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GUIDELINES FOR A LTE

NETWORK DESIGN AND


OPTIMISATION WITH ICS
designer

ADVANCED
TOPOGRAPHIC
DEVELOPMENT
& IMAGES
SOFTWARE DESIGNERS: P & D MISSUD

LTE FEATURES ICS DESIGNER V2

VERSIONS HISTORY
Version

1.1

Date

05/10/2013

Writer

NEDHIF Sami

GUIDELINES FOR A
LTE NETWORK
DESIGN AND
OPTIMISATION WITH
ICS designer version

12.2.7

Remarks

The present version of the


guideline covers the features
available in the release v.12.2.7.
This document will be upadted at
regulars intervals to ensure that it
considers the latest uptates of ICS
Designer.

Limited Warranty
This manual is subject to the limited warranty conditions as specified by the general operating
license of the whole package. ATDI reserves the right to modify this manual without prior
warning.

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part, may be copied or reproduced in any way without prior written authorization of ATDI.

LTE FEATURES ICS DESIGNER V2

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Versions History....................................................................................................................................... 2
Table of Contents .................................................................................................................................... 3
1.

SCOPE ........................................................................................................................................... 5

2.

LTE GENERAL WORKFLOW .................................................................................................... 6

3.

LTE FEATURES ........................................................................................................................... 7

4.

5.

3.1.

RSRP ...................................................................................................................................... 7

3.2.

RSRQ...................................................................................................................................... 9

3.3.

SNIR calculations .................................................................................................................. 9

3.4.

DL Peak throughput plots ................................................................................................... 11

3.5.

UL peak throughput plots ................................................................................................... 16

3.6.

Traffic analysis and LTE schedulers ................................................................................. 18

3.7.

PCI planning......................................................................................................................... 20

3.8.

RSI and PRACH planning .................................................................................................. 20

3.9.

LTE Handover and neighbour list analysis (intra-inter system) ..................................... 22

3.10.

LTE Monte Carlos simulators......................................................................................... 27

3.11.

Automatic search of site ................................................................................................. 34

3.12.

Automatic frequency planning ....................................................................................... 34

3.13.

Automatic site optimization............................................................................................. 35

3.14.

Refarming frequency band and inter system coexistence ......................................... 36

3.15.

LTE Field strength exposure (2D&3D).......................................................................... 38

3.16.

LTE Propagation models ................................................................................................ 40

PRACTICAL CASE (SCOPE and INPUT DATA) .................................................................. 42


4.1.

Scope of the study............................................................................................................... 42

4.2.

Cartographic layer ............................................................................................................... 43

4.3.

Site and simulation parameters ......................................................................................... 44

3.3.1

Physical configurations of the LTE sites ....................................................................... 44

3.3.2

SNIR requirements.......................................................................................................... 45

3.3.3

RSCP sensitivity .............................................................................................................. 46

3.3.4

PDSCH (traffic channel) sensitivity ............................................................................... 47

3.3.5

Path budget and power allocation ................................................................................. 47

3.3.6

Propagation models selection ........................................................................................ 48

PRACTICAL CASE (RESULTS) .............................................................................................. 50


5.1.

PHASE 1: NETWORK DESIGN ........................................................................................ 50

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LTE FEATURES ICS DESIGNER V2


4.1.1

Methodology..................................................................................................................... 50

4.1.2

Automatic search site result ........................................................................................... 50

4.1.3

RSRP and RSRQ results ............................................................................................... 52

4.1.4

DL and UL Peak Throughput results............................................................................. 54

4.1.5

SNIR coverage results .................................................................................................... 55

5.2.

6.

PHASE 2: NEIGHBOUR AND PCI PLANNING .............................................................. 56

5.2.1

Methodology..................................................................................................................... 56

5.2.2

Results .............................................................................................................................. 56

REFERENCES ............................................................................................................................ 60

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LTE FEATURES ICS DESIGNER V2

1. SCOPE
This document is intended to provide:
-

A general understanding of LTE (Long Term Evolution) radio aspects;


An overview of the main LTE features supported by ICS Designer ;
A pratical case describing a LTE network design study considering the technical
recommendations that can be used to develop radio network planning processes. However, the
detailed specifications used on the practical case are outside the scope of this document. These
processes, LTE parameters and input data are typically customized to suit the specific
requirements of an operator.

The document is organized into the following sections:

Section 1 presents an general overview of the LTE functionalities implemented in ICS Designer and
and the steps to follows during a LTE network design.The figure points out the process and options
that can be used during a LTE planning with the tool.

Section 2 describes the general LTE aspects and requirements needed during a phase of
deployement and optimisation. This section also focuses on the planning tool options considering
the fundamental aspects of a LTE deployment such as, coverage and traffic analysis, throughput
performance, spectrum re-farming ,mobility (intra-system and inter-RAT) and neighbour planning.

Sections 3 et 4 focuses on a practical case describing a LTE network design in a urban area located
in Paris. This part illustrates a concret FDD LTE network scenario based on typical LTE e-nodeB
configurations, link budget and target throughput,...The goal of this practical case is to present the
methodolgy and capabilities of ICS Designer to assure a complet LTE network design (from scratch).
This study will describe in details how to find and determinate the minimum number of LTE (macro
cells, indoor solutions and microcells) sites via the ACP functions, how to calculate the LTE
throughputs based on SNIR vs.Throughput table, how to improve the expected throughput and
perform an automatic PCI planning This practcal case doesnt illustrate all the features and
approachs which can be used in ICS Designer but it provides a good illustration of the flexibility and
capability of the tool.

NOTES:

All the features and modules described in this document are available on the standard version of
ICS Designer (No additional costs for extra modules).
There is no limitation or restrictions of the bandwidth or frequency bands and multi technologies can
be supported in the same project (High flexibility of the tool).
Free cartographic maps over the world, including DTM, Clutter layers and map/aerial images (until
20m resolution) are provided with the tool.

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LTE FEATURES ICS DESIGNER V2

2. LTE GENERAL WORKFLOW


- ACP (Automatic Cell
Planning)
-Import of LTE cells
-LTE cell configuration
(import by batch )
-Selection site based on
existing UMTS or GSM
- Propagation models
selection
-Characteristics of the UE
-Distance of calculation
(Km)
-Min RSRP sensitivity
(dBm)
- ICIC Enhancement
- % PDSCH and %
Overhead parameters can
be adjusted according to
the traffic scenario

- RSRP plot
- Best server RSRP,
- second server RSRP,
- Third server RSRP,
- RSRP probability,
- Max number of RSRP
channel
- RSRP overlapping area

Open an existing project


or create a new one

Set technical parameters


of the e-nodeB

Define or load the LTE


simulation parameter file
(.PRM)
Basic predictions:
-RSRP level
-RSRQ (dB)
-RSSI
-SNIR (control channels)
- SNIR (PUSCH)

2D or 3D coverage
analysis
Automatic frequency
assignment
Automatic or manual
neighbour cell allocation
Automatic or manual
Physical Cell Ids and RSI
allocation

Various histogramme
analysis :
- Over the whole projet
- Inside a cluster area
defined by a drawn
polygon
- Arround a predefined
vector path)

e-node B setu parameter in ICS designer:


- LTE mode (FDD or TDD)
- Bandwidth configuration (1.4; 3; 5;10; 15 or
20MHz)
Site location, Antenna height , Cell ID , azimuts
, mecanical tilts
- Antenna mode (nb of Tx/Rx arrays):
- Standard antenna
-SIMO, Tx Div
-MIMO spatial multiplexing
-Multi user MIMO spatial multiplexing
-AAS (Antenna Adaptive Switch)

Field strenght exposure


analysis (in 2D or 3D
modes).

