, c = 0
Here, n1 = 12.0, M1 = 1 kg, M2 = 10 g
L1 = 1 m, L2 = 5 cm, T1 = 1 s, T2 = 1 s

Dr
Dm 2Dr DL
\ r 100 = m + r + L 100

0.003 2 0.005 0.06


=
+
+
100
0. 5
6
0. 3

[F ] [MLT2 ]
=
= [ML0T2 A1]
[I ][l] [A][L]

Choice (c) is dimensionally wrong.

26

As r =

[q ]
[AT]
=
= [M 1L2T4 A2 ]

2
2
[W ] [ML T ]

Dq
8. (d) : As, C =
DV
A Dq
or e0 =
L DV
(Dq)L
or e0 =
A(DV )
DV
X = e0 L
(Given)
Dt
(Dq)L DV
\ X=
L
A(DV ) Dt
But [A] = [L]2
Dq
\ X=
= current
Dt

(Using (i))

10. (d) : Here,

W
q [t ] ML2T2 [T]
e
[L] =
= =

AT [A]
[i]
di

dt
= [ML2T2 A 2 ]
[r] =

1000 g 100 cm
= 12

1
10 g 5 cm
= 12 100 400 = 4.8 105

[d] =

1 kg 1 m 1 s
n2 = 12.0


10 g 5 cm 1 s

...(i)

14.

15.

16. (a) : Here, Rmax = 100 m


Rmax =
of ball)

Therefore, initial velocity of the particle is

u
(where u is the velocity of the projection
g

or u2 = 100g

...(i)

Using v2 u2 = 2as
(0)2 100g = 2 (g) (H)
or H = 50 m

[Using (i)]

d2 x
dt

Therefore, height of point B from the ground is


1
1
t +t
h = ut1 gt12 = g 1 2 t1 gt12
2
2
2

d
(24 6t 2 ) m s 2
dt

= 12t m s2

10 min
t
\ t2 = 1 =
7 min
2
2

For v = 0, we get
24 6t2 = 0 or t = 2 s
Hence, at t = 2 s, the acceleration will be
a = 12(2) m s2 = 24 m s2
Its magnitude is 24 m s2.

22. (d) : Refer the figure below. Horizontal component


of velocity at A.
u

18. (b) : Let d be distance of the target from the point


of projection.
\

u sin(2 75)

or
and
or

= d 10

u
= d 10
2g
u2 sin(2 45)
g

...(i)
= d + 10

u2
= d + 10
g

...(ii)

Divide (i) by (ii), we get


d 10

1
= or d = 30 m
d + 10 2
19. (c) : As per the laws of
vector addition,

d +e = f
This is as shown in adjacent figure.

(Using (i))

or

dx d
= (24t 2.0t 3 ) m s 1
dt dt
= 24 6t2 m s1

Acceleration, a =

...(i)

t2 t t 1
h = g 1 + 1 2 gt12 or h = 1 gt1t2
2
2 2
2

21. (b) : If A0 is the area of orifice at the bottom below


the free surface and A that of vessel, time t taken to
empty the tank,
A 2H \ t1 = H1 = H1
t=
t2
H2
H1 / 2
A0 g

17. (a) : Given : x = 24t 2.0t3 m


Velocity, v =

t +t
u= g 1 2
2

20. (d) : Time taken for the particle to reach the highest
t +t
point is 1 2 .
2
As v = u gt
At highest point, v = 0

uH = u cos60 =

60
30

u
ut
\ AC = uH t =
2
2

AB = AC sec 30 =

ut
ut
2

=
2
3
3

23. (a) : At time t,


Velocity of A, vA = u gt (upwards)
Velocity of B, vB = gt (downwards)
= gt (upwards)
Relative velocity of A with respect
to B is
vAB = vA vB = (u gt) (gt) = u

B
uB = 0
h
uA = u
A

24. (c) : For first one-third of distance


x
Distance covered = km
3
speed = 10 km h1.
The time taken for the journey,
x /3
x
h=
h
10
30
For the next one-third of distance :
x
Distance covered = km.
3
t1 =

Physics for you | june 15

27

Speed = 20 km h1
The time taken for travel is
x /3
x
t2 =
h=
h
20
60
For the last one-third of distance :
x
Distance covered = km.
3
1
Speed is 60 km h
The time taken for travel is
x /3
x
t3 =
h=
h
60
180 total distance
x
=
\ Average Speed =
x x
x
total time
+ +
30 60 180
180 x
=
= 18 km h1
10 x
dx
dy
25. (a) : v x =
= 2at ; v y =
= 2bt
dt
dt
\

2
2
v = v 2x + v 2y = 4a2t 2 + 4b2t 2 = 2t a + b

26. (b) : Maximum height,


2

H
and v 2y = u2 sin2 q 2 g = u2 sin2q gH
2

u2 sin2 q u2 sin2 q
=
(Using (i))
2
2
1/2
H
\ Net velocity at height = v 2x + v 2y
2
As per question,
1/2
2 2
2 2
2
v x + v 2y
= v H or
v + v 2y = v H
5
5 x

2 2
u2
2
or
sin2 q = u2 cos2 q
u cos q +

5
2
or sin q = 3 cos q
or sin2q = 3cos2q
v 2y = u2 sin2 q

or tan q = 3 = tan 60

or
q = 60
27. (b) : Velocity of the passenger with respect to
ground
vPG = vPE + vEG = 6 + 3 = 9 km h1
120 m
x
240
s = 48 s
Time taken t =
=
=
5
v PG
5
1
9 m s
18
28

According to the given problem


1
3 1
m(u cos q)2 = mu2
2
4 2
3
3
2
or cos q =
or cos q =
= cos 30
4
2
or q = 30
29. (d) :

Physics for you | june 15

P2
r
x

P1
r

According to cosine formula,


cos q =

u sin q
u sin q
...(i)
or gH =
2g
2
Velocity at highest point, vH = u cosq
Let vx, vy be the horizontal and vertical velocity of
H
projectile at height . Then
2
v = ucosq
H=

28. (a) :

r2 + r2 x2
2r 2

or 2r 2 cos q = r 2 + r 2 x 2
or x2 = 2r2 2r2cosq = 2r2 [1 cosq]
q

= 2r 2 2 sin2
2

Displacement from P1 to P2 is
q
x = 2r sin
2
^
^

30. (a) : Given, r = {(2t ) i + (2t 2 ) j } m


Comparing it with standard equation of position
^

vector, r = x i + y j , we get x = 2t and y = 2t2


dy
dx
= 4t
= 2 and v y =
vx =
dt
dt
v y 4t
\ tan q =
= = 2t
vx 2
Differentiating with respect to time we get,
dq
=2
dt
dq
(1 + tan2 q) = 2
dt
dq
2
=
dt 1 + 4t 2
(sec2 q)
or
or

or

(1 + 4t 2 )

dq
=2
dt

2
2
dq
at t = 2 s, =
rad s 1
=
2
dt 1 + 4(2) 17

3. (b) :

Solution Set-22

1. (b) : The woman experiences three forces; mg, her


weight acting vertically downwards; N1, reaction
due to her weight; N2, horizontal reaction which
provides the centripetal acceleration.

a/2
a
=
As
sin sin(p q)

sin q = 2 sin \ q = sin 1(2 sin )

4. (b) : At NTP, temperature = 273 K and


pressure = 105 N m2
gRT RT P
v=
,
=
M
M

From Newtons second law,

mv 2
Fx = N 2 =
r
SFy = N1 mg = 0
v = (2pr)u
(where u is frequency)
= (2p 9) (6/60)
= 1.8p m s1
Therefore,
2

(50)(1.8p)
= 178 N
9
N1 = mg = 490 N
The magnitude of her weight is the magnitude of
the resultant force exerted on her by the chair.
N2 =

N = N12 + N 22
= 4902 + 1782 = 521 N
2. (c): Let T be the time of flight and u be the initial
velocity of the stone then

u
A

and T =

u2 sin 2q
g

...(i)

2u sin q
g

...(ii)

Eliminating u, we get
tan q =

10 102
1
gT 2
=
=
4R 4 250 3
3

\ q = 30

v=

gP

g=

v 2 (330)2 1.3
=
= 1. 4
P
105

and g = 1 + (2/f) f = 2/(g 1) f = 5


5. (d) : Along the vertical direction,
Net impulse due to normal = change in momentum
...(i)
Ndt = m (v/2) + mv cos q
(where N is the normal by the floor on the ball)
Along the horizontal direction,
Friction force, f = mN
Let horizontal velocity of the ball after collision = v
Net impulse due to friction = change in momentum
in horizontal direction
m Ndt = mv mv sin q

m[m(v/2) + mv cosq] = mv mv sinq


(Using eqn. (i))
\ v = v sin q m(v/2) + v cos q}
6. (c):

mg
2
mg
T = Tcosq =
cos q
2sin q
mg
\ T=
2 tan q
Tsinq =

B
2R

2R =

7. (c): Tension T3 required to move third block


= mmg.
Tension T2 to move 2nd block = mmg + 2T3
= 3mmg.
Force F required to move the first block
= 2T2 + mmg = 7mmg.
physics for you | june 15

29

8. (d) : Change in position of CM in vertical


direction
cos 30
h = l
+l

d2 y
2

dy 2
1 +
dx
R=
d2 y

lcos30= l 3/2

60

60
l

1 kg

JT

JT

30

(1 + 1)3/2
= 10 (2)3/2
1
10

v2
36
9 2
aR = T =
=
units
R 20 2 10

l 3
Work done by gravity = mg h = mg
+ l
4

3 +4
= mgl

4
1 kg

= 10 2 2 2 = 20 2
Normal acceleration

9. (b) :

3/2

dx 2

1
10

dx
Radius of curvature at the given point is

CM

solution of may 2015 crossword

10 cos30 N s
10 N s

30

Here 10cos30 JT = JT
[Both the masses will move with same velocity
along the string]
5

JT = 5 cos 30 =
3N s
2
10. (b) : Equation of path,
x2
20
x
dy x dx
v
=
, vy =
10 x
dt 10 dt
At x = 10
vy = vx
y=

Total v =

v 2x

+ v 2y ,

6=

36
= = 18 , v x = 3 2
2
vy = 3 2

2v 2x

v 2x

Now since the magnitude of velocity is 6 m s1


constant, tangential acceleration will be zero. It has
only normal acceleration.
Now
x2
y=
20
dy 2x x
\ dy
=
=
dx x =10 = 1
dx 20 10
30

physics for you | june 15

Guneet Kaur
Harsh Gupta
rizwan Khan

Winners (May 2015)

solution senders (April 2015)


Aditya srivastava
Chandra shekhar Panigrahi
rajneesh Kumar

Solution Senders of Physics Musing


sEt-22
1. Swayangdipta Bera
2. Debajyoti Dash (West Bengal)
3. Sayantan Bhanja (West Bengal)
sEt-21
1. Komal Khatri (Pune)
2. Girish Ranjan (Bihar)

1.

2.

A wave is represented by y(x, t) = a sin(kx wt + f).


The phase of the wave is
(a) f
(b) kx wt
(c) wt + f
(d) kx wt + f
Name of units of some physical quantities are given
in List I and their dimensional formulae are given
in List II. Match List I with List II and select the
correct answer.
List I
Pa s

P.
Q. N m K1
R. J kg1K1
S. W m1 K1

3.

4.

5.

1.
2.
3.
4.

List II
[M0L2T2K1]
[MLT3K1]
[ML1T1]
[ML2T2K1]

P
Q
R
S
(a) 4
3
1
2
(b) 3
2
4
1
(c) 3
1
4
2
(d) 3
4
1
2
The apparent weight of a person in a lift moving
downwards is half his apparent weight in the same
lift moving upwards with the same acceleration.
The acceleration of the lift is
g
g
g
(a) g
(b)
(c)
(d)
2
3
4
The ratio of the angular velocities of the earth about
its own axis and the hour hand of a watch is
(a) 1 : 2 (b) 2 : 1 (c) 1 : 12 (d) 12 : 1
Consider the following statements :
Nuclear force is
1. charge independent
2. long range
3. central
Which of the above statements is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 1 and 2
(c) 2 and 3
(d) 1 and 3

6.

The magnetic susceptibility of a material of a rod is


299. The permeability of the material of the rod is
(m0 = 4p 107 H m1)
(a) 3771 105 H m1 (b) 3771 106 H m1
(c) 3771 107 H m1 (d) 3771 108 H m1

7.

A particle motion on a space curve is governed by


x = 2sin t, y = 3cost and z = 5 sin t. The speed of
the particle at any instant is
(a) 3 2 sint
(b) 3 cos 2t
(c) 3 sin 2t

8.

9.

(d) independent of time

A TV transmitting antenna is 128 m tall. If the


receiving antenna is at the ground level, the
maximum distance between them for satisfactory
communication in LOS mode is
(Radius of the earth = 6.4 106 m)
128
(a) 64 10 km
(b)
km
10
64
(c) 128 10 km
(d)
km
10
A battery of emf 3 V and internal resistance 0.2 W
is being charged with a current of 5 A. What is the
potential difference between the terminals of the
battery?
(a) 2 V
(b) 3 V
(c) 3.5 V (d) 4 V

10. When NaCl is added to water, the surface tension of

water
(a) increases
(b) decreases
(c) remains constant (d) nothing can be said

11. A person walks on a straight road from his house

to a market 2.5 km away with a speed of 5 km h1.


Finding the market closed, he instantly turns back
and reaches his house with a speed of 7.5 km h1.
The average speed of the person is
physics for you | june 15

31

5
14
(b) m s 1
m s 1
3
3
1
5
(c) m s 1
(d) m s 1
3
6
12. The half life of a radioactive element is 10 h. The
fraction of initial activity of the element that will
remain after 40 h is
1
1
1
1
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
4
16
8
2
13. Light travels from air to water, from water to glass
and then again from glass to air. If x represents
refractive index of water with respect to air, y
represents refractive index of glass with respect to
water and z represents refractive index of air with
respect to glass, then which one of the following is
correct?
(a) xy = z
(b) yz = x
(c) zx = y
(d) xyz = 1

18. The successive resonance frequencies in an open

14. Which of the following parameters is the same for

wave-particle duality?
(a) Wave-particle duality holds for matter particles
but not for light.
(b) Wave-particle duality holds for light but not for
matter particles.
(c) Wave-particle duality holds for electrons but
not for protons.
(d) Wave-particle duality holds for light as well as
for matter particles.

(a)

molecules of all gases at a given temperature?


(a) Mass
(b) Speed
(c) Momentum
(d) Kinetic energy

15. In a meter bridge experiment, the length AB of the

wire is 1 m. The resistors X and Y have values 5 W


and 2 W respectively. When a shunt resistance S is
connected to X, the balancing point is found to be
0.625 m from A. Then, the resistance of the shunt
is

organ pipe are 1944 Hz and 2600 Hz. If the speed of


sound in air is 328 m s1, then the length of the pipe is
(a) 0.40 m
(b) 0.04 m
(c) 0.50 m
(d) 0.25 m

19. A machine gun fires 240 bullets per minute with a

velocity of 600 m s1. If the mass of each bullet is


10 g, the power of the gun is
(a) 7.2 kW
(b) 72 kW
(c) 3.6 kW
(d) 36 kW

20. The sensitivity of a galvanometer that measures

1
times by using shunt
40
resistance of 10 W. Then, the value of the resistance
of the galvanometer is
(a) 400 W
(b) 410 W
(c) 30 W
(d) 390 W
current is decreased by

21. Which one of the following is correct about

22. Work done to increase the temperature of

one mole of an ideal gas by 30C, if it is


expanding under the condition V T 2/3 is
(R = 8.31 J mol1K1)
(a) 116.2 J
(b) 136.2 J
(c) 166.2 J
(d) 186.2 J

(a) 5 W

(b) 10 W

(c) 7.5 W (d) 12.5 W

16. The equation of trajectory of a projectile is

5
y = 10 x x 2 m. The range of the projectile is
9

(a) 36 m (b) 24 m (c) 18 m (d) 9 m


17. A ray of light travels from an optically denser

medium towards a rarer medium. The critical angle


for the two media is C. The maximum possible
angle of deviation of the ray is
p
(a) C
(b) p 2C
2
p
(c) 2C
(d) + C
2

32

physics for you | june 15

23. Electric charges A and B attract each other. Electric

charges B and C also attract each other. But electric


charges C and D repel each other. If A and D are
held close together then which one of the following
is correct?
(a) They cannot affect each other.
(b) They attract each other.
(c) They repel each other.
(d) Cannot be predicted due to insufficient data.

24. In a transistor if a varies between

then the value of b lies between


(a) 110
(b) 0.950.99
(c) 20100
(d) 200300

20
100
and
,
21
101

25. The minimum force required to move a body up

an inclined plane is three times the minimum force


required to prevent it from sliding down the plane.
If the coefficient of friction between the body and
1
the inclined plane is
, the angle of the inclined
2 3
plane is
(a) 60

(b) 45

(c) 30

(d) 15

26. The threshold frequency of the metal of the cathode

in a photoelectric cell is 1 1015 Hz. When a certain


beam of light is incident on the cathode, it is found
that a stopping potential 4.144 V is required to
reduce the current to zero. The frequency of the
incident radiation is (h = 6.63 1034 J s)
(a) 2.5 1015 Hz
(b) 2 1015 Hz
15
(c) 4.144 10 Hz (d) 3 1016 Hz

27. A 50 mF capacitor is connected to an ac source

V = 220 sin50t where V is in volt and t is in second.


