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Training for research starts in schools


Vol. XXIII

No. 3

March 2015

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Regd. Office
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e-mail : info@mtg.in website : www.mtg.in

Managing Editor
Editor

:
:

mahabir Singh
anil ahlawat (BE, mBa)

contents
Physics Musing (Problem Set-20)

AIPMT Special
Practice Paper 2015

12

Thought Provoking Problems

23

Core Concept

26

You Asked We Answered

30

JEE Foundation Series

31

Brain Map

50

CBSE Board
Practice Paper 2015

58

JEE Main
Practice Paper 2015

67

JEE Advanced
Practice Paper 2015

75

Physics Musing (Solution Set-19)

91

25 Must Know Facts

92

Crossword

93

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and representations made by advertisers. All disputes are subject to Delhi jurisdiction
only.
Editor : Anil Ahlawat
Copyright MTG Learning Media (P) Ltd.
All rights reserved. Reproduction in any form is prohibited.

hen should students start thinking, is a difficult question to


answer. It is like asking when should children start learning
music. children start learning music when they are in primary school
stage, at home. By the time they are grown up children, it is amazing to
see the advance they have made, when they have not yet reached 14
or 15 years of age.
research is only an attitude of mind which drives a person to think
deeper and deeper. But to avoid the mistakes of repeating what others
have done, a lot reading is also advised. Before starting something new,
one should know what others have done earlier and what the great
scientists are thinking about the problem. In modern books, written
for graduate levels, one finds first a short history of the work and the
thinking of the great scientists in about half a page. We are happy that
in the NcErT books, particularly for high schools, the system of historic
introduction and the thinking of the great scientists are also given. One
may not gain extra marks for learning the history of science, but this
gives extra inputs for the development of mind. reading the biography
of scientists is as interesting as reading a novel.
To keep the attention of the students, after every heavy derivation, one
should give a short digression on the scientists. as the editorial has
a wider readership, every teacher would also like to know about the
methods of research and also teach their students, how to succeed in
research. For success in ones career, one must learn simultaneously
how to concentrate on microproblems as well as the art of increasing
a wide vision.
Anil Ahlawat
Editor
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physics for you | march 15

MUSING

PHYSICS

hysics Musing was started in August 2013 issue of Physics For You with the suggestion of Shri Mahabir Singh. The aim of
Physics Musing is to augment the chances of bright students preparing for JEE (Main and Advanced) / AIIMS / Other PMTs
with additional study material.
In every issue of Physics For You, 10 challenging problems are proposed in various topics of JEE (Main and Advanced) / various
PMTs. The detailed solutions of these problems will be published in next issue of Physics For You.
The readers who have solved five or more problems may send their solutions. The names of those who send atleast five correct
solutions will be published in the next issue.
We hope that our readers will enrich their problem solving skills through "Physics Musing" and stand in better stead while facing
the competitive exams.
By : Akhil Tewari

single option correct type

1. A point object O is placed at a


distance of 20 cm in front of a
equiconvex lens (amg = 1.5) of
focal length 10 cm. The lens is
placed on a liquid of refractive
index 2 as shown in the
figure. Image will be formed
at a distance h from lens. The
value of h is
(b) 10 cm
(a) 5 cm
(c) 20 cm
(d) 40 cm

(a)

3^
i
+
j
2 2

(c)

3^ ^
i+ j
2

(b)

3^
i

j
2 2

(d)

3 ^ 1^
i j
2
2
^

3. A ray of light moving along the vector ( i 2 j )


undergoes refraction at an interface of two
media, which is x-z plane. The refractive index
8

physics for you | march 15

3 i 5 j
34

(c)

2. For a certain reflecting surface, the unit vector


along the incident ray is ^i and that along the
^

3 ^
i
j .
outward normal of the surface is
2 2
The unit vector along the reflected ray will be
(a)

5
for y > 0 is 2 while for y < 0 it is
. The unit
2
vector along the refracted ray is

3 i 4 j
5

(b)
(d)

(4 i 5 j)
5
^

4i 3 j
5

4. A soap bubble of radius r is blown up to


form a bubble of radius 2r under isothermal
conditions. If s is the surface tension of soap
solution, the energy spent in doing so is
(a) 3psr2
(b) 6psr2
2
(c) 12psr
(d) 24psr2
5. Find the minimum
vertical force required
to pull a thin wire ring
up as shown in figure,
if it is initially resting
on a horizontal water surface. The circumference
of the ring is 20 cm and its weight is 0.1 N.
The surface tension of water is 75 dyne cm1.
(a) 0.125 N
(b) 0.225 N
(c) 0.115 N
(d) 0.130 N
6. A point mass m is welded to a ring of mass m
and radius R as shown in the figure. Assuming
that the ring does not slip and initially the

system is released from rest. What would be


the speed of the point mass as seen from the
ground after the ring has turned through an
angle of 90 ?
m

(a)

gR

(b)

gR
2

(c)

2gR

(d)

gR
3

7. Two infinitely long conducting parallel rails are


connected through a capacitor of capacitance
C as shown in the figure. A perfect conductor
of length l is moved with constant speed v0.
Which of the following graph truly depicts the
variation of current through the conductor
with time ?

9. Pulley and strings as shown in figure are


massless. The force acting on the block of mass
m is
(a) 2F
(b) F
F
(c)
2
(d) 4F
10. A particle of mass m moves along a circle of
radius R. The modulus of average value of force
acting on particle over the distance equal to a
quarter of circle, if the particle moves uniformly
with velocity v is
2mv 2
2 2mv 2
(a)
(b)
pr
pr 2
(c)

2 2mv 2
pr

(d)

mv 2
pr
nn

solution of february 2015 crossword

B
v0

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

8. An organ pipe of cross-sectional area 100 cm2


resonates with a tuning fork of frequency
1000 Hz in fundamental tone. The minimum
volume of water to be drained so the pipe again
resonates with the same tuning fork is
(Take velocity of wave = 320 m s1)
(a) 800 cm3
(b) 1200 cm3
3
(c) 1600 cm
(d) 2000 cm3
10 physics for you |

march 15

Winner (February 2015)


riya Kataria
Solution Senders (January 2015)

Divya Acharya

Shubhneet Bhatia

Akash Kashyap

PRACTICE PAPER 2015

1. A 15 g ball is shot from a spring gun whose


spring has a force constant 600 N m1. The
spring is compressed by 5 cm. The greatest
possible horizontal range of the ball for this
compression (Take g = 10 m s 2)
(a) 6 m
(b) 8 m
(c) 10 m
(d) 12 m
2. Two weights w1 and w2 are suspended from the
ends of a light string over a smooth fixed pulley.
If the pulley is pulled up with acceleration g, the
tension in the string will be
4w1w2
2w1w2
(a)
(b)
w1 + w2
w1 + w2
w w2
w1w2
(c) 1
(d)
w1 + w2
2(w1 + w2 )
3. A gas bubble from an explosion under water
oscillates with a time period T, depends upon
static pressure p, density of water r and the
total energy of explosion E. Find the expression
for the time period T. k is a dimensionless
constant.
(a) T = kp5/6r1/2E1/3 (b) T = kp4/7r1/2E1/3
(c) T = kp5/6r1/2E1/2 (d) T = kp4/7r1/3E1/2
4. A charged particle of mass m and charge q is
released from rest in an electric field of constant
magnitude E. The kinetic energy of the particle
after time t is
2 E 2t 2
E 2 q 2t 2
Eqm
Eq2m
(b)
(c)
(d)
qm
2m
2t
2t 2
5. The intensity of magnetic field at a point X on
the axis of a small magnet is equal to the field
intensity at another point Y on its equatorial
(a)

12 physics for you |

march 15

Exam on
3rd May

axis. The ratio of distances of X and Y from the


centre of the magnet will be
(a) (2)3 (b) (2)1/3 (c) 23
(d) 21/3
6. 5 mole of an ideal gas with g = 7/5 initially at
STP are compressed adiabatically so that its
temperature becomes 400C. The increase in
the internal energy of gas in kJ is
(a) 21.55 (b) 41.55 (c) 65.55 (d) 50.55
7. A circular platform is mounted on a frictionless
vertical axle. Its radius R = 2 m and its moment
of inertia about the axle is 200 kg m2. It is
initially at rest. A 50 kg man stands on the
edge of the platform and begins to walk along
the edge at the speed of 1 m s1 relative to the
ground. Time taken by the man to complete
one revolution with respect to disc is
3p
p
s (c) 2p s (d)
s
(a) p s
(b)
2
2
8. A vessel contains oil (density = 0.8 g cm3 over
mercury (density = 13.6 g cm3). A uniform
sphere floats with half its volume immersed in
mercury and the other half in oil. The density of
the material of sphere in g cm3 is
(a) 3.3
(b) 6.4
(c) 7.2
(d) 12.8
9. Maxwells velocity distribution curve is given for
the same quantity two different temperatures.
For the given curves
(a) T1 > T2
T2
N
T
(b) T1 < T2
1
(c) T1 T2
(d) T1 = T2
v
10. Two capacitors of 25 mF and 100 mF are
connected in series to a source of 120 V. Keeping

physics for you

| march 15 13

their charges unchanged, they are separated


and connected in parallel to each other. Find
out energy loss in the process.
(a) 5.2 J (b) 52 J (c) 50.2 J (d) 0.052 J
11. The steady state current in a 2 W resistor when
the internal resistance of the battery is negligible
and the capacitance of the condenser is 0.1 mF is
A

0.1 F

6V

2.8

(a) 0.6 A (b) 0.9 A (c) 1.5 A (d) 0.3 A


12. In an experiment, a magnet with its magnetic
moment along the axis of a circular coil and
directed towards the coil, is withdrawn away
from the coil and parallel to itself. The current
in the coil, as seen by the withdrawing magnet,
is
(a) zero
(b) clockwise
(c) anticlockwise
(d) first (a) then (b)
13. A luminous object is placed at a distance of
30 cm from the convex lens of focal length
20 cm. On the other side of the lens, at what
distance from the lens a convex mirror of radius
of curvature 10 cm be placed in order to have an
inverted image of the object coincident with it?
(a) 12 cm (b) 30 cm (c) 50 cm (d) 60 cm
14. Two slits separated by a distance of 1 mm
are illuminated with red light of wavelength
6.5 107 metre. The interference fringes are
observed on a screen placed one metre from
the slits. The distance between the third dark
fringe and fifth bright fringe on the same side
of centre is equal to
(a) 0.65 mm
(b) 1.63 mm
(c) 3.25 mm
(d) 4.8 mm
15. An electric bulb is marked 100 W, 230 V. If
the supply voltage drops to 115 V, what is the
heat and light energy produced by the bulb in
20 min?
(a) 10 kJ (b) 15 kJ (c) 20 kJ (d) 30 kJ
14 physics for you |

march 15

16. A body hanging from a spring stretches it by


1 cm at the earths surface. How much will the
same body stretch the spring at a place 16400 km
above the earths surface?
(Radius of the earth = 6400 km)
(a) 1.28 cm
(b) 0.64 cm
(c) 3.6 cm
(d) 0.12 cm
17. A resistor R and 2 mF capacitor in series are
connected through a 200 V direct supply. Across
the capacitor is a neon bulb that lights up at 120
V. Find the value of R to make the bulb light up
5 s after the switch has been closed.
(Take log10 2.5 = 0.4)
(a) 1.7 105 W
(b) 2.7 106 W
7
(c) 3.3 10 W
(d) 1.3 104 W
18. A coil of resistance 400 W is placed in a magnetic
field. If the magnetic flux f (Wb) linked with
the coil varies with time t (s) as f = 50t2 + 4. The
current in the coil at t = 2 s is
(a) 0.5 A (b) 0.1 A (c) 2 A (d) 1 A
19. An electromagnetic wave of frequency 3 MHz
passes from vacuum into a dielectric medium
with permittivity er = 4, then
(a) the wavelength and frequency both remain
unchanged.
(b) the wavelength is doubled and the frequency
remains unchanged.
(c) the wavelength is doubled and the frequency
becomes half
(d) the wavelength is halved and the frequency
remains unchanged.
20. A polyster fibre rope of diameter 3 cm has a
breaking strength of 150 kN. If it is required to
have 600 kN breaking strength. What should be
the diameter of similar rope?
(a) 12 cm (b) 6 cm (c) 3 cm (d) 1.5 cm
21. A thin uniform rod of mass m moves
translationally with acceleration a due to two
antiparallel forces of lever arm l. One force is of
magnitude F and acts at one extreme end. The
length of the rod is
mal
2(F + ma)l
(a)
(b)
ma + F
ma
F

(c) l l +

ma

(d)

(F + ma)l
2ma

22. The amount of work done in stretching a spring


from a stretched length of 10 cm to a stretched
length of 20 cm is
(a) equal to the work done in stretching it from
20 cm to 30 cm
(b) less than the work done in stretching it
from 20 cm to 30 cm
(c) more than the work done in stretching it
from 20 cm to 30 cm
(d) equal to the work done in stretching it from
0 to 10 cm.

XC = 40
220 V
20 Hz

R1 = 40

XL = 100
R2 = 40

(a) 0.2

(b) 0.4

(c) 0.8

(d) 0.6

25. A compound microscope has an eye piece of


focal length 10 cm and an objective of focal
length 4 cm. Calculate the magnification, if an
object is kept at a distance of 5 cm from the
objective, so that the final image is formed at
the least distance of distinct vision 20 cm.
(a) 12
(b) 11
(c) 10
(d) 13

28. At ordinary temperature, the molecules of an


ideal gas have only translational and rotational
kinetic energies. At high temperatures they
may also have vibrational energy. As a result of
this at higher temperatures
(CV = molar heat capacity at constant volume)
3
(a) CV = R for a monoatomic gas
2
3
(b) CV > R for a monoatomic gas
2
5
(c) CV > R for a diatomic gas
2
5
(d) CV = R for a diatomic gas
2
29. A body is projected vertically upwards with a
velocity of 10 m s1. It reaches the maximum
height h in time t. In time t/2, the height covered
is
h
2
3
5
(a)
(b) h
(c) h (d) h
2
5
4
8
30. A wheel is subjected to uniform angular
acceleration about its axis. Initially, its angular
velocity is zero. In the first 2 s, it rotates through
an angle q1, in the next 2 s, it rotates through an
q
angle q2. The ratio of 2 is
q1
(a) 1
(b) 2
(c) 3
(d) 5

26. In a galvanometer 5% of the total current in


the circuit passes through it. If the resistance
of the galvanometer is G, the shunt resistance S
connected to the galvanometer is
G
G
(a) 19G (b)
(c) 20G (d)
19
20
27. The power factor of the circuit as shown in
figure is

31. A uniform chain of mass m and length l is


l
lying on a table with
of its length hanging
4
freely from the edge of the table. The amount
of work done in dragging the chain on the table
completely is
mgl
mgl
mgl
mgl
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
4
8
32
16

23. The rms value of the electric field of the light


coming from the sun is 720 N C1. The average
total energy density of the electromagnetic
wave is
(a) 3.3 103 J m3 (b) 4.58 106 J m3
(c) 6.37 109 J m3 (d) 81.35 1012 J m3
24. In Youngs double slit experiment, one of the slits
is wider than the other, so that the amplitude of
the light from one slit is double that from the
other slit. If Im be the maximum intensity, the
resultant intensity when they interfere at phase
difference f is given by
(a)

Im
I
f
f
1 + 2 cos2 (b) m 1 + 4 cos2

3
2
5
2

(c)

Im
I
f
f
1 + 8 cos2 (d) m 8 + cos2

9
2
9
2

physics for you

| march 15 15

32. The diode used in the circuit shown in the


figure has a constant voltage drop at 0.5 V at
all currents and a maximum power rating of
100 milliwatts. What should be the value of the
resistor R, connected in series with diode, for
obtaining maximum current?
R

0.5 V

1.5 V

(a) 6.76 W (b) 20 W (c) 5 W

(d) 5.6 W

33. The half-life of a radioactive isotope X is


50 years. It decays to another element Y which
is stable. The two elements X and Y were found
to be in the ratio of 1 : 15 in a sample of a given
rock. The age of the rock was estimated to be
(a) 100 years
(b) 150 years
(c) 200 years
(d) 250 years

34. On shining light of wavelength 6.2 106 m


on a metal surface photo-electrons are emitted.
The work function of the metal is 0.1 eV. Find
the kinetic energy of a photo-electron (in eV)
(a) 0.1
(b) 0.2
(c) 0.3
(d) 0.4
35. A mass of 0.2 kg is attached to the lower
end of a massless spring of force constant
200 N m1, the upper end of which is fixed to a
rigid support. Which of the following statement
is not true?
(a) The frequency of oscillation will be nearly
5 Hz.
(b) In equilibrium, the spring will be stretched
by 2 cm.
(c) If the mass is raised till the spring is
unstretched state and then released, it will
go down by 2 cm before moving upward
(d) If the system is taken to a planet, the
frequency of oscillation will be the same as
on the earth.
36. The equation of a wave is represented by
x