-Max transmitted power, %RS power, %


PDSCH power, and % control channels power
-RBs traffic capacity
- RSRP min level
- PUSCH received power min (dBm)
- Min sensitivity (dBm) Noise Floor value

Potential interference
analysis between the LTE
stations and existing
DVB-T network (Low
channel band)

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LTE FEATURES ICS DESIGNER V2

3. LTE FEATURES
3.1. RSRP
RSRP is used to measure the coverage of the LTE cell on the DL. The UE will send RRC measurements
reports that include RSRP values in a binned format. The reporting range of RSRP is defined from 140
to 40dBm with 1 dB resolution. The main purpose of RSRP is to determine the best cell on the DL
radio interface and select this cell as the serving cell for either initial random access or intra-LTE
handover. It is also important to check the non-

Figure 1: RSRP threshold and cell selection

ICS Designer allows to calculate easily RSRP coverage (pilot coverage) according to the technical
parameters set on e-nodeB. This step is fundamental to determinate the service area of the cells.
Advanced features are available to analyze and optimize (dominance, pollution, overshooting effects)
the RSRP coverage:

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RSRP
coverage

LTE FEATURES ICS DESIGNER V2


Coverage/Network analysis/
RSRP coverage
analysis/Composite
coverage

This function computes the composite coverage of the RSRP (Reference


Signal Received Power) in dBm based on the "% Ref Signal" defined in the
parameters of the e-nodeB station.

Coverage/Network analysis/
RSRP coverage analysis
/Best Server coverage (16 b)
Coverage/Network analysis/
RSRP coverage analysis
/Overlapping

This function computes a best server map of the Reference Signal (RS).

RS ANALYSIS

Coverage/Network analysis/
RSRP coverage analysis
/Simultaneous

Coverage/Network analysis/
RSRP coverage analysis
/Simultaneous except best
server

Coverage/Network analysis/
RSRP coverage analysis
/Coverage probability

Coverage/Network
analysis/ RSRP coverage
analysis /Servers

This function computes the overlapping areas of the RS transmitted by the


whole LTE network in the project.
This function computes the percentage of the RS simultaneously received
transmitted from the whole LTE network in the project. For example, if for
a given pixel the result is equal to 30% it means that the receiver will be
able to receive a RS signal from 30% of the stations available in the project
This is a map of simultaneous servers - Gives for each pixel the number of
servers with a RSRP less than the RSRP of the best server reduced by
delta (defined by the user) :
abs(FS_serving_sector-FS_other_sector)>=Delta

Calculates the probability of coverage based on RSRP threshold precision


corresponds to a pixel distance around the point being processed to
calculate the average of all these points, not the value exact on the current
point.

Displays the first best RSRP server, the second

RSRP (Reference Symbol Received Power): It is determined for a considered cell as the linear
average over the power contributions (in [W]) of the resource elements that carry cell-specific
reference signals within the considered measurement frequency bandwidth.

Figure 2: RSCP coverage prediction using


3GPP urban propagation model

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LTE FEATURES ICS DESIGNER V2

3.2. RSRQ
The functions dedicated to the RSRQ allows to perform a complete analysis of the RS signal and to
check the impact of the serving and surrounding cells.

Below the list of the functions dedicated to the RSRQ:


-

First server RSRQ


Second server RSRQ
Third server RSRQ
Simultaneous servers

RSRQ (Reference Symbol Received Quality): Reference Signal Received Quality (RSRQ) is
defined as the ratio NRSRP/(EUTRA carrier RSSI), where N is the number of RBs of the EUTRA
carrier RSSI measurement bandwidth. The measurements in the numerator and denominator shall be
made over the same set of resource blocks.

3.3. SNIR calculations


The Required SINR is the main performance indicator for LTE and the accurate knowledge required
SINR is central to the authenticity of the throughput and thus the process of dimensioning. Required
SINR depends up on the following factors:
-

Modulation and Coding Schemes (MCS)


Propagation Channel Mode
Higher the MCS used, higher the required SINR and vice versa. This means that using QPSK
will have a lower required SINR than 16-QAM .

The SNIR (Signal to Interference plus Noise ratio) is express as follows:

S: Useful signal (received power)


I own: Own cell interference (close to zero due to the orthogonally of subcarriers)
I oth: Other cell interference
N: Noise power

In LTE the SNIR PDSCH required replaces the Eb/N0 required of the UMTS Rel.99. The required SINR
can be estimated by two different methods:

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LTE FEATURES ICS DESIGNER V2


o

By using the Throughput vs. average SNIR tables. These tables are obtained as an Output
of link level simulations. For each type of propagation channel models and different antenna
configurations, different tables are needed (see table 1).
By using the Alpha Shannon formula. Alpha-Shannon formula provides an approximation of
the link level results. Thus, in this case, no actual simulations are needed, but factors used in
Alpha-Shannon formula are needed for different scenarios

Table 1: Example of DL throughput vs. SNIR tables


(Configuration: 20MHz bandwidth for 10% BLER, channel mode: EPA 5Hz)

The 4G SNIR maps function allows to perform SNIR plot coverage for the PDSCH (traffic) and control
channels. The SNIR calculation can also take into account:
-

The use of multi carriers on the same site (when more than one carrier is used per site)
RSRQ constraints to assure the reliability of the RS signal quality.
All the potential interferers (RSSI) from the LTE inter sites but also from the other network
systems (Digital broadcast network, UMTS, GSM)
ICIC parameter activated to improve the SNIR performance (ICIC scheduler is used to reduce
risks of collision between PRBs from inter sites).

Note that SNIR calculation are also used to analyses the radio link failure performance and the other
physical channels PDCCH/ PCIFCH, PCH, PBCH, (as described in 3GPP TS 36.101)
For example, PDCCHs performance is important not only because it delivers the scheduling information
to the UEs but also because when a UE first tries to access the network, PDCCH failure can result in
delayed access or access failure. During handover, PDCCH failure will cause handover failure since
downlink messages (response from the eNodeB) cannot be successfully delivered to the UE.

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LTE FEATURES ICS DESIGNER V2

3.4. DL Peak throughput plots


Per definition Peak throughput represents a theoretical upper bound on what can be achieved on the
channel in terms of throughput or capacity. It is an ideal case since it assumes no frame erasures and
should not be thought of as a sustainable throughput (refer to Section 5.5 for a definition of maximum
sustainable throughput).
The peak throughput depend on:

Bandwith configuration (1.4; 3; 5..20MHz)


SNIR conditions (depends on the path loss attenuations, transmitted power...)
MCS (Modulation Coding Sheme) achieved
nPRB allocated to PDSCH channels

The Peak throughput calculation requires a table of correspondence (between SNIR vs. Throughput)
dedicated to the LTE configuration (Channel models, antenna system, traffic load). Usually this table
is provided by the vendor equipment. In ICS Designer, the table of SNIR vs. Throughput used for the
peak throughput calculation can be selected from an internal table implemented in the tool (using
standards values as shown below) or from external tables (with the specific vendors recommendations):
SNIR vs. Throughput table by default in ICS Designer:
In ICS Designer, the tables of SNIR vs. Throughput from the recommendations based on Huawei
recommendations are implemented by default. Those tables can be used for the following LTE
configurations:
Bandwidth
N PRB
Channel models
DL Transmission mode
UL Transmission mode

5 MHz
25
EPA 5 Hz
SIMO 1x2, TX diversity 2x2, Open loop Spatial Multiplexing MIMO 2x2
SIMO

The Throughput (kbps) values in those table are defined as the date rate per resource block for
a given SINR.
The peak throughput result calculated on each pixel will be performed according to this table but
also the cell load (number of RB used for the traffic allocation) specified in the e-nodeB setup tab
of the station (as shown in the figure 2).