The rms current is
0.55
(a) 0.55 A
(b)
A
2
2
(c)
(d) 2 A
A
0.55

31. If the ratio of maximum and minimum intensities

of an interference pattern is 36 : 1, then the ratio of


amplitudes of the two interfering waves will be
(a) 3 : 7
(b) 7 : 4
(c) 4 : 7
(d) 7 : 5

32. A wire of length 6.28 m is bent into a circular coil

of 2 turns. If a current of 0.5 A exists in the coil, the


magnetic moment of the coil is
1
A m2
4

(a) p A m2

(b)

(c) p A m2

(d) 4p A m2

33. The electric field for an electromagnetic wave in

^
free space is E = 30 cos(kz 6 108 t ) i Vm 1 . The
magnitude of wave vector is
(a) 2 rad m1
(b) 3 rad m1
(c) 4 rad m1
(d) 6 rad m1

34. Two parallel plane sheets 1 and 2 carry uniform

charge densities s1 and s2(s1 > s2) as shown in the


figure. The magnitude of the resultant electric field
in the region marked I is
1

28. Of the following, NAND gate is

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
29. On a temperature scale Y, water freezes at 160Y

and boils at 50Y. On this Y scale, a temperature


of 340 K is
(a) 106.3Y
(b) 96.3Y
(c) 86.3Y
(d) 76.3Y

30. A satellite is revolving very close to a planet of

density r. The period of revolution of the satellite is


(a)

3pr
G

(b)

3p
2rG

(c)

3p
rG

(d)

3pG
r

(a)

s1
2e 0

(b)

s2
2e 0

(c)

s1 + s 2
2e 0

(d)

s1 s 2
2e 0

35. In Millikans oil drop experiment, a charged oil

drop of mass 3.2 1014 kg is held stationary


between two parallel plates 6 mm apart, by applying
a potential difference of 1200 V between them. How
many electrons does the oil drop carry ?(g = 10 m s2)
(a) 7
(b) 8
(c) 9
(d) 10
36. Two long wires each parallel to the z-axis and each
carrying current I, are at (0, 0) and (a, b). The force
per unit length of each wire is
m0 I 2 (a + b)
m0 I 2
(a)
(b)
2 p(a2 + b2 )
2 p(a2 + b2 )
2
m0 I
m0 I 2
(c)
(d)
2 p(a2 + b2 )3/2
2 p(a2 + b2 )1/2
physics for you | june 15

33

37. Two blocks of masses 1 kg and

2 kg are connected by a metal


wire going over a smooth pulley
as shown in the adjacent figure.
The breaking stress of the metal is
40
106 N m 2. What should be
3p
the minimum radius of wire used
if it should not break?
(g = 10 m s2)
(a) 0.5 mm
(b) 1 mm
(c) 1.5 mm
(d) 2 mm
38. A rectangular coil is rotating in a uniform magnetic

field B. The emf induced in the coil is maximum


when the plane of the coil
(a) is parallel to B
(b) makes an angle 30 with B
(c) makes an angle 45 with B
(d) is perpendicular to B

39. A steady dc current is flowing through a cylindrical

conductor. Which of the following statements is/are


correct?
1. The electric field at the axis of the conductor is
zero.
2. The magnetic field at the axis of the conductor
is zero.
Select the correct answer using the code given
below :
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) both 1 and 2
(d) neither 1 nor 2

40. The ratio between kinetic and potential energies of

a body executing simple harmonic motion, when


1
it is at a distance of
of its amplitude from the
N
mean position is
(a) N2 + 1
(c) N2

1
N2
(d) N2 1
(b)

41. PQR is a right angled triangular plate of uniform

thickness as shown in the figure. If I1, I2 and I3


are moments of inertia about PQ, QR and PR axes
respectively, then

34

physics for you | june 15

(a) I3 < I2 < I1


(c) I2 > I1 > I3

(b) I1 = I2 = I3
(d) I3 > I1 > I2

42. A tank of height 5 m is full of water. There is a hole

of cross-sectional area 1 cm2 in its bottom. The


volume of water that will come out from this hole
per second is (g = 10 m s2)
(a) 103 m3 s1
(b) 104 m3s1
3 1
(c) 10 m s
(d) 102 m3s1

43. The temperature of a perfect black body is 727C

and its area is 0.1 m2. If Stefans constant is


5.67 108 W m2 K4, then heat radiated by it in
0.3 minutes is
(a) 1701 J
(b) 17010 J
(c) 102060 J
(d) 1020 J

44. The plates in a parallel plate capacitor are separated

by a distance d with air as the medium between the


plates. In order to increase the capacity by 66%, a
dielectric slab of dielectric constant 5 is introduced
between the plates. What is the thickness of the
dielectric slab?
d
d
(a)
(b)
4
2
5d
(c)
(d) d
8
45. A simple pendulum is executing SHM with a
period of 6 s between two extreme positions B and
C about a point O. If the length of the arc BC is
10 cm, how long will the pendulum take to move
from position C to a position D towards O exactly
midway between C and O ?
(a) 0.5 s
(b) 1 s
(c) 1.5 s
(d) 3 s
soLuTioNs
1. (d) : The argument of the sine function is called the
phase.
Thus the phase of the wave is kx wt + f.
2. (d) : P. Dimensional formula of Pa s
= [ML1T2][T] = [ML1T1]
Q. Dimensional formula of N m K1
= [MLT2][L][K1]
= [ML2T2K1]
R. Dimensional formula of J kg1 K1
= [ML2 T2][M1][K1] = [M0L2T2K1]
S. Dimensional formula of W m1 K1
= [ML2 T3][L1][K1] = [MLT3K1]
Thus P 3, Q 4, R 1, S 2

3. (d) : Let a be acceleration of the lift.


When the lift is moving downwards with
acceleration a, then the apparent weight of the
person inside it,
Wapp = m(g a)
where m is the mass of the person.
When it is moving upwards with same acceleration
a, then his apparent weight is
Wapp = m(g + a)
1
As Wapp = Wapp
(given)
2
1
\ m( g a) = m( g + a)
2
2(g a) = g + a or 2g 2a = g + a
g
3a = g or a =
3
4. (a) : The earth completes one rotation about its own
axis in 24 h. Its angular velocity is
2p rad

w1 =
24 h
The hour hand completes one rotation in 12 h. Its
angular velocity is
2 p rad
w2 =
12 h
Their corresponding ratio is
2 p rad
24 h
w1
12 1
=
=
=
w2 2 p rad 24 2
12 h
5. (a) : Nuclear force is charge independent, short
range and non-central.
6. (c) : The permeability (m), permeability of vacuum
(m0) and magnetic susceptibility (c) are related as
m = m0(1 + c)
Here, m0 = 4p 107 H m1, c = 299
\
m = 4p 107 H m1(1 + 299)
22
=4
107 300 H m1
7
= 3771 107 H m1
7. (d) : Here, x = 2sint, y = 3cost and z = 5 sint
dx d
\ vx =
= (2sint) = 2cost
dt dt
dy d
vy =
= (3 cost) = 3sint
dt dt
dz d
= ( 5 sin t ) = 5 cos t
and vz =
dt dt
The speed of the particle at any instant is

v=

v 2x + v 2y + v z2

(2 cos t )2 + (3 sin t )2 + ( 5 cos t )2

4 cos2t + 9 sin2 t + 5 cos2t

4 cos2 t + 5 sin2 t + 4 sin2 t + 5 cos2 t

5 sin2 t + 5 cos2 t + 4 sin2 t + 4 cos2 t

5(sin2 t + 5 cos2 t ) + 4 (sin2 t + cos2 t )

= 5+4
( sin2 q + cos2 q = 1)
=3
Hence it is independent of time.
8. (b) : Here,
Radius of the earth, R = 6.4 106 m
Height of transmitting antenna, hT = 128 m
The maximum distance (dM) between the transmitting
and receiving antennas for satisfactory communication
in LOS mode is
dM = 2RhT + 2RhR
where hR is the height of the receiving antenna.
As the receiving antenna is at the ground level
so, hR = 0.
\

dM =

2RhT = 2(6.4 106 m)(128 m)


6
2
= 12.8 128 10 m

128 128 106 2


m
10
128 103
128
m =
km
=
10
10
9. (d) : The potential difference between the terminals
of the battery during charging is
V = e + Ir
Here, e = 3 V, r = 0.2 W, I = 5 A
\ V = (3 V) + (5 A)(0.2 W) = 3 V + 1 V = 4 V
=

10. (a) : As NaCl is completely soluble in water, so


when NaCl is added to water, the surface tension of
water increases.
11. (b) : Time taken by person to reach the market is
2.5 km 1
= h
t1 =
5 km h 1 2
and time taken by him to return back to his house is
2.5 km
1
= h
t2 =
1
3
7.5 km h
1
1
5
\ Total time taken = t1 + t2 = h + h = h
2
3
6
Total distance travelled = 2.5 km + 2.5 km = 5 km
The average speed of the person is
physics for you | june 15

35

Total distance travelled 5 km


=
Total time taken
5
h
6
5
5
= 6 km h1 = 6
m s1 = m s1
3
18
12. (b) : If A0 be initial activity of the element, then
fraction of initial activity after time t is
vav =

t /T

A 1 1/2
=
A0 2
where T1/2 is the half life.
Here, t = 40 h, T1/2 = 10 h
\

A 1
=
A0 2

40 h /10 h

1
1
= =
2 16

13. (d) : As amw wmg gma = 1


where the subscripts a, w and g represent air, water
and glass respectively.
Here, amw = x, wmg = y and gma = z
xyz = 1
\
14. (d)
15. (b) :

where u is the velocity of projection and q is the


angle of projection with the horizontal.
We get
tanq = 10
...(i)
g
5
=
and
...(ii)
2u2cos2q 9
Dividing eqn. (i) by eqn. (ii), we get
tan q
10
=
g
5
9
2u2cos2q
sin q
cos q = 90
g
5
2
2
2u cos q
2u2sin q cos q 90
=
g
5
The range of the projectile is
u 2sin 2q
R=
g
=

2u 2 sin q cos q
g

( sin 2q = 2 sin q cos q)

= 18 m
17. (b)
When the resistance S is connected in parallel with
X, the balance point is obtained at 0.625 m (= 62.5 cm)
from A.
XS
62.5 cm
62.5 cm
X
+S =
=
\
Y
(100 62.5) cm 37.5 cm
(5 W)S
(5 W + S) 5
=
2W
3
(5 W)S
5
=
2 W(5 W + S) 3
(15 W)S = (10 W)(5 W + S)
(15 W)S = (10 W)(5 W) + (10 W)S
(15 W)S (10 W)S =(10 W)(5 W)
(5 W)S = (10 W)(5 W)
(10 W)(5 W)
S=
= 10 W
(5 W)
5
16. (c) : Comparing the equation y = 10x x 2 with
9
the equation of trajectory of a projectile
y = x tan q
36

gx 2
2u2cos2q

physics for you | june 15

...(iii)

(using (iii))

18. (d) : Let L be the length of the open pipe.


The resonance frequencies of vibration in the open
pipe are
nv
un = ; n = 1, 2, 3, ........
2L
where v is the speed of sound in air.
And the difference between successive frequencies is
v
v
( Dn = 1)
Dun = Dn =
2L
2L
or

L=

v
2Dun

Here, v = 328 m s1
Dun = 2600 Hz 1944 Hz = 656 Hz
328 m s 1 1
\ L=
= m = 0.25 m
2(656 Hz) 4
19. (a) : Here,
Mass of the bullet, m = 10 g = 10 103 kg
Velocity of the bullet, v = 600 m s1
The number of bullets fired per second is
240
n=
=4
60

The power of the gun is


1
1
P = nmv 2 = 4 10 103 (600)2 W
2
2
= 72 102 W = 7.2 kW
20. (d) : Let the resistance of the galvanometer be G.
I G
As shunt resistance, S = g
(I Ig )
(I Ig )S
\ G=
Ig
1
Here, Ig = I , S = 10 W
40
I

I 40 (10 W)
\
G=
= (39)(10 W) = 390 W
I
40
21. (d)
22. (c) : Work done, dW = PdV
According to an ideal gas equation
nRT
PV = nRT or P =
V
dV
\ dW = nRT
V
As V T2/3 (given)
\ V = KT2/3
where K is a constant of proportionality.
Differentiating both sides, we get
2
dV = K T 1/3dT
3
\

2
K T 1/3dT
3
dV
2
2 dT
= T 1dT =
=
V
3
3 T
KT 2/3

Putting this value in eqn. (i), we get


2 dT 2
dW = nRT
= nRdT
3 T 3
\ W=

T2

2
2
2
2
nRdT
=
nR
dT = nR(T2 T1)
3

3 T
3
T
1

Here, n = 1, R = 8.13 J mol1 K1


T2 T1 = 30C = 30 K
2
\ W = (1)(8.31 J mol 1K 1)(30 K) = 166.2 J
3
23. (c)
24. (c) : The a and b are related by the relation
a
b=
1 a

...(i)

20
21
20
20
b = 21 = 21 = 20
20 1
1
21 21
100
,
For a =
101
For a =

100
100
b = 101 = 101 = 100
100
1
1
101 101
Thus the value of b lies between 20-100.
1
25. (c) : Here, m =
2 3
Let m be mass of the body and q be angle of the
inclined plane.
The minimum force required to move the body up
the inclined plane is
F1 = mgsinq + mmgcosq = mg(sinq + mcosq)
and the minimum force required to prevent it from
sliding down the plane is
F2 = mgsinq mmgcosq
= mg(sinq mcosq)
As F1 = 3F2 (given)
\ mg(sinq + mcosq) = 3mg(sinq mcosq)
sinq + mcosq = 3sinq 3mcosq

2sinq = 4mcosq
1 1
tanq = 2m = 2
=
2 3
3
1
q = tan 1
= 30
3

26. (b) : Here,
Threshold frequency, u0 = 1 1015 Hz
Stopping potential, V0 = 4.144 V
Plancks constant, h = 6.63 1034 J s
According to Einsteins photoelectric equation
Kmax = hu f0
where u is the frequency of incident radiation.
or hu = Kmax + f0
But f0 = hu0 and Kmax = eV0
\ hu = hu0 + eV0
eV
or u = u 0 + 0
h
(1.6 10 19 C)(4.144 V)
15
= 1 10 Hz +
(6.63 10 34 J s)
15
= 1 10 Hz + 1 1015 Hz = 2 1015 Hz
physics for you | june 15

37

27. (b) : On comparing V = 220 sin50t with


V = V0 sinwt, we get
V0 = 220 V and w = 50 rad s1
The capacitive reactance is
104
1
1
XC =
=
=
W
wC (50 rad s 1 )(50 106 C)
25
The rms current is
V0
Vrms
V
( Vrms = 0 )
Irms =
= 2
XC
XC
2
220

V
220 25
0.55
2
= 4
= 4
A=
A
2
10 2
10
W
25
28. (d) : The symbol for NAND gate is

29. (c) :

If TY be temperature on the Y scale corresponding


to 340 K on kelvin scale, then
340 K 273 K
TY (160Y)
=
50Y (160Y) 373 K 273 K
TY + 160Y 67 K
=
110Y
100 K
TY + 160Y = 0.67(110Y)
TY + 160Y = 73.7Y
TY = 73.7Y 160Y = 86.3Y
30. (c) : As the satellite is revolving very close to the
planet, its period of revolution is
R3
...(i)
GM
where M is the mass of the planet, R is its radius
and G is the universal gravitational constant.
M
4
As r =
or M = pR3r
4 3
3
pR
3
Putting this value of M in eqn.(i), we get
T = 2p

T = 2p

38

R3
3
= 2p
4
4 prG

G pR3r
3

physics for you | june 15

3(4 p2 )
3p
=
4 prG
rG

31. (d) : Let A1 and A2 be amplitudes of the two


interfering waves. Then
2
I max (A1 + A2 )
=
I min (A1 A2 )2
But
\

I max 36
= (given)
I min 1

(A1 + A2 )2 36
=
(A1 A2 )2 1
A1 + A2 6
=
A1 A2 1
A1 + A2 = 6(A1 A2)
A1 + A2 = 6A1 6A2
A 7
5A1 = 7A2 or 1 =
A2 5

32. (a) : When a wire of length l is bent into a circular


coil of N turns of radius r, then
l
l = N2pr or r =
N 2p
Here, l = 6.28 m, N = 2
6.28 m
1
\ r =
= m = 0. 5 m
2(2 3.14) 2
The area of the coil is
A = pr2 = p(0.5 m)2 = 0.25p m2
The magnetic moment of the coil,
M = NIA = (2)(0.5 A)(0.25p m2)
p
= 0.25p A m2 = A m 2
4
33. (a) : Comparing the given equation with

^
E = E0 cos(kz wt ) i
we get, w = 6 108 rad s1
The velocity of electromagnetic wave in free space is
c = 3 108 m s1
The magnitude of wave vector is
8
1
w 6 10 rad s
= 2 rad m 1
k= =
8

1
c 3 10 m s
34. (c) :

In the region I, the electric fields E1 and E2 due to


sheets 1 and 2 act in the same direction.

