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Tyya>

Suffixes

Pratyaya or suffix is added at the end of verbal root to transform the verbal
root into indeclinable, imperfect verb, definite verb, past tense of verb, present
continuous tense of verb and so on.
The following are some important suffixes:

Tyya>

1. tumn
u !

8. zt&

2. KTva

7. Kt
3. Lyp!

6. Ktvt!
4. AnIyr!

1. for doing
2. having done
3. having done
4. to be done

-
-
-
-:

5. tVyt!

5. must be done
6. did
7. has been done
8. doing

-:
-
-:
-

9.1
u u n-!Tyy>
1 tm
The suffix tum! is added to the verbs to indicate the purpose of action.
Example: ram> piQtu< iv*aly< gCDit, Rma goes to school in order to study.
Once the tu mu n ! - Tyy is added to the verbal derivative, it becomes an
indeclinable, which means that the word will be the same in all genders, cases
and numbers.

Here are a few examples:


1.

piQtum!

To read

17. vKtum!

To speak

2.

ri]tum!

To protect

18. AagNtum!

To come

3.

yaictum!

To beg

19. gNtum!

To go

4.

g&hItum!

To hold

20. patum!

To drink

5.

leiotum!

To write

21. aetum!

To hear

6.

vistum!

To live

22. htuRm!

To snatch

7.

xaivtum!

To run

23. ttuRm!

To cross

8.

ivmaeictum!

To release

24. ktuRm!

To do

9.

ivtum!

To become

25. hNtum!

To kill

10. baeixtum!

To teach

26. lBxum!

To get

11. jIivtum!

To live

27. Iiftum!

To play

12. jiLptum!

To blabber

28. pittum!

To fall

13. icNtiytum!

To think

29. Swatum!

To stand

14. oaidtum!

To eat

30. mtuRm!

To die

15. iniNdtum!

To criticise

31. paliytum!

To nurture

16. d{fiytum!

To punish

32. AicRtum!

To worship

9.22 KTva-Tyy>
The suffix Tva is added only to roots that are not prefixed by upasarga. It
denotes the sense of adverbial past participle (prefix). After having completed
an action, if the subject does another action, then, the KTva suffix is added to
the completed action.
Example: ram> piQTva Iiftu< gCDit, Having read, Rma goes to play.
The verbal forms formed with KTva suffix are also indeclinables.

Here are a few examples:


1.

piQTva

Having read

16. icNtiyTva Having thought

2.

ilioTva

Having written

17. imilTva

Having met

3.

xaivTva

Having run

18. UTva

Having been

4.

%idTva

Having risen

19. hTva

Having killed

5.

%i;Tva

Having lived

20. gTva

Having gone

6.

hisTva

Having laughed

21. pITva

Having drunk

7.

ri]Tva

Having protected

22. nTva

Having prostrated

8.

g&hITva

Having held

23. Sm&Tva

Having remembered

9.

]iyTva

Having eaten

24. ijTva

Having conquered

10. g[iyTva

Having counted

25. :qva

Having looked

11. caeriyTva

Having stolen

26. uTva

Having heard

12. rciyTva

Having composed

27. kTva

Having done

13. yaciyTva

Having begged

28. TyKTva

Having given up

14. tafiyTva

Having beaten

29. mTva

Having considered

15. kwiyTva

Having told

30. AiqTva

Having Wandered

3 Lyp!-Tyy
Lyp!-Tyy has the same function as KTva-Tyy, but the only difference is that, in
Lyp!-Tyy (y) is suffixed when the verbal form has an upasarga prefixed to it.
Example: When the Lyp! is added to }a, which has the iv upasarga, it becomes

iv}ay.
iv + }a + Lyp! = iv}ay Having known
Without upasarga, }a becomes }aTva.

Here are a few more examples:


1.

Aa

AahUy

Having called

2.

in

bNx!

inbXy

Having bound

3.

Aa

da

Aaday

Having brought

4.

eTy

Having reached

5.

Aa

AapUyR

Having filled up

6.

ivz!

ivZy

Having entered

7.

iv

lI

ivlIy

Having dissolved

8.

sm!

Sm&

s<Sm&Ty

Having thought well

9.

Aix

AxITy

Having got

10. Aa

p&CD!

Aap&CD!y

Having asked

11. in

mJj!

inmJJy

Having sunk

12. %d!

Swa

%Tway

Having got up

13. ins!

ic

iniTy

Having decided

14. sm!

s<SkTy

Having purified

15.

vc!

aeCy

Having told

16.

Aa

h!

Aa

Having climbed

17.

Aa

mN!

AamNy

Having discussed

18.

nm!

[My

Having prostrated

19.

Aa

gm!

AagTy/AagMy

Having come

9.44 AnIyr! Tyy>


When the AnIyr!!-Tyy is added to the verbal root, the potential passive participle
is formed. It conveys a sense of 'necessity' or 'command'.
Example: Imaray[> Smr[Iy>, Lord Nryaa is to be remembered.
The derivatives formed using this suffix agrees with the noun in gender,
number and case.
Example:
Masculine Gender

pQnIy>

Feminine Gender

pQnIya

Neuter Gender

pQnIym!