Figure 3: E-nodeB traffic parameters with load traffic: 50%

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LTE FEATURES ICS DESIGNER V2

Figure 4: SNIR vs. Throughput table by default in ICS Designer

Import of external SNIR vs. Throughput table in ICS Designer:


A external table can be requested in an excel sheet via the Import format 2 options with
columns SNIR (dB), Throughput in kbps per RB for SIMO antenna , Throughput in kbps per
RB for TxDiv antenna , Throughput in kbps per RB for MIMO antenna, Throughput in kbps per
RB for UL STD.

The procedure of import of external throughput tables can be described with the following
typical case:

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LTE FEATURES ICS DESIGNER V2

Figure 5: NSN (Nokia Siemens Network) table throughputs vs. SNIR

Step 1: The user must to choose the % cell load used for the simulation (standard value: 50%)
Step 2: The % cell load must be set in the traffic parameter of the e-nodeBs (%RS signal,
%PDSCH channels, %control channels)
Step 3: Select the column describing the SNIR vs. throughput value for the wanted % load traffic
(figure 4)
Step 4: Then, the user must to create a .CSV file with the values specified in the NSN table and
with the format 2 specified in ICS Designer (see figure 3). Note that, the throughputs values
specified in the .CSV must be the throughput only per RB and not for all the RB allocated (50) as
specified in the NSN table (figure 4). The throughputs values set in the CSV file must be divided
by 50 compare to the throughputs values described in the NSN table.

Note that the peak throughput calculation in ICS Designer may takes into account multi criterions as the
RSRQ reliability and the transmission modes used by the e-nodeBs (fixed transmission mode or AAS
Adaptive mode switch antenna are supported):

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LTE FEATURES ICS DESIGNER V2

Figure 6: Peak throughput calculation with AAS mode

Those options allows to analyze, improve the throughput performance of the network and also
determinate the most appropriate transmission mode in the cell edge or cell center. Below, an illustration
of the throughput performances with different transmission mode configurations:

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LTE FEATURES ICS DESIGNER V2

Figure 7: Peak throughput plots with LTE network using single antenna

Figure 8: Peak throughput plots with LTE network using 2X2MIMO configuration (SU-SD)

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LTE FEATURES ICS DESIGNER V2

Better SNIR at the


cell edge
with TxDiv mode

Figure 9: Peak throughput plots with LTE network using AAS configuration

3.5. UL peak throughput plots


The UL Peak throughput calculation is performed via the function 4G Uplink SNIR available in the
menu Statistics -> coverage -> 4G Uplink SNIR

The UL SNIR calculation is done as follows:


First the best DL RSRP is calculated for all the activated stations.
Then UL SNIR PUSCH can be calculated with 2 modes:
If 1 sub / enodeB (random) is checked, the function will select only one sub/station (stronger
sub interferer from the random selection).
If 1 sub / enodeB (random) is unchecked; power sum is applied (this power sum is based on
the subscribers selected during the random selection).

Note 1: Only the parented subscribers are taken into account by this function.
Note 2: The parented sub doesnt interfere his wanted station.
Note 3: The Noise rise calculated with the mode Subscriber distribution method (Monte-Carlo) is the
average noise rise per station for the whole passes.

Note 4: If the subscribers are declared as mobile, their coordinates will be changed after each pass.

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LTE FEATURES ICS DESIGNER V2

Figure 10: UL SNIR map

Once SNIR plot coverage is displayed, the user needs just to import the UL SNIR vs. Throughput
table.

Table 2: UL SNIR vs. Throughput table for 50% load traffic

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LTE FEATURES ICS DESIGNER V2

Figure 11: UL peak throughput plots

3.6. Traffic analysis and LTE schedulers


The throughput an individual user may experience depends both on the MCS allocated (a function of
the users characteristics and channel conditions especially RSCP, RSRQ and SNIR) and on the
demands of other users sharing the channel resource. The sharing of the resources over the users is
arbitrated by the scheduler. ICS Designer can simulate the behavior of the traffic for giving population
of users according to various type of scheduler. ICS designer have introduce a traffic method of
calculation based on the LTE schedulers which allows to determinate what is the best algorithm to apply
according to a given traffic scenario.
The LTE schedulers are the following:

Max SNIR:
The Priority is given to the current user has the greatest signal to noise ratio (SNR). MaxSNIR
method allocates the radio resource constantly to the user who has the best spectral efficiency
and therefore that will provide the best throughput on each EU. However, a negative effect of this
allocation is that users close to the e-nodeB always have a disproportionate priority on users
further away. When the network is congested, it is also common for mobile located on the cell
edge that they dont access at all to the radio resource. With Max SNR it is impossible to guarantee
quality of service even minimal since it is exclusively or almost exclusively dependent on the
relative position of the mobile. In addition, the Max SNR has another disadvantage: it does not
take into account users' needs when assigning priorities.

RR:
This method (called Rodin Robin) involves allocating the same amount of RB users. However,
the rate actually received will depend on the radio conditions (C / N + I, priority bearers).This
method does not take into account the needs of users in terms of desired flow or maximum delay
of packets. Users are then assigned a rate that is unrelated to their needs. Round Robin does not
take into account the position, capabilities and needs of each user. It allocates the same

amount of blindness resource units for all mobile without any possibility of differentiating
services and thus ensure any quality of service.

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LTE FEATURES ICS DESIGNER V2

PF:
This algorithm (called Proportional Fair) is considered as the most appropriate in terms of
simplicity and performance. It consists in allocating RB iteratively so that the overall throughput
provided to each user increases gradually in the same way. When a user has received that
application flow, no more RB is assigned and the execution of the algorithm occurs with other
users. The algorithm stops when all users are satisfied or all RB were distributed. UE get equal
flow rates. In the end, the users with low demand are always advantaged because their desired
flow is almost always provided; they are often fully satisfied In contrast with the other users who
require more resources (note that in the case where all users have the same needs, scheduler
"Robin Rodin" equivalent to the Max-Min Fair).

Figure 12: Parenting LTE module in ICS designer

The user needs to define the profile of the UE (max transmitted power, antenna height, transmission
mode supported, traffic demand) and generate the population of UE (per density per km or over a
polygon or per site) then the LTE parenting function will calculate UE by UE the effective traffic
received based on the selected algorithm. Note that during this parenting, DL and UL radio conditions
are checked (RSCP, RSRQ and PUSCH). The ICIC enhancement option can be checked to reduce
the risk of collision between RB transmitted by inter-cells as well the MIMO adaptive switch modes
(AAS).