Y = 105 sin 100t m, then the velocity of


10

wave will be
(a) 100 m s1
(b) 4 m s1
(c) 1000 m s1
(d) zero
16 physics for you |

march 15

37. Force on a 1 kg mass on earth of radius R is


10 N. Then the force on a satellite revolving
around the earth in the mean orbital radius
3R/2 will be (mass of satellite is 100 kg)
(a) 4.44 102 N
(b) 3.33 102 N
(c) 500 N
(d) 6.66 102 N
38. The far point of a near sighted person is
6.0 m from her eyes, and she wears contacts
that enable her to see distant objects clearly. A
tree is 18.0 m away and 2.0 m high. How high is
the image formed by the contacts?
(a) 1.0 m
(b) 1.5 m
(c) 0.75 m
(d) 0.50 m
39. You drive a car at a speed of 70 km h1 in a
straight road for 8.4 km and then the car runs
out of petrol. You walk for 30 min to reach a
petrol pump at a distance of 2 km. The average
velocity from the beginning of your drive till
you reach the petrol pump is
(a) 16.8 km h1
(b) 35 km h1
1
(c) 64 km h
(d) 18.6 km h1

40. A fork A has frequency 2% more than the


standard fork and B has a frequency 3% less
than the frequency of same standard fork. The
forks A and B when sounded together produced
6 beats s1. The frequency of fork A is
(a) 116.4 Hz
(b) 120 Hz
(c) 122.4 Hz
(d) 238.8 Hz
41. When a wire of length 10 m is subjected to a
force of 100 N along its length, the lateral strain
produced is 0.01 103. The Poissons ratio was
found to be 0.4. If the area of cross-section of
wire is 0.025 m2, its Youngs modulus is
(a) 1.6 108 N m2 (b) 2.5 1010 N m2
(c) 1.25 1011 N m2 (d) 16 109 N m2
42. In an experiment on photoelectric emission
from a metallic surface, wavelength of incident
light is 2 107 m and stopping potential is
2.5 V. The threshold frequency of the metal is
approximately
(Charge of electron e = 1.6 1019 C, Plancks
constant h = 6.6 1034 J s)
(a) 12 1015 Hz
(b) 9 1015 Hz
(c) 9 1014 Hz
(d) 12 1013 Hz

43. Two cells of emf e1 and e2 (e1 > e2) are connected
as shown in figure. When a potentiometer
is connected between A and B, the balancing
length of the potentiometer wire is 300 cm. On
connecting the same potentiometer between A
and C, the balancing length is 100 cm. The ratio
is e1 : e2 is
1

(a) 3 : 1

(b) 1 : 3

(c) 2 : 3

(d) 3 : 2

44. A body is thrown horizontally from the top of a


tower of 5 m height. It touches the ground at a
distance of 10 m from the foot of the tower. The
initial velocity of the body is (Take g = 10 m s2)
(a) 2.5 m s1
(b) 5 m s1
1
(c) 10 m s
(d) 20 m s1
45. Two bodies of 6 kg and 4 kg masses have
their velocity 5i 2 j + 10k and 10i 2 j + 5k
respectively. Then the velocity of their centre of
mass is
(a) 5i + 2 j 8k
(b) 7i + 2 j 8k
(c) 7i 2 j + 8k
(d) 5i 2 j + 8k
solutions

1. (c) : Here, Rmax =

u2 1 2 2
= mu
g 2
mg

1
1
But mu2 = kx 2
2
2
kx 2
1 2 2
\ Rmax = kx
=
mg mg
2
2
600 (0.05)
=
= 10 m
0.015 10

m2

m1

w2 m2a0 m1a0 w1

( a0 = g)
... (ii)

4. (a) : Here, u = 0, a =
qE
t
m

F qE
=
m m

mq2 E 2t 2 E 2q2t 2
1
KE = mv 2 =
=
2
2m
2m2

( a0 = g)
... (i)

3. (a) : Time period, T parbEc


or T = kparbEc
k is a dimensionless constant.
According to homogeneity of dimensions,
LHS = RHS
\ [T] = [ML1T2]a[ML3]b[ML2T2]c
[T] = [Ma+b+c][La3b+2c][T2a2c]
Comparing the powers, we obtain
a+b+c=0
a 3b + 2c = 0
2a 2c = 1
On solving, we get
5
1
1
a= ,b= , c=
6
2
3

v = u + at = 0 +

2. (a) : For solving the problem, we assume that


observer is situated in the frame of pulley (noninertial reference frame).
m1g = w1
m2g = w2
T

From force diagram,


T m2a0 w2 = m2a
or T m2g w2 = m2a
or T 2w2 = m2a
From force diagram,
m1a0 + w1 T = m1a
or m1g + w1 T = m1a
or 2w1 T = m1a
From eqs. (i) and (ii), we get
4w1w2
T=
w1 + w2

5. (d) : If d1 is the distance of point X on axial


line and d2 is distance of point Y on equatorial
line, then
m 2M
m M
, B2 = 0
B1 = 0
4 p d13
4 p d23
As B1 = B2
m0 2 M m0 M
\
=
4 p d13 4 p d23

d
d13 = 2d23 ; 1 = 21/3
d2
physics for you

| march 15 17

6. (b) : Here, n = 5, g = 7/5, T1 = 0C, T2 = 400C


nR dT
dU =
g 1
5 8.31 (400 0)
=
= 41550 J = 41.55 kJ
(7 / 5) 1
7. (c) : Using angular momentum conservation,
Li = 0, Lf = mvR Iw, so, mvR = I w
mvR 50 1 2 1
w=
=
=
I
200
2
For one complete revolution,
(v + wR)t = 2pR
1
1 + 2 2 t = 2p 2 t = 2p s.

8. (c) : Weight = Buoyant force


V
V
V rm g = rHg g + roil g
2
2
rHg + roil
rm =
2
13.6 + 0.8
=
2
14.4
=
= 7. 2
2

13. (c) : For the lens,

Oil
Mercury

9. (b) : Higher is the temperature, greater is the


most probable velocity.
1
1
1
1
1
5
1
= +
= +
=
=
Cs C1 C2 25 100 100 20
Cs = 20 mF = 20 106 F
1
1
U1 = CsV 2 = (20 106 )(120)2 = 144 103 J
2
2
Charge on each capacitor,

10. (d) :

q1 = q2 = Cs V = 20 120 =2400 mC
In parallel, Cp = C1 + C2

= 25 + 100 = 125 mF = 125 106 F


\ U2 =

Q 2 [(2400 + 2400) 106 ]2


=
2C p
2 125 106

= 92.16 103 J
Loss of energy = U1 U2
= (144 92.16) 103 J
= 51.84 103 J = 0.052 J
11. (b) : Capacitor will work as open key.
Therefore no current flows through resistance
18 physics for you |

march 15

4 W. The total resistance of circuit


23
= 2. 8 +
= 2. 8 + 1. 2 = 4 W
2+3
6 3
\ Main current, I = = A
4 2
Potential difference across A and B
3
= 1.2 = 1.8 V
2
1.8
\ Current through 2 W =
= 0.9 A
2
12. (b) : As magnet is withdrawn from the coil,
field into the coil decreases. To increase this
field, current induced in the coil must be
clockwise as seen by the withdrawing magnet.
1 1 1 1 1
1
= + = =
v f u 20 30 60

v = 60 cm.
Therefore, to have an inverted image of the
object, coincident with it, image should tend to
form at centre of curvature of convex mirror.
Therefore, distance of convex mirror from the
lens = 60 10 = 50 cm.
14. (b) : For dark fringes,
lD
Y3 = 5 lD
Yn = (2n 1)
2d
2 d
For bright fringes,
5lD
nlD
Y5 =
Yn =
d
d
Y = Y5 Y3
Y=

5l D 5 6.5 107 1
=
2 d
2 103

= 1.625 103 m = 1.63 mm


15. (d) : Here, power of the bulb, P = 100 W
Supply voltage, e = 230 V
Let R be the resistance of the bulb.
e2 (230)2
e2
R= =
= 529 W
P
100
R
Changed supply voltage, e = 115 V
Heat and light energy produced by the bulb in
20 min.
As P =

2
e2t 115 20 60
=
= 30,000 J = 30 kJ
R
529

16. (b) : In equilibrium, weight of the suspended


body = stretching force.
\ At the earths surface, mg = k x
At a height h, mg = k x

21. (b) : Let L be the length of the rod of mass


m, with centre of mass at C. Suppose F1 is the
magnitude of other force. Let F1 > F.
\ F1 F = ma or F1 = F + ma

Re2
g x
(6400)2
= =
=
g
x (Re + h)2 (6400 + 1600)2

F1
L

6400 16
=
=
8000
25
16
16
x = x = 1 cm = 0.64 cm
25
25
17. (b) : As VC = e(1 et/RC)
120 3
V
or 1 et/RC = C =
=
e 200 5

or et/RC = 2.5 or log et/RC = loge 2.5


t
or
= 2.3026 log10 2.5 = 0.92
RC
5
t
or R =
=
= 2.7 106 W
0.92C 0.92 2 106

df
d
18. (a) : e = = (50t 2 + 4) = 100t
dt
dt
When t = 2 s, |e| = 200 V
Induced current at t = 2 s,
| e | 200
I=
=
= 0.5 A
R 400
19. (d) : Frequency remains unchanged with
change of medium.
c 1 / e0 m 0
= er m r
m (refractive index) = =
v
1 / em
Since, mr is very close to 1, m = er = 4 = 2
l l
Thus, lmedium = =
m 2
F L

A L
The breaking strength F A.

20. (b) : Y =

F2 A2 p(D22 / 4) D22
=
=
=
F1 A1 p(D12 / 4) D12
1/2

F
or D2 = D1 2
F1

1/2

600
= 3

150

= 6 cm

l
C

As the rod moves translationally and there is


no rotation, therefore, net torque about C must
be zero.
L
L
L
\ F = F1 l = (F + ma) l
2
2
2
L
L
L
F = F Fl + ma mal
2
2
2
2(F + ma)l
L
ma = l(F + ma) \ L =
ma
2

1
22. (b) : W = K x22 x12
2
1
= K(202 102 ) = 150 kJ
2
which is less than work done in stretching it
from 20 cm to 30 cm.
1

2
2
viz. 2 K(30 20 ) = 250 kJ

23. (b) : Total average energy density of electromagnetic wave is


1
1 2
2
< u > = e0 Erms
+
Brms
2
2m0
=

2
1
1 Erms
2

e0 Erms
+
2
2m0 c 2

Brms = rms

c

1
1 2
2
e0 Erms
+
Erms e0m0
2
2m0
1
1
2
2
2
= e0 Erms
+ e0 Erms
= e0 Erms
2
2
= (8.85 1012) (720)2 = 4.58 106 J m3
24. (c) : Here, A2 = 2A1
Intensity (Amplitude)2
=

I2 A2 2 A1
=
=
=4
I1 A1 A1
physics for you

| march 15 19

I2 = 4I1
Maximum intensity, Im =

I1 + I2

Z = R2 + ( X L XC )2 = (80)2 + (100 40)2

I
= I1 + 4 I1 = 3 I1 = 9 I1 or I1 = m ...(i)
9
Resultant intensity, I = I1 + I2 + 2 I1I2 cos f

) (

= I1 + 4 I1 + 2 I1 (4 I1 ) cos f
= 5I1 + 4I1cosf = I1 + 4I1 + 4I1cosf
= I1 + 4I1(1 + cosf)

2 f
f
= I1 + 8 I1 cos2
1 + cos f = 2 cos 2

2
f

= I1 1 + 8 cos2
2

Putting the value of I1 from eq. (i), we get


I
f
I = m 1 + 8 cos2
9
2
25. (a) : Here, uo = 5 cm, fo = 4 cm
fe = 10 cm, D = 20 cm
According to lens formula,
1 1 1 1 1 1
= +
= =
vo 4 5 4 5 20
vo = 20 cm
v
D
Magnification, M = o 1 +
uo
fe
20 20
= 1 + = 12
5 10

IG

27. (c) : Resistance of the circuit,


R = R1 + R2 = 40 W + 40 W = 80 W
Impedance of the circuit,
20 physics for you |

march 15

Power factor, cos f =

R 80
=
= 0.8
Z 100

3
28. (c) : Monoatomic gas CV = R
2
This value is same for high temperature also.
In case of diatomic gas
5
CV = R (at low temperature)
2
5
Also, CV > R (at high temperature due to
2
vibrational kinetic energy)
29. (c) : As v2 v02 = 2gh, 0 (10)2 = 2(10) h
or h = 5 m
Also, v = v0 + at, 0 = 10 + (10) t
or t = 1 s
Height covered in time t/2, i.e., (1/2 s),
2

1
1 1
1
h = v0t + ( g )t 2 = 10 10
2
2 2
2
= 3.75 m = (3/4) h

26. (b) : As shunt is a small resistance S in parallel


with a galvanometer (of resistance G) as shown
in figure.
(I IG)S = IGG
S
I G
(I IG)
S= G
( I IG )
G
5
I
Here, IG =
100
5
IG
G
\ S = 100
=
5
19
I
I
100

= (80)2 + (60)2 = 100 W

1
1
30. (c) : As q1 = w0t + at 2 = 0 + a(2)2 = 2a
2
2
1
1
(q1 + q2 ) = w0t + at 2 = 0 + a(4)2 = 8a
2
2
q
Thus, q2 = 6a or 2 = 3
q1
l
m
31. (c) : Mass of length of the chain =
4
4
The weight of this part of the chain acts as its
l
CG which is at a distance from the edge
8
of the table.
m l mgl
Work done = g =
4 8 32

2
V 2 (0.5 V)
= 2.5 W
32. (c) : As RD = D =
PD
0.1 W

V
I D = D = 0. 2 A
RD
Total resistance required in the circuit,

V 1.5
=
= 7.5 W
I D 0.2
Resistance of the series resistor, R = Req RD
= 7.5 2.5 = 5 W
NX 1
= , N + NY = 16N X
33. (c) : As
NY 15 X
Req =

NX
1
=
N X + NY 16
1
1
or N X = (N X + NY ) = (N X + NY )
16
24
Age of the rock = number of half-lives of isotope
X passed = 4 = 4 50 years = 200 years
Thus,

34. (a) : Here, l = 6.2 106 m, f0 = 0.1 eV


hc
Energy of the incident photon, E = hu =
l
(6.6 1034 )(3 108 )
or E =
J
6.2 106
=

6.6 3 1026

(6.2 106 )(1.6 1019 )


As E = K + f0 , K = E f0

eV = 0.2 eV

= 0.2 eV 0.1 eV = 0.1 eV


1 k
1 200
=
= 5 Hz.
2 p m 2 p 0. 2
In equilibrium, kx = mg
mg 0.2 10
or x =
=
= 0.01 m
k
200
When mass is raised till the spring is unstretched,
1
the work = kx 2 = mgx
2
When the mass is released from the unstretched
position of spring, then total work done
1
mgx = (mgx ) + kx 2 = 2mgx
2

35. (b) : u =

or x = 2x = 2 0.1 = 0.02 m
As u of spring is independent of g so that the
frequency of oscillation will be the same as that
on the earth.
x

36. (c) : Here, Y = 105 sin 100t


10

Comparing it with, standard equation of wave


motion

2p 2p
Y = r sin t x
l
T
2p
2p p
2p 1
= , l = 20p
= 100, T =
=
s ;
100 50
l 10
T
l 20p
Velocity, v = =
= 1000 m s 1
T p / 50
37. (a) : On the surface of earth, the force on a
mass of 1 kg is
GMm GM 1
... (i)
F=
=
= 10
R2
R2
When the radius of the satellite, r = 3R/2, the
force on the satellite is
GMm GM 100
F=
=
r2
(3 / 2)2 R2
10 4 100
=
= 4.44 102 N
(Using (i))
9
38. (d) : The far point of 6.0 m tell us that the focal
length of the lens is f = 6.0 m, u = 18 m and
h=2m
1 1 1
=
f v u
1 1 1
1
1

= + =

v f u 6.0 18.0

Using,

v = 4.5 m
\ The image size,
v
4.5
h = h = 2
= 0.50 m
u
18.0
39. (a) : Here, displacement = 8.4 + 2 = 10.4 km
1 8. 4
Total time taken = +
= 0.62 h
2 70
Displacement
Average velocity =
Total time taken
10.4 km
=
= 16.8 km h 1
0.62 h
40. (c) : Let u be frequency of standard fork. The
2
frequency of A, uA = u +
u
100
3
u
and the frequency of B, uB = u
100
According to question,
uA u B = 6
physics for you

| march 15 21

2
3

\ u+
u u
u =6
100
100

u0 =

5
600
u = 6 or u =
= 120 Hz
100
5
The frequency of A
2
2

uA = u +
u = 120 +
120 = 122.4 Hz
100
100

or

Lateral strain

41. (a) : Poissons ratio =


Longitudinal strain =
=
Youngs modulus, Y =
Y=

Longitudinal strain
Lateral strain
Poissons ratio
3

0.01 10
... (i)
0.4
Normal stress

42. (c) : Energy of incident photon, E =


E=

6.6 1034 3 108

hc
l

2 107

= 9.9 1019 J =

e
e
100
1
or 1 2 =
or 2 = 1
e1 300
e1
3
or

9.9 10

19

where the symbols have their usual meanings.


hc
or f0 = K max = 6.2 eV 2.5 eV = 3.7 eV
l
f0
Threshold frequency, u0 =
h

march 15

e2 2
e
3
= or 1 =
e1 3
e2 2

44. (c) :

u
5m
Tower
Ground

10 m

Let t be time taken by the body to reach the


ground.
\

1
2H
25
=
=1 s
H = gt 2 or t =
2
g
10

R = ut or 10 = u 1 or u = 10 m s1
45. (c)

nn
Form IV

eV = 6.2 eV
1.6 1019
Kmax = eVs = e 2.5 V = 2.5 eV
According to Einsteins photoelectric equation
hc
K max = f0
l

22 physics for you |

43. (d) : When potentiometer is connected


between A and B, then it measures only e1
and when connected between A and C, then it
measures e1 e2.
e1
l e e
l
\
= 1, 1 2 = 2
e1 e2 l2
e1
l1

(Using (i))

0.01 103
A

0.4

100 0.4
=
N m 2 = 1.6 108 N m2
3
0.025 0.01 10

6.6 1034

= 0.9 1015 Hz = 9 1014 Hz

Longitudinal strain

3.7 1.6 1019

1. Place of Publication
2. Periodicity of its publication
3. Printers and Publishers Name
Nationality
Address

:
:
:
:
:

4. Editors Name
Nationality
Address

:
:
:

New Delhi
Monthly
Mahabir Singh
Indian
Physics for You,
406, Taj Apartment,
New Delhi - 110029.
Anil Ahlawat
Indian
Physics for You,
19, National Media
Centre, Gurgaon
Haryana - 122002
Mahabir Singh
406, Taj Apartment
New Delhi

5. Name and address of


:
individuals who own the
newspapers and partners or
shareholders holding more than
one percent of the total capital
I, Mahabir Singh, hereby declare that particulars given above are true to
the best of my knowledge and belief.
Mahabir Singh
Publisher

1. A sample of hydrogen gas in its ground state is


irradiated with photons of 10.2 eV energies.
The radiation from the above sample is used to
irradiate two other samples of excited ionised He+
and excited ionised Li2+ respectively. Both the
ionised samples absorb the incident radiation.
(i) How many lines are obtained in the He+
and Li2+ emission spectra?
(ii) What are the smallest and biggest
wavelengths in their spectra?
2. The half-value thickness of an absorber is
defined as the thickness that will reduce the
intensity of a beam of particles by a factor of 2.
Calculate the half-value thickness for lead,
assuming an X-ray beam of wavelength 20 pm.
Total linear attenuation coefficient, m = 55 cm1
for X-rays in lead at wavelength l = 20 pm.
3. When an electron beam interacts with atoms
on the surface of a solid, by studying the
angular distribution of the diffracted electrons,
one can indirectly measure the geometrical
arrangement of atoms. Assume that the
electrons strike perpendicular to the surface of
a solid as shown in figure, and that their energy
is low, K = 100 eV, so that they interact only
with the surface layer of atoms. If the smallest
angle at which a diffraction maximum occurs
is at 24, what is the separation d between the
atoms on the surface?