\ The magnitude of the resultant electric field in


the region I is
s + s2
s
s
EI = E1 + E2 = 1 + 2 = 1
2e0 2e0
2e0
35. (d) : Here,
Mass of the drop, m = 3.2 1014 kg
Distance between the plates,
d = 6 mm = 6 103 m
Potential difference between the plates,
V = 1200 V
The electric field between the plates is
1200 V
V
E= =
d 6 103 m
Let the charge on the drop be q.
As the drop is held stationary,
\ Upward force on drop = Weight of the drop
due to electric field
qE = mg
V
q = mg
d
mgd
q=
V

Tension
Area of cross-section

To avoid breaking, this stress should not exceed the


breaking stress.
If the minimum radius needed to avoid breaking
is r, then
Breaking stress =

T
pr 2

40
N
40
106 N m 2 = 3 2
3p
pr
40
N
2
3
= 1 106 m2
r =
40
p
106 N m 2
3p

r = 103m = 1 mm
e = NBAwsinwt

p
i.e.
2
when the plane of the coil is parallel to the field.
This is maximum when sinwt = 1 or wt =

(3.2 10 14 kg)(10 m s 2 )(6 10 3 m)


1200 V
= 1.6 1018 C
The number of electrons the drop carries is
18
q 1.6 10 C
n= =
= 10
e 1.6 10 19 C
36. (d) : The force per unit length of each wire is
m0 I1I2
2 pd
where I1 and I2 are the currents in the two wires
respectively and d is the distance between them.
f =

Here, I1 = I2 = I, d = a2 + b2
m0 I 2
2 p a 2 + b2

37. (b) : Here, m1 = 1 kg, m2 = 2 kg, g = 10 m s2


Breaking stress =

38. (a) : The emf induced in the coil at any instant t is

\ f =

The stress in the wire is

40
106 N m 2
3p

The tension in the wire is


2

2m1m2 g 2(1 kg )(2 kg )(10 m s ) 40


T=
=
= N
(m1 + m2 )
(1 kg + 2 kg)
3

39. (c)
40. (d) : The kinetic energy of the body executing
simple harmonic motion at a distance x from the
mean position is
1
K = mw2 ( A2 x 2 )
2
1
and the potential energy is U = mw2 x 2
2
where A is the amplitude, w is the angular frequency
and m is the mass of the body.
2

1
A
A
At x = , K = mw2 A2
N
2
N

1
A
and U = mw2
N
2

Their corresponding ratio is

K
=
U

1
A
mw2 A2
N
2

1
A
mw2
N
2

2 A2
A 2
N

A2

N2

physics for you | june 15

39

A2 2
(N 1)
2
=N
= N2 1
A2
N2
41. (a) : The centre of mass of a triangular lamina lies at

the centroid. But the distance of a side of a triangle


from its centroid is inversely proportional to the
length of that side, so
rPQ > rQR > rPR
\ I1 > I2 > I3 or I3 < I2 < I1
42. (a) : Here,

Area of cross-section of the hole,


A = 1 cm2 = 104 m2
Height of the tank, h = 5 m
According to Torricellis theorem,
Speed of water coming out of the hole is
2
1
v = 2gh = 2(10 m s )( 5 m) = 10 m s
Volume of water coming out of the hole per second is

Q = Av = (104 m2) (10 m s1) = 103 m3 s1


43. (c) : According to Stefan-Boltzmann law,
Heat radiated by a perfect black body is
Q = sAT4t
where the symbols have their usual meanings.
Here, s = 5.67 108 W m2 K4
A = 0.1 m2
T = 727C = (727 + 273) K = 1000 K
t = 0.3 min = 0.3 60 s = 18 s
\ Q = (5.67 108 W m2 K4)(0.1 m2)(1000 K)4 (18 s)
= 102060 J
44. (b) : The capacity of a parallel plate capacitor when

air in between the plates is


eA
... (i)
C= 0
d
where A is the area of cross-section of each plate.
When the dielectric slab of dielectric constant
K (= 5) of thickness t is introduced between the
plates, then its capacity becomes
e0 A
e0 A
eA
C =
= 0
=
4
1
1

d t 1
d t 1 d t
K
5
5
66
166
But C = C +
C=
C (given)
100
100
40

physics for you | june 15

eA
166
C= 0
4
100
d t
5
Dividing eqn. (i) by eqn. (ii), we get
4
100 d 5 t
=
166
d
664
100d = 166d
t
5
664
t = 66d
5
330
d
t=
d = 0.5d =
664
2
\

... (ii)

45. (b) : The situation is shown in figure.

In figure, O represents the mean position and B


and C represent extreme positions and D is the
midpoint between C and O.
Since B and C are the extreme positions, therefore
amplitude of the SHM oscillation is
BC 10 cm
A = OC =
=
= 5 cm
2
2
As D is the midpoint between C and O,
OC A 5
\ CD =OD =
= = cm
2
2 2
Since time is noted from extreme position, hence
displacement x from the mean position at any time
t is
x = Acoswt
Let t1 be the time taken by the pendulum to move
from C to D. Then
A
At t = t1, x =
2
A
= A cos wt1
\
2
1
= cos wt1
2
p
2p

2p
cos = cos t1
w =

T
T
3
t1 =

T 6s
=
=1s
6
6

nn

Solved PaPer 2015

Kerala PMT
1.

The wrong unit conversion among the following is


(a) 1 angstrom = 1010 m
(b) 1 fermi = 1015 m
(c) 1 light year = 9.46 1015 m
(d) 1 parsec = 3.08 1016 m
(e) 1 astronomical unit = 1.496 1011 m

2.

Choose the wrong statement.


(a) The motion of an object along a straight line
is a rectilinear motion.
(b) The speed in general is less than the magnitude
of the velocity.
(c) The slope of the displacement-time graph gives
the velocity of the body.
(d) The area under the velocity-time graph gives
the displacement of the body.
(e) The negative slope of speed-time graph
indicates a retarded motion.

3.

4.

The range of a projectile is R when the angle of


projection is 40. For the same velocity of projection
and range, the other possible angle of projection is
(a) 45
(b) 50 (c) 60
(d) 40
(e) 30

5.

The scalar quantity among the following is


(a) weight of body (b) temperature gradient
(c) elementary area
(d) magnetic field strength
(e) electric potential

6.

Which one of the following motions on a smooth


plane surface does not involve force?
(a) Accelerated motion in a straight line.
(b) Retarded motion in a straight line.
(c) Motion with constant momentum along a
straight line.
(d) Motion along a straight line with varying
velocity.
(e) Motion in a circle with uniform speed.

7.

Pick out the wrong statement.


(a) Newton's laws of motion hold good for both
inertial and non-inertial frames.
(b) During explosion, linear momentum is
conserved.
(c) Area under force-time graph gives the
magnitude of impulse.
(d) Force of friction is zero when no driving force
is applied.
(e) The apparent weight of a lift moving upwards
with uniform velocity, equals its true weight.

8.

Two bodies of different masses are moving with


same kinetic energy. Then the ratio of their
momenta is equal to the ratio of their
(a) masses
(b) square of masses
(c) square root of masses
(d) cube root of masses
(e) inverse of masses

The displacement of a particle as a function of time


is shown in figure. It indicates that

(a) the velocity of the particle is constant


throughout
(b) the acceleration of the particle is constant
throughout
(c) the particle starts with a constant velocity and
is accelerated
(d) the particle starts from rest and is accelerated
throughout
(e) the motion is retarded and finally the particle
stops

physics for you | june 15

41

9.

Two bodies of masses 1 kg and 2 kg moving with


same velocities are stopped by the same force. Then
the ratio of their stopping distances is
(a) 1 : 2
(b) 2 : 1
(c) 2 : 1
(d) 1 : 2
(e) 1 : 3

10. If two circular discs A and B are of same mass but


of radii r and 2r respectively, then the moment of
inertia of A is
(a) the same as that of B
(b) twice that of B
(c) four times that of B
(d) half that of B
(e) one-fourth that of B
11. Choose the wrong statement.
(a) The centre of mass of a uniform circular ring
is at its geometric centre.
(b) Moment of inertia is a scalar quantity.
(c) Radius of gyration is a vector quantity.
(d) For same mass and radius, the moment of
inertia of a ring is twice that of a uniform
disc.
(e) Force in translational motion is analogous to
torque in rotational motion.
12. Orbital velocity of earth satellite does not depend
on
(a) mass of the earth
(b) mass of the satellite
(c) radius of the earth
(d) acceleration due to gravity
(e) its height from the surface of earth
13. Gravitational potential energy of a body of mass
m at a height of h above the surface of earth
(M = mass of earth, R = radius of earth) is
GMm
GMm
(a)
(b)
( R + h)
h
Gm
GM
(c)
(d)
( R + h)
( R + h)
(e)

GMm
( R + h)

14. A boat carrying a few number of big stones floats in


a water tank. If the stones are unloaded into water,
the water level
(a) rises till half the number of stones are unloaded
and then begins to fall
(b) remains unchanged
(c) rises
42

physics for you | june 15

(d) falls till half the number of stones are unloaded


and then begins to rise
(e) falls
15. Two wires of same length and same material but
of radii r and 2r are stretched by forces F and f
respectively to produce equal elongation. The ratio
F to f is
(a) 1 : 1
(b) 1 : 2 (c) 2 : 1
(d) 1 : 4
(e) 4 : 1
16. Choose the correct statement.
(a) Ter mina l velo cit ies of rain drops are
proportional to square of their radii.
(b) Water proof agents decrease the angle of
contact between water and fibres.
(c) Detergents increase the surface tension of
water.
(d) Hydraulic machines work on the principle of
Torricelli's law.
(e) Venturimeter measures the flow speed of
compressible fluids.
17. If DU represents the increase in internal energy and
W the work done by the thermodynamic system,
then
(a) DU = W is an isothermal process
(b) DU = W is an isothermal process
(c) DU = W is an adiabatic process
(d) DU = W is an adiabatic process
(e) DU = W is an isochoric process
18. If the energy input to a Carnot engine is thrice
the work it performs then, the fraction of energy
rejected to the sink is
1
1
2
2
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
4
3
5
3
3
(e)
4
19. The ratio of rms speed of an ideal gas molecules at
pressure P to that at pressure 2P is
(a) 1 : 2
(b) 2 : 1
(c) 1 : 2
(d) 2 : 1
(e) 1 : 1
20. A pendulum of time period 2 s on earth is taken to
another planet whose mass and diameter are twice
that of earth. Then its time period on the planet is
(in second)
1
1
(a)
(b) 2 2 (c)
(d) 2
2
2
(e)

21. The physical quantity which remains constant in


simple harmonic motion is
(a) kinetic energy
(b) potential energy
(c) restoring force
(d) displacement
(e) frequency
22. Sound waves
(a) can be polarized (b) can exhibit diffraction
(c) are transverse in nature
(d) can travel in free space
(e) travel slower in liquids than in air
23. If a closed organ pipe has the same third harmonic
frequency as that of an open organ pipe, then their
respective lengths are in the ratio
(a) 1 : 1
(b) 1 : 2
(c) 1 : 4
(d) 3 : 4
(e) 4 : 5
24. A particle of mass 1.96 1015 kg is kept in
equilibrium between two horizontal metal plates
having potential difference of 400 V separated
apart by 0.02 m. Then the charge on the particle is
(e = electronic charge)
(a) 3e
(b) 6e
(c) 2e
(d) 5e
(e) 4e
25. Two small spherical shells A and B are given positive
charge of 9 C and 4 C respectively and placed such
that their centres are separated by 10 m. If P is a
point in betweeen them where the electric field
intensity is zero, then the distance of the point P
from the centre of A is
(a) 5 m
(b) 6 m (c) 7 m
(d) 8 m
(e) 4 m
26. Identify the wrong statement.
(a) Charge is a vector quantity.
(b) Current is a scalar quantity.
(c) Charge can be quantised.
(d) Charge is additive in nature.
(e) Charge is conserved.
27. When the rate of flow of charge through a metallic
conductor of non uniform cross section is uniform,
then the quantity that remains constant along the
conductor is
(a) current density (b) electric field
(c) electric potential (d) drift velocity
(e) current
28. The resistance of a carbon resistor of colour code
red, red, green, silver is (in kW)
(a) 2200 5%
(b) 2200 10%
(c) 220 10%
(d) 220 5%

(e) 2200 1%
29. The slope of the graph showing the variation of
potential difference V on x-axis and current on
y-axis gives conductors
(a) resistance
(b) resistivity
(c) reciprocal of resistance
(d) conductivity
(e) impedance
30. Identify the mismatched pair.
(a) Hard magnet
- Alnico
(b) Soft magnet
- Soft iron
(c) Bar magnet
- Equivalent solenoid
(d) Electromagnet
- Electric bells
(e) Permanent magnet - Loud speaker
31. When the temperature of a magnetic material
decreases, the magnetization
(a) decreases in a diamagnetic material
(b) decreases in a paramagnetic material
(c) decreases in a ferromagnetic material
(d) remains the same in a ferromagnetic material
(e) remains the same in a diamagnetic material
32. The magnetic field at the centre of a circular coil
carrying current I ampere is B. If the coil is bent
into smaller circular coil of n turns, its magnetic
field at the centre is B. The ratio between B and B
is
(a) 1 : 1
(b) n : 1
(c) n2 : 1
(d) 2n : 1
(e) (n + 1) : 1
33. The magnetic flux linked with a circuit of resistance
R changes by Df in a time Dt. Then the total quantity
of charge Q that passes at any point in the circuit
during the time Dt is
Df
1 Df
(a)
(b)
R
R Dt
Df
Df
(c) R
(d)
Dt
Dt
(e)

Df

R2
34. In an LCR series resonant circuit, the capacitance
is changed from C to 4C. For the same resonant
frequency, the inductance should be changed from L to
L
L
(a) 2L
(b)
(c) 4L
(d)
2
4
L
(e)
8
physics for you | june 15

43

35. Changing magnetic fields can set up current loops


in nearby metal bodies and the currents are called
as
(a) eddy currents
(b) flux currents
(c) alternating currents
(d) leakage currents
(e) wattless currents
36. Ozone layer in the atmosphere absorbs
(a) radio waves
(b) infrared waves
(c) ultraviolet rays (d) X-rays
(e) microwaves
37. The magnifying power of a convex lens of focal
length 10 cm when the image is formed at the near
point is
(a) 6
(b) 5.5
(c) 4
(d) 3.5
(e) 2
38. The waves that require a medium to travel is
(a) infrared radiation (b) ultraviolet radiation
(c) visible light
(d) X-rays
(e) ultrasound
39. In Young's double slit experiment, the locus of
the point P lying in a plane with a constant path
difference between the two interfering waves is
(a) a hyperbola
(b) a straight line
(c) an ellipse
(d) a parabola
(e) a circle
40. The ratio of the respective de Broglie wavelengths
associated with electrons accelerated from rest
with the voltages 100 V, 200 V and 300 V is
(a) 1 : 2 : 3
(b) 1 : 4 : 9
1 1
1 1
(c) 1 :
(d) 1 : :
:
2 3
2 3
(e) 3 : 2 : 1
41. A radioactive source of half-life 2 hours emits
radiation of intensity which is 64 times the
permissible safe level. The minimum time in hours
after which it would be possible to work safely with
the source is
(a) 12
(b) 8
(c) 6
(d) 24
(e) 3
42. Nuclear fusion is not found in
(a) thermonuclear reactor
(b) hydrogen bomb
(c) energy production in sun
(d) atom bomb
(e) energy production in stars
44

physics for you | june 15

43. The approximate ratio of nuclear mass densities of


and 107
47 Ag nuclei is
(a) 197 : 107
(b) 47 : 79
(c) 79 : 47
(d) 1 : 1
(e) 107 : 197
44. Identify the gate used in the following diagram.
197
79 Au

(a) AND
(b) OR
(c) NAND
(d) NOR
(e) either NAND or NOR
45. Acceptor level in p-type semiconductors lies
(a) nearer to the conduction band
(b) at the middle of conduction band and valence band
(c) within the valence band
(d) nearer to the valence band
(e) within the conduction band
46. The frequencies that are reflected and transmitted
at ionospheric layer respectively are
(a) 3 kHz and 10 MHz
(b) 10 MHz and 40 MHz
(c) 10 MHz and 20 MHz
(d) 35 MHz and 70 MHz
(e) 100 Hz and 100 kHz
47. The gap between the frequency of the side bands in
an amplitude modulated wave is
(a) twice that of the carrier signal
(b) twice that of the message signal
(c) the same as that of the message signal
(d) the same as that of the carrier signal
(e) the sum or difference of the frequencies of
carrier and message signal
48. A transmitting antenna at the top of a tower has
a height of 20 m. For obtaining 40 km as the
maximum distance between the transmitter and
receiver for satisfactory communication in LOS
mode, the height of receiving antenna should be
(radius of the earth R = 64 105 m)
(a) 30 m
(b) 35 m
(c) 40 m
(d) 45 m
(e) 50 m
solutions
1. (e) : 1 astronomical unit = 1.496 1011 m
All the other unit conversions are correct.
2. (b) : The speed in general is greater than the
magnitude of the velocity.
All the other statements are correct.

3. (e) :

In figure, the displacement-time graph is a parabola


having negative slope and finally becomes parallel
to time axis. So it indicates that motion is retarded
and finally the particle stops.
4. (b) : For the same velocity of projection and range,
the sum of the two angles of projection is 90. As
one angle of projection is 40, so the other possible
angle of projection is 90 40 = 50.
5. (e) : Among the given quantities electric potential
is a scalar quantity whereas all others are vector
quantities.
6. (c) : Motion with constant momentum along a

straight line implies p = constant.


So, according to Newton's 2nd law

dp d
F=
= (constant) = 0
dt dt
7. (a) : Newton's laws of motion hold good for inertial
frame. All the other statements are correct.
8. (c) : The kinetic energy (K) and momentum (p) of
a body are related as
K=

p2 or p = 2mK
2m

10. (e) : Let m be the mass of each disc.