Dynamic LTE traffic analysis based on parenting method: RB allocation and throughput
calculation based on UEs population (can be generated manually or imported via a .CSV file).
The final result is a gglobal LTE Traffic QoS report by subscriber, station or for the entire
network. Throughput and RB allocation distribution will depends on:
Profile and location of the UE
Channels setting of the cells and RB capacity dedicated to the traffic channel.
Transmission mode used: AAS (Antenna Adaptive Switch) mode or fixed mode
(Single antenna port SISO or SIMO, Tx Div/MISO, Spatial multiplexing MIMO, Multi
user MIMO).
Scheduler method (Max SNIR, RR, PF)
Pre-defined SNIR vs. Throughput/RB table

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LTE FEATURES ICS DESIGNER V2

Connectivity between e-node B and UEs (Min RSCP, Min RSRQ received by the UE and in
PUSCH received by the e-nodeB) are checked then the e-nodeB is allocating the RBs
according to the scheduler method used for the simulation. Once the e-nodeB RBs are
allocated for the UEs, the throughput offer is calculated according to a SNIR us Throughput
(per RB) table map for the dedicated transmission mode used by the UE.
If the AAS mode is selected, ICS designer will choose the best transmission mode for a given
UE giving the best SNIR performances. Typically TxDiv transmission mode when the SNIR
is poor (at the cell edge) or MIMO mode when the SNIR measured is high (typically when the
mobile is close to the station). Of course, the choice of the transmission mode (when the AAS
mode is selected) in ICS designer is also depending of the characteristics of the UE
(EPA05, EPA70)
-

LTE prospective planning: Automatic search of site to connect the orphan UE (when the UE
is not connected to the e-nodeB) due to a weak level of coverage or traffic congestion.

3.7. PCI planning


The menu Coverage/Network planning/Physical layer cell identities... allows to plan the PCI
(Physical Layer Cell Identities) and the PHY Group ID (Physical Layer Cell Identity Group) in order to
avoid any risk of collision between the neighbor cells.

There are 504 unique physical-layer cell identities. The physical-layer cell identities are grouped into
168 unique physical-layer cell-identity groups, each group containing three unique identities. The
grouping is such that each physical-layer cell identity is part of one and only one physical-layer cellidentity group. A physical-layer cell identity NID cell = 3NID(1) +NID(2) is thus uniquely defined by a
number NID (1) in the range of 0 to 167, representing the physical layer cell identity group, and a number
NID(2) in the range of 0 to 2, representing the physical layer identity within the physical-layer cell identity
group (see 3GPP TS 36.211 recommendations).
Note that the LTE neighbour list must be previously generated before to launch the PCI planning (refer
to the section 2.9 LTE Handover and neighbour list analysis)

3.8. RSI and PRACH planning


The first step in the random-access procedure is the transmission of a random-access preamble. The
main purpose of the preamble transmission is to indicate to the base station the presence of a random
access attempt and to allow the base station to estimate the delay between the eNodeB and the terminal.
The delay estimate will be used in the second step to adjust the uplink timing. The timefrequency
resource on which the random-access preamble is transmitted is known as the Physical RandomAccess Channel (PRACH). The e-nodeB broadcasts information to all terminals in which timefrequency
resource random-access preamble transmission is allowed. As part of the first step of the randomaccess procedure, the terminal selects one preamble to transmit on the PRACH.

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In each cell, there are 64 preamble sequences available. Two subsets of the 64 sequences are defined
as illustrated in Figure 14.9, where the set of sequences in each subset is signaled as part of the system
information. As long as no other terminal is performing a random-access attempt using the same
sequence at the same time instant, no collisions will occur and the attempt will, with a high likelihood,
be detected by the eNodeB.
ICS Designer the function Coverage/Network/planning/Root Sequence Index Allocation allows to
perform and optimize the RSI (Root sequence index) allocation of the LTE sites depending of the
neighbor relations between the cells.
Note that new advanced allocation methods has been implemented (PRACH ZC sequence parameter
for 3GPP, coverage range, extended radius) in the last release.

Figure 13: RSI allocation window in ICS Designer

The number of root sequence index can be generated by several


methods:
-

By the user
From max coverage range
From extended radius

From PRACH table (0-15)


From extended radius (site tab of the station)
From access radius (km

or

Object properties (F5): Add of Root Sequence Index (RSI)

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3.9. LTE Handover and neighbour list analysis (intra-inter system)


In LTE the UE is always connected to one cell (Hard Handover) and the UE can detect the intra
frequency neighbours without neighbor lists. The UE moving towards a new cell and identifies the
Physical Cell Identity (PCI) based on the Synchronization signals (PSS/SSS). The measurement reports
contains information about the PCI and the corresponding RSRP of the candidate cell. The UE
continuously measure the RSRP from the serving cell and candidate cells (cells in the neighborhood of
the UE that may be considered as handover candidates). A measurement report is typically triggered
when the RSR from a candidate cell is within a threshold X dB from the serving cell RSRP.
The measurement report contains information about the PCI and the corresponding RSRP of the
candidate cell and the serving cell may order the mobile to read the GID (describing the PLMN identity
and the globally unique cell identifier broadcasted by the cells) of a cell with a certain PCI and report
back to the serving cell. This procedure occurs in the following cases:
-

If the PCI is associated with a cell with handover failures in the past
In case of PCI conflicts
When the PCI of the candidate is unknown by the serving cell.

During this phase the UE will transmit a report (with the wrong PCI) to signal this cell directly or through
the core network in order to update this candidate in the neighbor relation list.

The handover procedures for E-UTRAN systems are described in the 3GPP TS 36.331.
E-UTRAN supports two types of handover:
-

Intra Radio Access Technology handovers divided into two categories:


HO intra system with intra-frequency neighbours
HO intra system with intra-frequency neighbours

When an LTE UE is powered on, it scans all E-UTRA Radio Frequency (RF) bands and starts to listen
to the broadcast channels for synchronization. This is done to find a suitable cell for initial camping with
the best radio conditions according to cell RSRP measurements. After cell selection, the UE registers
to the network and starts to measure intra-frequency neighbours as candidates for cell reselection
according to cell ranking criteria. Usually this means that reselection is performed if the radio conditions,
according to RSRP measurements, are better than a configured threshold above that of the serving cell
and if the RSRQ threshold is enough. The UE also measures the inter-frequency cells according to the
neighbouring cell list. The prioritization between the intra and inter frequency layers depends of the
strategy used by the operator but usually the intra frequency HO are often the first priority.
-

Inter Radio Access Technology handovers:


HO between E-UTRAN (LTE) and UTRAN (3G) neighbours
HO between E-UTRAN (LTE) and GSM neighbours
HO between E-UTRAN (LTE) and Wi-Fi neighbours (3GPP release 12)

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When the UE is not able to use intra or inter frequency neighbours with acceptable RSRP threshold,
the core network will LTE UE is able to switch to UTRAN or GSM system.
The advanced HO features on ICS Designer support all the types of HO supported by the E-UTRAN:
Inter/Intra technology handovers.

The different options available in this function are the following:


-

Handovers for intra-eNodeB and inter eNodeB (LTE-LTE) :


As shown in the figure 13, The HO algorithm used during the calculation is based on the
event A3 (better cell HO) and A5 (handover threshold based on RSRP).
The quality of the RS signal (RSRQ) can be checked during the HO calculation. In this
case, the degradation due to the RSRQ will be takes into account during the HO
procedure.
The Intra and inter frequency HO can be simulated separately.
The HO map can be calculated according to a predefined list of neighboor cells.

Figure 14: LTE<-> LTE handover process in ICS Designer

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Handovers for eNodeB and NodeB (LTE-3G) : :


As shown in the figure 14, The HO algorithm used during the calculation is based on the
RSRP serving cell for the e-nodeB and Ec/I0 plus RSCP thresholds for the nodeB
The quality of the RS signal (RSRQ) can be also checked during the HO calculation. In
this case, the degradation due to the RSRQ will be takes into account during the HO
procedure.

Figure 15: LTE<-> 3G handover process in ICS Designer

Handovers for eNodeB and BTS (LTE-2G) : :


As shown in the figure 15, The HO algorithm used during the calculation is based on the
RSRP serving cell for the e-nodeB and RSSI for the BTS
The quality of the RS signal (RSRQ) can be also checked during the HO calculation. In
this case, the degradation due to the RSRQ will be takes into account during the HO
procedure.