By : Prof. Rajinder Singh Randhawa*

4. Initial activity of a b emitter isotope 90Sr is


10 mCi. How many decays per second will be
taking place after 84 years. The half life of 90Sr
is 28 years.
5. Nuclei of a radioactive element A are being
produced at a constant rate a. The element has
a decay constant l. At time t = 0, there are N0
nuclei of the element.
(a) Calculate the number N of nuclei of A at
time t.
(b) If a = 2lN0, calculate the number of nuclei
of A after one half life of A, and also the
limiting value of N as t .
6. Find the decay constant and mean life time of
55Co radio nuclide if its activity is known to
decrease by 4% per hour. The decay product is
non-radioactive.
SOLUTIONS

1. After absorbing photons of energy 10.2 eV,


hydrogen atom would reach the first excited
state of 3.4 eV, since energy difference

*Randhawa Institute of Physics, S.C.O. 208, First Fl., Sector-36D & S.C.O. 38, Second Fl., Sector-20C, Chandigarh, Ph. 09814527699

PHYSICS FOR YOU | March 15

23

corresponding to n = 1 and n = 2 is 10.2 eV.


When this excited hydrogen atom deexcites,
it would release 10.2 eV, which is absorbed by
He+ and Li2+.
Energy of nth state of a hydrogen like atom with
atomic number Z is given by,
En =

13.6Z 2
n2

eV

1242
= 10.4 nm
n = 6 n = 1 13.6 9 9
36
l min

2. The intensity varies with distance travelled in


the medium, according to relation
I
I ( x ) = I 0 e mx \ 0 = I 0 e mx
2
mx 1
mx
e
= or 2 = e
2
Taking log both sides, mx = ln 2
x=

ln 2
m

or x =

ln 2
55

0.693
55

= 1.26 10 2 cm = 0.126 mm
Hence, we conclude that lead is a very good
absorber for X-rays.
3. The path difference is dsinq.
For constructive interference, dsinq = nl.
For the smallest value of q, dsinq = 1 l
The kinetic energy is
After absorbing 10.2 eV, He+ electron moves
from n = 2 to n = 4 and Li2+ electron moves
from n = 3 to n = 6.

K=
\

l=
=

p2
h2
=
2me 2me l 2

p =
l

h
2me K

6.63 10 34

2 (9.1 10 31 ) 100 1.6 10 19

= 0.123 nm
In the spectrum of He+ there would be
4C = 6 lines.
2
hc
1242
l max =
=
= 470 nm
E

4 4
n=4n=3
13.6
9 16
hc
1242
=
= 24.4 nm
n = 4 n = 1 E 13.6 4 4
16
Similarly, in spectrum of Li2+ there will be
6C = 15 lines.
2
l min

1242
= 830.2 nm
n = 6 n = 5 13.6 9 9
25 36
l max

24 PHYSICS FOR YOU |

March 15

On the surface, interatomic spacing of


atoms is
l
0.123
d=
=
= 0.30 nm
sin q sin 24
4. As T1/2 = 28 year, there will be three half lives in
84 years.
1 1 1 1 1
So the activity will be only as = .
8 2 2 2 8
So the activity of source will be,
\

A = 10

1
= 1.25 mCi = 1.25 10 3 Ci
8

(Q 1 Ci = 3.70 1010 decays/sec)


\

A = (1.25 10 3 ) (3.70 1010 )


= 4.63 107 decays per second

5. (a) The rate of production of A is a while


its rate of decay is (lN). Thus the net rate of
change of the nuclei of A is given by
dN
dN
= (a lN ) or
= dt
dt
a lN

N0

1
dN
N
= dt or
log e (a lN )
=t
N0
(a lN )
l
0

or (a lN ) = (a lN 0 )e lt
which gives the number of nuclei at time t,
1
(i)
N = [a (a N 0 l)e lt ]
l
(b) For a = 2lN0, eqn. (i) becomes
N = 2N 0 N 0e lt

(ii)

To obtain the number of nuclei after one


half life of A, put t = T1/2 =
N = 2N 0 N 0 e

0.693
l
l

N = 2N 0

N0
2

e 0.693 =

3
= N0
2
The limiting value of N as t is

1
2

N = lim 2N 0 N 0e lt = 2N 0 N 0e = 2N 0
t

Integrating, we get
N

0.693
in eqn. (ii)
l

= 2N 0 N 0e 0.693

6. Initial activity, A0 = lN0


Activity of nuclei at time t,
A = lN = lN0elt = A0elt
(i)
Since activity decreases at h = 4% per hour, so
activity of 55Co radio nuclide at t = 1 h,
A = A0 hA0 = A0 (1 h)
(ii)
Taking natural log of equation (i), we get
A
ln
= lt
A0
A (1 h)
ln 0
=l
A0
or l = ln(1 h) (h)
\ l=h
Put the value, we get
l 1.1 105 s1
Mean life time, t =

ATTENTION COACHING INSTITUTES:

1
= 9 104 s
l

(using (ii))

nn

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PHYSICS FOR YOU | March 15

25

The apparent changes in frequency detected due


to relative motion between source and observer is
termed as Dopplers effect. Now, the question is how
does one layman understand whether there has been
any change in frequency or not? The answer is very
easy. If the sound appears to be more or less shrill,
its frequency has either increased or decreased.
Shrillness of sound is directly related to frequency.
This is a common phenomenon experienced in day
to day life. Supposedly, a bike is stationary and it
blows its horn. The sound of the horn will be more
shrill if the bike starts approaching us.
Now, let us explore the details of the how and why
of Dopplers effect.

1
f0
Let, a wave be emitted at t = 0, hence, the wave
would travel a distance l0 = vwT in a time t = T. But
the source itself has moved towards observer by a
distance vST as shown in figure.

Case-I : Source(S) moving, observer(O) stationary

Clearly, the waves appear to have been compressed,


hence wavelength decreases for the observer.
1
\ lapp = vwT vST = (vw vS )
f0

T=

vw = wave velocity
f0 = frequency of source towards observer
vS = velocity of source towards observer
In this case, the waves, once emitted, the propagation
speed is only medium dependent, since the observer
is stationary too.
But what about wavelength?
Wavelength is defined as the shortest distance
between two points oscillating in same phase. Had
the source been stationary, this distance surely
would not have changed. Let me explain.
If f0 is the frequency of the wave emitted, its time
period,

vw
1
= (vw vS )
fapp
f0

vw
fapp =
f0
vw vS
where, fapp = apparent frequency detected by
observer.
Clearly, fapp > f0, where source approaches observer.
Similarly, had the source been moving away
(receding) from the observer, the waves would
have expanded, i.e., wavelength increased, hence
frequency decreased.
In general, due to motion of source towards/away
from observer, the apparent frequency detected
would be

Contributed By: Bishwajit Barnwal, Aakash Institute, Kolkata

26 physics for you |

march15

physics for you

| march 15 27

fapp = w f0
vw v s
Adjust the or + sign using the simple logic, that
when separation between S and O decreases, fapp
should be more than f0, hence obviously sign has
to be used here.
Case-II : Source(S) stationary, observer(O) moving

vO = velocity of observer away from source.


In this case, as the source is stationary, there is no
scope of wavelength appearing to have changed.
But here, as the observer is moving away, the wave
appears to be coming at a slower rate, hence the
wave velocity changes in this case.
\ vapp = vw vO = apparent wave velocity for observer
v
\ vw vO = fapp l0 = fapp w
f0
v v
\ fapp = w O f0
vw

Clearly, the apparent frequency is lesser than the


frequency emitted by source.
A more generalised result when the observer moves
towards/away from stationary source, would be
v v
fapp = w O f0
v

Again, the same rule for using + or sign, i.e.,


separation decreases then frequency should
increase and vice versa.
Case-III : Source(S) as well as observer(O) moving

This case taken is just case-I and II combined, i.e.


due to the motion of source, wavelength changes
whereas due to motion of observer, wave velocity
changes, and due to cumulative effect of both,
frequency of wave appears to have changed. A more
28 physics for you |

march15

generalised expression for finding out the apparent


frequency would be
v v
fapp = w O f0
v v
w

Let us learn, how to apply this formula for the


above case shown where the source move towards
observer and observer moves away from source.
Due to motion of source, the separation decreases,
hence frequency should increase (therefore,
negative sign in denominator) whereas due to the
motion of observer, the separation increases, hence
frequency should decrease (hence negative sign in
numerator too).
v v
\ fapp = w O f0
v v
w

This is the frequency detected by observer for the


case shown.
Typical Examples

(1) Source(S) and observer(O), both moving with


same velocity in same direction
v

In this case, since there is no relative motion


between source and observer, the observer
would not detect any change in frequency but
this does not mean that wavelength or wave
velocity does not appear to have changed for the
observer. Infact, the wavelength has decreased
due to motion of source whereas the wave
speed decreases due to the motion of observer
and their cumulative effect is that there is no
change in frequency.
v v
fapp = w
f0 = f0
v v
w

(2) If the direction of motion of source/observer


does not match with the line joining them.
In this case, break the components of the
velocity of the source and observer along the
line joining them and use the same generalised
formula.

v + v cos O
\ fapp = w O
f0
vw vS cos S
(3) One among the source or observer is stationary
while the other moves perpendicular to the
line joining them

Now, clearly there is no component of velocity


along OS, there would not be any change in
frequency.
\ fapp = f0
(4) Frequency detected after reflection from a
rigid boundary (wall/building/cliff)

We have two observers here, A and B.


A will get to hear two frequencies, one of the
wave which has been emitted from the source
directly and the other after reflection from
the wall. Hence he can also hear beats if the
difference of frequencies is less than 10 Hz
(due to limitation of resolution). The frequency
received by the wall,
v

frec = w f0 ,
vw v
since the wall becomes a stationary observer
and the source is approaching the observer.
The received frequency will be equal to the
reflected frequency (fref).
v

\ fref = frec = w f0
v v
w

Now the wall behaves as a stationary source


of sound of frequency fref whereas A is the
observer (moving with speed v towards wall).
v +v
\ fapp = w
fref
v
w

v + v vw
f0
= w
vw vw v

v +v
fapp = w
f0
vw v
where fapp is the apparent frequency detected
by the observer A after reflection from wall.
\ Beat frequency detected by him (A) is
fb = fref f0
v +v
= w
f0 f0
vw v
2v
=
f0
vw v
Now, what about B?
Since B is stationary, he will receive the same
frequency as received by wall, and the reflected
frequency being equal to the received frequency,
both the frequencies received by B, directly
from the source as well as after reflection are
identical and hence he would not hear any
beats.
A shortcut can also be used to find the reflected
frequency as detected by A, where we create a
virtual source S of S by taking reflection on the
wall as shown in figure.

v +v
\ fapp = w
f0
vw v
nn
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physics for you

| march 15 29

Y U ASKED

WE ANSWERED
Do you have a question that you just cant get answered?
Use the vast expertise of our mtg team to get to the bottom
of the question. From the serious to the silly, the controversial
to the trivial, the team will tackle the questions, easy and
tough.
The best questions and their solutions will be printed in this
column each month.

Q1. Why does a mobile phone blast while


attending call during charging ? How can it
be prevented ?
Sachin Vats (New Delhi)

Ans. It is a fact that mobile phones when answered


while charging can sometimes lead to
electrocution of the person and other fire and
explosion hazards, but it is important to note that
such accidents happen rarely and that to because
of faulty mobile phone manufacturing, battery
problem and low quality chargers. As a matter of
safety, it is important to follow some precautions.
Make sure the battery and charger are of the same
brand as mobile phone. Avoid using phone on
charging. Dont tamper with the battery or bring
it to contact with other metal objects outside the
phone. Plug off as soon as mobile is fully charged.
Avoid over heating of battery. Most importantly,
follow the instructions of manufacturer for
battery usage, storage, and recharging.
Q2. What are auroras and how are they form?

-Aditya Prabhakar Warke

Ans. The bright dancing lights of aurora are caused


by collisions between fast-moving particles
(electrons) from space and the oxygen and
nitrogen gas in our atmosphere. These electrons
originate in the magnetosphere, the region of
space controlled by Earths magnetic field. As
they enter into the atmosphere, the electrons
impact energy to oxygen and nitrogen molecules,
making them excited. When the molecules
return to their normal state, they release photon,
small bursts of energy in the form of light. When
billions of these collisions occur and enough
photons are released, the oxygen and nitrogen
in the atmosphere emit enough light for the eye
30 physics for you |

march 15

to detect them. This ghostly glow can light up


the night sky in a dance of colours. But since the
aurora is much dimmer than sunlight, it cannot
be seen from the ground in the daytime. The
colour of the aurora depends on which gas is
being excited by the electrons and on how much
energy is being exchanged. Oxygen emits either
a greenish-yellow light or a red light, nitrogen
generally gives off a blue light. Auroras usually
occur in ring-shaped areas centered around the
magnetic poles of Earth. The brighter the colour,
the more intense the aurora. The crescent of
colour on the left is from sunlight scattered over
the upper atmosphere.
Q3. Why magnetic field intensity at the end of
long solenoid is half than at the centre of the
solenoid?
Suraj Gohel (Rajkot)
Ans. A solenoid is made out of a current carrying
wire which is coiled into a series of turns.
In a solenoid, a large field is produced parallel
to the axis of the solenoid. Components of the
magnetic field in other directions are cancelled
by opposing fields from neighbouring coils.
Outside the solenoid the field is also very weak
due to this cancellation effect and for a solenoid
which is long in comparison to its diameter, the
field is very close to zero. Inside the solenoid
the fields from individual coils add together
to form a very strong field along the center of
the solenoid. The magnetic field at any point in
space can be computed by summing over the
magnetic fields produced by each turn of wire
in the solenoid. It turns out that for an infinitely
long solenoid, with the same number of turns
per unit length of the solenoid, the magnetic
field is constant in strength everywhere inside.
If solenoid has ends, then you can think of it
as an infinitely long solenoid minus the end
parts that stretch off to infinity. The magnetic
field strength on the axis going right through
the solenoid, in the place on the end of the
solenoid is then the field of an infinitely
long solenoid minus half of it because half
is missing, and so the field strength is half
as big on the ends (but right in the middle).
The field strength in the middle of a long
solenoid is almost exactly that of an infinitely
long solenoid, or twice that on the ends.
nn

Optics and Modern Physics

reflection of light

When a light ray strikes the surface between two


media, a part of it get return back in the initial
medium. It is known as reflection.
laws of reflection

The incident ray, the


Normal
reflected ray and the normal
i r
to the surface, all lie in the
same plane.
The angle of incidence is equal to the angle of
reflection, i = r
reflection of light at plane surface

In case of a reflection from plane surface such as


plane mirror, the image is always erect, virtual and
of same size as the object. It is also at the same
distance behind the mirror as the object in front of
it.
When two plane mirrors are inclined at an angle
q and an object is placed between them, multiple
images of the object are formed as a result of
multiple successive reflections.
360
If
is an even integer, then the number of
q
360
images (n) is given by n =
1
q
360
If
is an odd integer, then the number of
q
images (n) is decided according to the following
two situations :