The moment of inertia of disc A is
1
IA = mr2
2
and that of disc B is
1
1

IB = m(2r )2 = 4 mr2 = 4 IA

2
2
1
or IA = IB
4

vo =

gR2
GM
=
R+h
R+h

GM
g = 2
R

Thus it is independent of the mass of the satellite


(m) but depends on the mass of the earth (M),
radius of the earth (R), acceleration due to gravity
(g) and height (h) of the satellite from the surface
of earth.
13. (e) : Gravitational potential energy of a body of
mass m at a height h above the surface of earth is
GMm
U =
( R + h)
14. (e) : When the stones are unloaded into water, the
water level falls because the volume of the water
displaced by stones in water will be less than the
volume of water displaced when stones are in the
boat.
15. (d) : According to definition of Young's modulus
Y=

But K1 = K2 (given)
p
m1
\ 1=
p2
m2

Here, m1 = 1 kg and m2 = 2 kg
ds 1 kg 1
=
\ 1 =
2 kg 2
ds

(using (i))

11. (c) : Radius of gyration is a scalar quantity.


12. (b) : Orbital velocity of earth satellite is

where m is the mass of the body.


2m1K1
p1
m1K1
=
=
\
p2
m2 K 2
2m2 K 2

9. (a) : If two bodies of masses m1 and m2 moving


with the same velocities are stopped by the same
force, then the ratio of their stopping distances
is
ds
m
1
= 1
ds
m2

...(i)

F / A F / pr 2
=
DL / L DL / L

\ Elongation produced in a wire is


FL
DL = 2
pr Y
where L is the length of the wire, r is its radius
and F is the stretching force.
As both wires are of same length (L) and same
material i.e., Y is same and produce equal elongations
\ DL1 = DL2
FL
fL
=
2
pr Y p(2r )2 Y
F
f
=
2
r
(2r )2
F
r2
r2 1
=
=
=
f (2r )2 4r2 4
physics for you | june 15

45

16. (a) : (a) The terminal velocity of a rain drop is

Tp

2r2 ( ) g
vt =
9

Te

Thus vt r2
(b) Water proof agents increase the angle of contact
between the water and fibres.
(c) Detergents decrease the surface tension of
water.
(d) Hydraulic machines work on the Pascal's
law.
(e) Venturimeter measures the flow speed of
incompressible fluids.
17. (c) : According to first law of thermodynamics
DQ = DU + W
In an adiabatic process, DQ = 0
\ 0 = DU + W
or DU = W
18. (d) : If Q1 is the energy input and Q2 is the energy
rejected to the sink, then work done
W = Q1 Q2
Dividing by Q1 on both sides, we get
Q
Q
W
W
= 1 2 or 2 = 1
Q1
Q1
Q1
Q1
As Q1 = 3W (given)
Q
1 2
W
\ 2 = 1
= 1 =
3W
3 3
Q1

Thus the fraction of energy rejected to the sink is

2
.
3

19. (c) : Since temperature is not specified, vrms P


So,

vrms(P )
vrms(2P )

P
1
=
2P
2

Note : If temperature remains constant, the rms


speed of an ideal gas is independent of the pressure
of the gas. So vrms(P) : vrms(2P) = 1 : 1
20. (b) : Let L be length of the pendulum.
\ Its time period on earth is
L
ge
and that on the planet is
Te = 2p

Tp = 2p

L
gp

...(i)

...(ii)

where g e and g p are the acceleration due to


gravity on the surface of the earth and the planet
respectively.
Dividing eqn. (ii) by eqn. (i), we get
48

physics for you | june 15

ge
gp

...(iii)

If Me, De be mass and diameter of earth and Mp, Dp


be corresponding quantities of the planet, then
GMe
4GMe
ge =
=
2
(De / 2)
De2
and g p =

GM p

(Dp / 2)2

4GM p
D2p

Substituting these values in eqn. (iii), we get,


Tp
Te

(4GMe / De2 )

(4GM p / D2p )

2
Me Dp
M p De2

2
Me Dp
or Tp = Te
M p De2

But Mp = 2Me, Dp = 2De and Te = 2 s (given)


\ Tp = (2 s)

Me (2De )2
=2 2 s
2 Me De2

21. (e) : The frequency remains constant in simple


harmonic motion.
22. (b) : (a) Sound waves can't be polarized.
(b) They can exhibit diffraction.
(c) They are longitudinal in nature.
(d) They can't travel in free space.
(e) They travel faster in liquids than in air.
23. (b) : Let Lc and Lo be the lengths of the closed and
the open organ pipes respectively.
The frequency of third harmonic of the closed
organ pipe is
3v
u3c =
4 Lc
and that of the open organ pipe is
3v
u3o =
2Lc
where v is the speed of the sound.
As u3c = u3o (given)
L
3v
3v
1
\
=
or c =
Lo 2
4 Lc 2Lo

24. (b) : Here,


Mass of the particle, m = 1.96 1015 kg
Distance between the plates, d = 0.02 m
Potential difference between the plates, V = 400 V
The electric field between the plates is
V 400 V
E= =
= 2 104 V m 1
d 0.02 m

Let the charge on the particle be q.


As the particle is in equilibrium,
\ Upward force on the particle due to electric field
= Weight of the particle
mg
qE = mg or q =
E

q=

(1.96 1015 kg )(9.8 m s 2 )

(2 104 V m 1 )
= 9.6 1019 C = 6 1.6 1019 C
= 6e
( e = 1.6 1019 C)
25. (b) : Let the point P be at the distance x from the
centre of A where the electric field intensity is
zero.

\ At point P, EA = EB
1 9C
1
4C
=
2
4 p0 x
4 p0 (10 m x )2
9
4
=
2
x
(10 m x )2
3
2
=
or 30 m 3x = 2x
x 10 m x
30 m
5x = 30 m or x =
=6 m
5
26. (a) : Charge is a scalar quantity.
All the other statements are correct.
27. (e) : When the rate of flow of charge through a
metallic conductor of non uniform cross section
is uniform, then current remains constant along
the conductor while current density, electric
field, electrical potential and drift velocity are not
constants and all vary inversely with area of cross
section.
28. (b) : The number for red is 2 and that for green
is 5. For silver, tolerance is 10%.
\ The resistance of the resistor shown in the figure is

R = 22 105 W 10%
= 2200 kW 10%
29. (c) : According to Ohm's law,
Potential difference (V )
= Resistance (R)
Current (I )

\ The slope of the given graph is


I 1
= = = reciprocal of resistance
V R
30. (e) : Electromagnet - Loudspeaker
31. (e) : The magnetization of a diamagnetic material
is independent of the temperature.
32. (c) : Let r be the radius of the coil.
I
... (i)
\ B= 0
2r
When the coil is bent into small circular coil of n
turns of radius r, then
r
n2pr = 2pr or r =
... (ii)
n
nI
nI n2 0 I
\ B = 0 = 0
=
2r 2(r / n)
2r

(using (ii))

Dividing eqn. (ii) by eqn. (i), we get


B n2
=
1
B

33. (a) : According to Faraday's law of induction, the


magnitude of the induced emf in the circuit is
D
||=
Dt
As R is the resistance of the circuit, so induced
current is
| | D
I=
=
R RDt
D
D
\ Q = I Dt =
Dt =

RDt
R
34. (d) : The resonant frequency of an LCR series circuit is
1
ur =
2 p LC
When the capacitance is changed to C (= 4C)
and inductance changed to L, the new resonant
frequency becomes
physics for you | june 15

49

ur =

2 p L C
But ur = ur (given)
1
1
\
=
2 p L C 2 p LC
Squaring both sides, we get
1
1
LC LC L
\
=
L =
=
=
L C LC
C 4C 4

42. (d) : Atom bomb is based on nuclear fission whereas


all others are based on nuclear fusion.
43. (d) : The nuclear mass density is independent of mass
number (A). Thus the approximate ratio of nuclear
107
mass densities of 197
79 Au and 47 Ag nuclei is 1 : 1.
44. (a) :

The output is high only when both inputs A and


35. (a) : Changing magnetic fields can set up current
B
are high. So the logic gate is AND.
loops in nearby metal (any conductor) bodies.
They dissipate electrical energy as heat. Such 45. (d) : Acceptor level in p-type semiconductor lies
currents are called eddy currents.
nearer to the valence band.
36. (c) : Ozone layer in the atmosphere absorbs 46. (b) : The frequencies that are reflected and
ultraviolet rays.
transmitted at ionospheric layer respectively are
10 MHz and 40 MHz.
37. (d) : When the final image is formed at the near
point, the magnifying power is
47. (b) : T he f re qu e nc y
D
spectrum of an
m = 1+
amplitude modulated
f
wave is shown in the
where D is the least distance of distinct vision and
adjacent figure.
f is the focal length of the convex lens.
The gap between the frequency of the side bands
Here, D = 25 cm, f = 10 cm
(i.e.
upper side band and lower side band) is called
25 cm
\ m = 1+
= 1 + 2. 5 = 3. 5
bandwidth and it is given by
10 cm
Bandwidth = uUSB uLSB
38. (e) : Ultrasound are mechanical waves and they
=(uc + um) (uc um)
require a medium to travel whereas infrared
= uc + um uc + um = 2um
radiation, ultraviolet radiation, visible and X-rays
i.e. Bandwidth = twice of the frequency of the
are all electromagnetic waves and they do not
message signal.
require a medium to travel.
48. (d) : The maximum distance between the transmitter
39. (a) : In Young's double slit experiment, the locus of
and receiver for satisfactory communication in
the point P lying in a plane with a constant path
LOS mode is
difference between the two interfering waves is a
dM = 2RhT + 2RhR
hyperbola.
where hT and hR are the heights of transmitting
40. (c) : de Broglie wavelength associated with an electron
and receiving antennas respectively.
(mass m, charge e) accelerated from rest with a voltage
Here, dM = 40 km = 40 103 m
V volt is
h
hT = 20 m, R = 64 105 m
1
=
or
2meV
V
\ 40 103 m = 2(64 105 m)(20 m) + 2(64 105 m)hR
1
1
1
\ 1 : 2 : 3 =
:
:
\ 40 103 m = 2(64 105 m)(20 m) + 2(64 105 m)hR
V1 V2 V3
1
1
1
40 103 m = 16 103m + (128 105 m)hR
=
:
:
100 V 200 V 300 V
or (128 105 m)hR = 40 103 m 16 103 m
1 1
= 1:
:
= 24 103 m
2 3
Squaring both sides, we get
41. (a) : Since the half-life is 2 hours, the intensity of
(128 105 m)hR = (24 103 m)2
the radiation falls by a factor of 2 every 2 hours. In
(24 103 m)2
12 hours, it will fall by a factor of (2)6 = 64. Thus,
hR =
= 45 m
in 12 hours, the intensity attains the safe level.
(128 105 m)
nn
50

physics for you | june 15

CHAPTERWISE PRACTICE PAPER : ELECTROSTATICS


Time Allowed : 3 hours

Maximum Marks : 70
GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS

(i)

All questions are compulsory. There are 26 questions in all.

(ii) This question paper has five sections: Section A, Section B, Section C, Section D and Section E.
(iii) Section A contains five questions of one mark each, Section B contains five questions of two marks each, Section C
contains twelve questions of three marks each, Section D contains one value based question of four marks and Section
E contains three questions of five marks each.
(iv) There is no overall choice. However, an internal choice has been provided in one question of two marks, one question
of three marks and all the three questions of five marks weightage. You have to attempt only one of the choices in such
questions.

section-A
1. What is the nature of symmetry of electric field due

to an electric dipole ?

2. Is it possible to move a charge in an electric field

without doing any work? If so, how and if not,


why?
3. A student plotted E r curves
for a point charge, a long
charged straight wire and
an electric dipole but failed
to label them. Identify the
curves and give reason for
your choice.

4. Can a charge of 1 C be given to a spherical conductor

7. Two wire rings, each

having a radius R, are


placed at a distance d
apart with their axes
coinciding as shown in
the following figure.
The charges on the two rings are +q and q. Find the
value of potential difference between the centres of
the two rings.

8. Two dielectric slabs of dielectric constants K1 and

K2 are filled in between the two plates, each of area


A1 of the parallel plate capacitor as shown in the
figure. Find the net capacitance of the capacitor.

of 1 m radius? Why ?
5. Two point charges placed at a distance r apart in
air exert a force F on each other. At what distance
will these charges experience the same force F in a
medium of dielectric constant er?
section-b
6. n tiny drops, all of same size, are given equal charges.

If the drops coalesce to form a single bigger drop,


then what will be the new potential of the drop? What
is the surface charge density of the bigger drop?

9. Plot a graph depicting variation of potential energy

of an electric dipole placed in a uniform electric


field with angle q between the direction of dipole
moment and field.
OR
physics for you | june 15

51

A capacitor of capacitance C1 is charged to a


potential V. On disconnecting with the battery,
it is connected with an uncharged capacitor of
capacitance C2. Find the ratio of total electrostatic
potential energy before and after.
10. An electron is constrained to move along the axis

of the ring of charge q and radius a. Show that the


electron can perform oscillations whose frequency

is given by =

qe

4pe0ma 3

section-c
11. Dedue the expression for the capacitance of a parallel

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

52

plate capacitor when a dielectric slab is inserted


between its plates. Assume the slab thickness is less
than the plate separation.
Two point charges + 4e and + e are fixed at a
distance a apart. Where should a third point charge
q be placed on the line joining the two charges
that it may be in equilibrium? In which case the
equilibrium will be stable and in which unstable ?
A small sphere of radius r and charge q is enclosed
by a spherical shell of radius R and charge Q. Show
that if q is positive, charge q will necessarily flow
from the sphere to the shell (when the two are
connected by a wire) no matter what the charge
Q on the shell is.
Two charged conducting spheres of radii a and
b are connected to each other by a wire. What is
the ratio of electric fields at the surfaces of the two
spheres? Use the result obtained to explain why
charge density on the sharp and pointed ends of a
conductor is higher than on its flatter portions.
Derive an expression for the torque on an electric
dipole placed in a uniform electric field. Hence
define dipole moment.
OR
Two point charges +q and q are placed distance
d apart. What are the points at which the resultant
electric field is parallel to the line joining the two
charges?
(a) Determine the electrostatic potential energy of
a system consisting of two charges 7 mC and 2 mC
(and with no external field) placed at (9 cm, 0, 0)
and (9 cm, 0, 0) respectively.
(b) How much work is required to separate the two
charges infinitely away from each other?
(c) Suppose the same system of charges is now
placed in an external electric field E = A(1/r2);
A = 9 105 N C1 m2. What would the
electrostatic energy of the configuration be?
physics for you | june 15

17. A charged particle, of charge 2 mC and mass

10 milligram, moving with a velocity of 1000 m s1


enters a uniform electric field of strength 103 N C1
directed perpendicular to its direction of motion.
Find the velocity and displacement, of the particle
after 10 s.
18. A 600 pF capacitor is charged by a 200 V supply. It is
then disconnected from the supply and is connected
to another uncharged 600 pF capacitor. How much
electrostatic energy is lost in the process?
19. A spherical capacitor has an inner sphere of radius
12 cm and outer sphere of radius 13 cm. The outer
sphere is earthed and the inner sphere is given a
charge of 2.5 mC. The space between the concentric
spheres is filled with liquid of dielectric constant 32.
(a) Determine the capacitance of the capacitor.
(b) What is the potential of the inner sphere?
(c) Compare the capacitance of this capacitor with
that of an isolated sphere of radius 12 cm. Explain
why the latter is much smaller.
20. Obtain the equivalent capacitor of the network in

figure. For a 300 V supply, determine the charge


and voltage across each capacitor.

21. Consider three charges q1, q2, q3 each equal to q at

the vertices of an equilateral triangle of side l. What


is the force on a charge Q (with the same sign as q)
placed at the centroid of the triangle?

22. Obtain the formula for the electric field due to

a long thin wire of uniform linear charge density


l without using Gausss law.
section-d

23. Father of Devansh is a surgeon and has a video

monitor, Devansh observed that after the use the


video monitor surface remain charged for long. He
further heard his father instructing his assistant not
to bring his finger close to the screen or touch the
screen with contaminated gloves as the screen may
become a source of bacteria. Devansh asked for the
explanation from his father and shared his learning
with his classmates during the physics period. His
teacher and classmates had appreciations for him.
(i) What values had Devansh shown?
(ii) How did the father explain his observations?

section-e
24. Define dipole moment of an electric dipole. Show

mathematically that the electric field intensity due


to a short dipole at a distance d along its axis is
twice the intensity at the same distance along the
equatorial axis.
OR
What is an electric dipole? An electric dipole is
placed in a uniform electric field at some angle q.
Deduce the expression for its potential energy.
What is physical significance of electric dipole?
25. Draw a labelled diagram of Van de Graaff generator.
State its working principle to show how by
introducing a small charged sphere into a larger
sphere, a large amount of charge can be transferred
to the outer sphere. State the use of this machine
and also point out its limitations.
OR
State Gausss theorem in electrostatics and express
it mathematically. Using it, derive an expression
for electric field at a point near a thin infinite plane
sheet of electric charge. How does this electric field
change for a uniformly thick sheet of charge?
26. Derive an expression for the energy density in a
parallel plate capacitor.
A parallel plate capacitor with air as dielectric is
charged by a dc source to a potential V. Without
disconnecting the capacitor from the source, air is
replaced by another dielectric medium of dielectric
constant 10. State with reason, how does (i) electric
field between the plates and (ii) energy stored in the
capacitor change?
OR
What are conductors? Explain the electrostatics of
conductors.
solutions
1. The electric field due to an electric dipole exhibits

cylindrical symmetry with axis as the axis of


cylinder.
2. Yes, it is possible to move a charge in an electric field
without doing any net work. If electric potential of
initial and final points is same,
i.e., VA = VB, then WAB = q(VB VA) = 0
3. The curve 1 represents variation of electric field E
with distance r normal to a long uniformly charged
straight wire because here E 1/r and slope of curve 1
is the least. The curve 3 represents E r curve for
an electric dipole because here E 1/r3 and slope of
curve 3 is maximum.
Then, the curve 2 should represent Er graph for a
point charge, because here E 1/r2.