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Figure 16: LTE<->2G handover process in ICS Designer

The advanced Neighbour calculation function in ICS Designer allows to perform the intra and
Inter- frequency neighbour list required to plan the PCI allocations and avoid risk of collision between
the PCIs. The functions includes also the possibility to generate the inter system neighbour list (between
LTE and 3G, LTE and Wi-Fi) according to multi hysteresis criterions.

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In the end of the calculation, a .CSV report giving the neighbour list by station is generated and the
neighbour cells are automatically updated on the neighbour list box of the e-nodeB setup tab of the LTE
station.

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3.10. LTE Monte Carlos simulators


LTE Monte Carlo analysis functions in ICS Designer comprises downlink and uplink Best Server,
Interference and Traffic analysis. ICS Designer performs several random trials, using a pseudo-random
distribution to spread the UE over the map for each trial. The outputs of the analysis are quality and
traffic reports. The Monte Carlo approach is very useful and efficient to validate or enhance the LTE
network parameters in order to achieve the coverage and interference objectives for a given population
of UE. Typically, the LTE Monte Carlo simulators can be used to validate the following criterions:

For downlink:
RSCP Levels
RSRQ levels
SNIR Levels
For uplink:
PUSCH levels
Once the e-nodeB network is configured (antenna height, bandwidth, transmitted power...) a population
of UE can be generated (with one or several profiles) can be generated and randomly distributed on the
project by different ways: Per density of km, over configured cells. Once the population is generated,
the tool will calculate the average and the distribution of the coverage KPIs (RSCP, RSRQ, SNIR
PDSCH and PUSCH).

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Figure 17: LTE Monte Carlo Simulator in ICS Designer

Figure 18: RSRQ (dB) simulation with Monte Carlo simulator

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Figure 19: RSRQ (dB) distribution with Monte Carlo simulator

Figure 20: RSCP (dBm) simulation with Monte Carlo simulator

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Figure 21: PUSCH (dBm) simulation with Monte Carlo simulator

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Figure 22: SNIR (PDSCH) simulation with Monte Carlo simulator

The Monte carlo simulator can also be used to optimize the e-nodeb configuration in order to improve
the coverage and interference KPI s parameters. The Monte carlo simulator is able to calculate the
KPI distribution over the UE population with taking into account the variability of the e-nodeB parameters
especially the folowing:

Azimuth(),
Electrical tilt()
Antenna height (m)
Percentage of transmit power dedicated to the RS signal
Percentage of transmit power dedicated to the PDSCH
signal
Percentage of transmit power dedicated to the control
channels
Antenna type (transmission mode: Standard, MIMO SM,
, MISO, single antenna, SISO, SIMO, MU-MIMO)

Tx Div

For example, It is easy to check the impact in term of RSRQ(dB) and SNIR(PDSCH) when the
electrical tilt applied for the e-nodeBs are between -4 and -8

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Figure 23: RSRQ distribution simulation with Monte Carlo simulator (Electrical Downtilt = -2)

Figure 24: RSRQ distribution simulation with Monte Carlo simulator (Electrical Downtilt between -4 and -8)

Figure 25: SNIR (PDSCH) distribution simulation with Monte Carlo simulator (Electrical Downtilt = -2)

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Figure 26: SNIR (PDSCH) distribution simulation with Monte Carlo simulator (Electrical Downtilt between-4 and -8)

In this example SNIR (PDSCH), RSCP and RSRQ KPIs are degraded when the electrical downtilt
applied to the Tx antennas is too high. The aerial configuration using -2 downtilt seems to be the most
adapted for the dimensioning network. In the real LTE network, SNIR(PDSCH) level can be improved
by the usage of AAS antennas as shown below with the new Monte Carlo simulation using AAS mode.
Note that AAS mode and MIMO antennas doesnt affect RSRP or RSRQ levels: RSRP doesnt depend
on the number of transmit antennas, as it is measured always from resource elements transmitted by
one antenna at a time. The 3GPP has defined RSRP as the average power of a single resource element.
The UE measures the power of multiple resource elements used to transfer the reference signal but
then takes an average of them rather than summing them.

Figure 27: SNIR (PDSCH) distribution simulation with Monte Carlo simulator
(Electrical Down tilt = -2 and AAS mode activated)

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3.11. Automatic search of site


Several automatic search site features to increase coverage & capacity are available in ICS Designer.
Below a description of the main functions:
Feature name
Prospective planning

Menu
Coverage/Network
planning/Prospective
planning

Parenting LTE

Subscriber/Parenting/ 4G
parenting LTE

Rules
This function allows to find the
best locations for new sites in
case of greenfield and
densification scenarios. This
function is based on coverage
target assumption.
This function is based on a
population of LTE users
(profiles and traffic demands
must be defined). It allows to
resolve the problems of the
traffic network congestion (or
low traffic QoS performance)
by adding new sites in the hot
spot area. This function takes
into account DL/UL coverage
criterions and traffic
assumption.

3.12. Automatic frequency planning


The advanced Automatic frequency planning function in ICS Designer allows to perform a full and
fractional automatic frequency planning for a LTE network.

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3.13. Automatic site optimization


Several automatic optimization features of network parameters to increase coverage & capacity are
available in ICS Designer.
Below a description of the main ACP features:
Feature name
Station according to
target coverage

Menu
Coverage/Station
candidates/Station according to
target coverage

Select station according


to surface covered by
station

Coverage/Station candidates/ Select


station according to surface covered
by station

Route planning

Coverage/Network planning/Route
planning

Prospective planning

Coverage/Network
planning/Prospective planning

Station optimizing

Coverage/Network planning/ Station


optimizing

Rules
Allows to select (for all the
activated stations) the sites
required to achieve the
coverage target (by clutter
types). Allows to help the
user in order to reduce the
number of sites required at
the minimum.
Allows to select (for all the
activated stations) the sites
for a coverage target
(surface per km) required
by station.
Function dedicated to roads,
highway, railway
environments and it used to
determinate automatically
the best sites and
configuration (azimuths, tilts)
in order to cover of optimize
the clutters defined as a
vector.
This function allows to find
the best locations for new
sites in case of greenfield
and densification scenarios.
This function is based on
coverage target assumption.
This function allows to
optimize a set of parameters
(tilt, Antenna height,
azimuth) in order to
improve the station
coverage

Other LTE optimising features can be used to:


-

Compare and to find for each cell the best equipment configuration (according to a pre-defined
list of vendor configuration) in order to improve the target coverage.
Simulate and compare the prediction results with the use of AAS (Adaptive Antenna Switch)
The user is also able to activate additional parameters such as ICIC parameter or power boosting
(applied to the RS, PDSCH or PDCCH channels) to improve weak coverage.