If

the object lies symmetrically, then


360
n=
1.
q
If the object lies unsymmetrically, then
360
n=
.
q
360
If
is a fraction, the number of images formed
q
will be equal to its integral part.
KEY POINT

When two plane mirror are placed parallel to


each other and an object is placed between
them, the number of image formed will be
infinite.
reflection of light at spherical surface

A spherical mirror is a part of a spherical reflecting


surfaces. They are of two types :
Concave mirror : If the reflection occurs from
the inner surface of the spherical mirror, the
mirror is called a concave mirror.
Convex mirror : If the reflection occurs from
the outer surface of the spherical mirror, the
mirror is called a convex mirror.
C

P
f

Concave Mirror

f
Convex Mirror
physics for you

| march 15 31

Here, P = pole of mirror, F = principal focus


f = focal length, C = centre of curvature
New cartesian sign conventions : All distances
have to be measured from the pole of the mirror.
Distances measured in the direction of incident
light are taken as positive, while those measured
in opposite direction are taken as negative. Heights
measured upwards and normal to the principal
axis of the mirror are taken as positive, while those
measured downwards are taken as negative.
the Mirror equation

1 1 1
where u is the distance of object from
+ =
u v f
the pole of the mirror and v is the distance of image
from the pole of the mirror. f = R/2 where R is the
radius of curvature of mirror.
KEY POINT

f or R is negative for concave mirror and


positive for convex mirror
Linear Magnification
m=

size of image(I )
f v
v
f
= =
=
size of object(O)
u f u
f

m is positive for erect image and m is negative for


inverted image.
Axial Magnification
2

v
max =
u
Areal Magnification
area of image
mar =
area of object
Newtons formula is f 2 = xy, where x is distance
of object from the focus and y is distance of image
from the focus of the mirror.
refraction of light

Refraction of light is the change in the path of light


due to change in velocity, when it goes from one
medium to another.
laws of refraction

The incident ray, the refracted ray and the


32 physics for you |

march 15

normal to the interface at the point of incidence,


all lie in the same plane.
The ratio of sine of
angle of incidence to
i
Medium 1
the sine of angle of
Medium
2
refraction for any two
r
media is constant.
sin i 1
i.e.
= m2
sin r
where 1m2 is the refractive index, of the medium
2 with respect to medium 1. This is also known
as Snells law.
If 1m2 > 1, r < i the refracted ray bends towards
the normal. In such a case medium 2 is said to
be optically denser in comparison to medium 1.
If 1m2 < 1, r > i the refracted ray bends away
from the normal. In such a case medium 2 is
said to be optically rarer in comparison to
medium 1.
Absolute refractive index : Refractive index of
a medium with respect to vacuum (or in practice
air) is known as absolute refractive index of the
medium
m=

c speed of light in vacuum


=
v speed of light in medium

General expression for Snells law


c
v v
sin i
m
1
m2 = 2 = 2 = 1 =
m1 c v 2 sin r
v
1
where c is the speed of light in air, v1 and v2 be
the speeds of light in medium 1 and medium 2
respectively.
Principle of Reversibility :
1

lateral shift

1
m2 = 2
m1

When the medium is same on both sides of a glass


slab, then the deviation of the emergent ray is zero.
That is the emergent ray is parallel to the incident
ray but it does suffer lateral shift with respect to the
incident ray and is given by

Lateral shift, d = t

sin (i r)
cos r

where t is the thickness of the slab.

Air (2)
Water (1)
Incident
ray

i2
i 1 i1

Refracted
ray
Reflected
ray

When the angle of incidence is equal to the critical


angle iC, the angle of refraction is 90.
i2 = 90

real Depth and apparent Depth

When one looks into a pool of water, it does not


appear to be as deep as it really is. Also when one
looks into a slab of glass, the material does not
appear to be as thick as it really is. This all happens
due to refraction of light.
If a beaker is filled with water and a point lying at
its bottom is observed by someone located in air,
then the bottom point appears raised. The apparent
depth is less than the real depth. It can be shown
that
apparent depth =

real depth
refractive index (m)

total internal reflection

It is the total reflection of light from a boundary


between two mediums. It occurs when the angle
of incident is greater than the critical angle for the
two surfaces involved. Critical angle is the angle of
incidence for which the angle of refraction is 90.
It exists only when light passes from a denser to a
rarer medium.
1
Critical angle, sin iC = R
mD
If the rarer medium is air or vacuum, then
sin iC =

1
m

When light travels from a higher refractive


medium (water) into a lower refractive index
medium (air), the refracted ray is bent away from
the normal.

i C iC

If i1 is greater than iC, there is no refracted ray, and


total internal reflection occurs.
2
1

iC

Total
internal
reflection

KEY POINT

Critical angle depends on nature of media in


contact and on the wavelength of light.
application of total internal reflection

The brilliance of diamond : The critical angle


for diamond air interface is 24.4. The diamond
is cut suitably so that light entering the diamond
from any face falls at an angle greater than 24.4,
and suffers multiple total internal reflections
which results in sparkling of diamond.
Mirage : It is an optical illusion which occurs
in hot, sunny days. The object such as a tree
appears to be inverted, as if the tree is on the
bank of a pond of water.
Optical fiber : It is a thin tube of transparent
material that allows light to pass through,
without being refracted into the air. Light
undergoes successive total internal reflections
as it moves through an optical fibre.
physics for you

| march 15 33

refraction through a prism

Prism is a homogeneous, transparent medium


enclosed by two plane surfaces inclined at an angle.
These surfaces are called the refracting surfaces
and angle between them is known as the refracting
angle or the angle of prism.
The angle between the incident ray and the emergent
ray is known as the angle of deviation.

colours turn through different angles on passing


through the prism. This is the cause of dispersion.

Red
Yellow
Violet

angular Dispersion

The difference in deviation between any two colours


is known as angular dispersion.
Angular dispersion dV dR = (mV mR)A where mV
and mR are the refractive index for violet and red
rays.

For refraction through a prism it is found that


d = i + e A where A = r1 + r2

d + dR
.
Mean deviation d = V
2
Dispersive power,
w=

When A and i are small


\ d = (m 1) A

In a position of minimum deviation d = dm,


i = e, and r1 = r2 = r
A + dm
A
and r =
\ i =
2
2
The refractive index of the material of the prism is
(A + d m )
sin

2
m=
A
sin
2
This is known as prism formula, where A is the
angle of prism and dm is the angle of minimum
deviation.

()

Dispersion of light

It is the phenomenon of splitting of white light into


its constituent colours on passing through a prism.
This is because different colours have different
wavelengths (lR > lV). According to Cauchys
formula
B

m=A+ 2 + 4
l
l
where A, B, C are arbitrary constants. Therefore, m
of material of prism for different colours is different
(mV > mR). As d = (m 1) A, therefore different
34 physics for you |

march 15

angular dispersion (dV d R )


mean deviation (d)

m mR
,
w= V
(m 1)
m + mR
where m = V
= mean refractive index
2
Dispersion without Deviation
Suppose we combine two prisms of refracting
angles A and A, and dispersive powers w and w
respectively in such a way that their refracting
angles are reversed with respect to each other.
For no deviation, the condition is

d + d = 0

(m 1) A
(m 1) A + (m 1) A = 0 or A = (m 1)
Under this condition, net angular dispersion
produced by the combination
= (dV d R ) + (dV
dR )

= (mV m R ) A + (mV
mR ) A
Deviation without Dispersion

The condition for no dispersion is

(mV m R ) A + (mV mR ) A = 0

or A =

(mV m R ) A
(mV mR )

Under this condition, net deviation produced by


the combination is

R1
R2

= d + d = (m 1) A + (m 1) A
Rainbow : The rainbow is an example of the
dispersion of sunlight by the water drops in
the atmosphere. It is due to combined effect of
dispersion, refraction and reflection of sunlight by
spherical water droplets of rain.
scattering of light

As sunlight travels through the earths atmosphere,


it gets scattered (changes its direction) by the
atmospheric particles. Light of shorter wavelengths
is scattered much more than light of longer
wavelengths. The amount of scattering is inversely
proportional to the fourth power of the wavelength.
This is known as Rayleigh scattering.
refraction froM a spherical surface

A spherical refracting surface is a portion of a


refracting medium whose curved surface is a part
of a sphere. Spherical refracting surface are of two
types :
Convex refracting surface
Concave refracting surface
For refraction from rarer to denser medium
m m1
m m
1+ 2= 2
u
v
R
where u, v and R be the object distance, image
distance and radius of curvature from the spherical
surface respectively.
When refraction occurs from denser to rarer
medium we interchange m1 and m2
m
m m m2
2+ 1= 1
u
v
R
refraction by a lens
A lens is a portion of a transparent refracting
medium bound by two spherical surfaces, or one
spherical surface and a plane surface.
Lenses are of two types:
Convex lens is a lens that is thicker in the middle
than at the edges as shown in figure (a).
Concave lens is a lens that is thinner in
the middle than at the edges as shown in
figure (b).

Biconvex
R1

Plano convex
(a)

Concavo convex

R2

Biconcave

R2

R1

Plano concave Convexo concave


(b)

KEY POINT

The sign convention for thin lenses are same as


those of spherical mirrors except that instead
of pole of the mirror, we take use of optical
centre of the lens.
lens Makers formula

1
1
1
= (m 1)
f
R1 R2

when R1 and R2 are radii of curvature of the two


surfaces of the lens and m is the refractive index of
material of lens with respect to surrounding medium.
When the refractive index of the material of the
lens is greater than that of the surroundings, then
biconvex lens acts as a converging lens and a
biconcave lens acts as a diverging lens as shown in
the figure.

When the refractive index of the material of the lens


is smaller than that of the surrounding medium,
then biconvex lens acts as a diverging lens and a
biconcave lens acts as a converging lens as shown
in the figure.

physics for you

| march 15 35

thin lens formula

1 1 1
=
v u f

SELF CHECK

For a convex lens, P is positive, and for a concave


lens, P is negative.

1. A thin convex lens made from crown glass


3

m = 2 has focal length f. When it is measured


in two different liquids having refractive
4
5
indices and , it has the focal lengths f1 and
3
3
f2 respectively. The correct relation between the
focal lengths is
(a) f1 and f2 both become negative
(b) f1 = f2 < f
(c) f1 > f and f2 becomes negative
(d) f2 > f and f1 becomes negative
(JEE Main 2014)
2. An object 2.4 m in front of a lens forms a sharp
image on a film 12 cm behind the lens. A glass
plate 1 cm thick, of refractive index 1.50 is
interposed between lens and film with its plane
faces parallel to film. At what distance (from
lens) should object be shifted to be in sharp
focus on film?
(a) 2.4 m
(b) 3.2 m
(c) 5.6 m
(d) 7.2 m
(AIEEE 2012)

combination of thin lenses in contact

optical instruMents

where u is the distance of the object from the


optical centre of the lens, v is the distance of the
image from the optical centre of the lens, f is the
focal length of lens.
KEY POINT

f is positive for converging or convex lens and


f is negative for diverging or concave lens.
linear Magnification

m=

size of image (I ) v
= .
size of object (O) u

m is positive for erect image and m is negative for


inverted image.
power of a lens

P=

1
.
focal length in metres

The SI unit of power of lens is dioptre (D).


1 D = 1 m1.

When a number of thin lenses of focal length f1, f2,


...etc. are placed in contact coaxially, the equivalent
focal length F of the combination is given by
1 1
1
1
= +
+ + ....
F f1 f 2 f 3
The total power of the combination is given by
P = P1 + P2 + P3 + ...
The total magnification of the combination is given
by
m = m1 m2 m3 ....
When two thin lenses of focal lengths f1 and f2 are
placed coaxially and separated by a distance d, the
focal length of a combination is given by
d
1 1
1
= +

.
F f1 f 2 f1 f 2
In terms of power P = P1 + P2 dP1P2.
36 physics for you |

march 15

simple Microscope

It is used for observing magnified images of tiny


objects. It consist of a converging lens of small focal
length.
Magnifying power of a simple microscope when
the image is formed at infinity,
M=

D
f

where D is the least distance of distinct vision and


f is the focal length of convex lens.
When the image is formed at near point (at D),
D
M = 1+ .
f
compound Microscope

A compound microscope consist of two convex


lenses coaxially separated by some distance. The

lens nearer to the object is called the objective and


the lens through which the final image is viewed is
called the eyepiece.
Magnifying power of a compound microscope

When the final image is formed at infinity (normal


adjustment),
v D
M= o
uo f e

In normal adjustment,
f
Magnifying power, M = o
fe
Length of the tube, L = fo + 4f + fe

Length of tube, L = vo + fe
When the final image is formed at least distance of
distinct vision,
v
D
M = o 1 +
uo
fe
where uo and vo represent the distance of object and
intermediate image from the objective lens, fe is the
focal length of an eye lens.
f D
Length of the tube, L = v o + e
f e + D
astronomical refracting telescope

It is used for observing astronomical bodies.


Refracting telescope use lenses as their main
components. The one facing the object is called
objective or field lens and has large focal length,
while the other facing the eye is called eye-piece or
ocular has small focal length.
Magnifying power of a astronomical telescope

When the final image is formed at infinity (normal


adjustment),
f
M= o
fe
Length of tube, L = fo + fe
When the final image is formed at least distance of
distinct vision,
f
f
M = o 1 + e
fe
D
Length of tube, L = f o +

final image must be erect with respect to the object.


To achieve it, an inverting convex lens (of focal
length f) is used in between the objective and eye
piece of astronomical telescope. This lens is known
as erecting lens.

fe D
fe + D

terrestrial telescope

It is used for observing far off objects on the ground.


The essential requirement of such a telescope is that

reflecting type telescope

Reflecting type telescope was designed by Newton in


order to overcome the drawbacks of refracting type
telescope. In a reflecting type telescope, a concave
mirror of large aperture is used as objective in place
of a convex lens. It possesses a large light gathering
power and a high resolving power. Due to this, it
enables us to see even faint stars and observe their
minute details.
In normal adjustment

()

R
fo
Magnifying power, M =
= 2
fe
fe

where R is the radius of curvature of concave


mirror.
Reflecting type telescope is free from chromatic
aberration because light does not undergo
refraction.
wave optics

Wave optics deals with the theories of the nature


of light and provides an explanation for different
phenomena like reflection, refraction, interference,
diffraction and polarisation.
wavefront

Particles of light wave which are equidistant from


the light source and vibrate in the same phase
constitute a wavefront.
Depending on the type of light source, wavefronts
are of three types:
Spherical wavefront : It is formed by a point
source of light.
Cylindrical wavefront : It is formed by a linear
source of light.
physics for you

| march 15 37

Plane wavefront : It is obtained from a point


source of light when the observation point is
far away from the light source.

I = I1 + I 2 + 2 I1I 2 cos f
If I1 = I2 = I0, then I = I0 + I0 + 2I0 cos f = 4I0 cos2
I = I1 +I 2 + 2 I1I 2 cos f

huygens principle

According to this principle, each and every point on


the given wavefront called primary wavefront, acts
as a source of new disturbances, called secondary
wavelets, that travel in all directions with the
velocity of light in the medium. A surface touching
these secondary wavelets tangentially in the forward
direction at any instant gives a new wavefront at that
instant, which is known as secondary wavefront.
coherent sources

Sources of light which emit continuous light waves


having the same wavelength, same frequency and
in same phase or having a constant phase difference
are known as coherent sources of light.
interference of light

It is the phenomenon of redistribution of energy


on account of superposition of light waves from
two coherent sources. Interference pattern produce
points of maximum and minimum intensity. Points
where resultant intensity is maximum, interference
is said to be constructive and at the points of
destructive interference, resultant intensity is
minimum.
conditions for sustained interference of light

The two sources should continously emit waves of


the same wavelength or frequency. The amplitudes
of waves from two sources should preferably be
equal. The waves emitted by the two sources should
either be in phase or should have a constant phase
difference. The two sources must lie very close to
each other. The two sources should be very narrow.
intensity Distribution

If a, b are the amplitudes of interfering waves due


to two coherent sources and f is constant phase
difference between the two waves at any point P,
then the resultant amplitude at P will be
R = a 2 + b2 + 2ab cos f
If a2 = I1, b2 = I2, then resultant intensity, I = R2
= a2 + b2 + 2 ab cos f
38 physics for you |

march 15

When cos f = 1, I max = I1 + I 2 + 2 I1I 2 =

When cos f = 1, I min =


or

I max
=
I min

(
(

I1 I 2

)2

f
2

I1 + I 2

)2

)2 = (a + b)2
2
(a b)2
I2 )

I1 + I 2
I1

If I1 = I2 = I0, then Imax = 4I0, Imin = 0.


f

Resultant intensity, I = 4I0 cos2 2


If the sources are incoherent, I = I1 + I2
youngs double slit experiment

Youngs double slit experiment was the first to


demonstrate the phenomenon of interference of
light. Using two slits illuminated by monochromatic
light source, he obtained bright and dark bands of
equal width placed alternately. These were called
interference fringes.
For constructive interference (formation of
bright fringes)
For nth bright fringe,
d
Path difference = xn = nl
D
where n = 0 for central bright fringe
n = 1 for first bright fringe,
n = 2 for second bright fringe and so on
d = distance between the two slits
D = distance of slits from the screen
xn = distance of nth bright fringe from the
centre.
D
\ xn = nl
d
For destructive interference (formation of dark
fringes).
For nth dark fringe,
d
l
= (2n 1)
D
2
where, n = 1 for first dark fringe,
n = 2 for 2nd dark fringe and so on.
path difference = xn

xn = distance of nth dark fringe from the centre


lD
\ xn = (2n 1)
2 d
Fringe width : The distance between any two
consecutive bright or dark fringes is known as
fringe width.
lD
Fringe width, =
d
l
Angular fringe width, q = =
D d
If W1, W2 are widths of two slits, I1, I2 are intensities
of light coming from two slits; a, b are the amplitudes
of light from these slits, then
W1 I1 a 2
= =
W2 I 2 b2

2
I max (a + b)
=
I min (a b)2

I
I
Fringe visibility, V = max min
I max + I min
When entire apparatus of Youngs double slit
experiment is immersed in a medium of refractive
index m, then fringe width becomes
lD lD
=
=
=
d
md m
When a thin transparent plate of thickness t and
refractive index m is placed in the path of one of the
interfering waves, fringe width remains unaffected
but the entire pattern shifts by
D

= (m 1) t
d
l
This shifting is towards the side in which transparent
plate is introduced.
Dx = (m 1) t

KEY POINT

For constructive interference at a point, the


phase difference between the two waves
reaching that point should be zero or an even
integral multiple of p.
For destructive interference at a point the
phase difference between the two waves
reaching that particular point should be an
odd integral multiple of p.