4. If a charge of 1 C is given to a spherical conductor

of radius 1 m, then field at a point just near its


surface,
Q
9 109 1
=
= 9 109 V m 1
E=
4pe0R 2
(1)2
However, the dielectric strength of air present
around the conductor is much less (about 3 106 V m1).
So, the charge will immediately leak. Thus, it is
not possible to store a charge of 1 C in a spherical
conductor of radius 1 m.
5. As, electric force between two point charges q1
and q2 in a medium = electric force between same
charges in free space
ke q1q2
qq
r
= ke 122 or er r 2 = r 2 or r =
er r 2
er
r
6. Let each drop be having a radius r and charge q.
Then, potential at the surface of each drop,
q
V=
4pe0r

and surface density of charge,


q
=
4pr 2
When n drops coalesce to form a single bigger drop
of radius R, total volume remains unchanged.
4
4
Hence, pR 3 = n pr 3
3
3
R = (n)1/3r
and total charge on the bigger drop,
Q = nq
\ Potential of bigger drop,
Q
nq
V =
=
= (n)2/3V
4pe0R 4pe (n)1/3r
0

and new surface charge density,


Q
nq
=
=
= (n)1/3
2
4pR
4pn2/3r 2
7. Electric potential at centre O1 of 1st ring,

V1 =

q
1 q
+

4pe0 R
R 2 + d 2

and electric potential at the centre O2 of 2nd ring,


q
q
1
V2 =

+
4pe0
2
2 R
R +d

\ V1 V2 =

q
q
q
1 q

R
4pe0 R
R2 + d 2 R2 + d 2

physics for you | june 15

53

q 1
1

2pe0 R
R 2 + d 2

8. The arrangement shown in the figure is equivalent

to two capacitors each having a plate area A/2 and


plate separation d. The two capacitors are filled
with dielectrics of dielectric constants K1 and K2
respectively and are joined in parallel.
K e A / 2 K1e0 A
\ C1 = 1 0
=
d
2d
K e A
and C2 = 2 0
2d
\ Net capacitance of the capacitors,
e A
C = C1 + C2 = 0 (K1 + K 2 )
2d
9. We know that potential energy of an electric dipole
is given by
U = pE cosq
Hence,
(a) for q = 0, U = pE
p
(b) for q = , U = 0
2
(c) for q = p, U = +pE
On the basis of this data, we plot the curve as shown
in the given figure. It is a part of cosine curve.

1
C1V 2
Ui
C + C2
2
=
= 1
2
2
Uf
C1
1 C1 V
2 (C1 + C2 )

10. Electric field at a point distant x from the ring of

charge q,

E = ke

qx

2 3/2

(a + x )

k qx
= e3
a

(for x << a)

Force on the electron, F = eE


Acceleration of the electron,
d 2x
dt

F eE keqxe
=
=
m m ma 3

keqxe / ma 3
d 2 x / dt 2
2
x
=

=
=
x
x
dt 2
qe
or =
4pe0ma 3
11. The capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor of plate
area A and plate separation d with vacuum between
its plates is given by
e A
C0 = 0
d
Suppose initially the charges on the capacitor
plates are Q. Then the uniform electric field set up
between the capacitor plates is

Q
E0 = =
e0 Ae0
As

d 2x

When a dielectric slab of thickness t < d is placed


between the plates, the field E0 polarises the
dielectric.
OR

Initial value of potential energy,


1
Ui = C1V 2
2
On joining C1 with C2, after being disconnected
from the battery, common potential,
V =

C1V
(C1 + C2 )

Hence, final value of potential energy


1
U f = (C1 + C2 )V 2
2
C12V 2
(C1V )2
1
= (C1 + C2 )
=
2
(C1 + C2 )2 2(C1 + C2 )
54

physics for you | june 15

This induces charge Qp on the upper surface


and +Qp on the lower surface of the dielectric.
These induced charges set up a field Ep inside the

dielectric in the opposite direction of E0. The


induced field is given by
p
P
Q
Ep =
= [ P = = P, polarisation density]
e0 e0
A
The net electric field inside the dielectric is

E
E = E0 E p = 0
K

E0
E E = K
0
p

where K is the dielectric constant of the slab. So


between the capacitor plates, the field E exists over
a distance t and field E0 exists over the remaining
distance (d t). Hence the potential difference
between the capacitor plates is
E E

V = E0(d t ) + Et = E0(d t ) + 0 t 0 = K
K E

t Q
t

= E0 d t + =
d t +
K e0 A
K

The capacitance of the capacitor on introduction of


dielectric slab becomes
e0 A
Q
C= =
.
t
V
d t +
K
12. Suppose the three charges are placed as shown in
the figure. Let the charge q be positive.

For the equilibrium of charge +q, we must have,


Force of repulsion F1 between + 4e and +q
= Force of repulsion F2 between + e and +q
eq
1 4e q
1
=
or
4pe0 x 2
4pe0 (a x)2
4(a x)2 = x2
2(a x) = x
2a
x = or 2a.
3
As the charge q is placed between + 4e and +e, so
only x = 2a/3 is possible. Hence for equilibrium, the
charge q must be placed at a distance 2a/3 from the
charge + 4e.
We have considered the charge q to be positive. If
we displace it slightly towards charge e, from the
equilibrium position, then F1 will decrease and
F2 will increase and a net force (F2 F1)will act on
q towards left i.e., towards the equilibrium position.
Hence the equilibrium of positive q is stable.
Now if we take charge q to be negative, the force F1
and F2 will be attractive, as shown in figure.
or
or

56

physics for you | june 15

The charge q will still be in equilibrium at


x = 2a/3. However, if we displace charge q slightly
towards right, then F1 will decrease and F2 will
increase. A net force (F2 F1) will act on q towards
right i.e., away from the equilibrium position. So
the equilibrium of the negative q will be unstable.
13. Consider a small sphere of radius r placed inside
a large spherical shell of radius R. Let the spheres
carry charges q and Q, respectively.
Total potential on the outer sphere,
VR = Potential due to its own charge Q
+ potential due to the charge q on the inner sphere
1 Q q
=
+
4pe0 R R
Potential on the inner sphere due to its own charge is
1 q
V1 =

4pe0 r

As the potential at every point inside a charged


sphere is the same as that on its surface, so potential on
the inner sphere due to charge Q on outer sphere is
1 Q
V2 =

4pe0 R
\

Total potential on inner sphere


1 q Q
Vr =
+
4pe0 r R

Hence the potential difference is


q 1 1
Vr VR =

4pe0 r R
So if q is positive, the potential of the inner
sphere will always be higher than that of the outer
sphere. Now if the two spheres are connected by
a conducting wire, the charge q will flow to the
outer sphere, irrespective of the charge Q already
present on the outer sphere. In fact this is true for
conductors of any shape.
14. As the two spheres are connected to each other by a
wire, so they have same electric potential i.e.,
Va = Vb

or

1 qa
1 qb
=
4 pe0 a 4 pe0 b

qa a
=
or
qb b

...(i)

So, the ratio of electric fields at the surfaces of the


two spheres is
1 qa

Ea 4 pe0 a2 qa b2 a b2
=
=

=
1 qb qb a2 b a2
Eb

4 pe0 b2
or

Ea b
=
Eb a

If b > a, then Ea > Eb i.e. sphere with smaller radius


produces more electric field on its surface. Hence,
the charge density on the sharp and pointed ends of
conductor is higher than on its flatter portions.
15. Consider an electric dipole consisting of charges +q
and q and of length 2a placed in a uniform electric

field E making an angle q with it. It has a dipole


moment of magnitude,
p = q 2a

Force exerted on charge + q by field E = qE

(along E )

Force exerted on charge q by field E = qE

(opposite to E )
Fnet = + qE qE = 0.
Hence the net translating force on a dipole in a
uniform electric field is zero. But the two equal and
opposite forces act at different points of the dipole.
They form a couple which exerts a torque.
Torque = Either force Perpendicular distance
between the two forces
t = qE 2a sinq = (q 2a)E sinq
or

t = pE sinq

(p = 2aq)

As the direction of torque t is perpendicular to both

p and E, so we
can write

t = p E

The direction of vector t is that in which a right

handed screw would advance when rotated from p

to E. As shown in figure, the direction of vector t is

perpendicular to both p and E , and points into the


plane of paper.

When the dipole is released, the torque t tends to

align the dipole with the field E i.e., tends to reduce

angle q to 0. When the dipole gets aligned with E ,

the torque t becomes zero.


Clearly, the torque on the dipole will be maximum

when the dipole is held perpendicular to E .Thus


tmax = pE sin90 = pE.
Dipole moment :
As t = pEsinq
If E = 1 unit, q = 90,then t = p
Hence dipole moment may be defined as the torque
acting on an electric dipole, placed perpendicular
to a uniform electric field of unit strength.
OR
As shown in figure, suppose the charges + q and q
are located at points A and B distance d apart.
Let P be a point such that AP = r1 and BP = r2.
Electric field at P due to charge +q is
1 q
E1 =
,
4pe0 r 2
1

along AP produced.
Electric field at P due
to charge q is
q
1
E2 =
. 2,
4pe0 r
2

along PB produced.
Draw PR||AB and PQ, PS ^ PR. If a and b are the
angles made by AP and BP with AB, then
Component of E1 along PR = E1 cosa
Component of E1 along PQ = E1 sina
Component of E2 along PR = E2 cosb
Component of E2 along PS = E2 sinb
The resultant field will be parallel to PR if the
components E1 sina and E2 sinb are equal and
opposite or zero. Hence
(i) When E1 sina = E2 sinb
q PS
1 q PS
1
. =
.
4pe0 r 2 r1 4pe0 r 2 r2
1

or
r1 = r2
(ii) When E1 sina = E2 sinb = 0, we have
sina = sinb = 0
i.e., a = 0 or 180 and b = 0 or 180
Thus the resultant intensity will be parallel to the
physics for you | june 15

57

line joining A and B if (i) P lies on the perpendicular


bisector of AB, or (ii) P lies on either side of
AB i.e., a = b = 0 or 180
16. (a) q1 = 7 mC = 7 106 C, q2 = 2 106 C,
r = 18 cm = 0.18 m
Electrostatic potential energy of the two charge
system is
1 q1q2
.
U=
4pe0 r
9 109 7 10 6 (2) 10 6
= 0. 7 J
0.18
(b) Work required to separate two charges infinitely
away from each other,
W = U2 U1 = 0 U = (0.7) = 0.7 J
(c) Energy of the two charges in the external
electric field = Energy of interaction of two
charges with the external electric field
+ Mutual interaction energy of the two charges
1 q1q2
= q1V (r1) + q2V (r2 ) +
4pe0 r 2
=

A
A
A
1 q1q2
V = Er =
+ q2 +

2
r
r1
r2 4pe0 r
2 mC
7 mC
5
1 2
=
+
9 10 NC m 0.7 J
0
.
09
m
0
.
09
m

= q1

= (70 20) 0.7 = 50 0.7 = 49.3 J


17. The velocity of the particle, normal to the direction
of field
vx = 1000 m s1, is constant.
The velocity of the particle, along the direction of
field, after 10 s, is given by
vy = uy + ayt
qE y
2 10 6 103 10
= 2000 m s 1
t=
=0+
m
10 10 6
The net velocity after 10 s,

v = v 2x + v 2y = (1000)2 + (2000)2 = 1000 5 m s 1


Displacement, along the x-axis, after 10 s,
x = 1000 10 m = 10000 m
Displacement along y-axis (in the direction of field)
after 10 s,
1
1 qE y 2
y = uy t + a yt 2 = (0)t +
t
2
2 m
1 2 10 6 103
(10)2 = 10000 m
=
6
2
10 10
Net displacement,
r = x 2 + y 2 = (10000)2 + (10000)2 = 10000 2 m.
58

physics for you | june 15

18. Here, C1 = 600 pF, V1 = 200 V, C2 = 600 pF, V2 = 0

On
connecting
charged
capacitor
to
uncharged capacitor, the common potential
V across the capacitors is

12
12
C V + C2V2 600 10 200 + 600 10 0
V= 1 1
=
C1 + C2
(600 + 600) 10 12

or V = 100 V
Energy stored in capacitors before connection is
1
1
Ui = C1V12 + 0 = 600 10 12 2002
2
2
or Ui = 12 mJ
Energy stored in capacitors after connection is
1
1
Uf = (C1 + C2 )V 2 = (600 + 600) 10 12 1002
2
2
or Uf = 6 mJ
Hence the energy lost in the process is
DU= Ui Uf = (12 6) mJ or DU= 6 mJ.
19. Here, r1 = 13 cm, r2 = 12 cm, K = 32, Q = 2.5 mC
(a) Capacitance of capacitor is
C=

4pe0Kr1r2 1 32 13 10 2 12 10 2

=
r1 r2
9 109
(13 12) 10 2

or C = 5.5 109 F
(b) Electric potential of inner sphere is
VB = VBB + VBA
Q r1 r2
1 Q Q
=
+
=
4pe0K r2 r1 4pe0K r1r2
9 109
13 12 10 2
2.5 10 6

32
13 12 10 4
= 4.5 102 V.
Capacitance of isolated sphere of radius 12 cm is
=

(c)

12 10 2
9 109
or C0 = 1.3 1011 F
Here C > C0, because a single conductor A can
be charged to an electric potential till it reaches
the breakdown value of surroundings. But when
another earthed metallic conductor B is brought
near it, negative charge induced on it decreases the
electric potential on A, hence more charge can be
stored on A.
20.
Since C2 and C3 are in series so
C C3
C = 2
=100 pF
C2 + C3
Now, C1 and C are in parallel so
C = C1 + C = 100 + 100 or C = 200 pF
C0 = 4pe0r =

AD AD
=
AB
l
3l
or AD = l cos 30 =
2
2
2
3l
l
As AO = AD =
or AO =
....(i)
3
3 2
3
l
Similarly BO = CO =
3
Forces on charge +Q at O due to charges +q at A, B
and C are
Qq
1
1 3Qq
=
FOA = FOB = FOC =
2
4pe0 l
4pe0 l 2

3
Horizontal component of net force on +Q charge
at O is
Fx = FOB cos 30 FOC cos 30 = 0
or Fx = 0
...(ii)
and vertical component of net force on +Q charge
at O is
Fy = FOB sin 30 + FOC sin 30 FOA
In D ABD, cos 30 =

Since C4 and C are in series, so net capacitance of


the network is
1
1
1
1
1 1+ 2
=
+
=
+
=
C C C 4 200 100 200
200
or C =
pF = 66.7 pF
3
Net charge stored on the combination is
200
Q = CV =
10 12 300 = 2 108 C
3
As C and C4 are in series, so
Q = Q4 = Q
or Q = Q4 = 2 108 C
Q
2 10 8 C
and hence V=
=
= 100 V
C 200 10 12 F
Q4
2 10 8 C
=
= 200 V
C 4 100 10 12 F
C1 and C are in parallel, so
V1 = V = V
or V1 = V = 100 V
Hence, Q1 = C1V1 = 100 1012 100 = 1 108 C
and Q = CV = 100 1012 100 = 1 108 C
C2 and C3 are in series, so
Q2 = Q3 = Q = 1 108 C
and V4 =

Hence,V2 =

Q2
1 10 8 C
=
= 50 V
C2 200 10 12 F

Q
1 10 8 C
and V3 = 3 =
= 50 V.
C3 200 10 12 F

21. Given situation is shown with DABC.

or Fy = FOA [2sin30 1]

[ FOB = FOC = FOA]

1
or Fy = FOA 2 1 = FOA [11]
2
or Fy = 0
So, net force on charge +Q at O is

...(iii)

2
2
Fnet = Fx + Fy
or Fnet = 0
22. Consider an infinite line of charge with uniform
linear charge density l, as shown in figure. We
wish to calculate its electric field at any point P at a
distance y from it. The charge on small element dx
of the line charge will be
dq = ldx
The electric field at the point P due to the charge
element dq will be
ldx
1 dq
1
. =
.
dE =
4pe0 r 2 4pe0 y 2 + x 2

physics for you | june 15

59

The field dE has two components :


dEx = dE sinq and dEy = dE cosq
The negative sign in x-component indicates that

dE x acts in the negative x-direction. Every charge


element on the right has a corresponding charge
element on the left. The x-components of two
such charge elements will be equal and opposite

and hence cancel out. The resultant field E gets


contributions only from y-components and is given by
E = Ey = dE y =
=2

x =

x =0

l
=
2pe0

x =+

dE cos q

x =

ldx
1
.
cos q
4pe0 y 2 + x 2

x =

x =0

dx

y2 + x2

q = p /2

cos q

l
2pe0 y

OR

Refer point 1.4 (1, 6, 7), page-6, 7 (MTG Excel in


Physics)
25. Refer point 1.11 (11 (ii)), page-17(MTG Excel in

Physics)
OR

Physics)

y sec2 qdq

cos qdq =

q=0

l
[sin q]0p/2
2pe0 y

l p

sin sin 0
2pe0 y 2

l
E=
2pe0 y
23. (i) Inquisitiveness and sharing.
=

(ii) The picture on the screen is produced by striking


accelerated electrons on the positively charged
screen, that is why Devansh observed charging on
the screen. The charged screen also attracts airborne
infected particles floating around. As many of
the particles collected on the screen surface carry
bacteria, the screen becomes contaminated with
bacteria.