Here are a few more examples:


1.

kr[Iym!

To be done

6.

hsnIym!

Have to laugh

2.

pQnIym!

To be read

7.

vdnIym!

To be spoken

3.

gmnIym!

Have to go

8.

vcnIym!

To be spoken

4.

vhnIym!

To be carried

9.

danIym!

To be given

5.

hnnIym!

To be killed

10. dzRnIym!

To be seen

11. v[Iym!

To be heard

16. oadnIym!

to be eaten

12. ednIym!

To be split

17. jynIym!

to be conquered

13. inNdnIym!

To be condemned 18. yaejnIym!

to be linked

14. TyjnIym!

To be given up

19. nynIym!

to be carried

15. aejnIym!

To be consumed

20. Smr[Iym!

to be remembered

9.55 tVyt! Tyy>


The usage of tVyt!-Tyy is similar to AnIyr!-Tyy. The only speciality is that
the aspects of 'necessity' and 'command' are stressed more in the tVyt!-Tyy
than AnIyr!-Tyy.
Example: ktRVy< dEvmaikm! , The religious rites ought to be done.
The derivatives formed using this suffix agrees with the noun in gender,
number and case.
Example:
Masculine Gender

piQtVy>

Feminine Gender

piQtVya

Neuter Gender

piQtVym!

Here are a few examples:


1.

piQtVym!

Must be read

6. ktRVym!

2.

ai;tVym!

Must be spoken

7.

3.

aeKtVym!

Must be enjoyed

8. datVym!

Must be given

4.

ointVym!

Must be dug

9.

aetVym!

Must be heard

5.

baeixtVym!

Must be educated

10. maijRtVym!

Must be purified

11. sihtVym!

Must be borne

19. hNtVym!

Must be killed

12. leiotVym!

Must be written

20. SnatVym!

Must be bathed

13. tirtVym!

Must be crossed over

21. }atVym!

Must be known

14. IiftVym!

Must be played

22. Vym!

Must be seen

15. kwiytVym!

Must be told

23. netVym!

Must be carried

16. ri]tVym!

Must be protected

24. patVym!

Must be drunk

17. jetVym!

Must be conquered

25. gNtVym!

Must be gone

18. SwatVym!

Must be positioned

26. vVym!

Must be spoken

Must be done

TyKtVym! Must be given up

6 Ktvt-! Tyy>

9.6

The past active participle is formed by adding the suffix Ktvt! to the verbal
root and has the same meaning as that of the verbal past tense.
Example: ram> iv*aly< gtvan! (AgCDt! ), Rma went to school.
Thus gtvan! and AgCDt! mean one and the same.
The derivates formed using this suffix agree with the noun in gender, number
and case.
Example:
Masculine Gender

piQtvan!

Feminine Gender

piQtvtI

Neuter Gender

piQtvt!!

Here are a few examples:


1. gtvan!

Went

4. p&van!

Asked

2. ktvan!

Did

5. xaivtvan!

Ran

3 . iSwtvan!

Stood

6. piQtvan!

Read

7.

nmSktvan! Prostrated

17.

utvan!

Heard

8.

g&hItvan!

Held

18.

pItvan!

Drank

9.

%Ktvan!

Told

19.

ijtvan!

Conquered

10. van!

Looked

20. iliotvan!

Wrote

11. oaidtvan!

Ate

21. AahUtvan!

Called

12. Aiqtvan!

Roamed

22. nItvan!

Carried

13. Swaiptvan!

Established

23. AanItvan!

Brought

14. TyKtvan!

Gave up

24. iciNttvan!

Thought

15. ei;tvan!

Sent

25. Aacirtvan!

Did

16. i]Ptvan!

Threw

26. }atvan!

Knew

9.77 Kt-Tyy>
The past passive participle is formed by adding Kt-Tyy to the transitive verbal
roots.
Example: rav[> ht>, Rvaa has been killed.
The verbal derivative formed using this suffix agrees with the noun in
gender, number and case.
Example:
Masculine Gender

kt>

Feminine Gender

kta

Neuter Gender

ktm!

Here are a few examples:


1. kt>

Has been done

3.

gt>

Has been gone

2. ut>

Has been heard

4.

>

Has been looked

5. pIt>

Has been drunk

10. ijt>

Has been conquered

6. nIt>

Has been carried

11. iliot>

Has been written

7. piQt>

Has been read

12. kiwt>

Has been told

8. taift>

Has been beaten

13. TyKt>

Has been given up

9. ht>

Has been killed

14. }at>

Has been known

9.88 zt&-Tyy>
The present participle is formed by adding zt&-Tyy to the verbal root. This
has the sense of present continuous tense.
Example: ram> gayn! gCDit, Rma goes singing.
The verbal derivative formed using this suffix agrees with the noun
in gender, number and case.
Example:
Masculine Gender

kvRn!

Feminine Gender

kvRNtI

Neuter Gender

kvRt!

Here are a few examples:


1. kvRn!

Doing

5. z&{vn!

Hearing

2. gCDn!

Going

6. Tyjn!

Giving up

3 . AagCDn!

Coming

7. xavn!

Running

4. pQn!

Reading

8. palyn!

Protecting

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