Diffraction

It is the phenomenon of bending of light around the


corners of an obstacle placed in its path, on account
of which it penetrates into the region of geometrical
shadow of the obstacle.
Diffraction of light at a single slit

In this case, the diffraction pattern obtained on


the screen consists of a central bright band, having
alternate dark and weak bright bands of decreasing
intensity on both sides.
Condition for nth secondary maximum in terms of
l
path difference = a sin qn = (2n 1)
2
where n = 1, 2, 3,.......
Condition for nth secondary minimum in terms of
path difference = asinqn = nl
where n = 1, 2, 3,.......
Width of secondary maxima or minima
lD lf
=
a
a
where, a is the width of slit, D is the distance of
screen from the slit, f is the focal length of lens for
diffracted light.
2lD 2 f l
=
.
Width of central maximum =
a
a
=

Angular fringe width of central maximum =

2l
.
a

Angular fringe width of secondary maxima or


l
minima = .
a
resolving power

It is the ability of an optical instrument to produce


distinctly separate images of two close objects i.e. it
is the ability of the instrument to resolve or to see as
separate, the images of two close objects.
limit of resolution

The minimum distance between two objects


which can just be seen as separate by the optical
instrument is known as the limit of resolution of
the instrument. Smaller the limit of resolution of
the optical instrument, greater is its resolving power
and vice-versa.
physics for you

| march 15 39

resolving power of a Microscope

It is defined as the reciprocal of the minimum


distance d between two point objects, which can
just be seen through the microscope as separate.
1 2m sin q
Resolving power = =
d
l
where m is refractive index of the medium between
object and objective lens, q is half the angle of cone
of light from the point object, d represents limit of
resolution of microscope and msinq is known as the
numerical aperture.
resolving power of a telescope

It is defined as reciprocal of the smallest angular


separation (dq) between two distant objects, whose
images are just seen in the telescope as separate.
Resolving power =

1
D
=
dq 1.22 l

where D is diameter or aperture of the objective lens


of the telescope, dq represents limit of resolution of
telescope.
polarisation

The phenomenon of restricting vibrations of light


to a single plane is known as polarisation of light.
Angle of polarisation is the angle of incidence for
which an ordinary light is completely polarised in
the plane of incidence when it gets reflected from a
transparent medium.
Plane of vibration

Unpolarised
light

Plane polarised
light

Plane of vibration

The plane in which the vibrations of polarised light


are confined is known as plane of vibration and
plane perpendicular to the plane of vibration is
known as plane of polarization.
Brewsters law

According to this law, when unpolarised light


is incident at polarising angle on the interface
separating air from a medium of refractive index
m, the reflected light is fully polarised, provided
40 physics for you |

march 15

the refractive index of the medium is equal to the


tangent of the polarising angle.
m = tan ip
Malus law

According to this law, when a beam of plane


polarised light is incident on the analyzer, the
intensity of light transmitted from the analyser is
directly proportional to the square of the cosine of
the angle between the planes of transmission of the
polariser and analyser.
I a cos2q
If the intensity of plane polarised light incident on
analyser is I0, then intensity of light emerging from
analyser is
I = I0 cos2q
polaroids

A polaroid is a type of plastic sheet which polarises


light. It can be used to control the intensity of light
in sunglasses, windowpanes, photographic cameras
and 3D movie cameras.
KEY POINT

When light is incident at polarising angle, the


reflected and refracted rays are perpendicular
to each other.

SELF CHECK
3. Two beams, A and B, of plane polarized
light with mutually perpendicular planes of
polarisation are seen through a polaroid. From
the position when the beam A has maximum
intensity (and beam B has zero intensity), a
rotation of polaroid through 30 makes the
two beams appear equally bright. If the initial
intensities of the two beams are IA and IB
I
respectively, then A equals
IB
1
3
(a)
(b) 3
(c)
(d) 1
3
2
(JEE Main 2014)
4. A beam of unpolarised light of intensity I0 is
passed through a polaroid A and then through
another polaroid B which is oriented so that its

(b) I0

(c) I0/2

(d) I0/4

(JEE Main 2013)


Dual nature of Matter anD raDiation

Phenomena like interference, diffraction and


polarisation can be explained only on the basis of
wave nature of radiation whereas phenomena like
black body radiation, photoelectric effect, compton
effect can be explained only on the basis of particle
(quantum) nature of radiation. Thus, radiation has
dual nature i.e. particle and wave.
photoelectric effect

It is the phenomenon of emission of electrons


from the surface of metals, when light radiations
of suitable frequency fall on them. The emitted
electrons are known as photoelectrons and the
current so produced is known as photoelectric
current.
work function

The minimum energy needed by an electron to


come out from a metal surface is known as work
function of the metal. It is denoted by f0 or W0 and
measured in electron volt (eV). The work function
depends on the properties of the metal and the
nature of its surface.
laws of photoelectric emission

The laws of photoelectric effect are as follows :


For a given metal and frequency of incident
radiation, the number of photoelectrons ejected per
second is directly proportional to the intensity of
the incident light.
For a given metal, there exists a certain minimum
frequency of the incident radiation below which
no emission of photoelectrons takes place. This
frequency is known as threshold frequency. Above
the threshold frequency, the maximum kinetic
energy of the emitted photoelectron is independent
of the intensity of incident light but depends only
upon the frequency (or wavelength) of the incident
light. The photoelectric emission is an instantaneous
process.

Hertz found that high voltage sparks across a


detector loop were enhanced when an emitter plate
was illuminated by ultraviolet light from an arc
lamp.
Hallwachs and Lenard found that when ultraviolet
radiation was allowed to fall on the emitter plate of
an evacuated glass tube enclosing two metal plates,
current flowed in the circuit.
After the discovery of electrons, it became evident
that the incident light causes electrons to be emitted
from the emitter plate. It was also observed that no
electrons were emitted at all when the frequency
of the incident light was smaller than a certain
minimum value.
experimental features and observations of
photoelectric effect

Experimental features and observations of


photoelectric effect are as follows :
For a given photosensitive material and
frequency of incident radiation (above the
threshold frequency)
the
photoelectric
current is directly
proportional to the
Intensity of light
intensity of incident
light.
For a given photosensitive material and
frequency of incident radiation, saturation
current (the maximum value of photoelectric
current) is found to be proportional to the
intensity of incident radiation whereas the
stopping potential is independent of its intensity.
Photoelectric
current

(a) I0/8

hertzs and lenards observation

Photoelectric
current

principal plane makes an angle of 45 relative to


that of A. The intensity of the emergent light is

I3 > I2 > I1
I3
I2
I1

Stopping
potential
V0
Retarding
potential

O
Collector plate
potential

For a given photosensitive material, there


exists a certain minimum cut-off frequency
physics for you

| march 15 41

of the incident radiation, called the threshold


frequency, below which no emission of
photoelectrons takes place, no matter how
intense the incident light is. Above the
threshold frequency, the stopping potential or
equivalently the maximum kinetic energy of
the emitted photoelectrons increases linearly
with the frequency of incident radiation, but is
independent of its intensity.
Stopping
potential
(V0)

Metal A
> 0

Metal B
> 0

0
0
( )
Frequency of incident radiation

The photoelectric emission is an instantaneous


process without any apparent time lag (~ 109 s or
less), even when the incident radiation is made
exceedingly dim.
particle nature of light : the photon

Einstein proposed that electromagnetic radiation


is quantized and exists in elementary amounts we
now call photons.
The photon picture of electromagnetic radiations
and the characteristic properties of photons are as
follows :
In the interaction of radiation with matter,
radiation behaves as if it is made of particles
like photons.
Each photon has energy E (= hu = hc/l) and
hu h
momentum p =
=
, where h is Plancks
c l
constant, u and l are the frequency and
wavelength of radiation and c is the velocity of
light.
Irrespective of the intensity of radiation, all
the photons of a particular frequency have the
same energy and same momentum.
The photon energy is independent of the
intensity of radiations.
All the photons emitted from a source of
radiations travel through space with the same
speed c.
42 physics for you |

march 15

The frequency of photon gives the radiation,


a definite energy (or colour) which does not
change when photon travels through different
media.
The velocity of photon in different media
is different which is due to change in its
wavelength.
The rest mass of a photon is zero. According
to theory of relativity, the mass m of a particle
moving with velocity v, comparable with the
velocity of light c is given by
m0
or m0 = m 1 v 2 /c 2 ...(i)
m=
2 2
1 v /c
where m0 is the rest mass of particle. As a
photon moves with the speed of light,
v = c, so from (i), m0 = 0.
Photons are not deflected by electric and
magnetic fields. This shows that photons are
electrically neutral.
In a photon-particle collision (such as photoelectron collision), the energy and momentum
are conserved. However the number of photons
may not be conserved in a collision.
Matter waves

The waves associated with the moving material


particles are called matter waves or de Broglie
waves.
de Broglie wavelength

The wavelength associated with moving particle


is called de Broglie wavelength and it is given by
l=

h
h
=
p mv

where m is the mass, p is the momentum and v is the


velocity of particle and h is the Plancks constant.
de Broglie wavelength is independent of the charge
and nature of the material particle.
In terms of kinetic energy K, de Broglie wavelength
is given by l =

h
2mK

If a particle of charge q is accelerated through a


potential difference V, its de Broglie wavelength is
given by

h
2mqV
1/2

150
l=

For an electron,
V
For a gas molecule of mass m at temperature
T kelvin, its de Broglie wavelength is given by
h
l=
, where k is the Boltzmann constant.
3mkT
Davisson anD gerMer eXperiMent

The wave nature of electrons was first experimentally


verified by C.J. Davisson and L.H. Germer in 1927
and independently by G.P. Thomson, in 1928, who
observed diffraction effects with beams of electrons
scattered by crystals.

SELF CHECK
5. The surface of a metal is illuminated with the
light of 400 nm. The kinetic energy of the
ejected photoelectrons was found to be 1.68 eV.
The work function of the metal is
(hc = 1240 eV nm)
(a) 3.09 eV
(b) 1.41 eV
(c) 1.51 eV
(d) 1.68 eV
(AIEEE 2009)
atoMs

The first model of atom was proposed by


J J Thomson in 1898. According to this model, the
positive charge of the atom is uniformly distributed
through out the volume of the atom and the
negatively charged electrons are embedded in it
like seeds in a watermelon. This model was called
as plum pudding model of atom.
alpha particle scattering eXperiMent anD
rutherforDs MoDel of atoM

Rutherfords alpha scattering experiment led to


the discovery of the nucleus. Rutherford and his
co-workers directed a beam of alpha particles at a
thin metal foil made of gold. If the plum pudding
model were correct, then the alpha particles would
be expected to pass nearly straight through the
foil. But in actual, alpha particles were scattered in
different directions.

A graph was plotted, between the scattering angle


q and the number of alpha particles scattered at q
for a very large number of alpha particles, as shown
in figure. The following observations can be made
from the graph.
Most of the alpha particles passed straight
through the gold foil undeflected.
Some of the alpha particles were deflected at
small angles.
Very few (one in thousands) alpha particles
retraced their paths after passing through the
gold foil.
Number of alpha particles
scattered

l=

107
106
105
104
103
102
10

20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180


Scattering angle ()

alpha particle trajectory

The perpendicular distance between the initial


velocity vector of an alpha particle from a central
line passing through the centre of nucleus, when
the alpha particle is far away from the nucleus, is
known as its impact parameter.
For larger impact parameters, the force F
experienced by the alpha particle is weak because
1
.
F
(distance)2
The scattering angle q of the alpha particle and
impact parameter b are related as
b=

Ze 2 cot(q / 2)
4 p0 K

where K is the kinetic energy of alpha particle and


Z is the atomic number of the nucleus.
Smaller the impact parameter, larger the angle of
scattering q.
Distance of closest approach

At the distance of closest approach, whole of the


kinetic energy of the alpha particles is converted
into potential energy.
physics for you

| march 15 43

Distance of closest approach,


r0 =

Bohr developed a theory of hydrogen and


hydrogen-like atoms which have only one orbital
electron. His postulates are as follows :
An electron can revolve around the nucleus
only in certain allowed circular orbits of definite
energy and in these orbits it does not radiate.
These orbits are called stationary orbits.
Angular momentum of the electron in a
stationary orbit is an integral multiple of h/2p.
i.e., L = nh or, mvr = nh
2p
2p
where m is the mass of the electron, v is the velocity
of the electron, r is the radius of the orbit and n is a
positive integer called principal quantum number.
This is called as Bohrs quantisation condition.
This postulate is equivalent to saying that in a
stationary state, the circumference of a circular
orbit contains integral numbers of de Broglie
wavelength.
nh
nh
2pr = nl =
i.e. L = mvr = .
mv
2p
The emission of radiation takes place when an
electron makes a transition from a higher to a
lower orbit. The frequency of the radiation is
given by
E E1
u= 2
h
where E2 and E1 are the energies of the electron
in the higher and lower orbits respectively.
Since the centripetal force for circular orbit is
provided by the Coulombs force, we have
1 Ze 2 mv 2
=
r
4p0 r 2
where Z is the atomic number of the element
and e is the electronic charge.
Bohrs formulae

Radius of
rn =

orbit

4p0n2h 2

0n2h 2
=
4p2mZe 2 pmZe 2

44 physics for you |

n2h 2
rn = 0 2 = a0n2
pme

2 Ze
4 p0 K

Bohrs MoDel of atoM

nth

For hydrogen atom, Z = 1

march 15

h 2 0

= 0.53 10 10 m
pme 2
is called Bohrs radius
Velocity of electron in nth orbit
where a0 =

1 2pZe 2
acZ
Ze 2
c Z
=
=
=
4p0 nh
20nh
137 n
n

vn =

1
e2
=
20hc 137
a is called fine structure constant and is a pure
number.
Frequency of electron in nth orbit
where a =

un =

vn
1 4p2Z 2e 4m me 4 Z 2
=
= 2 3 3
2prn 4p0
n3h 3
40n h

Time period of revolution of electron in nth orbit


Tn =

2prn n3h 3(4p0 )2 420n3h 3


=
=
vn
me 4 Z 2
4p2Z 2e 4m

Kinetic energy of electron in nth orbit


Kn =
=

1 Ze 2
1 2p2me 4 Z 2
=
4p0 2rn
4p0
n2h 2

13.6Z 2

eV.
n2
Potential energy of electron in nth orbit
Un =
=

1 Ze 2
1 4p2me 4 Z 2
=
4p0 rn
4p0
n2h 2

27.2Z 2

eV
n2
Total energy of electron in nth orbit
2

1 2p2me 4 Z 2
En = U n + K n =
4p0
n2h 2
=

13.6Z 2

eV.
n2
When an electron makes a transition from
initial state ni to final state nf (ni > nf), then the
frequency of emitted radiation is given by

1
1

n2 n2
f
i
Wavelength of emitted radiation is given by
1
1
1
= RZ 2 2 2
n

l
f ni
where R is called Rydbergs constant.
u = RcZ 2

1 2p2me 4
= 1.097 107 m 1.
R=
3
4p0
ch
1 is called wave number and is denoted by
u.
l
This relation holds for radiation by hydrogen
like atoms i.e. H (Z = 1), He+ (Z = 2), Li++
(Z = 3) and Be+++ (Z = 4).
ionization energy and ionization potential

Ionization energy =

13.6Z 2

Ionization potential =

n2

eV.

13.6Z 2
n2

V.

SELF CHECK
6. In a hydrogen like atom electron makes
transition from an energy level with quantum
number n to another with quantum number
(n 1). If n > > 1, the frequency of radiation
emitted is proportional to
1
1
(a) 3
(b)
n
n
(c)

n2

(d)

3/2

(JEE Main 2013)

spectral series of hyDrogen atoM

When the electron in a H atom jumps from higher


energy level to lower energy level, the difference
of energies of the two energy levels is emitted
as radiation of particular wavelength, known as
spectral line.
lyman series

Emission spectral lines corresponding to the


transition of electron from higher energy levels
(n2 = 2, 3, ...,) to first energy level (n1 = 1) constitute
Lyman series.