60

Physics)

26. Refer point 1.11 (9), page-16 (MTG Excel in

cos q 2
y (1 + tan 2 q)

q=0
q = p /2

24. Refer point 1.4 (2, 3, 4), page-6(MTG Excel in

Refer point 1.8 (2), page-11, 12 (MTG Excel in


Physics)

Now x = y tanq
dx = y sec2q dq
l
E=
2pe0

When a surgeon puts his finger with gloves near the


screen the bacteria may shift to the gloves. To avoid
the risk, surgeons are suggested not to bring finger
near a video monitor.

physics for you | june 15

e A
1
Energy stored U = CV 2 where C = 0
2
d
Now battery remains connected and dielectric
of constant K = 10 introduced, the potential will
remain the same, the capacity becomes C= KC
= 10C
V
(i) Electric field remains same as E =
d
1
(ii) Energy changes as U= C V 2
2
1
(10C )V 2
2
1
1
Change in energy, U U = (10C )V 2 CV 2
2
2
U =

DU =

9
CV2
2

OR

Refer point 1.9, page-13, 14 (MTG Excel in


Physics)
nn

Silvering of Lens

An object is kept infront of a lens whose one face has


been mirrored and location of the image is asked, as
below.

To solve such questions, we need to understand first


of all that when thin optical devices (lens or mirror)
are kept in contact, the optical power follows algebraic
addition rule which simply means, a converging (lens or
mirror) + another converging (lens or mirror) increases
the converging nature whereas converging + diverging
will be less of converging.
Conventionally, the ability to converge is taken to be
positive power and ability to diverge is negative power.

For mirror,

1
,
fm
where fm = focal length of mirror
For lens,
1
Power, Pl =
, where f l = focal length of lens
fl
Hence, if two thin lenses of focal lengths f1 and f2 are
kept in contact
we can replace the combination with a single lens of
equivalent power.

Power, Pm =

f1 f2

Peq = P1 + P2

1
1 1
= +
feq f1 f2

Here, we need to follow the sign convention of the


respective lenses.
Now, what happens if a lens is silvered?
Any ray which is incident on the set up, has to pass
through lens mirror lens, in the same order as
indicated.

Note that for a lens, P and f have same sign whereas for
mirror they follow opposite sign.
Clearly following the definition of power stated above,

Hence, the incident ray passes through lens twice and


once through mirror.
\ Equivalent power of this combination, whose
overall nature (behaviour) is that of a mirror can be
written as
Peq = Pl + Pm + Pl = 2Pl + Pm
1
2
1
1
1
2

=

feq fl fm
feq fm fl

Contributed By: Bishwajit Barnwal, Aakash Institute, Kolkata

62

physics for you | june 15

Feq

This formula can be used as a standard result for zfinding


out equivalent focal length of the combination and then
we can use mirror formula to trace the image formed.
1 1
1
+ =
v u feq
Note : If focal length of lens has not been given, instead
the radius of curvature of the two surfaces and refractive
index of the material is given, first find out the focal
length of the lens using lens makers formula
1
1
1
= (m 1)
fl
R1 R2
and if the second surface of radius of curvature R2 has
been silvered, the focal length of the mirror becomes
1 R2
=
fm
2
Apparent depth

Assumption : Until and unless specified, we would


assume near normal incidence of incident rays, i.e.,
angle of incidence would be small, such that we can
assume sini i.
This is a very common phenomenon, in which
objects kept in denser medium when viewed from
rarer medium appear to be shifted closer.
Let us see the physics involved behind this.

appear to be shifted even more far than the real


depth as below :

Again since the object is in medium of refractive


index m1,
R
R
A=
=
m
m12
1
m2

Clearly from both the results, we note that, depth


increases when viewed from denser medium and
decreases when viewed from rarer medium.
Note : If the rarer medium is air, m1 = 1 whereas
the other medium might be water, glass etc. whose
refractive index, m2 = m (say).
R
when depth decreases

\ A= m
mR when depth increases

Let us see some applications :

1. Two thin similar convex glass pieces are joined


together front to front with its rear portion silvered
such that a sharp image is formed 20 cm from the
mirror. When the air between the glass pieces is
replaced by water (m = 4/3), then find the location
of image.
Object O, is kept in medium of refractive index
(R.I.) m2 and is viewed from a medium of refractive
index m1.
R is the real depth of the object whereas A is the
apparent depth.
\ m2sini = m1sinr m2i m1r
R
R
x
x
A=
=
m2 = m1
m2 m21
R
A
m1

m
where, m21 = 2 = refractive index of 2nd medium
m1
with respect to 1st medium.
On similar lines, if the object was kept in rarer
medium and viewed from denser medium, it would

Soln.: The first thing to note here is, what would happen
with the thin convex glass pieces? Do they have any
role to play?
Imagine a thick slab,

The ray gets laterally displaced, inclination does not


change since radius of curvature is identical.
physics for you | june 15

63

So, if the glass piece is said to be thin, it means


lateral displacement will be negligible.

So, basically, these glass pieces are used only to hold


water, nothing else.
In the first situation (without water), the entire set
up is equivalent to only a concave mirror on which
a ray travelling from infinity is incident. Hence they
would be focussed at f =

R
.
2

R
= 20 cm R = 40 cm
2
Now, we have a lens made of water.
\

=4
3

R1 = +R

\
\

R2 = R

1 4 1 1 2
=
1

=
fl 3 R R 3R
2
4
1
1
2
=

( R ) 3R
f eq fm fl
=

10
10
1
=
=
3R 3 40
12

Let O, I and I represent the object, image formed


after 1st refraction, and final image respectively.
Remember the rule, as many times there is a change
in medium for a plane surface we can apply the
concept of real and apparent depth, where we apply
R
mR for increment in depth,
for decrement in
m
depth and that can be understood by taking a ray
and see how it bends. If it bends towards normal,
depth increases. If it bends away from normal,
depth decreases.
For 1st refraction (interface AB),
R = x, A = mx
2nd refraction (interface CD),
mx + t
R = mx + t, A =
m
\ Shift in location of image,
mx + t
OI = x = (x + t )
m
1
x = t 1
m
3. A point object is kept in front of a glass slab of
thickness 10 cm, at a distance of 16 cm. The rear
face of slab is silvered and hence starts behaving as
a mirror. The image of the object is formed 12 cm
behind mirrored face. Find the refractive index of
glass slab.
Soln.:

\ feq = 12 cm, i.e., the set up behaves like a


concave mirror of focal length 12 cm.
Hence, rays get focussed at 12 cm from
combination.
2. A glass slab of thickness t and refractive index
m is kept in between a point object and observer.
By what distance the object appears shifted?

Soln.:

To the object the mirror appears to be shifted by,


1
x = 10 1
m
\ From this shifted mirror,
object distance = image distance
1
10
16 + = 12 + 10 1
m
m

20
10
=6 m=
m
3
nn

64

physics for you | june 15

Category I (Q1 to Q30)

Each question has one correct option and carries


1 mark, for each wrong answer 1/4 mark will be
deducted.
1. An object is located 4 m from the first of two thin
converging lenses of focal lengths 2 m and 1 m
respectively. The lenses are separated by 3 m. The
final image formed by the second lens is located
from the source at a distance of

(a) 8.0 m
(c) 6.0 m

3. The length of a metal wire is L1 when the tension is


T1 and L2 when the tension is T2. The unstretched
length of the wire is
L +L
(a) 1 2
(b) L1L2
2
T2L1 + T1L2
T L T L
(c) 2 1 1 2
(d)
T2 + T1
T2 T1
4. A hollow sphere of external radius R and thickness
t (<<R) is made of a metal of density r. The sphere
will float in water if
R
R
(a) t
(b) t
3r
r
R
2r

6. Assume that each diode shown in the figure has


a forward bias resistance of 50 W and an infinite
reverse bias resistance. The current through the
resistance 150 W is

(b) 7.5 m
(d) 6.5 m

2. A simple pendulum of length L swings in a vertical


plane. The tension of the string when it makes
an angle q with the vertical and the bob of mass
m moves with a speed v is (g is the gravitational
acceleration)
(a) mv2/L
(b) mgcosq + mv2/L
2
(c) mgcosq mv /L (d) mgcosq

(c) t

5. A metal wire of circular cross-section has a resistance


R1. The wire is now stretched without breaking so
that its length is doubled and the density is assumed
to remain the same. If the resistance of the wire now
becomes R2 then R2 : R1 is
(a) 1 : 1
(b) 1 : 2
(c) 4 : 1
(d) 1 : 4

(d) t

R
3r

(a) 0.66 A
(c) zero

(b) 0.05 A
(d) 0.04 A

7. A straight conductor 0.1 m long moves in a uniform


magnetic field 0.1 T. The velocity of the conductor
is 15 m/s and is directed perpendicular to the field.
The e.m.f. induced between the two ends of the
conductor is
(a) 0.10 V
(b) 0.15 V
(c) 1.50 V
(d) 15.00 V
8. A ray of light is incident at an angle i on a glass slab
of refractive index m. The angle between reflected
and refracted light is 90. Then the relationship
between i and m is
1
(a) i = tan 1
m
(c) sini = m

(b) tani = m
(d) cosi = m

9. Two particles A and B are moving as shown in the


figure. Their total angular momentum about the
point O is
Physics for you | June 15

65

(a) 9.8 kg m2/s


(c) 52.7 kg m2/s

(b) zero
(d) 37.9 kg m2/s

10. Particle A moves along X-axis


with a uniform velocity of
magnitude 10 m/s. Particle B
moves with uniform velocity
20 m/s along a direction
making an angle of 60 with
the positive direction of X-axis
as shown in the figure.
The relative velocity of B with respect to that of A is
(a) 10 m/s along X-axis
(b) 10 3 m/s along Y-axis (perpendicular to X-axis)
(c) 10 5 m/s along the bisection of the velocities
of A and B
(d) 30 m/s along negative X-axis
11. When light is refracted from a surface, which of its
following physical parameters does not change?
(a) velocity
(b) amplitude
(c) frequency
(d) wavelength
12. A solid maintained at t1 C is kept in an evacuated
chamber at temperature t2 C (t2 >> t1). The rate of
heat absorbed by the body is proportional to
(a) t24 t14
(b) (t24 + 273) (t14 + 273)
(c) t2 t1
(d) t22 t12
13. The work function of metals is in the range of 2 eV
to 5 eV. Find which of the following wavelength
of light cannot be used for photoelectric effect.
(Consider, Planck constant = 4 1015 eVs, velocity of
light = 3 108 m/s)
(a) 510 nm
(b) 650 nm
(c) 400 nm
(d) 570 nm
14. A thin plastic sheet of refractive index 1.6 is used to
cover one of the slits of a double slit arrangement.
The central point on the screen is now occupied by
what would have been the 7th bright fringe before
the plastic was used. If the wavelength of light is
600 nm, what is the thickness (in mm) of the
plastic?
(a) 7
(b) 4
(c) 8
(d) 6
66

Physics for you | June 15

15. The length of an open organ pipe is twice the length


of another closed organ pipe. The fundamental
frequency of the open pipe is100 Hz. The frequency
of the third harmonic of the closed pipe is
(a) 100 Hz
(b) 200 Hz
(c) 300 Hz
(d) 150 Hz
16. A 5 mF capacitor is connected in series with a 10 mF
capacitor. When a 300 volt potential difference is
applied across this combination, the total energy
stored in the capacitors is
(a) 15 J (b) 1.5 J (c) 0.15 J (d) 0.10 J
17. Two particles of mass m1 and m2, approach each
other due to their mutual gravitational attraction
only. Then
(a) accelerations of both the particles are equal.
(b) acceleration of the particle of mass m1 is
proportional to m1.
(c) acceleration of the particle of mass m1 is
proportional to m2.
(d) acceleration of the particle of mass m1 is
inversely proportional to m1.
18. Three bodies of the same material and having
masses m, m and 3m are at temperatures 40C, 50C
and 60C respectively. If the bodies are brought in
thermal contact, the final temperature will be
(a) 45C
(b) 54C
(c) 52C
(d) 48C
19. A satellite has kinetic energy K, potential energy
V and total energy E. Which of the following
statements is true?
(a) K = V/2
(b) K = V/2
(c) E = K/2
(d) E = K/2
20. The line AA is on a charged infinite
conducting
plane
which
is
perpendicular to the plane of the
paper. The plane has a surface density
of charge s and B is a ball of mass m
with a like charge of magnitude q. B
is connected by a string from a point
of the line AA. The tangent of the
angle (q) formed between the line
AA and the string is
qs
qs
(a)
(b)
2e0mg
4pe0mg
(c)

qs
2pe0mg

(d)

qs
e0mg

21. The current I in the circuit shown is

(a) 1.33 A (b) zero

(c) 2.00 A (d) 1.00 A

22. The r.m.s. speed of oxygen is v at a particular


temperature. If the temperature is doubled and
oxygen molecules dissociate into oxygen atoms, the
r.m.s. speed becomes
(a) v
(b) 2v (c) 2v
(d) 4v
23. Two particles, A and B, having equal charges,
after being accelerated through the same potential
difference enter a region of uniform magnetic field
and the particles describe circular paths of radii R1
and R2 respectively. The ratio of the masses of A and
B is
(a) R1/R2
(b) R1/R2
2

(c) (R1/R2)

(d) (R2/R1)

24. A large number of particles are placed around the


origin, each at a distance R from the origin. The
distance of the center of mass of the system from
the origin is
(a) = R
(b) R
(c) > R (d) R
25. A 20 cm long capillary tube is dipped vertically in
water and the liquid rises upto 10 cm. If the entire
system is kept in a freely falling platform, the length
of water column in the tube will be
(a) 5 cm (b) 10 cm (c) 15 cm (d) 20 cm
26. A train is moving with a uniform speed of 33 m/s
and an observer is approaching the train with the
same speed. If the train blows a whistle of frequency
1000 Hz and the velocity of sound is 333 m/s,
then the apparent frequency of the sound that the
observer hears is
(a) 1220 Hz
(b) 1099 Hz
(c) 1110 Hz
(d) 1200 Hz
27. A photon of wavelength 300 nm interacts with a
stationary hydrogen atom in ground state. During
the interaction, whole energy of the photon is
transferred to the electron of the atom. State which
possibility is correct. (Consider, Planck constant
= 4 1015 eVs, velocity of light = 3 108 m/s,
ionization energy of hydrogen = 13.6 eV)
(a) Electron will be knocked out of the atom
(b) Electron will go to any excited state of the atom

(c) Electron will go only to first excited state of the


atom
(d) Electron will keep orbiting in the ground state
of atom
28. Block B lying on a table weighs W. The coefficient
of static friction between the block and the table is
m. Assume that the cord between B and the knot is
horizontal. The maximum weight of the block A for
which the system will be stationary is

(a) W tan q
m

(b) mW tanq

(c) mW 1 + tan2 q

(d) mW sinq

29. The inputs to the digital circuit are shown below.


The output Y is

(a) A + B + C

(b) (A + B) C

(c) A + B + C

(d) A + B + C

30. Two particles A and B having different masses


are projected from a tower with same speed. A
is projected vertically upward and B vertically
downward. On reaching the ground
(a) velocity of A is greater than that of B.
(b) velocity of B is greater than that of A.
(c) both A and B attain the same velocity.
(d) the particle with the larger mass attains higher
velocity.

Category II (Q31 to Q35)

Each question has one correct option and carries


2 marks, for each wrong answer 1/2 mark will be
deducted.
31. Two cells A and B of e.m.f. 2 V and 1.5 V respectively,
are connected as shown in figure through an external
resistance 10 W. The internal resistance of each cell
is 5 W. The potential difference EA and EB across the
terminals of the cells A and B respectively are
Physics for you | June 15

67

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

EA = 2.0 V, EB = 1.5 V
EA = 2.125 V, EB = 1.375 V
EA = 1.875 V, EB = 1.625 V
EA = 1.875 V, EB = 1.375 V

32. A charge q is placed at one corner of a cube. The


electric flux through any of the three faces adjacent
to the charge is zero. The flux through any one of
the other three faces is
(a) q/3e0 (b) q/6e0 (c) q/12e0 (d) q/24e0
33. In the circuit shown below, the switch is kept in
position a for a long time and is then thrown to
position b. The amplitude of the resulting oscillating
current is given by

(a) E L/C
(c) infinity

(b) E/R
(d) E C / L

34. The pressure p, volume V and temperature T for a

AT BT 2
, where A
V
and B are constants. The work done by the gas when
the temperature changes from T1 to T2 while the
pressure remains constant, is given by
2
2
(a) A(T2 T1 ) + B (T2 T1 )
certain gas are related by p =

(b)

A(T2 T1) B(T22 T12 )

V2 V1
V2 V1

2
2
(c) A(T2 T1 ) B (T2 T1 )

(d)

A(T2 T22 )
V2 V1

35. A cylinder of height h is filled with water and is


kept on a block of height h/2. The level of water in
the cylinder is kept constant. Four holes numbered
1, 2, 3 and 4 are at the side of the cylinder and at
heights 0, h/4, h/2 and 3h/4 respectively. When all
four holes are opened together, the hole from which
water will reach farthest distance on the plane PQ is
the hole no.
68

Physics for you | June 15

(a) 1
(c) 3

(b) 2
(d) 4

Category III (Q36 to Q40)

Each question has one or more correct option(s),


choosing which will fetch maximum 2 marks on pro
rata basis. However, choice of any wrong option(s)
will fetch zero mark for the question.
36. Consider two particles of different masses. In which
of the following situations the heavier of the two
particles will have smaller de Broglie wavelength?
(a) Both have a free fall through the same height.
(b) Both move with the same kinetic energy.
(c) Both move with the same linear momentum.
(d) Both move with the same speed.
37. A circular disc rolls on a horizontal floor without
slipping and the centre of the disc moves with a
uniform velocity v. Which of the following values
the velocity at a point on the rim of the disc can
have?
(a) v
(b) v
(c) 2v
(d) zero
38. A conducting loop in the form of a circle is
placed in a uniform magnetic field with its plane
perpendicular to the direction of the field. An e.m.f.
will be induced in the loop if
(a) it is translated parallel to itself.
(b) it is rotated about one of its diameters.
(c) it is rotated about its own axis which is parallel
to the field.
(d) the loop is deformed from the original shape.
39. Find the right condition(s) for Fraunhoffer
diffraction due to a single slit.
(a) Source is at infinite distance and the incident
beam has converged at the slit.
(b) Source is near to the slit and the incident beam
is parallel.
(c) Source is at infinity and the incident beam is
parallel.
(d) Source is near to the slit and the incident beam
has converged at the slit.

