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Part 4.

GRAMMAR
Present Perfect

Present Perfect - Use


1) Result of an action in the past is important in the present
I have cleaned my room.

2) Recently completed action


He has just played handball.

3) Action beginning in the past and still continuing


We have lived in Canada since 1986.

4) together with lately, recently, yet


I have been to London recently.

Signal words
just, yet, never, already, ever, so far, up to now, recently, since, for, still

Form
have/has + past participle

Examples
Affirmative sentences:
I have played football.
I've played football.

Negative sentences:
I have not played football.
I've not played football.
I haven't played football.

Questions:
Have I played football?

Exercises.
Write positive sentences in present perfect simple
The following people have just completed an action.
1. Bob / visit / his grandma
2. Jimmy / play / on the computer
3. Sue and Walter / wash / their car
4. Andrew / repair / his bike
5. Phil / help / Anne with maths
6. Brad and Louise / watch / a film
7. Tamara / talk to / her best friend
8. Bridgette / draw / a picture
9. Carol / read / a computer magazine

10. Tom and Alice / be / to a restaurant

Negative Sentences in Present Perfect Simple


Write negative sentences in present perfect simple.
The weather was wonderful today. So the children were in the park all afternoon and have
not done their household chores:
1. Sarah / not / wash the dishes
2. Anita / not / clean the kitchen
3. Maureen and Gavin / not / water the plants

4. Joey / not / make his bed


5. David / not / buy milk
6. Lisa / not / be to the baker's

7. Aran and Jack / not / do their homework


8. Jane and Ben / not / tidy up their rooms
9. Alex / not / feed the hamster

10. Hazel / not / empty the bin

Questions in Present Perfect Simple


Write questions in present perfect simple.
1. you / answer / the question
2. Jenny / lock / the door
3. Walter / call / us

4. you / see / the picture


5. your parents / get / the letter
6. it / rain / a lot
7. how often / we / sing / the song
8. Maureen / watch / the film
9. how many books / Bob / read
10. ever / you / be / to London

READING.
Red Telephone Box
The red telephone box, a public telephone kiosk designed by Sir Giles Gilbert Scott, was a
once familiar sight on the streets of the United Kingdom. It has all but disappeared in recent
years, replaced by a number of different designs. The few kiosks that remain have not been
replaced because they are regarded as being of special architectural and historical interest.
The first standard public telephone kiosk introduced by the United Kingdom Post Office
was produced by Somerville & Company in 1920 and was designated K1 (Kiosk no. 1).
This design was not of the same family as the familiar red telephone boxes.
The red telephone box was the result of a competition in 1924 to design a new grander
kiosk. The competition attracted designs from a number of noted architects. The Fine Arts
Commission judged the competition and selected the design submitted by Sir Giles Gilbert
Scott as the winner. The Post Office made a request that the material used for the design be
changed from mild steel to cast iron, and that a slight modification be made to the door;
after these changes, the design was designated K2. The kiosks were painted red was so that
they might be easily recognised from a distance by a person in an emergency. In some rural
areas the boxes were painted green so as not to disrupt the natural beauty of the
surroundings.
From 1927 K2 was mainly deployed in and around London. K3 designed in 1930, again by
Gilbert Scott was similar to K2 but was constructed from concrete and intended for rural
areas. K4 (designed by the Post Office Engineering Department and proposed in 1923)
incorporated a machine for buying postage stamps on the exterior. Only 50 kiosks of this
design were built. K5 was a plywood construction introduced in 1934 and designed to be
assembled
and
dismantled
and
used
at
exhibitions.
In 1935 K6 was designed to commemorate the silver jubilee of King George V K6 was the
first standard telephone kiosk to be used throughout the country. Many thousands of K6
boxes were deployed in virtually every town and city and it became a British icon. K6
telephone boxes eventually began to be replaced in large numbers in the early 1990s
Thousands of old K6 kiosks were sold off at public auction. Some kiosks have been
converted to be to used as shower cubicles in private homes. In Kingston upon Thames a
number of old K6 boxes have been utilised to form a work of art resembling a row of fallen
dominoes.
In 1959 architect Neville Conder was commissioned to design a new box. The K7 design
went no further than the prototype stage. K8 introduced in 1968 was designed by Douglas
Scott and Bruce Martin. It was the first box to replace K6 in significant numbers, and the
last
design
be
painted
predominantly
red.
Upon the privatisation of Post Office Telephone's successor, British Telecom (BT), the
KX100, a more utilitarian design, replaced almost all the red boxes; a few remain, mainly
in rural areas. The KX100 PLUS, introduced in 1996 featured a domed roof reminiscent of

the familiar K2 and K6. Subsequent designs have departed significantly from the old style
red
telephone
boxes.
In response to BT's plans to replace red boxes with more modern
designs, several of the former have been listed.
Questions about the text
1. The red telephone box was designed by Sir Giles Gilbert Scott.
True.

False.

We don't know.

2. The first telephone box was known as


red.

Sommerville & Company.

K1.

3. The red telehone box was known as


K1.

K2.

Scott.

4. In rural areas the telephone boxes were painted green.


True.

False.

We don't know.

5. Some kiosks had also postage stamps machines.


True.

False.

We don't know.

6. Many old K6 boxes were thrown to the Thames.


True.

False.

We don't know.

7. British Telecom telephone box design is known as


K10.

BT.

KX100.