1
1
1
= R 2 2 where n2 = 2, 3, 4, ......,
l
1 n2
Balmer series
Emission spectral lines corresponding to the
transition of electron from higher energy levels
(n2 = 3, 4, ....) to second energy level (n1 = 2)
constitute Balmer series.
1
1
1
= R 2 2 where n2 = 3, 4, 5...........,
l
n2
2
paschen series

Emission spectral lines corresponding to the


transition of electron from higher energy levels
(n2 = 4, 5, .....,) to third energy level (n1 = 3)
constitute Paschen series.
1
1
1
= R 2 2 where n2 = 4, 5, 6.........,
l
n2
3
Brackett series
Emission spectral lines corresponding to the
transition of electron from higher energy levels
(n2 = 5, 6, 7,.....,) to fourth energy level (n1 = 4)
constitute Brackett series.
1
1
1
= R 2 2 where n2 = 5, 6, 7..........,
l
n2
4
pfund series

Emission spectral lines corresponding to the


transition of electron from higher energy levels
(n2 = 6, 7, 8,.......,) to fifth energy level (n1 = 5)
constitute Pfund series.
1
1
1
= R 2 2 where n2 = 6, 7,...........,
l
n2
5
Number of spectral lines due to transition of
electron from nth orbit to lower orbit is
N=

n(n 1)
.
2

energy quantisation

In quantum mechanics, the energies of a system are


discrete or quantised. The energy of a particle of
mass m confined to a box of length L can have only
discrete values of energy given by the relation
En =

n2 h 2

8mL2

where n = 1, 2 , 3 , .........
physics for you

| march 15 45

The radius of the nucleus is given by

SELF CHECK
(1H1),

H2),

7. Hydrogen
Deuterium (1
singly
ionised Helium (2He4)+ and doubly ionised
lithium (3Li6)++ all have one electron around
the nucleus. Consider an electron transition
from n = 2 to n = 1. If the wavelengths of emitted
radiation are l1, l2, l3 and l4 respectively then
approximately which one of the following is
correct?
(a) l1 = 2l2 = 3l3 = 4l4
(b) 4l1 = 2l2 = 2l3 = l4
(c) l1 = 2l2 = 2l3 = l4
(d) l1 = l2 = 4l3 = 9l4
(JEE Main 2014)
8. Hydrogen atom is excited from ground state to
another state with principal quantum number
equal to 4. Then the number of spectral lines in
the emission spectra will be
(a) 3
(b) 5
(c) 6
(d) 2
(AIEEE 2012)

R = R0 A1/3
where R0 is a constant.
nuclear Density

Nuclear density, =

Mass of the nucleus


Volume of the nucleus

Nuclear density is independent of A and is in the


order of 1017 kg m3.
KEY POINT

The sizes of nuclei are different, the heavier


nuclei being bigger than the lighter ones.
But density of nuclear matter is same for all
nuclei.
isotopes, isoBars anD isotones

Isotopes : The atoms of same element which have


same atomic number but different mass numbers
are called isotopes.

nuclei

e.g. (1H1, 1H2 and 1H3) and (8O16, 8O17 and 8O18)
are isotopes.

A tiny central core in which the entire positive


charge and almost entire mass of the atom are
concentrated is called as nucleus.

Isobars : The atoms of different elements which have


same mass number but different atomic numbers
are called isobars.

atoMic Masses anD coMposition of nucleus

e.g. (8O17 and 9F17) and (11Na24 and


isobars.

A nucleus is made up of protons and neutrons.


The number of protons in a nucleus (called the
atomic number or proton number of the nucleus)
is represented by the symbol Z, the number of
neutrons (the neutron number) is represented
by the symbol N. A neutron is a nucleon with no
charge. The total number of neutrons and protons
in a nucleus is called its mass number A. Thus
A=Z+N
Neutrons and protons, when considered collectively,
are called nucleons.
The atomic mass unit is one-twelfth of the mass of a
12 atom of carbon. It is represented by the symbol
6C
u and it is the average mass of a nucleon.

24
12Mg )

are

Isotones : The atoms of different elements of which


the nuclei have the same number of neutrons but
different number of protons are called isotones.
e.g. (11Na23 and 12Mg24) and (19K39 and 20Ca40) are
isotones.
Mass Defect

The mass of a nucleus is always less than the total


mass of its constituents.
The difference in mass of a nucleus and its
constituents is called mass defect and is given by
DM = [Zmp + (A Z)mn M]

properties of nucleus

where mp is the mass of the proton and mn is the


mass of the neutron and M is the mass of the nucleus.

nuclear size

BinDing energy

The size of the nucleus is of the order of fermi.


1 fm = 1015 m
46 physics for you |

march 15

The energy equivalent of mass defect of a nucleus is


called the binding energy of the nucleus.

The binding energy of nucleus is given by


Eb =

DMc2

= [Zmp + (A Z)mn

M]c2

Mean life or average life of a radioactive substance


is given by

= [Zmp + (A Z)mn M] 931.49 MeV/u.

The binding energy per nucleon of a nucleus = Eb/A


The greater the binding energy per nucleon, the
more stable is the nucleus.
Binding Energy curve

It is curve drawn between binding energy per


nucleon and mass number as shown in the figure.

1 T1/2
=
= 1.44T1/2
l 0.693

activity

The number of disintegrations occurring in a


radioactive substance per second is called activity
and it is given by R = dN/dt.
The SI unit of activity is becquerel.
1 becquerel = 1 Bq = 1 decay/sec.

Binding energy
per nucleon (MeV)

The traditional unit of activity is the curie.


1 curie = 1 Ci = 3.70 1010 decays/s = 37 GBq.
activity law

R(t) = R0elt, where R0 = lN0 is the decay rate at t = 0 and


R = Nl.
Fraction of nuclei left undecayed after n half lives is
n

The main features of the curve are as follows :


The binding energy per nucleon is practically
constant, i.e. independent of the atomic
number for nuclei of middle mass number
(30 < A < 170). The curve has a maximum of
about 8.75 MeV for A = 56 and has a value of
7.6 MeV for A = 238.
The binding energy per nucleon is lower for
both light nuclei (A < 30) and heavy nuclei
(A > 170).
radioactivity

A nuclear phenomenon in which an unstable


nucleus undergoes decay with the emission of alpha
particles, beta particles, or gamma rays.
Law of radioactive decay
dN
= lN (t ) or N (t ) = N 0e lt
dt
where l is the decay constant or disintegration
constant, N is the number of nuclei left undecayed
at the time t, N0 is the number of radioactive nuclei
at t = 0.
Half-life of a radioactive substance is given by
T1/2 =

ln 2 0.693
=
l
l

N 1
1
=
=
N0 2
2

t /T1/2

or t = nT1/2

SELF CHECK
9. The half life of a radioactive substance is
20 minutes. The approximate time interval
2
(t2 t1) between the time t2 when of it has
3
1
decayed and time t1 when of it had decayed
3
is
(a) 7 min
(b) 14 min
(c) 20 min
(d) 28 min
(AIEEE 2011)
10. A radioactive nucleus (initial mass number A
and atomic number Z) emits 3a-particles and
2 positrons. The ratio of number of neutrons to
that of protons in the final nucleus will be
(a)

AZ 4
Z 2

(b)

AZ 8
Z4

(c)

AZ 4
Z 8

(d)

A Z 12
Z4
(AIEEE 2010)

physics for you

| march 15 47

nuclear reaction

A nuclear reaction represents the transformation


of one stable nucleus into another nucleus by
bombarding the former with suitable high energy
particles.
It is represented by A + a B + b + Q
where A is the target nucleus, a is the impinging
particle, B and b the products, Q is the energy
released in the process.
Q value of nuclear reaction,
Q = (mA + ma mB mb)c2
If Q is positive, the reaction is termed as exothermic
and if Q is negative the reaction is termed as
endothermic.
Every nuclear reaction obey following laws :
Conservation of charge
Conservation of mass
Conservation of linear momentum
Conservation of energy
nuclear fission

It is the phenomenon of splitting a heavy nucleus


into two or more smaller nuclei.
The

nuclear fission of 235


92 U is represented as
235
1
141
92
1
92 U + 0 n 56 Ba + 36 Kr + 3 0 n + Q

The value of Q is 200 MeV per fission reaction.


nuclear chain reaction

Under suitable conditions, the three secondary


neutrons may cause further fission of U235 nuclei

and start what is known as nuclear chain reaction.


The nuclear chain reaction is controlled by
Neutron reproduction factor (K)
rate of production of neutrons
=
rate of loss of neutrons
Uncontrolled nuclear chain reaction is the basis of
an atom bomb. Controlled nuclear chain reaction is
the basis of a nuclear reactor.
nuclear reactor

Nuclear reactor uses nuclear energy for peaceful


purposes. It is based on the phenomenon of
controlled nuclear chain reaction. Moderators like
heavy water, graphite, paraffin and deuterium slow
down neutrons. Rods of cadmium or boron serve as
control rods. Ordinary water and heavy water serve
as coolants.
nuclear fusion

It is the phenomenon of fusing two or more lighter


nuclei to form a single heavy nucleus.
The nuclear fusion reaction of two deutrons is
represented as
2
1H

+ 21H 42He + 24 MeV


Temperature 107 K are required for fusion to take
place. Nuclear fusion is a basis of hydrogen bomb.
nn

answer keys (self check)


1. (c)

2. (c)

3. (a)

4. (d)

5. (b)

6. (a)

7. (d)

8. (c)

9. (c)

10. (c)

IMAX 3-D MOVIES


An exciting application of crossed polarisers that is, two polarisers which are perpendicular to each other is in viewing IMAX
3-D movies. These movies are recorded on two separate rolls of film, using a camera that provides images from two different
perspectives that correspond to what is observed by human eyes and allow us to see in three dimensions. The camera has two
apertures or openings located at roughly the spacing between our eyes. The 3-D films are projected using a projector with two
lenses. Each lens has its own polariser, and the two polarisers are crossed. Viewers watch the action on-screen using glasses with
corresponding polarisers for the left and right eyes, as the drawing shows. Because of the crossed polarisers the left eye sees only
the image from the left lens of the projector, and the right eye sees only the image from the right lens. Since the two images have
the approximate perspectives that the left and right eyes would see in reality, the brain combines the images to produce a realistic
3-D effect.

48 physics for you |

march 15

1. Consider an equiconvex lens of radius of curvature


R and focal length f. If f > R, the refractive index of
the material of the lens is
(a) greater than zero but less than 15
(b) greater than 1.5 but less than 2.0
(c) greater than one but less than 1.5
(d) none of these
2. A parallel beam of light of intensity I0 is incident
on a glass plate, 25% of light is reflected by upper
surface and 50% of light is reflected from lower
surface. The ratio of maximum to minimum
intensity in interference region of reflected rays
is
5+2 6
5+ 6
(a)
(b)
5 6
52 6
5
8
(c)
(d)
8
5
3. An electron of mass m and charge e initially at
rest gets accelerated by a constant electric field
E. The rate of change of de-Broglie wavelength
of this electron at time t (ignoring relativistic
effects) is
h
mh
h
eEt
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
2
2
eEt
h
eEt
eEt

4. Two radioactive sources A and B of half lives


1 h and 2 h respectively initially contain the
same number of radioactive atoms. At the end
of two hours, their rates of disintegration are in
the ratio of
(a) 1 : 4 (b) 1 : 3 (c) 1 : 2 (d) 1 : 1
5. A ray of light undergoes a deviation of 30 when
incident on an equilateral prism of refractive
index 2. What is the angle subtended by
the ray inside the prism with the base of the
prism?
(a) 0
(b) 45
(c) 60 (d) 90
6. Youngs double slit experiment is performed
with two wavelengths simultaneously,

l1 = 480 nm and l2 = 600 nm. The distance

between the slits is 5.0 mm and the slits


are 1.0 m from the screen. What is the
separation of the screen between third order
(n = 3) bright fringes of the two interference
patterns?
(a) 7.2 109 m
(b) 7.2 105 m
9
(c) 5.2 10 m
(d) 5.2 105 m
7. A convex lens of focal length 20 cm and another
plano-convex lens of focal length 40 cm are
placed co-axially. The plano-convex lens is
silvered on plane surface. What should be the
distance d (in cm) so that final image of the
object O is formed on O itself ?
d
O
10 cm
f = + 20 cm

(a) 10

(b) 15

(c) 20

(d) 25

8. Photons of energy 5 eV are incident on cathode.


Electrons reaching the anode have kinetic
energies varying from 6 eV to 8 eV. Then which
of the following is true?
h

5V

(a) Work function of the metal is 2 eV .


(b) Work function of the metal is 3 eV.
(c) Current in the circuit is equal to saturation
value.
(d) Both (a) and (c).
9. Ultraviolet light of wavelengths 800 and
700 when allowed to fall on the hydrogen
atoms in their ground state is found to liberate
electrons with kinetic energy 1.8 eV and
physics for you

| march 15 49

4.0 eV respectively. The value of the Plancks


constant is
(a) 1.66 1019 J s
(b) 5.67 1019 J s
34
(c) 7.57 10 J s
(d) 6.57 1034 J s
10. Hydrogen atom in its ground state is excited
by means of monochromatic radiation of
wavelength 970.6 . How many different
wavelengths are possible in the resulting
emission spectrum?
(a) 4
(b) 6
(c) 8
(d) 10
11. A sample of isotope 131I which has a half-life of
8.04 days has an activity of 5 mCi at the time of
shipment. Upon receipt in a medical laboratory,
the activity is 4.2 mCi. How much time has
elapsed between the two measurements?
(a) 2 days (b) 3 days (c) 4 days (d) 5 days
12. Assuming that in a star, three alpha particles
join in a single reaction to form 126 C nucleus.
Find the energy released in this reaction.
Given mass of 24 He = 4.002604 u and that of
12 = 12.000000 u.
6C
(a) 12.2 MeV
(b) 10.2 MeV
(c) 7.2 MeV
(d) 3.2 MeV
13. For the given incident ray as shown in figure, the
condition of total internal reflection of ray will
be satisfied if the refractive index of block will be
45

(a)

3 +1
(b)
2

Incident ray

2 +1
(c)
2

3
2

(d)

7
6

14. The plane face of a planoconvex lens is silvered.


If m be the refractive index and R, the radius
of curvature of curved surface, then the system
will behave like a concave mirror of radius of
curvature
R
(a) mR
(b)
(m 1)
R
m +1
(c)
(d)
R
m
m 1
52 physics for you |

march15

15. In Youngs double slit experiment, the distance

between the two slits is 0.1 mm and wavelength


of light used is 4 107 m. If the width of fringe
on screen is 4 mm, the distance between screen
and slits is
(a) 0.1 mm (b) 1 cm (c) 0.1 cm (d) 1 m

16. The size of the image of an object, which is at


infinity, as formed by a convex lens of focal
length 30 cm is 2 cm. If a concave lens of focal
length 20 cm is placed between the convex lens
and the image at a distance of 26 cm from the
convex lens, the new size of the image is
(a) 1.25 cm
(b) 2.5 cm
(c) 1.05 cm
(d) 2 cm
17. Interference fringes are produced in Youngs
double slit experiment using light of wavelength
5000 . When a film of material 2.5 106 m
thick was placed over one of the slits, the fringe
pattern shifted by a distance equal to 2 fringe
widths. The refractive index of the material of
the film is
(a) 1.25 (b) 1.33 (c) 1.4
(d) 1.5
18. Two radioactive materials X1 and X2 contain
same number of nuclei. If 6l s1 and 4l s1 are
the decay constants of X1 and X2 respectively,
then the ratio of number of nuclei, undecayed
1
of X1 to that of X2 will be after a time
e
1
1
1
1
s (b)
(a)
s (c)
s (d) s
2l
10l
5l
l
19. The ratio of maximum and minimum intensities
in the interference pattern of two sources is
4 : 1. The ratio of their amplitudes is
(a) 1 : 2 (b) 3 : 1 (c) 1 : 9 (d) 1 : 16
20. Li nucleus has three protons and four neutrons.
Mass of Li nucleus is 7.016005 amu, mass of
proton is 1.007277 amu and mass of neutron is
1.008665 amu. Mass defect of lithium nucleus
in amu is
(a) 0.040486 amu
(b) 0.040500 amu
(c) 0.040524 amu
(d) 0.040555 amu
21. A man is trying to start a fire by focusing sunlight
on a piece of paper using an equiconvex lens of
focal length 10 cm. The diameter of the sun is

1.39 109 m and its mean distance from the


earth is 1.5 1011 m, the diameter of the suns
image on the paper is
(a) 3.1 104 m
(b) 6.5 105 m
4
(c) 6.5 10 m
(d) 9.3 104 m

27. The de Broglie wavelength and kinetic energy


of a particle is 2000 and 1 eV respectively. If
its kinetic energy becomes 1 MeV, then its de
Broglie wavelength becomes
(a) 1
(b) 5
(c) 2 (d) 10

22. The power of a lens having refractive index 1.25


is +3 D. When placed in a liquid its power is
2 D. The refractive index of the liquid is
(a) 1.2
(b) 1.4
(c) 1.5
(d) 1.6

28. The work function of a certain metal is


3.31 1019 J. Then, the maximum kinetic
energy of photoelectrons emitted by incident
radiation of wavelength 5000 is
(a) 2.48 eV
(b) 0.42 eV
(c) 2.07 eV
(d) 0.82 eV

23. The focal length of the lens of refractive index


1.5 in air is 10 cm. If air is replaced by water of
4
m = , its focal length is
3
(a) 20 cm
(b) 30 cm
(c) 40 cm
(d) 25 cm
24 Half-lives of two radioactive substances A and
B are respectively 20 minutes and 40 minutes.
Initially, the samples of A and B have equal
number of nuclei. After 80 minutes, the ratio of
the remaining numbers of A and B nuclei is
(a) 1 : 16 (b) 4 : 1 (c) 1 : 4 (d) 1 : 1
25. An equiconvex lens of focal length f is cut
into two halves along (i) XOX and (ii) YOY
as shown in the figure. Let f , f be the focal
lengths of complete lens, of each half in case (i),
and of each half in case (ii), respectively.