40. Two charges +q and q are placed at a distance a


in a uniform electric field. The dipole moment of
^

the combination is 2qa(cos q i + sin q j), where q is


the angle between the direction of the field and the
line joining the two charges. Which of the following
statement(s) is/are correct?
(a) The torque exerted by the field on the dipole
vanishes.
(b) the net force on the dipole vanishes.
(c) The torque is independent of the choice of
coordinates.
(d) The net force is independent of a.
solutions

1. (b) : For first lens, f1 = 2 m, u1 = 4 m, v1 = ?


Using lens formula,
1 1 1
=
v1 u1 f1
1 1 1 1 1 1 1
= =

= ;
v1 4 2 v1 2 4 4
v1 = 4 m
For second lens, f2 = 1 m
Object distance, u2 = |v1| 3 = 4 3 = 1 m
Image distance, v2 = ?
Again using lens formula,
1 1 1
1
= or
= 1 + 1 = 2; v2 = 0.5 m
v2 1 1
v2
So, distance of final image from the source point
= 4 + 3 + v2 = 4 + 3 + 0.5 = 7.5 m
2. (b) : Given situation is shown in the figure.
L = length of pendulum
m = mass of the bob
q = angle between
pendulum and vertical
v = speed of pendulum
Let T be the tension in the
string at given situation.
v2
L
Using Newtons second law of motion,
mv 2
Fnet =
L
mv 2
T mg cos q =
L
mv 2
T = mg cos q +
L

Acceleration of the bob =

3. (c) : Let the unstretched length of the wire be L.


Area of cross-section of the wire = A (say)
Stress
Youngs modulus, Y =
Strain
Case I : Length of wire = L1
Tension in the wire = T1
Extension in the wire = (L1 L)
T1 /A
T1L
\ Y=
...(i)
=
(L1 L)/L A(L1 L)
Case II : Length of wire = L2
Tension in wire = T2
Extension in wire = (L2 L)
T2 /A
T2 L
=
\ Y=
(L2 L)/L A(L2 L)

...(ii)

From eqns (i) and (ii),


T1L
T2 L
=
A(L1 L) A(L2 L)
T1(L2 L) = T2(L1 L)
T1L2 T1L = T2L1 LT2
L(T2 T1) = T2L1 T1L2
T L T L
\ L= 2 1 1 2
T2 T1

4. (b) : Here, density of metal = r


Mass of hollow sphere
= (Surface area) (thickness) r
= 4pR2 t r
Sphere will float in water if
4

(4 pR2tr) g pR3 rw g
3

R rw
t
3 r
\

R
3r

[ rw = 1 g cm3]

rl rl l rl 2
=
=
A Al V
Here, r and V are constant.
\ R l2

5. (c) : As R =

R1 l12
=
R2 l22

Given, l2 = 2l1
Hence,

R1 l12 1
=
=
R2 4l12 4
R2 : R1 = 4 : 1
Physics for you | June 15

69

6. (d) : In the circuit, diode D1 is


reverse biased and offers
infinite resistance, diode D2
is forward biased and offers
50 W resistance.
Equivalent circuit is redrawn.
Total resistance of the circuit,
R = 50 + 50 + 150 = 250 W
V = 10 V, I = ?
V 10
I= =
= 0.04 A
R 250
So, current through the resistance 150 W is 0.04 A.
7. (b) : Assuming magnetic field (B), conductor length
(l) and its velocity (v) are mutually perpendicular
so, emf induced between the two ends of the
conductor
e = Blv
Here, B = 0.1 T, l = 0.1 m, v = 15 m s1, e = ?
e = 0.1 0.1 15 = 0.15 V
8. (b) : Given situation is shown in the figure.

Angle of refraction,
r = (90 i)
Using Snells law at the interface
m1 sin i = m2 sin r
1 sin i = m sin(90 i) = m cos i
tan i = m
9. (a) : Total angular momentum of two particles
about the point O


Lnet = LA + LB = rA pA + rB pB

Here, rA = 1.5 m j, rB = 2.8 m i

pA = mv A = (6.5)(2.2 i ) = (14.3 i ) N s

pB = mv B = (3.1)(3.6 j ) = (11.16 j ) N s

\
Lnet = (1.5 j ) (14.3 i ) + (2.8 i ) (11.16 j )
= 21.45(k ) + 31.248(k ) 9.8k

Lnet = 9.8 kg m2s 1


70

Physics for you | June 15

10. (b) : Here, v A = (10 i ) m s 1

v B = (20 cos 60 i + 20 sin 60 j ) m s 1

3
1
= (20) i + (20) j = (10 i + 10 3 j ) m s 1
2
2
Relative velocity of B with respect to A is given by

v BA = v B v A
= (10 i + 10 3 j ) 10 i = 10 3 j m s 1
11. (c) : When light is refracted/reflected from a
surface, then frequency of light does not change
because it depends on the source of light.
12. (*) : Rate of heat radiation emitted by a body at
temperature t1 C (= (t1 + 273) K).
u1 = e s A (t1 + 273)4
Rate of heat radiation absorbed by a body due to
surrounding temperature t2C (= (t2 + 273) K)
u = e s A (t2 + 273)4
Net rate of heat absorbed by the body
= u u1 = e s A [(t2 + 273)4 (t1 + 273)4]
*None of the given options is correct.
Option (a) would be correct if t1 and t2 were in
kelvin.
13. (b) : Range of work function of metals = 2 5 eV
hc = 4 1015 eVs 3 108 m s1= 1200 eV-nm
hc
As, l =
E
1200 eV - nm
l min =
= 240 nm
5 eV
1200 eV - nm
l max =
= 600 nm
2 eV
Hence light of wavelength 650 nm cannot be used
for photoelectric effect.
14. (d) : Here, m = 1.6, n = 7, l = 600 nm
t=?
According to question, shift in central point due to
insertion of plastic sheet = 7b
(m 1)tD
Dl
or
=7
d
d
\

t=

7 l 7 600 109
=
m 1
1. 6 1

7 6 107
= 7 106 m
0. 6
t = 7 mm
15. (c) : Let length of open organ pipe = lo
length of closed organ pipe = lc
Also, lo = 2lc
Fundamental frequency of the open pipe,
uo = 100 Hz
v
Also, uo =
= 100
2lo
=

v
v
= 200;
= 200
2lc
lo
v
= 400
lc

Fundamental frequency of closed organ pipe


v
400
uc =
=
= 100 Hz
4lc
4
So the frequency of third harmonic of the closed
organ pipe = 3uc = 300 Hz.
16. (c) : Here, C1 = 5 mF
C2 = 10 mF
V = 300 V
U=?
Equivalent capacitance of the circuit,
C C2 5 10 10
10
C= 1
=
=
mF = 106 F
C1 + C2 5 + 10 3
3
1
1 10
U = CV 2 = 106 (300)2 = 0.15 J
2
2 3
17. (c) : Given situation is shown in the figure.
Gravitational force,
Gm1m2
F=
r2
Acceleration of particle of mass m1,
F Gm2
a1 =
=
m1
r2
\ a1 m2
18. (b) : Here m1 = m2 = m, m3 = 3m
s1 = s2 = s3 = s, T1 = 40 C, T2 = 50 C, T3 = 60 C
Let T be the final temperature at the thermal
equilibrium.
Using principle of calorimetry,
Heat gained by m1 and m2 = heat lost by m3
m1s1(T T1) + m2s2(T T2) = m3s3(T3 T)
ms(T 40) + ms(T 50) = 3ms(60 T)
T 40 + T 50 = 3(60 T)

2T 90 = 180 3T
5T = 270; \ T = 54C
19. (a) : As potential energy of satellite
GMm
V =
r
GMm
Kinetic energy of satellite, K =
2r
Total energy of satellite, E = K + V
GMm GMm
GMm
E=

=
2r
r
2r
V
V
or K + V = ; \ K =
2
2
20. (d) : Electric field due to charged conducting sheet,
s
E=
e0
Let T be the tension in the string.
Ball is in equilibrium so
T cos q = mg
T sin q = qE
T sin q qE
\
=
T cos q mg
qE
qs
tan q =
=
mg e0mg

21. (a) : Given circuit can be redrawn as shown in figure.

Here, first two cells are in parallel so net emf,


e 2 2
r 2+2
=2 V
=
eeq =
1 1 1
+
r 2 2
1 1 1
req = = + = 1 W
r 2 2
Current in the circuit,
2+2 4
I=
= = 1.33 A
1+ 2 3
3RT
M
For oxygen molecules at temperature T,
3RT
...(i)
vrms = v =
M
Now, temperature is doubled and oxygen molecules

22. (c) : As, vrms =

Physics for you | June 15

71

dissociate into oxygen atom (molar mass becomes


M/2) then rms speed will be
vrms
=

3R(2T )
3RT
=2
= 2v [using eqn. (i)]
M
(M /2)

23. (c) : Radius of circular orbit of a charged particle in


a magnetic field is given by,
mv p
2mK
...(i)
r=
=
=
qB qB
qB
Here, K = Kinetic energy of charged particle
Charge q is accelerated through some potential
difference V. So kinetic energy of charge, K = qV
From eqn. (i),
r=

2mqV
qB

For given q, V and B, r

m
R
r
rA
mA
or A = A = 1
=
mB rB
R2
rB
mB

25. (d) : Capillary rise in an accelerated lift used as a


plateform,
2S cos q
h=
rr aeff

Here, aeff = 0
(for free falling plateform)
\ h=
It means length of water column in the tube will be
20 cm.

26. (a) : According to Dopplers effect of sound,


apparent frequency heard by observer,
v + v0
u=
u0
v v s
Here, u0 = 1000 Hz, v0 = vs = 33 m s1
v = 333 m s1, u = ?
366
333 + 33
u=
1000 =
1000 = 1220 Hz

333 33
300
27. (d) : Here, wavelength of photon, l = 300 nm
h = 4 1015 eVs, c = 3 108 m s1
Ionization energy of hydrogen = 13.6 eV
Physics for you | June 15

= 4 eV
For hydrogen atom, En =

(300 109 m)

13.6

n2
First excitation energy = E2 E1

eV

13.6 13.6

22 12
= 3.4 + 13.6 = 10.2 eV
Since energy of photon is less than 10.2 eV, so no
excitation is possible, i.e., electron will keep orbiting
in the ground state of atom.
28. (b) : Weight of block B = W
=

24. (b) : Suppose along arc AB there is a large number


of particles.
If arc AB 0
the position of centre of mass will
be at distance R from the origin.
If arc length AB increases, centre
of mass of the system starts
moving down (< R).

72

hc
l
(4 1015 eVs)(3 108 m s 1 )

Energy of photon, E =

Weight of block A = W
T = tension in the string
Normal on block B, N = W
Friction force on block B, f = mN = mW
System will be in equilibrium, if
T cos q = f = mW
T sin q = W
Divide eqn (ii) by eqn (i), we get
sin q W
=
\ W = mW tan q
cos q mW

(say)

...(i)
...(ii)

29. (c) :

Output of NAND gate,


Y1 = AB
Output of NOT gate,
Y2 = C
Output of OR gate,
Y = Y1 + Y2 = AB + C
= A+ B +C

( AB = A + B )

30. (c)
31. (c) : Suppose current I is
I 2V 5
flowing through the circuit.
A
10
Using Kirchhoff s voltage
1.5
V
law in the circuit
B
2 1.5 5I 10I 5I = 0
5
0. 5 1
0.5 = 20I; I =
= A
20 40
Terminal potential difference across the cell A,
1
EA = 2 I r = 2 5 = 1.875 V
40
Terminal potential difference across the cell B,
1
EB = 1.5 + I r = 1.5 + 5 = 1.625 V
40
32. (d)
33. (d) : During connection of switch with point a for
long time, capacitor gets fully charged.

35. (b) : Suppose there is a hole in the cylinder at depth


y below water level.

Velocity of efflux v = 2 gy
Time taken by water to reach on the plane PQ will be

2 + (h y )
2

3h 2 y
t=
=
g
g
Horizontal distance x travelled by the liquid is
3h 2 y
x = vt = 2 gy
g
x = 2 y(3h 2 y )

Charge on capacitor, q = CE

q2
2C
When switch is thrown to position b, there is an LC
oscillating circuit.
Suppose amplitude of current in LC circuit is I0.
Using energy conservation principle,
Maximum electrical energy = Maximum magnetic
energy
Energy stored in capacitor, U =

q2 1 2
= LI0
2C 2

C2 E2
C
= LI02 ; \ I0 = E
C
L
34. (c) : For a certain gas,
AT BT 2
pressure, p =
V
2
or, V = AT BT
... (i)
p
Work done by the gas at constant pressure,
W = pDV = p(V2 V1)
AT BT 2 AT BT 2
2
1
= p 2
1

[Using eqn (i)]


p
p

= A(T2 T1) B(T22 T12)

For x to be maximum,
1
2 2 y(3h 2 y )

dx
=0
dy

2(3h 4 y ) = 0

3h
4
3h
h
Hence, x will be maximum at y =
= h
4
4
where hole number 2 is present.
36. (a,b,d) : de-Broglie wavelength of a particle is given
by,
h
h
h
l= =
=
; K = kinetic energy
p mv
2 mK
or, 3h 4y = 0 \ y =

(a) If both the particles are allowed to fall through


same height, their speed will be same.
v = 2 gh
1
m
So heavier block will have smaller de-Broglie
wavelength. i.e., option (a) is correct.
(b) For same kinetic energy (K),
1
l
m
Again heavier block will have smaller de-Broglie
wavelength, i.e., option (b) is correct.
\ l

Physics for you | June 15

73

(c) For same momentum, both particles have same


de Broglie wavelength.
So option (c) is incorrect.
(d) For same speed,
1
l
m
Again, heavier particle will have smaller de-Broglie
wavelength, i.e., option (d) is correct.
37. (a, c, d) : In case of pure rolling,
v = wR
So, velocity at the point of contact,
vg = v wR = 0
Velocity at the top,
vt = v + wR = 2 v
Velocity at a point on
the rim of disc,vr = v is
possible if v and wR are
at 120.
Velocity at a point on the rim of disc, vr = v is not
possible because 1 cosq 1.

38. (b, d) : An emf will be induced in the loop if there is


change in magnetic flux through it.
Flux changes through the loop only in options (b)
and (d).
39. (b, c) : In Fraunhoffer diffraction, the incident rays on
the slit are parallel. This can be achieved by keeping :
(a) point source at the focus of a converging lens
(b) point source at infinite distance
40. (b, c, d) :

Net force on the dipole = +qE qE = 0


So, option (b) is correct.
Torque on the dipole,
t = pEsinq 0
Here, p, E and q are independent of choice of coordinates.
So, options (c) and (d) are correct.

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Physics for you | June 15

75

By : Prof. Rajinder Singh Randhawa*

1. A boy standing in an elevator observes a screw falls


from the ceiling. The ceiling is 3 m above the floor.
(a) If the elevator is moving upward with a speed
of 2.2 m s1, how long does it take for the screw
to hit the floor? (b) How long is the screw in air if
the elevator starts from rest when the screw falls,
and moves upwards with a constant acceleration of
a = 4 m s2?
2. An enemy fighter jet is flying at a constant height
of 250 m with a velocity of 500 m s1. The fighter
jet passes over an anti-aircraft gun that can fire
at any time and in any direction with a speed of
100 m s1. Determine the time interval during
which the fighter jet is in danger of being hit by the
gun bullets.
3. A particle is to be projected from a point P so that it
may strike the incline perpendicularly. Determine
the required velocity of projection if it is horizontal
initially.

4. A steel ball which can slide on a smooth rod of


length L is attracted by an electromagnet. The force
of attraction imparts an acceleration a = K/(L x)2,
where K is constant and x is distance travelled.
If the ball is released from rest at x = 0, determine
the velocity v with which it strikes the pole face.

5. The current velocity of a river grows in proportion


to the distance from its bank and reaches the
maximum value v0 in the middle. Near the banks
the velocity is zero. A boat is moving along the river
in such a manner that it is always perpendicular to
current and the speed of the boat in still water is u.
Find the distance through which the boat crossing
the river will be carried away by the current if the
width of river is c. Also trace the trajectory of boat.
6. A gas-filled spherical balloon is expanding.
The radius of sphere at time t is r. Find the radius
when the rates of increase of the surface area and
the radius are numerically equal.
7. A projectile is fired with velocity u from a gun
adjusted for a maximum range. It passes through
two points P and Q whose heights above the
horizontal are h each. Show that the separation
u 2
between the two is
u 4 gh .
g
8. A particle is moving in a circle of radius r in such
a way that at any instant, the total acceleration
makes an angle of 45 with radius. Initial speed of
particle is u. Find the time taken to complete the
first revolution.