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LTE FEATURES ICS DESIGNER V2

3.14. Refarming frequency band and inter system coexistence


At WRC-07 (World Radiocommunication Conference), this resulted in different allocations to mobile
services in the digital dividend bands in different regions: 800 MHz in Europe, Africa and Middle East
and 700 MHz in Americas and Asia Pacific. WRC-12 corrected this imbalance by also allocating the 700
MHz band to the mobile service in Europe, Africa and Middle East, subject to confirmation by WRC-15.
This delay permitted the necessary studies to achieve harmonization of the frequency plans using a
combination of both the 700 MHz and 800 MHz bands throughout the world. Very good progress has
been made in this regard.
The interference module used in ICS Designer is able to perform multi-technology technical coexistence
studies in order to:
Quantify the impact of each technology over the other,
Analyze the affected population and services
Perform scenario analysis to quantify the impact of various tradeoffs: spectrum allocation,
interference impact, costs, etc
The interference between LTE and the other existing systems (like Digital broadcast network) but also
the cases of refarming frequency band between the existing mobile network systems (for example
between 3G and GSM in the 900 MHz band) can be easily performed . The NDF matrix (standards
protection ratios) for all the interferences combination (4G vs. DVB-T, 2G vs. 2G, 2G vs. 3G, 3G vs.
2G, 3G Vs. 3G) are implemented in the tool. The flexibility of the tool allows to the user to support in
the same project unlimited stations using different technologies.

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Figure 28: Scenario describing the case 3G vs. 2G network when the 2G band [935MHz, 940MHz]
is migrated to the 3G system

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Figure 29: LTE stations interference calculation on DVB-T network in ICS Design
(interfered areas are marked with pink color)

3.15. LTE Field strength exposure (2D&3D)


The potential health risk of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF EMFs) emitted by cellular network
are currently of considerable public interest. A very important issue is the requirement for coexistence
between wireless equipment and people leaving around those type of transmitters. Existing national
standards on electromagnetic radiation safety are based on the result of extensive research and
consideration of any possible health risks. The recommendation about the maximum exposure level
(V/m) are depending on the countries and can be a subject of disputes between lobbies and operators.
The 3D coverage feature in ICS Designer allows to calculate in 3D the field strength level in visibility
only (LOS) or taking also into account the diffraction (LOS/NLOS). The dynamic 3D display engine has
been implemented in order to be able to display the coverage in the faade and inside de the building.
This feature allows to check easily and clearly the field strength level (dBV/m or in V/m) generated by
transmitters (2G/3G/LTE) and help the RF planner to find the best transmitter configuration in order to
reduce the potential risk.

Figure 30: Dynamic 3D display engine in ICS Designer

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Figure 31: 3D FS exposure result in the facades

Note that, in the work of the Copic (committee piloted by the French national regulator
composed of the national French mobile network operators and various public actors), ATDI
has been kindly asked (since 2009 until 2013) to study the population exposure to
electromagnetic waves emitted by the antennas of mobile networks, ATDI was responsible
to perform the following studies:

Modeling of coverage (2G, 3G voice and HSDPA) different mobile networks in the
current state ("State of Play");
Impact on the coverage of the various networks of power reduction of certain issuers
located in the experimental area;
Reconfiguration of these networks following a power reduction by adding
complementary sites to find or get as close as possible to cover the "state of play",
ensuring that these new sites will not generate exposure levels exceeding the target
threshold (0.6V / m or 1V / m).
Modeling of coverage (2G, 3G voice and HSDPA) different mobile networks in the
current state ("State of Play");
Impact on the coverage of the various networks of power reduction of certain issuers
located in the experimental area;
Reconfiguration of these networks following a power reduction by adding
complementary sites to find or get as close as possible to cover the "state of play",
ensuring that these new sites will not generate exposure levels exceeding the target
threshold (0.6V / m or 1V / m).

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3.16. LTE Propagation models


Good propagation modeling is crucial for exact network planning and dimensioning
Various LTE propagation models are supported in ICS Designer:
Usual empirical models such as Okumura-Hata, Hata extended, COST 231 models,
LTE 3GPP models (based on 3GPP TR 36.942 V8.3.0 recommendations)
Geometrical models used for free space attenuation, diffraction loss and the subpath loss
calculation. ATDIs experience in using practically geometrical models (comparisons with
measurements and customer remarks) allows providing acceptable prediction (compare to
empirical models) even without any calibration of the propagation models. Those last models are
very flexible because it allows to support any kind of LTE scenarios (from Network mobile operator
or TETRA operator point of view) especially when the LTE receiver is a mobile UE, airplane or
helicopter (for police, emergency or military operations). The geometrical models allows also to
support inter technology analysis between LTE and UMTS, GSM and digital broadcast network
for potential additional coexistence studies.

Empirical models
Okumura-Hata

Hata extended

COST 231

150 MHz to 1.0 GHz

30 MHz to 2.0 GHz

1500 MHz to 2.0 GHz

30 to 200 m

30 to 200 m

above roof-top

above roof-top

Frequency Range
1.5 to 2.0 GHz
30 to 200 m
eNodeB
Antenna Height

above roof-top
use effective height

UE Antenna Height

1 to 10 m

1 to 10 m

1 to 10 m

Range

1 to 20 km

1 to 100 km

1 to 20 km

Table 3: Applicability of the Okumura-Hata, Hata extd and Cost 231 propagation models
3GPP LTE Empirical models (TR 36.942 V8.3.0)
3GPP RURAL

3GPP URBAN

150 MHz to 1.0 GHz


Frequency Range

800 MHz to 2.0 GHz


1.5 to 2.0 GHz

eNodeB
Antenna Height

30 to 200 m

4 to 50 m

above roof-top

above roof-top

UE Antenna Height

1 to 10 m

1 to 3m

Range

1 to 20 km

30 m to 6 km

Table 4: Applicability of the 3GPP propagation models

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Geometrical models
ITU-R 525
(Free space model)

Deygout 1994
(Diffraction model)

Standard/Coarse
Integration/Fine Integration
(Subpath models)

Frequency Range

From 30 MHz to
450Ghz

From 30 MHz
to 450Ghz

From 30 MHz to
450Ghz

eNodeB
Antenna Height

Any value

Any value

Any value

UE Antenna
Height

Any value

Any value

Any value

Any value

Any value

Any value

Range

Table 5: Applicability of deterministic propagation models

The propagation model should be adjusted to the environment in which the sites will be built up. This
means that propagation measurements and tuning of the model are recommended for real network
deployment. The best results found without tuning are geometrical models.

Deterministic propagations models implemented means:

Ddeterministic models can be used even without calibration or tuning (very useful
during the nominal plan phase).
Can be optimize via an automatic calibration when the site are deployed.
More flexibility in term of time of calculations.
E-UTRAN FDD/TDD, UMTS FDD/TDD, TETRA and all the frequency bands are fully
supported in the same project.

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LTE FEATURES ICS DESIGNER V2

4. PRACTICAL CASE (SCOPE AND INPUT DATA)

4.1. Scope of the study


The scope of this study is to describe a practical case of an LTE network planning study using ICS
Designer in a dense urban area located in Paris (France). The coverage requirements for the design
are the following:
-

Assure DL throughput 768 kb/s and transmits 256 kb/s UL (assuming DL MCS6 and
UL MCS5)
Cell edge coverage probability: 95%
Service area to cover : Urban area composed of streets/Roads/parks/ Buildings (8.6975 km and
population: 80 000)

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Technical assumptions:
-

Frequency bands: [2515MHz ; 2535MHz] for Micro sites and [800MHz ; 850MHz] for macro sites;
LTE Macro, Micro and indoor stations can be used during the network design.