29. A ray is incident at an angle of incidence i on


one surface of a prism of small angle A and
emerges normally from opposite surface. If the
refractive index of the material of prism is m,
the angle of incidence i is nearly equal to
mA
(a) A
(b) A
(c) mA
(d)
2
2m
m
30. If the wavelength of the first line of the Balmer
series of hydrogen is 6561 , the wavelength of
the second line of the series should be
(a) 13122
(b) 3280
(c) 4860
(d) 2187
solutions

1.

Choose the correct statement from the


following.
(a) f = 2f and f = f (b) f = f and f = f
(c) f = 2f and f = 2f (d) f = f and f = 2f
26. A radioactive substance decays at the rate
of 5000 disintegration per minute. After
5 minutes it disintegrates at 1250 disintegration
per minutes. The decay constant is
(a) 0.2ln2 min1
(b) 0.4ln2 min1
1
(c) 0.6ln2 min
(d) 0.8ln2 min1

1
R
2
= (m 1) or f =
R
f
2(m 1)

Now, f > R
R
1
\
> R or
> 1 or 2(m 1) < 1
2(m 1)
2(m 1)
1
1
or (m 1) < or m < 1 + or m < 1.5.
2
2

(c) : Here,

2.

(a) : The intensity of light reflected from upper


surface is I1 = 25% of I0
25 I0
= I0
=
100 4
The intensity of transmitted light from upper
surface is
3I
I
I = I0 0 = 0
4
4
The intensity of reflected light from lower
surface is
physics for you

| march 15 53

I2 =

3I0 50 3I0

=
4 100
8

As m = 2, the ray suffers minimum deviation


through the prism. Thus
A
r1 = r2 = r = = 30
2
Inside the prism, the ray makes an angle 60
with the face AB, so it is parallel to base.

2
I max ( I1 + I2 )
=
I min ( I1 I2 )2

I0
3I 0
4 + 8

6.

2+ 3
5+2 6
=
=
=
2 2 3
52 6
I0
3I 0

4
8

3.

(a) : Here, u = 0, a =

eE
m

eE
t
m
de-Broglie wavelength,
\

v = u + at = 0 +

l=

h
h
h
=
=
mv m(eEt / m) eEt

Rate of change of de-Broglie wavelength


d l h 1 h
=
=

dt eE t 2 eEt 2
4.

(c) : Rate of disintegration number of atoms


left

8.

In case of source A,

N 1
1
= =

N0
2
4

In case of source B,

N 1 1
=
=
N 0 2 2

\
5.

7.

RA N 0 / 4 1
=
=
RB N 0 / 2 2

(a) : The given parameters are d = 30 and


A = 60. Let us test whether the prism is in the
position of minimum deviation.
30 + 60
sin
sin 45

2
m=
=
sin 30
60
sin
2
=

1
2

2= 2

54 physics for you |

march15

A
60
30
B

60

(b) : Condition for maxima is dsinq = nl


nl
or dq nl q =
d
The angular separation of two maxima
associated with different wavelength and same
order is
n(l2 l1 )
q =
d
The separation on a screen at a distance D
away is
nD(l2 l1 )
y = D tan(q) Dq =
d
(as tanq q for small angles)
3 1. 0
9
5
=
(600 480) 10 = 7.2 10 m
5.0 103
(c)
(a) : Maximum kinetic energy,
Kmax = (5 f) eV
When these electrons are accelerated through
5 V, they will reach the anode with maximum
energy = (5 f + 5) eV
\ 10 f = 8
or f = 2 eV
Current is less than saturation current because
even if slowest electron reaches the plate it will
have 5 eV energy at the anode, but there it is
given that the minimum energy is 6 eV.

(d) : Here, l1 = 800 = 8 108 m


l2 = 700 = 7 108 m
Kinetic energy of electron,
hc
= Incident energy Binding energy (13.6 eV)
l
hc
In the first case, 1.8 eV= 13.6 eV
... (i)
l1
9.

In the second case, 4 eV =

hc
13.6 eV ... (ii)
l2

From eqns. (i) and (ii), we get


1
l l2
1
2.2 eV = hc = hc 1

l2 l1
l1l2
h=

or
=

(2.2 eV)l1l2
c(l1 l2 )

2.2(1.6 1019 J)(8 108 m)(7 108 m)


8

(3 10 m s )(8 10

7 10 ) m

= 6.57 1034 J s
10. (b) : Energy of the monochromatic radiation,
E=

15
eV s)(3 108 m s 1 )
hc (4.14 10
=
l
970.6 1010 m

= 12.79 eV
Energy of the hydrogen atom is given by
13.6
En =
eV
n2
In the ground state, n = 1, E1 = 13.6 eV
Energy of the hydrogen atom after excitation
of the state
En = E1 + E = 13.6 eV + 12.79 eV = 0.81 eV
13.6
As En =
eV
n2
13.6
0.81 eV =
eV
n2
13.6
or n2 =
= 16.8
0.81
\n 4
Thus, when the electron is excited to state
n = 4, six different wavelengths in the emission
spectrum correspond to n = 4 to n = 3, 2, 1
(3 lines) n = 3 to n = 2, 1 (2 lines) and n = 2 to
n = 1 (1 line) transitions.
11. (a) : As R = lN and R0 = lN0.
5 mCi
N 0 R0
=
=
= 1.190
N
R 4.2 mCi
Also, T1/2 = 8.04 days
N0
= 2t /T1/2 1.190 = 2t /T1/2
As
N
t
t /T
log 2
or log 1.190 = log 2 1/2 =
T1/2

log 1.190
0.0755
or t =
8.04 2 days
T1/2 =
0.3010
log 2
12. (c) : According to the assumption, as three
alpha particles form a 12
nucleus,
6C

324 He 126 C

Mass of three alpha particles


= 3(4.002604 u) = 12.007812 u
Mass of carbon nucleus = 12 u
Mass defect = 12.007812 u 12 u = 0.007812 u
Energy released in the reaction
= 0.007812 931.5 MeV = 7.277 MeV
13. (c) :
C

iC

B
r

45 A

As r + iC = 90, r = (90 iC)


sin i
sin 45
1
m=
=
=
sin r sin(90 iC )
2 cos iC
1
, sin iC = 2 cos iC
As m =
sin iC
2
or tan iC = 2 , sin iC =
3
1
3
=
siniC
2
14. (b) : For planoconvex lens (without its plane
surface silvered)
1
1 1 m 1
R
= (m 1) =
or f L =
R
fL
R
(m 1)
or m =

When an object is placed in front of the


planoconvex lens with its plane face silvered,
light rays are : (i) refracted at the convex
surface (ii) reflected at the silvered surface and
(iii) refracted again at convex surface. If F is
the effective focal length of the combination,
then
1 1
1
1
2
=
+
+
=
(as f M = )
F fL fM fL fL
or

f
R
F= L =
2 2(m 1)
physics for you

| march 15 55

Radius of curvature of the concave mirror


R
= 2F =
(m 1)
lD
bd
or D =
15. (d) : As, b =
d
l
Here, d = 0.1 mm = 0.1 103 m,
l = 4 107 m, b = 4 mm = 4 10 3m
4 10 3 0.1 10 3
\ D=
=1m
4 10 7
16. (b) : In figure, I1 is image formed by convex
lens. This acts as a virtual object for concave
lens. As for concave lens

1 1 1
1 1
1
=
\ =
v u f
v 4
20
1 1 1 1
\
= = or v = 5 cm
v 4 20 5
Magnification produced by concave lens
v 5
m = = = 1.25
u 4
As size of image I1 is 2 cm, therefore, size of
image I2 = 2 1.25 = 2.5 cm
17. (c) : Here, l = 5000 = 5 107 m,
t = 2.5 106 m, x = 2b
D
As x = (m 1)t
d
lD
D b
But b =
\ =
d
d l
\ x = (m 1)t

b
l

(m 1)(2.5 10 6 )b
5 10 7
m 1 = 0.4 or m = 1.4
2b =

18. (a) : After a time t,


N X 1 = N 0e 6lt , N X2 = N 0e 4lt
\

N X1 e 6lt
=
= e 2lt
N X2 e 4lt

56 physics for you |

march15

or

1
1
1
=
or 2lt = 1 or t =
s
e e 2lt
2l

2
19. (b) : I max = (a + b) = 4
I min (a b)2 1
a+b 2

=
a b 1

2a 2b = a + b or a = 3b \

a 3
=
b 1

20. (a) : Here mp = 1.007277 amu


mn = 1.008665 amu,
mLi = 7.016005 amu,
Sum of the masses of three protons and four
neutrons = 3mp + 4mn
= 3 1.007277 + 4 1.008665
= 3.021831 + 4.03466
= 7.056491 amu
\ Mass defect
= 7.056491 7.016005 = 0.040486 amu
f
f u
Here, f = 10 cm = 10 102 m,
u = 1.5 1011 m
10 102
\ m=
= 6.67 1013
10 102 1.5 1011
\ Diameter of the image
d = m 1.39 109
= 6.67 1013 1.39 109
= 9.3 104 m

21. (d) : Magnification, m =

22. (c) : 1 = (m 1) 1 1 = 3

fa
R1 R2
\

1
1
3 = (1.25 1)
R1 R2

and

1.25 1
1
1
= 2 =
1
m
R1 R2
fl
3
2

\ =

0.25m
0.5m = 3.75 3m
1.25 m

or m = 3.75/2.5 = 1.5
23. (c) : According to lens makers formula
The focal length of the lens in air is
1 ml 1
1

=
1
f air m a R1 R2

1
3/2 1
=
1
1
R
R
1
2

1
1 1
1
=

f air 2 R1 R2

2mK
Since mass of the particle remains constant
\ l 1

1
3/2 1
=
1

4 / 3 R1 R2
1
1 1
1
=

f water 8 R1 R2

...(ii)

Divide (i) by (ii), we get


f water
=4
f air
fwater = 4 fair = 4 10 cm = 40 cm
n

2
where n is the number of half-lives.
nA

4
N
1
= N0 = 0
2
16

t
80

nA = T = 20 = 4
A

1
For B, N B = N 0
2

nB

2
N
1
= N0 = 0
2
4

t
80

nB = T = 40 = 2
B

\
25. (d)

27. (c) : As l =

1
1
1
ml

=
1
f water m w R1 R2

1
For A, NA = N 0
2

2
= ln 2 = 0.4 ln 2 min 1
5

...(i)

The focal length of the lens in water is

24. (c) : N = N 0 1

1 5000 1
= ln 4
l = ln
5 1250 5

NA 1
= or N A : N B = 1 : 4
NB 4

26. (b) : The rate of disintegration R is given by


R = R0elt
where R0 is the initial rate at t = 0.
R0
\
= e lt
R
Taking the natural logarithm on both sides, we
get
R
1 R
ln 0 = lt ; l = ln 0
R
t R
Here, R0 = 5000 dpm, R = 1250 dpm, t = 5 min

1 eV
l
K
1
=
=
=
6
l
K
1 10 eV 103
or l =

l
3

10

2000
103

=2

28. (b) : Here, work function, f0 = 3.31 1019 J


Wavelength, l = 5000 = 5000 1010 m
Energy of the incident photon,

hc 6.63 1034 3 108


=
= 3.98 1019 J
10
l
5000 10
According to Einsteins photoelectric equation
Kmax = hu f0
= 3.98 1019 J 3.31 1019 J
= 0.67 1019 J
E=

0.67 1019
1.6 1019

eV = 0.42 eV

29. (c) : As refracted ray emerges normally from


opposite surface, r2 = 0
As A = r1 + r2\r1 = A
sin i1 i1 i
= or i = mA
sin r1 r1 A
30. (c) : For Balmer series, n1 = 2, n2 = 3 for 1st
line and n2 = 4 for second line.
Now, m =

1
1
2

2
l1 2
4 = 3 / 16 = 3 36 = 27
=
l2 1 1 5 / 36 16 5 20

22 32
l2 =

20
20

l = 6561 = 4860 A
27 1 27
nn
physics for you

| march 15 57

Time Allowed : 3 hrs

Maximum Marks : 70
GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS

(i) All questions are compulsory. There are 26 questions in all.


(ii) This question paper has five sections: Section A, Section B, Section C, Section D and Section E.
(iii) Section A contains five questions of one mark each, Section B contains five questions of two marks each,
Section C contains twelve questions of three marks each, Section D contains one value based question of
four marks and Section E contains three questions of five marks each.
(iv) There is no overall choice. However, an internal choice has been provided in one question of two marks,
one question of three marks and all the three questions of five marks weightage. You have to attempt only
one of the choices in such questions.
(v) You may use the following values of physical constants wherever necessary.

c = 3 108 m/s, h = 6.63 1034 J s, e = 1.6 1019 C, o = 4p 107 T m A1, e0 = 8.854 1012 C2 N1 m2,
9
2 2
1/4pe0 = 9 10 N m C , m = 9.1 1031 kg, mass of neutron = 1.675 1027 kg, mass of proton = 1.673 1027 kg
e

Avogadros number = 6.023 10

23

per gram mole, Boltzmann constant = 1.38 10

section-A
1. Identify the parts X and Y in the block diagram

of a generalised communication system.


X

Transmitter

2. Twelve wires of equal length

B
G
F

3. An unsymmetrical double convex thin lens

forms the image of a point object on its axis.


Will the position of the image change if the lens
is reversed?

4. A TV tower has a height of 100 m. How much

population is covered by TV transmission if the

58 physics for you |

March 15

JK

average population density around the tower is


1000 km2 ?
(Take Radius of the Earth = 6.37 103 km).
5. There are materials which absorb photons of

Receiver

are connected to form a


A
skeleton cube as shown in the
figure, which moves with a v
H

velocity v perpendicular to

E
the magnetic field B. What
B
will be the induced emf in
each arm of the cube?

23

shorter wavelength and emit photons of longer


wavelength. Can there be stable substances
which absorb photons of larger wavelength and
emit light of shorter wavelength.
section-B

6. Power P is to be delivered to a device via

transmission cables having resistance RC. If V


is the voltage across the device and I the current
through it, find the power wasted. How can it
be reduced?

7. A convex lens of focal length 20 cm has a point

object placed on its principal axis at a distance


of 40 cm from it. A plane mirror is placed
30 cm behind the convex lens. Locate the position
of the image formed by this combination.

8. Deduce the expression for the magnetic field at

the centre of circular electron orbit of radius r


where angular speed of orbiting electron is w.
9. Voltages across L and C in the series are 180
out of phase while for LC in parallel, currents
in L and C are 180 out of phase. Explain.
10. Two charges q and 3q are placed fixed on
X-axis separated by distance d. Where should
a third charge 2q be placed such that it will not
experience any force?
OR
Find the work done to dissociate the system of
three charges each of value 1.6 109C placed
on the vertices of a triangle as shown in the
figure.
q

10

cm

cm

10

4q

10 cm

+2q

section-c
11. At what angle should a ray of light be incident

on the face of a prism of refracting angle 60 so


that it just suffers total internal reflection at the
other face? The refractive index of the material
of the prism is 1.524.
12. A student performs an experiment on
photoelectric effect, using two materials A and
B. Plot of Vstop versus u is given in the figure.
(a) Which material A or B has a higher work
function?
(b) Given the electric charge on an electron
= 1.6 1019 C, find the value of h obtained
from the experiment for both A and B.
Comment on whether it is consistent with
Einsteins theory.
Vstop(V)

3.0
2.5
2.0
1.5
1.0

13. (a) Two circular metal plates, each of radius

10 cm, are kept parallel to each other at


a distance of 1 mm. What kind of the
capacitor do they make? Mention one
application of this capacitor.
(b) If the radius of each of the plates is increased
by a factor of 2 and their distance of
separation is reduced to half of its initial
value. Find the ratio of the capacitances in
the two cases.
(c) Suggest any one possible method by which
the capacitance in the second case be
increased by n times.
14. A telephone cable at a place has four long
straight horizontal wires carrying a current of
1.0 A in the same direction east to west. The
earths magnetic field at the place is 0.39 G, and
the angle of dip is 35. The magnetic declination
is nearly zero. What is the resultant magnetic
field at points 4.0 cm below the cable?
15. Define the two current gains of a transistor and
deduce a relation between them.
OR

The current in the forward bias is known to be


more (~mA) than the current in the reverse
bias (~A). What is the reason then, to operate
the photodiodes in reverse bias?
16. Explain what is meant by radioactive decay.

A radioactive nucleus is represented by the


symbol abV. How is the new nucleus represented
after the emission of
(i) an alpha particle
(ii) a beta particle
(iii) a gamma ray?
The activity of a source undergoing a single
type of decay is R0 at time t = 0. Obtain an
expression in terms of the half-life T1/2 for the
activity R at any subsequent time t.

17. A beam of protons enters a uniform magnetic

10

15

(1014 Hz)

field of 0.3 T with a velocity of 4 105 m s1 at


an angle of 60 to the field. Find the radius of
the helical path taken by the beam. Also find
the pitch of the helix.
physics for you

| March 15 59

18. An amplitude modulated wave is as shown in

the figure. Find:


(a) the percentage modulation
(b) peak carrier voltage
(c) peak value of information voltage.

