Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 2

The Conception of Embryology

*Aristotle (384 ‐ 322 B.C.) – Described two historically important models of development known as preformation and epigenesis

1. Leonardo da Vinci (1452 ‐ 1519) – First to provide evidence that embryos can be measured

chronologically and can be changed in weig ht, size, and shape

2. Heironymus Fabricius (1537 ‐ 1619) – Father of Embryology; described the “membranous folds” that

he called “valves”; published the “Tabulae Pictae (1600)” describing the first cerebral fissure; designed the first permanent theater for public anatomical dissections

3. Marcello Malphigi (1628 ‐ 1694) – Discovered the aortic arches, neural folds, and somites on the

embryology of chick; also discovered the Malphigian bodies

4. Jan Swammerdam (1637 ‐ 1680) – Frog embryos consists of globules (pa rticles in blood); black spot in

frog egg is frog itself (all parts intact)

The Cognizance of Ovaries

5. Reynier de Graaf (1641 ‐ 1673) – Discovered the function of the ovarian follicle now known as the

graafian follicle

6. William Harvey (1652) – Determine d the white spot position where embryo arise in egg; described

the blastoderm’s unique place of origin of embryonic body

7. Nicholas Steno (1666 ‐ 1686) – Discovered the role of ovaries in human and oviparous embryos

8. Albrecht von Haller (1708 ‐ 1777) – Mode l of performationism called ovism (idea that the new

individual exists within the maternal egg prior to conception)

9. Charles Bonnet (1720 ‐ 1793) – Series of experiments in parthenogenesis in amphids or tree lice

10. Herman Boerhaave (1724) – First detailed account of chemical embryology by experimenting on egg

yolks and egg whites identically how one affects the other

11. Lazarro Spallazani (1729 ‐ 1799) – Performed the first artificial insemination of a viviparous animal

12. Caspar Fr iedrich Wolff (1733 ‐ 1794) – Discovered the Wolffian duct, Wolffian body and Wolffian cyst;

formed the germ layer theory; Theorid Generationis (1774) is where he discarded the developmental theory of preformation

13. Karl Ernst von Baer (1792 ‐ 1876) – Disco vered the mammalian ovum and introduced the term

“spermatozoa”

The Discovery and Understanding of the 3 Germ Layers

14. Johannes Peter Muller (1801 ‐ 1858) – He made an increasing understanding in the chemical and

physical properties of lymph, chyle, and bl ood

15. Robert Remak (1815 ‐ 1865) – reduced Karl Ernst von Baer’s germ layers; discovered the origin of

cells was by the division of pre ‐ existing cells

16. Heinz Christian Pander (1826 ‐ 1839) – Discovered the 3 germ layers of the embryo of a chick

17. Wilhelm His (1831 ‐ 1904) – Identified the germinative zone within the developing vertebrate

metencephalon called “rhombic lip”

Unlocking Embryonic Development

18. Friedrich Leopold August Weismann (1834 ‐ 1914) – Introduced the germ plasm theory

19. Martin Henrich Rathke (1839 ‐ 1860) – Discovered Rathke’s pouch 20 . Hans Spemann (1869 ‐ 1941) – Discovered the organizer effect in embryonic development 21 . Florence Sabin (1871 ‐ 1953) – Investigated the embryological development of the lymphatic system

22 . Hermann Fol (1879) – Contributed detailed information relative to the actual entrance of the sperm into the sea urchin egg and showed that in the eggs of various animal species only one sperm normally enters. 23 . Julius Kollman (1885) – Coined the term “neoten y” t o describe the sexual maturation of a salamander where there is retention of juvenile characteristics in adult species

24. Wilhelm Roux (1888) – “Mosaic Theory of Epigenesis”; proposed that chromatin is composed of a

variety of substances

25. Ambrosius Arn old Willem Hubrecht (1889) – Introduced the term “trophoblast”

26 . Edwin Grant Conklin (1891 ‐ 1952) – Discovered the origin of mesoderm; brought the study of embryology and evolution into one discipline 27 . Franz Keibel (1897) – Editor of “Vertebral Embryol ogical Standard Ponds” which included the human embryos and basis of modern embryological staging systems

28. Charles Sedgwick Minot (1897) – Wrote “Human Embryology (1897)”, one of the earlier textbooks

on embryology 29 . Jacques Loeb (1899 ‐ 1913) – Heterom orphosis, artificial parthenogenesis 30 . Gavin Rylands de Beer (1899 ‐ 1872) – Observed that certain structures such as cartilage and odontoblasts of dermal bones previously thought to be derived from mesoderm were formed from

ectoderm 31 . Viktor Hamburger (1900 ‐ 2001) – Focused on neural development and showed that limb development is dependent on innervation in frog and chick embryos 32 . Johannes Holtfreter (1901 ‐ 1992) – Developed a balanced salt medium that allow embryos to develop 33 . Robert Geoffrey Edwards (1925 ‐ 2013) – In ‐ vitro fertilization 34 . Walter Vogt (1929) – Invented fate mapping 35 . Rachel Carson (1937 ‐ 1964) – Studied the embryonic development of the pronephros in fish

The Role of Genetics

36 . Mary Lyon (1961) – Theory of X chromosome inac tivation 37 . Shinya Yamanaka (1962 ‐ present) – Identified the Yamanaka factors whi ch are required to transform a c ell from adult tissues into and embryonic stem cell 38 . Sir Ian Wilmut (1996) – Cloned a mammal (Dolly) from an adult somatic cell 39 . Christia ne Nusslein ‐ Volhard (2006) – research in the genetic control of embryonic development 40 . Prof. Magdalena Zernicka ‐ Goetz (2014) – Created the right conditions outside the womb to study the implantation process