4.2. Cartographic layer


Different cartographic layers used in this study have been provided by ATDI:
-

A digital terrain model (DTM) with a resolution of 4m providing the altitude of the ground over
the whole area;

Image servers;

A building layer

A ground occupancy layer containing 8 classes describing the nature of the ground for the
following areas: open, buildings, vegetation, water and roads

Table 6: Clutters parameters used during the simulation

Figure 32: Cartographic layers used in ICS Designer

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4.3. Site and simulation parameters


This section describes:
-

Physical configuration of the LTE sites

SNIR Requirement

Link budget calculation/Power allocation of the site

Sensitivities (RSRP/Trafic channel)

Propagation model

3.3.1 Physical configurations of the LTE sites


Macro e-nodeB configuration:

General parameters:
E-nodeB equipment: Flexi RF module (60w)
Channel Bandwidth: 5MHz
Total Number of PRBs: 25
Mode: FDD
Tx Antenna Gain : 18dBi
Transmission mode: MIMO 2*2 (2Tx/2Rx)
Feeder losses : 0.4dB
Cyclic Prefix : Normal
Number of OFDM Symbols per Subframe: 14

System overhead:
Number of PDCCH Symbols per Subframe: 3
Reference Signal: 9.52%
Primary Synchronization Signal (PSS): 0.17%
Secondary Synchronization Signal (SSS): 0.17%
PBCH / PRACH: 0.31%
PDCCH (incl. PCFICH, PHICH) / PUCCH: 19.05%
Total System Overhead: 29.23%

Figure 33: Antenna diagram (H/V) used during the simulations

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UE configuration:

General parameters:
UE Power Class: 3 (0.2 W)
Transmission mode: 1TX/2RX
Tx Antenna gain: 0dBi
Channel mode: Enhanced Pedestrian A 5 Hz

3.3.2 SNIR requirements


We assume for this study a cell load (average resource utilization) equal to 50% that means the use of 50
RB over 100 for each LTE station. The table of correspondence SNIR (PDSCH) vs. Throughput used for
the study is the following (Huawei recommendations):
Downlink
(Kbps)

Uplink
(Kbps)

SINR

EPA5 / 2x2MIMO

EPA5 / SIMO

-5

525.72

474.48

-4

648.48

578.76

-3

788.16

700.32

-2

946.56

840.84

-1

1125.24

1001.52

1325.76

1183.68

1549.56

1388.04

1798.32

1614.96

2073.24

1864.2

2375.76

2135.04

2706.6

2426.16

3066.84

2735.28

3456.84

3059.76

3876.84

3395.76

4326.48

3739.32

10

4805.4

4085.4

11

5312.4

4428.48

12

5845.92

4762.8

13

6404.16

5082.24

14

6984.48

5380.56

15

7583.76

5651.88

16

8198.64

5890.44

17

8825.04

6090.96

18

9458.52

6249.00

19

10094.04

6360.96

20

10726.68

6424.2

21

11350.56

6438.72

22

11960.16

6438.72

23

12549.48

6438.72

24

13112.64

6438.72

25

13643.76

6438.72

26

14137.08

6438.72

Downlink (Kbps) Uplink (Kbps)


SINR

EPA5 / 2x2MIMO

EPA5 / SIMO

-5

43.81

39.54

-4

54.04

48.23

-3

65.68

58.36

-2

78.88

70.07

-1

93.77

83.46

110.48

98.64

129.13

115.67

149.86

134.58

172.77

155.35

197.98

177.92

225.55

202.18

255.57

227.94

288.07

254.98

323.07

282.98

360.54

311.61

10

400.45

340.45

11

442.7

369.04

12

487.16

396.9

13

533.68

423.52

14

582.04

448.38

15

631.98

470.99

16

683.22

490.87

17

735.42

507.58

18

788.21

520.75

19

841.17

530.08

20

893.89

535.35

21

945.88

536.56

22

996.68

536.56

23

1045.79

536.56

24

1092.72

536.56

25

1136.98

536.56

26

1178.09

536.56

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Downlink
(Kbps)

Uplink
(Kbps)

SINR

EPA5 / 2x2MIMO

EPA5 / SIMO

27

14587.08

6438.72

28

14988.84

6438.72

29

15337.56

6438.72

30

15629.16

6438.72

31

15860.16

6438.72

32

16027.8

6438.72

33

16129.92

6438.72

34

16165.44

6438.72

35

16165.44

6438.72

Downlink (Kbps) Uplink (Kbps)


SINR

EPA5 / 2x2MIMO

EPA5 / SIMO

27

1215.59

536.56

28

1249.07

536.56

29

1278.13

536.56

30

1302.43

536.56

31

1321.68

536.56

32

1335.65

536.56

33

1344.16

536.56

34

1347.12

536.56

35

1347.12

536.56

36

1347.12
536.56
Table 7:
DL SNIR vs. Throughput (per RB)
(Channel models: EPA 5 Hz and Open loop Spatial
Multiplexing MIMO 2x2, BLER: 10%)

36

16165.44
6438.72
Table 8:
DL SNIR vs. Throughput (with 50% load traffic)
(Channel models: EPA 5 Hz and Open loop Spatial
Multiplexing MIMO 2x2, BLER: 10%)

As shown in the table 7, the minimum SNIR required to achieve 768 Kbps in DL is -3dB:

As shown in the table 8, the minimum SNIR required to achieve 256 Kbps in UL is -5dB:

3.3.3 RSCP sensitivity


The RSCP sensitivity required can be deduced as follows:

SNIR required for the RS Signal (dB)


Noise figure (dB)
KTB (dBm)
KTBF (dBm)
Slow Fading Margin (dB) Cell Edge Probability: 95%
Sensitivity on RS channels (dBm)

Downlink
-16
5
-101.4
-96.4
13.2
-99.2

Table 9: RSCP sensitivity calculation

Notes:

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KTB DL = -174dBm/Hz + 10 * log (15KHz*12* RB) = -174dBm/Hz + 10 * log (15KHz*12* 25)
= -107.4dBm
In DL OFDM receiver looks at the whole bandwidth, thus all available Resources Blocks should be considered.
KTB UL = -174dBm/Hz + 10 * log (15KHz*12* RB) = -174dBm/Hz + 10 * log (15KHz*12* 12) = -110.6dBm
In SC-FDMA receiver looks only at the allocated bandwidth, thus not all but only assigned Resources Blocks are assumed in
sensitivity formula.

3.3.4 PDSCH (traffic channel) sensitivity


The traffic channel sensitivity required can be deduced as follows:

Minimum throughput required (kb/s)


SNIR required (dB)
Noise figure (dB)
KTB (dBm)
KTBF (dBm)
Slow Fading Margin (dB) Cell Edge Probability: 95%
Sensitivity on PDSCH channels (dBm)

Downlink
768
-3
5
-101.4
-96.4
13.2
-86.2

Table 10: PDSCH channel sensitivity calculation

Notes:
The SNIR (dB) required for the DL/UL target throughput are defined in the NSN table of recommendation
(refers to the section 3.3.2 SNIR requirements)
KTB DL = -174dBm/Hz + 10 * log (15KHz*12* RB) = -174dBm/Hz + 10 * log (15KHz*12* 25)
= -107.4dBm
In DL OFDM receiver looks at the whole bandwidth, thus all available Resources Blocks should be considered.
KTB UL = -174dBm/Hz + 10 * log (15KHz*12* RB) = -174dBm/Hz + 10 * log (15KHz*12* 12) = -110.6dBm
In SC-FDMA receiver looks only at the allocated bandwidth, thus not all but only assigned Resources Blocks are assumed in
sensitivity formula.