*Randhawa Institute of Physics, S.C.O. 208, First Fl., Sector-36D & S.C.O. 38, Second Fl., Sector-20C, Chandigarh, Ph. 09814527699

76

physics for you | june 15

SOLUTIONS

1. (a) Consider the elevator floor to be origin. It moves


with a constant velocity. Equation for floor
yf = vf t = 2.2t
...(i)
The screw falls with
acceleration due to
gravity
1
...(ii)
ys = h + 2.2 t gt 2
2
At time t, ys = yf
1
i.e., 2.2 t = h + 2.2t gt 2
2
23
2h
or t =
=
= 0.78 s
g
9. 8
1
(b) Equation for floor is yf = af t 2
2
1 2
Equation for screw is ys = h gt
2
When the screw meets the floor, ys = yf
1
1
\
a f t 2 = 3 gt 2
2
2
23
or t =
= 0.66 s
g + af
2. The equation of trajectory of bullet is
1 2
gx
y = x tan q 2 2 sec2 q
u
1 2
gx
= x tan q 2 2 (1 + tan2 q)
...(i)
u
For a given value of x, maximum y can be determined from
1 2
gx
u2
dy
= x 2 2 (2 tan q) = 0 or tan q =
gx
d(tan q)
u
...(ii)
Putting (ii) in (i), we get,
1 2
u2 2 gx
ymax =
2
2g
u
The bullet can hit an area defined by
1 2
u2 2 gx
y
2
2g
u
On substituting given values, we get
x2
250 or 500 2 x + 500 2
2000

The fighter jet can travel 1000 2 m while it can


be hit. So the plane is in danger for a period of
1000 2
=2 2s
500
3. Let v be the velocity
when the particle strikes
the incline. The velocity
components are
vx = v0 and vy = gt
v
v
v
\ tan q = x = 0 t = 0 cot q
g
v y gt
Since, x = v0t, we have
v2
x = 0 cot q
g
The equation of trajectory of particle is

1 gx 2
2 v02
The incline is a straight line, its equation is
y = xtanq
On solving (i), (ii) and (iii) we get
y =h

v0 =

...(ii)
...(iii)

2 gh

2 + cot 2 q

4. Acceleration of ball, a =

(L x)2
dv dv dx vdv
Since, a =
=

=
dt dx dt dx
vdv
K
\
=
dx (L x)2
v dv =

...(i)

(given)

Kdx

(L x)2
On integrating,
v

L D /2

v dv =

K dx
(L x)2
L D /2

v2
1
=K

2
L x 0

or

v2
2 1
=K
D L
2

2 1
\ v = 2K
D L
physics for you | june 15

77

5. Current velocity, v = ky
c
v = v0 when y = ,
2
2v
k
\ v0 = c or k = 0
c
2
2v0
ut
y = ut \ v =
c
v 2v u
\ Rate of change of velocity = = 0
t
c
\ Acceleration of the boat along the water
2v u
current, a = 0
x
c
1 2v0u 2
\ x =0t +
t
2 c
v u y2 v
x = 0 2 = 0 y2
( y = ut )
uc
c u
uc
\ y2 = x
v0
It represents the equation of a parabola.
1 cv0
c
When y = , x =
2
4 u
cv0
Hence, drift = 2 x =
2u
6. Surface area of sphere is S = 4pr2,
ds
dr
So,
= 8pr
dt
dt
ds dr
(given)
As
=
dt dt
1
Hence 8pr = 1 or r = p
8

78

physics for you | june 15

7. The trajectory of projectile is given by


gx 2

(1 + tan2 q)
2u2
Gun is adjusted for maximum range, i.e., q = 45
y = x tan q

\ y=x

gx 2

u2
For y = h, we have,
u2
u2
g
h = x 2 x 2 or x 2 x + h = 0
g
g
u

If x1 and x2 are roots of the above equation,


x1 + x2 =

u2
u2
and x1x2 = h
g
g

u2
u2
\ (x1 x2 ) = (x1 + x2 ) 4x1x2 = 4 h
g
g
u
x1 x2 =
u2 4 gh
g
2

8. Since, tangential acceleration (at) = radial


acceleration (ar) ( q = 45)
dv v 2
=

dt r

2pr

dv

dt
v2 = r
u
0
1 1 t
ur

=
or v =
\
u v r
r ut

dx
ur
=
dt r ut

ur
dt 2pr = r ln[(r ut]T0
r ut
0
0
r
which gives T = (1 e 2p )
u

dx =

nn

1. A particle in uniform circular motion can possess


(a) radial acceleration only
(b) tangential acceleration only
(c) both radial and tangential acceleration
(d) neither radial nor tangential acceleration
2. Which of the following physical quantities is not
dimensionless ?
(a) Relative density
(b) Relative velocity
(c) Relative refractive index
(d) Relative permittivity
3. The numerical ratio of displacement to the distance
covered is always
(a) less than one
(b) equal to one
(c) equal to or less than one
(d) equal to or greater than one
4. A student unable to answer a question on Newtons
laws of motion attempts to pull himself up by
tugging on his hair. He will not succeed because
(a) the force exerted is small.
(b) the frictional force while gripping is small.
(c) Newtons law of inertia is not applicable to living
beings.
(d) the force applied is internal to the system.
5. If mass-energy equivalence is taken into account
when water is cooled to form ice, the mass of water
should
(a) increase
(b) remain unchanged
(c) decrease
(d) first increase then decrease
6. Which one of the following waves does not involve
oscillations of particles of a medium?
(a) Waves in a hanging spring
(b) Ripples on a water surface
(c) A light wave
(d) Ultrasonic waves
80

Physics for you | june 15

7. If a body is projected with an angle q to the


horizontal, then
(a) its velocity is always perpendicular to its
acceleration.
(b) its velocity becomes zero at its maximum height.
(c) its velocity makes zero angle with the horizontal
at its maximum height.
(d) the body just before hitting the ground,
the direction of velocity coincides with the
acceleration.
8. The internal energy of an ideal gas depends on
which of the following factors?
(a) Pressure only
(b) Volume only
(c) Temperature only
(d) Pressure, volume and temperature
9. Bernoullis principle is not involved in the working/
explanation of
(a) movement of spinning ball
(b) blades of a kitchen mixer
(c) heart attack
(d) dynamic lift of an aeroplane
10. The temperature of the system decreases in the
process of
(a) isothermal expansion
(b) adiabatic expansion
(c) isothermal compression
(d) adiabatic compression
11. A wire is stretched under a force. If the wire
suddenly snaps, the temperature of the wire,
(a) remains the same
(b) decreases
(c) increases
(d) first decreases then increases
12. For a constant volume gas thermometer, one should
fill the gas at
(a) low temperature and low pressure
(b) low temperature and high pressure
(c) high temperature and low pressure
(d) high temperature and high pressure

13. Which of the following forces is a contact force?


(a) Gravitational force (b) Electrostatic force
(c) Magnetic force
(d) Buoyant force
14. Which of the following characteristics does not
change due to the damping of simple harmonic
motion ?
(a) Angular frequency (b) Time period
(c) Initial phase
(d) Amplitude
15. A cricket bat is cut at the location of its centre of
mass as shown. Then
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

the two pieces will have the same mass.


the bottom piece will have larger mass.
the handle piece will have larger mass.
mass of handle piece is double the mass of
bottom piece.
16. Which of the following thermodynamic variables is
an extensive variable ?
(a) Temperature
(b) Pressure
(c) Internal energy (d) Density
17. Angle between wave velocity and particle velocity
of a longitudinal wave is
(a) 90
(b) 60
(c) 0
(d) 120
18. If there were no gravity, which of the following will
not be there for a fluid ?
(a) Viscosity
(b) Surface tension
(c) Pressure
(d) Archimedes upward thrust
19. A lead ball falling freely from a height strikes the
ground, as a result its temperature rises. This is due to
(a) friction of air
(b) conversion of chemical energy into heat
(c) conversion of mass into heat
(d) conversion of mechanical energy into heat
20. Which of the following quantities is zero on an
average for the molecules of an ideal gas in equilibrium ?
(a) Kinetic energy
(b) Momentum
(c) Density
(d) Speed
21. In a simple harmonic oscillator, at the mean
position
(a) kinetic energy is minimum, potential energy is
maximum.
(b) both kinetic and potential energies are
maximum.
(c) kinetic energy is maximum, potential energy is
minimum.
(d) both kinetic and potential energies are minimum.
22. In planetary motion, the angular momentum
conservation leads to the law of
(a) orbits
(b) areas

23.

24.

25.

1.

(c) periods
(d) conservation of linear momentum
Energy is not transferred by
(a) transverse progressive wave
(b) longitudinal progressive wave
(c) stationary wave
(d) electromagnetic wave
Which of the following is not an illustration of
Newtons third law ?
(a) Flight of a jet plane
(b) A cricket player lowers his hands while catching
a cricket ball
(c) Walking on the floor
(d) Rebounding of a rubber ball
Hydrostatic paradox states that the pressure exerted
by a liquid
(a) depends on the shape of the containing vessel
and independent of height of liquid column.
(b) depends on both shape of the containing vessel
and height of liquid column.
(c) independent of both shape of the containing
vessel and height of liquid column.
(d) depends on height only and independent of the
shape of the containing vessel.
soLuTioNs
(a) : A particle in uniform circular motion can
possess radial acceleration only.

2. (b) : Relative velocity has the dimensions of velocity.


3. (c) : Since displacement is always less than or equal
to distance covered, but never greater than distance
covered. Hence the numerical ratio of displacement
to the distance covered is always equal to or less
than one.
4. (d) : According to Newtons first law of motion, the
state of rest or motion of body in a straight line
with uniform velocity remains the same unless an
external force is applied on the body. Internal forces
are the forces which are exchanged by the particles
in the system.
5. (c) : When water is cooled to form ice, its thermal
energy decreases. By mass-energy equivalence, the
mass of water should decrease.
6. (c) : A light wave is an electromagnetic wave.
It does not require a medium for propagation.
A man may imagine
things that are false, but
he can only understand
things that are true, for
if the things be false, the
apprehension of them is
not understanding
-Sir Isaac Newton

Physics for you | june 15

81

7. (c) : In angular projection, the body at the highest


point has velocity =ucosq in the horizontal direction
which makes zero angle with the horizontal
direction.
8. (c) : The internal energy of an ideal gas depends
only on temperature.
9. (b) : Movement of spinning ball, heart attack and
dynamic lift of an aeroplane, all are based on the
Bernoullis principle.
10. (b) : In an adiabatic expansion the temperature
of the system decreases while in an adiabatic
compression it increases.
In an isothermal expansion or isothermal
compression the temperature of the system remains
constant.
11. (c) : The work done on the wire to produce a strain
in it will be stored as energy which is converted into
heat when the wire snaps suddenly. Due to it, the
temperature of the wire increases.
12. (c)
13. (d) : Among the given forces buoyant force is a
contact force whereas all others are non-contact
forces.
14. (c)
15. (b): The centre of mass is closer to massive part
of the body therefore the bottom piece of bat has
larger mass.
16. (c) : Among the given thermodynamics variables
internal energy is an extensive variable whereas all
others are intensive variables.
17. (c) : In a longitudinal wave the particles of the
medium oscillate along the direction of wave
motion. Thus the angle between wave velocity and
particle velocity is 0.
18. (d) : For a fluid, Archimedes upward thrust will not
be present if there were no gravity.
19. (d)
20. (b)
21. (c) : At the mean position, the kinetic energy is
maximum and potential energy is minimum.
22. (b) : Angular momentum conservation leads to the
law of areas.
23. (c) : Energy is not transferred by stationary wave
but it is transferred by all others.
24. (b) : A cricket player lowers his hands while catching
a cricket ball is an illustration of Newtons second
law, whereas all others are illustrations of Newtons
third law.
25. (d)
nn

82

Physics for you | june 15

Y U ASK

WE ANSWER
Do you have a question that you just cant get
answered?
Use the vast expertise of our mtg team to get to the
bottom of the question. From the serious to the silly,
the controversial to the trivial, the team will tackle the
questions, easy and tough.
The best questions and their solutions will be printed in
this column each month.

The fluttering has often been attributed to vortex


formation by the flag. Indeed, whether the wind
merely extends the flag or causes it to flutter, the free
end of the flag sheds vortexes, that is, alternating
on the left and right side of the flag, form and then
move downstream. The vortexes are larger if the flag
flutters, but they are a product of, not the cause of,
the fluttering and they can be present even if the flag
is not fluttering.

Q1. How does cooking happen in a microwave oven?

Abhishek Yadav (U.P.)

Ans. Microwave oven heats and cooks food by exposing


it to electromagnetic radiation in the microwave
spectrum. Passage of microwaves through food
results in increased agitation of molecules. Microwave
induces polarized molecules in the food to rotate and
produce in a process known as dielectric heating. At
microwave frequencies, the alternating electric field
of the radiation interacts with the electric dipole
moment of water molecules, making them vibrate
faster. The absorption length of the microwave
energy is long, that means not all energy falling
on a chunk of cooking food gets absorbed while
traversing through it. It also mean that the heating
occurs all through the body of the food. That is the
reason you do not get a crisp surface on the outside,
as you would in normal cooking where the heat has
to travel inwards from outside. When you cook a big
chunk of raw food in a pan on open fire, the surface
might become crisp, while the inside might remain
relatively raw. Also remember that a microwave oven
is an enclosure whose walls have excellent reflecting
properties. Therefore, the fact that little microwave
energy is absorbed upon initial traversal through the
chunk of food does not mean the rest of the energy is
lost, the reflective metallic walls of the oven bounce
the microwaves back and forth to ensure repeated
interaction with water contained in the food.
Q2. What causes a flag on a flagpole to flap even in a
moderate breeze?
Anoop Kumar (Bihar)

Ans. Imagine that the plane of the flag is at an angle to


the direction of the passing air so that the air pushes
against one side of the flag. That push can simply
straighten out the flag, making it extend in the
direction of the airflow. Instead, the push can bend
the flag. If the airspeed is above a certain critical
value, this bending can become unstable and the flag
will then flutter.
84

physics for you | June 15

Q3. What causes water waves? How are they generated?


Akshi Sharma (Delhi)

Ans. These two questions are not yet clearly answered.


However, a simple explanation is as follows. A breeze
or some disturbance in the air or water creates ripples.
The ripples can then grow into larger waves as wind
moves across them. In particular, the wind pushes on
the windward side of a crest, comes over the crest,
and then breaks up into vortexes, and so the pressure
difference between the windward and leeward sides
of the crest can push the crest downwind and also
make it taller. In other words, the wind can feed
energy into the crest. If the wind becomes stronger,
the waves grow larger and their wavelengths also
change.
Q4. Electric field for a point charge is proportional to
1/r2 but electric field for a dipole is proportional to
1/r3. Why?
Anubhab Banerjee (W.B.)
Ans. Experimentally, electric field due to a point charge is

1 q
1
;E 2.
2
40 r
r
Now electric dipole is the distribution of some
charges which give net charge on dipole zero and
1 p
1
,V
potential due to it, V =
2
40 r
r2
(For simplicity we take dipole as two oppositely
charges of same magnitude separated by a very small
distance.)
dV
Also, E =
dr
1
So electric field due to dipole, E
r3
1
Note : For infinitely line charge, E . So electric
r
field due to any charge system depends on its
distribution.

given by E =

Readers can send their answer with complete address before 15th of every month to win exciting prizes.
Winners' name with their valuable feedback will be published in next issue.

3.

5.
11.
13.

16.

19.
20.

21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.

1.
2.
4.

across
The ratio of the total absorbed
radiation to the total incident
radiation. (11)
The fraction of solar energy reflected
from the earth back into space. (6)
Short form of quasi-stellar radio
source. (6)
Black body radiation that is predicted
to be released by black holes, due
to quantum effects near the event
horizon. (7, 9)
A collective excitation in a periodic,
elastic arrangement of atoms or
molecules in condensed matter, like
solids and some liquids. (6)
Carrier of strong nuclear force. (5)
A hypothetical set of multiple
possible universe which exist in
parallel with each other. (10)
A unit of atmospheric pressure equivalent to
1000 dyne per cm2. (8)
A branch of physics applied to technology that makes use
of gas or pressurized air. (10)
A mechanism that converts rotational motion to linear
motion and a torque to a linear force. (5)
CGS unit of magnetic field strength. (7)
The division between two regions of differing physical
properties. (8)
The phenomenon that consists of a given system being
driven by another vibrating system or by external forces
to oscillate with greater amplitude at some preferential
frequencies. (9)

DoWN
Single disturbance moving through a medium or fluid.
(4, 5)
The dark lines in the spectrum of sun. (10)
The temperature of steam over pure boiling water under
1 atm pressure. (5, 5)

6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
12.
14.

15.
17.
18.
20.

A hypothetical type of nuclear reaction that would occur


at or near room temperature. (4, 6)
A group of lines in the ultraviolet region in the spectrum
of hydrogen. (5, 6)
The study of magnets and magnetism. (11)
Subatomic particle composed of three quarks. (6)
The lowest possible energy of molecular vibration.
(4, 5, 6)
The branch of mechanics that deals with matter and
forces in equilibrium. (7)
A hypothetical tunnel through space time that connects
widely distant regions thus providing a shortcut through
space time. (8)
The melting point of ice under 1 atm pressure. (3, 5)
An electrical device that converts thermal energy into
electrical energy. (10)
The theory that nature contains no vacuums. (7)
A magnesium alloy used to enclose uranium fuel element
in certain types of nuclear reactors. (6)

Physics for you | june 15

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Physics for you | june 15