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# Rack and Pinion Drive Calculation and Selection

The values given in the load table are based upon uniform, smooth operation, KH=1.0 and reliable grease lubrication. Since,
in practice, the applications are very diverse, it is important to consider the given conditions by using appropriate factors SB,
KA, LKH and fn (see below).
Formulas for Determining the Tangential Force
a

= t
b

[m/s]

## m g + m a (for lifting axle)

Fu =
[kN]
1000

m g + m a (for driving axle) [kN]
Fu =
1000

Fu Tab
Fu perm. =
[kN]
KA SB fn LKH

Drive

## Type of load from the machines to be driven

Uniform
Medium Shocks Heavy Shocks

Uniform

## 1.00 1.25 1.75

Light Shocks

1.25

1.50

2.00

Medium Shocks

1.50

1.75

2.25

Safety Coefficient SB
The safety coefficient should be allowed for according to experience (SB = 1.1 to 1.4).

Life-Time Factor fn
considering of the peripheral speed of the pinion and lubrication.
Lubrication
Peripheral Speed
of Gearing
m/sec m/min
0.5
30
1.0
60
1.5
90
2.0
120
3.0
180
5.0
300

Continuous Daily

0.85
0.95
1.00
1.05
1.10
1.25

0.95
1.10
1.20
1.30
1.50
1.90

Monthly

from
3
to
10

## Linear Load Distribution Factor LKH

The linear load distribution factor considers the contact stress, while it describes unintegrated load distribution over the tooth
width (LKH = KH).
LKH = 1.1 for counter bearing, e.g. Torque Supporter

= 1.2 for preloaded bearings on the output shaft e.g. ATLANTA HT, HP and E servo-worm gear unit, BG bevel-gear unit

= 1.5 for unpreloaded bearings on the output shaft e.g. ATLANTA B servo-worm gear unit

ZD 2

Dimensions in mm

1/2012

## Rack and Pinion Drive - Calculation and Selection

Calculation Example

Values Given

Values Given

x Travelling Operation

x Travelling Operation

Mass to be Moved

m = 820 kg

Mass to be Moved

m =

kg

Speed

Speed

m/s

Acceleration Time

tb = 1 s

Acceleration Time

tb =

= 2 m/s

= 9.81 m/s2

## Acceleration Due to Gravity g

Coefficient of Friction

= 0.1

Coefficient of Friction

KA = 1.5

KA =

Life-Time Factor

## fn = 1.05 (cont. lubrication)

Life-Time Factor

fn =

Safety Coefficient

SB = 1.2

Safety Coefficient

SB =

Distribution Factor

LKHb = 1.5

Distribution Factor

LKHb =

s
9.81

m/s2

Calculation Process
a

tb

Calculation Process

Results

2
1

a =

= 2 m/s2

tb

mg+ma

Fu =

8209.810.1+8202

## Assumed feed force: rack C45, ind. hardened, straight

tooth, module 3, pinion 16MnCr5, case hardened, 20 teeth,
page ZB-40 with Futab = 11.5 kN

m/s2

= kN
1000

## Permissible Feed Force Fu Tab

Fu zul./per. =

FuTab
=
;
KASBfnLKHb
11.5 kN

= 2.44 kN

1000

1.51.21.051.5

a =

1000

1000

Fu zul./per. =

Fu = mg+ma ; Fu =

Fu =

Fu zul./per.

Results

Fu Tab
;
KASBfnLKHb

Fu zul. /per. =

= 4.05 kN

= kN

Condition
Fu zul./per. > Fu ; 4.05 kN > 2.44 kN

Condition

= > fulfilled

Fu zul./per. > Fu ;

kN >

kN

= > fulfilled

Result:
Rack
27 30 101

Page ZB-13

Page ZB-23
case hardened

Pinion

24 35 220

1/2012

Dimensions in mm

ZD 3

## Rack and Pinion Drive - Calculation and Selection

Calculation Example

Values Given

Values Given

x Lifting Operation

x Lifting Operation

Mass to be Moved

m = 300 kg

Mass to be Moved

m =

kg

Speed

Speed

m/s

Acceleration Time

tb = 0.7 s

Acceleration Time

tb =

= 1.08 m/s

= 9.81 m/s

KA = 1.2

KA =

Life-Time Factor

## fn = 1.1 (Cont. Lubrication)

Life-Time Factor

fn =

Safety Coefficient

SB = 1.2

Safety Coefficient

SB =

Distribution Factor

LKHb = 1.2

Distribution Factor

LKHb =

s
9.81

m/s

Calculation Process

=
tb

a =

Results
1.08
0.27

Calculation Process

= 4 m/s

=
tb

Fu

= mg+ma

a =
Fu erf./req. =

1000

1000

1000

Results
=

m/s

kN

1000

## Assumed feed force: rack C45, ind. hardened, helical,

module 2, pinion 16MnCr5, case hardened, 20 teeth, page
Permissible Feed Force Fu tab
ZA-31 with Futab = 12 kN
Fu Tab
11.5 kN
Fu zul./per. =
; Fu zul./per. =
KASBfnLKHb
1.21.21.11.2
= 5.9 kN

Fu Tab
Fu zul./per. =
; Fu zul./per. =
KASBfnLKHb

Condition

Condition

## Fu zul./per. > Fu ; 6.0 kN > 4.1 kN

=> fulfilled

Fu zul./per. > Fu ;

Result:
Rack
29 20 105

Page ZA-7

Page ZA-24

Pinion

24 29 520

ZD 4

kN >

Dimensions in mm

= kN

kN

=> fulfilled

1/2012