3.3.5 Path budget and power allocation


One of the aim of the LTE link budget is to assure that the E-UTRAN air interface is able to support a
balanced (DL/UL) connection in any location of the cell with acceptable radio conditions (in correlation
with the wanted throughput targets in the cell edge). The BS and UE equipment configuration as well as
the coverage threshold required (RS and traffic) validation is crucial for the reliability of the RF design
network.
The below table describes the methodology to follow to establish and validate a standard link budget:

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Table 11: Path budget and power allocation

When UE transmit power is less than eNodeB transmit power, UEs in idle mode may receive the
eNodeB signals and successfully register in cells. However, the eNodeB cannot receive uplink signals
because of limited power when UEs perform random access or upload data. In this situation, the
uplink coverage distance is less than the downlink coverage distance. Imbalance between uplink and
downlink involves limited uplink or downlink coverage. In order to use a balanced link budget, the
radiated power used on the traffic channels for the base stations will be 34.2dBm. So for a traffic load
of 50%, the nominal power is reduced to 37.3dBm.

3.3.6 Propagation models selection

The recommended propagations models for the LTE study are the following deterministic models:

Propagation model: ITU-R 525


Diffraction model: Deygout 94 Method
Subpath model : Standard

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Figure 34: Deterministic propagation model selection for LTE simulation ICS Designer

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5. PRACTICAL CASE (RESULTS)


5.1. PHASE 1: NETWORK DESIGN

4.1.1 Methodology
In this section we will discuss the process for creating an LTE network design in ICS Designer based on
the previous assumptions described before. A step by step process is provided.
1. STEP1: Once the empty project which contains the cartographic data (digital terrain model, clutter,
building and Bing, Rim, Google, Geoportail images) is loaded, the first stage of the study will
consist to create and configurate the macro and micro LTE sites with the technical parameters
described in the section 3.3.1. All the parameters specific to this configuration will be saved into a
.TRX file. This file may be used (by batch mode) to update a group of stations or used by the
automatic search of site function. Typically a .TRX file can be created for each vendor (Ericsson,
NSN, Huawei) and equipment type (macro, micro, indoor or fetmocell) and it can be used to
update the configuration of one or several stations together.

2. STEP2: The second step is to determinate the number of sites and site locations required to
achieve the target coverage and throughput. In practice, during a LTE deployment scenario most
of the sites candidates are selected from a list of friendly sites (2G or 3G existing sites) and the
rule of the RF planner will consist to find the best candidates and densify the network with the add
of new Macro or Micro/Indoor sites. Use the Automatic search site function to generate
automatically the LTE network design taking into consideration the required criteria based on the
RSRP threshold. During this first step we assume the following assumptions and targets:
a. Only LTE Macro sites (using the 800MHz band) will be used during this phase
b. The main target is to achieve at least 80% of the Indoor/Outdoor coverage
c. All the geographical sites are located in building supports
d. E-nodeB antenna heights: 4 meters above the roof top.
e. An another pass will be applied in the second stage with Micro and Indoor sites (using
2.6GHz band) in order to reduce the cost and the number of Macro Site.
3. STEP3: Once the RSRP coverage target is achieved, launch the automatic frequency assignment
in order to reduce the inter site interference and increase the global SNIR of the network.
4. STEP4: Check the RSRP overlapping area in order to detect the RSRP pollution area and then
increase the downtilt of the interferer station.
5. STEP5: Once the RSRP target is achieved, launch the automatic frequency assignment in order
to reduce the inter site interference and increase the global SNIR of the network.
6. STEP6: Check the RSRP overlapping area in order to detect the RSRP pollution area and then
increase the downtilt of the interferer station.
7. STEP7: Launch the DL Peak throughput plot coverage based on the DL SNIR (PDSCH) taking
into account the RSRQ requirement (Higher or equal to -16dB).
8. Check if the target throughput over the area is achieved. If not return to the step 1
9. Launch the DL Peak throughput plot coverage based on the UL SNIR (PDUCH)
10. Merge the two results DL/UL Peak throughput plot coverage

4.1.2 Automatic search site result


The result of the automatic network design calculation gives 20 MACRO sites and 3 MICRO sites:

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Figure 35: Green colour= MACRO SITES; Blue colour: MICRO SITE

Figure 36: The shortcut Shift +Z allows to display the inter site distance between the new sites

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4.1.3 RSRP and RSRQ results

Figure 37: RSRP coverage

As shown in the figure 37, the result is quite good: Continuous coverage is ensured (more than 96%
with cell edge probability: 95%).

Figure 38: RSRP best server coverage

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Risk of RSRP pollution

Figure 39: Number of simultaneous RS signals (except from the best signal)

The simultaneous RS signal plot allows to analyse the potential risks of RS pollution. In an area without
a dominant cell, the receive level of the serving cell is similar to the receive levels of its neighboring cells
and the receive levels of downlink signals between different cells are close to cell reselection thresholds.
Receive levels in an area without a dominant cell are also unsatisfactory. The SINR of the serving cell
becomes unstable and receive quality (RSRQ) becomes unsatisfactory. In this situation, a dominant cell
is frequently reselected and changed in idle mode. As a result, frequent handovers or service drops
occur on UEs in connected mode because of poor signal quality. An area without a dominant cell can
also be regarded as a weak coverage area (see figure 40).
The resolving problems with Lack of a Dominant Cell can be performed as follows: Determine cells
covering an area without a dominant cell during network planning, and adjust antenna tilts and azimuths
to increase coverage by a cell with strong signals and decrease coverage of other cells with weak
signals. The optimisation features described in the sections 3.11 - 3.12 and 3.13 can be used to improve
the RSRQ threshold and reduce the lack of dominant cell.

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Figure 40: RSRQ coverage plot

4.1.4 DL and UL Peak Throughput results

Figure 41: DL Peak Throughput prediction plot

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Figure 42: UL Peak Throughput with Noise rise=7dB

4.1.5 SNIR coverage results

Figure 43: DL/UL SNIR coverage

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5.2. PHASE 2: NEIGHBOUR AND PCI PLANNING

5.2.1 Methodology

PHASE 2: NEIGHBOOR AND PCI PLANNING

Step 1: Select the automatic neighboor list function and activate all the LTE sites.
Step 2: Launch an automatic PCI planning based on the previous neighboor list
Step 3: Display the LTE HO map taking into:
The intra and inter frequency sites
The various hysteresis criterions (RSRQ/RSRP)
The previous list of intra and inter neighbors cells.
Step 4: Launch the PRACH planning

5.2.2 Results

Figure 44: Automatic neighbour list calculation

Once the neighbour list is generated the user can perform the automatic PCI planning:

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Figure 45: PCI planning report result

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Figure 46: PCI allocation in the e-nodeB

Figure 47: Figure 42: Physical-layer cell-identity group allocation in the e-nodeB

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The RSI allocation can be performed as follows:

Figure 48: RSI allocation report

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Figure 49: RSI allocation planning result

6. REFERENCES
1. 3GPP TS 36.300 v8.0.0, Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA) and Evolved
Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (EUTRAN);
2. 3GPP TR 36.942 V10.2.0, Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA);

3. 3GPP TS 36.104, Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA);


4. 3GPP TS 36.101, Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA);
5. 11_RA4120BEN10GLA0 LTE_Deployment_Scenarios_v01 Nokia Siemens Network;

6. 01_RA41201EN10GLA0 LTE EPC_Overview_v01 Nokia Siemens Network ;


7. Automatic Configuration of Random Access Channel Parameters in LTE Systems
KCA (Korea Communications Agency) (KCA-2011-08913-04003), and in part by the National Research
Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MEST)

8. Neighbor Cell Relation List and Physical Cell Identity Self-Organization in LTE
Mehdi Amirijoo, Pl Frenger, Fredrik Gunnarsson, Harald Kallin, Johan Moe, Kristina Zetterberg (Wireless
Access Networks, Ericsson Research, Ericsson AB, Sweden).

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END OF THE DOCUMENT

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