23. Teena went out for shopping with her mother.

100 V
20V

19. Five charges, q each, are placed at the corners

of a regular pentagon of side a as shown in the


figure.
Aq
E
q

B
q

r
q

(i) What will be the electric field at O, the


centre of the pentagon?
(ii) What will be the electric field at O if the
charge from one of the corners (say A) is
removed?
(iii) What will be the electric field at O if the
charge q at A is replaced by q?
20. Using Bohrs postulates, derive an expression
for the radii of the permitted orbits in the
hydrogen atom.
21. In a plane electromagnetic wave, the electric
field oscillates sinusoidally at a frequency of
2.0 1010 Hz and amplitude 48 V m1.
(a) What is the wavelength of the wave?
(b) What is the amplitude of the oscillating
magnetic field?
(c) Show that the average energy density of the
E field equals the average energy density of
the B field.
22. Can reflection result in plane polarised light if
the light is incident on the interface from the
side with higher refractive index?
60 physics for you |

March 15

During purchase of vegetables, she noticed that


the vendor used a digital weighing machine.
On another shop, she noticed that the vendor
was using an ordinary weighing machine. She
remembered having studied about logic gates
where, digital codes are used.
(i) What do you mean by logic gate? Mention
the basic universal gates.
(ii) Draw symbols for OR, AND and NOT
gates.
(iii) What is the value, in your opinion, that
Teena created by the above incident?
section-e

section-D

24. (a) State

the working principle of a


potentiometer. With the help of the circuit
diagram, explain how a potentiometer is
used to compare the emf s of two primary
cells. Obtain the required expression used
for comparing the emfs.
(b) Write two possible causes for one sided
deflection in a potentiometer experiment.
OR
State Kirchhoff s rules for an electrical network.
Explain their use by drawing a simple circuit
diagram. Find the expression of net emf if two
cell of emf s e1 and e2 and internal resistance
r1 and r2 are combined in parallel.
25. Explain with the help of a labelled diagram, the
principle, construction and working of an a.c.
generator.
OR
Explain with the help of a labelled diagram,
the principle, construction and working of a
transformer. Why is the core of transformer
laminated?
Give few energy losses in transformer.
26. With the help of a ray diagram, explain the
formation of image in an astronomical telescope
for a distant object. Define the term magnifying
power of a telescope. Derive an expression for
its magnifying power when the final image is
formed at the least distance of distinct vision.

OR

(a) In Youngs double slit experiment, derive the


condition for (i) constructive interference
and (ii) destructive interference at a point
on the screen.
(b) In a Youngs double-slit experiment, the
slits are separated by 0.28 mm and the
screen is placed 1.4 m away. The distance
between the central bright fringe and the
fourth bright fringe is measured to be
1.2 cm. Determine the wavelength of light
used in the experiment.
solutions

If P is the power to be delivered to the device,


then
P
P = VI or I =
...(ii)
V
where V is the voltage across the device and I is
the current through it.
From eqns. (i) and (ii),
2

P 2 RC
P
PC = RC =
V
V2
In order to reduce PC , power should be
transmitted at high voltage.
7. For the lens : u = 40 cm, f = 20 cm
L

1. X is the information source,

10 cm

Y is the communication channel.

2. Induced emf is set up in a conductor moving

with a velocity v in a magnetic field B only if

it is perpendicular to both v and B . Since, only


the arms AD, BC, EH and FG of the cube are

perpendicular to both v and B , induced emf


(e = Blv) is set up in these arms (l being the
length of each arm).
3. According to the principle of reversibility of
light, if a reflected or refracted ray is reversed in
direction, it will retrace its original path. Thus,
the position of the image will not change if the
lens is reversed.
4. Given hT = 100 m = 101 km,
population density = 1000 km2
Radio horizon of the transmitting tower
dT = 2RhT
Area covered, A = pdT2 = 2pRhT
Population covered = A population density
= 2 3.14 6.37 103 101 1000
= 40 105 = 40 lakhs
5. If a material absorbs a photon of larger
wavelength (less energy) and emits a photon
of shorter wavelength (more energy), energy
has to be supplied by the material. This is not
possible in case of a stable material.
6. Power wasted in the cables carrying current

I and having resistance RC, i.e.,


PC = I2RC

...(i)

40 cm

I
30 cm

I
10 cm

40 cm

As

1 1 1 1
1
1
= ,
=
v u f v (40) 20

or v = +40 cm
In the absence of mirror M, the image of the
object O would have been formed at I which
lies at a distance of 10 cm (40 cm 30 cm)
behind M.
For the mirror : As I acts at a virtual object for
M, its real image is formed at I at a distance of
10 cm in front of the mirror.
8. The circular electron orbit can be considered to
be a circular coil carrying current I, where
e
e
ew
I= =
=
T 2p / w 2p
Magnetic field at the centre of circular electron
orbit of radius r, i.e.,
I
e w 0e w
=
B= 0 = 0
2r
2r 2 p
4 pr
9. When L and C are in series, the current
everywhere in the circuit has the same phase.
But the voltage in L leads current by p/2 and in
C it lags the current by p/2. Therefore, the same
phase difference between the voltages in L and
C is p. When L and C are in parallel, the voltage
across both L and C has the same phase. But
physics for you

| March 15 61

current in L lags the voltage by p/2 and in C it


leads the voltage by p/2 and as such the phase
difference between the current in L and C is p.
10.

FCA

FCB

A
+q

+2q
x

B
3q

or (d + x)2 = 3x2
or 2x2 2dx d2 = 0
d d 3

2
2
Neglecting ve sign because it means that the
point C is between charges + q and 3q, which
is not possible as per the given condition,
x=

d d 3 d
+
= (1 + 3 )
2
2
2
OR
Here, q1 = q, q2 = 4q, q3 = +2q
and x1 = x2 = x3 = r = 10 cm = 101 m
Initial potential energy
q q
q q
q q
Ui = k 1 2 + 2 3 + 3 1
x2
x3
x1
x=

q(4q) (4q)(2q) (2q)q


= k
+
+
r
r
r
= k

9 109 10 (1.6 109 )2


101

= 2.3 106 J
Final potential energy, Uf = 0
Thus, work to be done to dissociate the system
of three charges,
W = Uf Ui = Ui = 2.3 106 J
11. The beam should be incident at critical angle

or more than critical angle, for total internal


reflection at second surface of the prism.

62 physics for you |

March 15

60
90

90r ic
r ic

It is obvious that charge +2q must be placed


at C (farther from charge 3q at B than from
charge +q at A) so that
FCA (force on charge +2q due to charge +q)
= FCB (force on charge + 2q due to charge 3q),
2q (q)
2q (3q)
i.e., k
=k
2
x
(d + x )2

10 q2

Let us first find critical angle for air glass


interface.
1
We know, sin ic =
a
g
1
1
ic = sin 1
= sin 1
a
1.524
g
Critical angle ic = 41
In the smaller triangle,
60 + (90 r) + (90 ic) = 180 or r = 19
Using Snells law, required angle of incidence i
at first surface can be calculated.
sin i
sin i
a
g =
, 1.524 =
sin r
sin 19
sin i = 1.524 (sin 19)
i = sin1 (0.4962) = 29.75
12. (a) Threshold frequency (when Vstop = 0)

for material A,
i.e., uA = 5 1014 Hz
Threshold frequency (when Vstop = 0)

for material B, i.e., uB = 10 1014 Hz


Work function for material A,
i.e., fA = h(5 1014 Hz)
Work function for material B,
i.e., fB = h(10 1014 Hz)
\ fB > fA
h
(b) (i) As = slope of A
e
20
2
=
=
14
5 1014
(10 5) 10

1.6 1019 2
2
h = e
=
14
5 1014
5 10
= 6.4 1034 J s

(ii) As

in direction east to west. We want resultant


magnetic field 4.0 cm below.

h
= slope of B
e
2.5 0
2.5
=
=
,
14
(15 10) 10
5 1014

4 cm

2.5 1.6 1019 2.5


=
h = e
5 1014
5 1014
34

= 8.0 10 J s
Since the values of h (which is a constant)
obtained for material A and B are different,
the experiment is not consistent with the
Einsteins theory.
13. (a) The two circular metal plates form a

parallel-plate capacitance. A capacitor is


used in an LC circuit (oscillation circuit)
along with an inductance (L). LC circuit is
an important part of radio circuits.

A ( pr 2 )
(b) Original capacitance, C = 0 = 0
d
d
[ p (r 2 )2 ]
Changed capacitance, C = 0
d/2
=

4 0 pr 2
d

= 4C

C 1
= =1: 4
C 4
(c) By inserting a dielectric of dielectric constant
n between the plates of the capacitor.
Thus,

14. Let us first decide the directions which can best

represent the situation.


East

Up

West

N
BV
Down

I=4A

BH

Here, BH = B cos d = 0.39 cos 35 G


BH = 0.32 G
and BV = B sin d = 0.39 sin 35 G
BV = 0.22 G
Telephone cable carry a total current of 4.0 A

Bwire

BH

BV

2I
24
Now, Bwire = 0
= 107
4p r
4 102
5
= 2 10 T = 0.2 G
Net magnetic field
Bnet =

( BH Bwire )2 + BV2

Bnet =

(0.12 )2 + (0.22 )2

= 0.25 G

15. Usually two types of current gains are defined

for a transistor.
(a) Common base current amplification factor
or a.c. current gain (a): It is defined as the
ratio of the small change in the collector
current to the small change in the emitter
current when the collector-base voltage is
kept constant.
DI
Thus, a = C
DI E V = constant
CB

(b) Common emitter current amplification


factor or d.c. current gain (b) : It is defined
as the ratio of the small change in the
collector current to the small change in the
base current when the collector-emitter
voltage is kept constant.
DI
Thus, b = C
DI B VCE = constant
Relation between a and b: For both n-p-n
and p-n-p transistors, we have
IE = IB + IC
For small changes, we can write
DIE = DIB + DIC
Dividing both sides by DIC
DI E DI B
=
+1
DI C DI C
physics for you

| March 15 63

or

1 1
b
a
= + 1, a =
and b =
a b
1+b
1 a
OR

Consider the case of an n-type semiconductor.


Obviously, the majority carrier density (n) is
considerably larger than the minority hole
density p (i.e., n >>p). On illumination, let the
excess electrons and holes generated be Dn and
Dp, respectively:
n = n + Dn
p = p + Dp.
Here n and p are the electron and hole
concentrations at any particular illumination
and n and p are carrier concentrations when
there is no illumination. Remember Dn = Dp
and n >>p. Hence, the fractional change in the
majority carriers (i.e., Dn/n) would be much less
than that in the minority carriers (i.e., Dp/p). In
general, we can state that the fractional change
due to the photo-effects on the minority carrier
dominated reverse bias current is more easily
measurable than the fractional change in the
forward bias current. Hence, photodiodes are
preferably used in the reverse bias condition for
measuring light intensity.
16. Radioactive decay is the spontaneous
disintegration of the nucleus of an atom with the
emission of one or more penetrating radiations
like a, b and g-rays.
(i) a-decay :

a
bV

a4
b 2X

4
2 He

+Q

(ii) b-decay : ba V b + a1 X + 01e + u + Q


(iii) g-decay :

a
bV
Excited
state

ba V

+g

Ground
state

dN
dt
According to radioactivity decay law,
Activity, R =
dN

= lN
dt

As N = N0 elt
R = R0 elt
64 physics for you |

\ R = lN
\ R = lN0 elt

March 15

where l N0 = R0 = activity of the sample at t= 0.


0.693
Also l =
T1/ 2
\

R = R0 e

0.693 t
T1/2

17. The components of the protons velocity parallel

and perpendicular to the magnetic field are


1
v|| = v cos 60 = 4 105 = 2 105 m s1
2
v = v sin 60 = 4 105

3
2

= 3.464 105 m s1
The component v|| makes the electron move
along the field B while v makes the proton
move along a circular path. Hence the path of
the proton is a helix. The radius r of the helix is
given by
qv B =

2
mv
r

or r =

3.464 10
mv 1.67 10
=

qB
1.6 10 19 0.3

27

\ r = 12 103 m
Period of revolution of the electron is
3
2 pr 2 3.14 12 10
T=
=
v
3.464 105

= 21.75 108 s
Pitch of the helix is
p = v|| T = 2 105 21.75 108
= 43.5 103 m = 4.35 cm
18. Vmax =

100 V

= 50 V, Vmin =

2
(a) Modulation index,

20 V
= 10 V
2

V
Vmin 50 10 2
=
= max
=
Vmax + Vmin 50 + 10 3
Percentage modulation = 100
= (2/3)100 =66.67%
(b) Peak carrier voltage,
V
+ Vmin 50 V + 10 V
VC = max
=
= 30 V
2
2

(c) Peak information voltage,


2
Vm = VC = (30 V) = 20 V
3

19. (i) Let EAO , EBO , ECO , EDO and EEO represent
the electric fields at O due to the five charges
(q each) placed at A, B, C, D and E
respectively. Since we can represent these
fields by the sides of another regular
pentagon taken in the same order,

EAO + EBO + ECO + EDO + EEO = 0 ...(i)


(ii) When charge on one of the corners (say A)

is removed, EAO = 0
Thus, resultant electric field at O, i.e.,

ER = EBO + ECO + EDO + EEO = EAO

or ER = EOA

[From eqn. (i)]

Thus, the resultant electric field ER (= EOA )

acts along OA

1 q
Also, | EOA | =
4 pe0 r 2
(iii) If the charge q at A is replaced by q, then
resultant electric field at O, i.e.,

ER = EAO + ( EBO + ECO + EDO + EEO )

(negative sign with EAO is due to charge q


being replaced by q)

or E R = EAO EAO [from eqn. (i)]

i.e., E R = 2 EAO
Thus, the resultant electric

ER (= 2 EOA ) acts along OA .

1 2q
Also | E R | = | 2 EOA | =
4 p 0 r 2

field

20. According to Bohrs theory, a hydrogen atom

consists of a nucleus with a positive charge Ze,


and a single electron of charge e, which revolves
around it in a circular orbit of radius r. Here Z
is the atomic number and for hydrogen Z =1.
The electrostatic force of attraction between the
nucleus and the electron is

F=

k Ze . e
r2

k Ze 2
r2
+Ze r
Nucleus

e, m

To keep the electron in its orbit, the centripetal


force on the electron must be equal to the
electrostatic attraction. Therefore,
2
mv 2 k Ze
=
r
r2

or mv 2 =
or r =

k Ze 2

k Ze 2

...(i)

...(ii)
mv 2
where m is the mass of the electron, and v, its
speed in an orbit of radius r.
Bohrs quantisation condition for angular
momentum is
nh
nh
L = mvr =
or r =
...(iii)
2p
2p mv
From equation (ii) and (iii), we get
k Ze 2
mv

or v =

nh
2 p mv
2 p k Ze 2

...(iv)
nh
Substituting this value of v in equation (iii), we
get
r=

nh
nh
n 2 h2
.
\
r
=
2 pm 2 p k Ze 2
4p2mk Ze 2

21. (a) Wavelength of electromagnetic wave can

be calculated as
c = ul
3 108= 2 1010 l
or l = 1.5 102 m
(b) Amplitude of magnetic field
E
E0
= c ; B0 = 0
c
B0

physics for you

| March 15 65

48

B0 =

3 108

There are two basic universal gates NAND


and NOR.
(ii) OR Gate,

= 16 108 T

(c) Energy density of electric field


1
U E = e0 E 2
2
1
or U E = e0c 2 B2
2
As speed of em wave,
1
c=
0e0
1 e0 2
So, U E =
B
2 0e0
UE =

B = c

22.
Rarer
medium (a)

(i)

90
ic

Rarer
medium (a)
Denser
medium (b)

(ii)

Polarisation by reflection occurs when


tan ip = ba
where ip = Brewsters angle (or polarising angle)
From figure (ii)
For light travelling from medium (b) to medium (a)
sin ic = ba
We know that for large angles,
|tan ip| > |sin ic|
(e.g., tan45 = 1 and sin 45 = 0.707)
This implies that ip < ic, i.e., polarisation by
reflection always occurs when light is incident
on the interface from the side with higher
refractive index (i.e., denser medium).
23. (i) A gate is digital circuit that is designed for

performing a particular logical operation.


As it works according to some logical
operation between input and output
voltages, so it is generally known as a logic
gate.

66 physics for you |

March 15

Y = AB

Y=A

B2
= UB
2 0

Denser
medium (b)

AND Gate

NOT Gate

= Energy density of magnetic field

ip

Y=A+B

(iii) Concentration and observation in the class


room, retaining capacity, co-relating of
what was taught with the real life incident.
24. (a) Refer point 2.5 (7), MTG Excel in Physics
(b) (i) The emf of the cell connected in main
circuit may not be more than the emf
of the primary cells whose emfs are to
be compared.
(ii) The positive ends of all cells are not
connected to the same end of the wire.
OR
Refer points 2.5 (1, 2, 3) and 2.3 (13), MTG Excel
in Physics
25. Refer point 4.8 (2), MTG Excel in Physics
OR
Refer point 4.8 (1), MTG Excel in Physics
26. Refer point 6.9 (2), MTG Excel in Physics.
OR
(a) Refer point 6.13 (6), MTG Excel in Physics
(b) Here d = 0.28 mm, D = 1.4 m
Distance of fourth bright fringe from
center = 1.2 cm
Linear position of nth bright fringe
nD l
yn =
d
Linear position of 4th bright fringe
4 Dl
y4 =
d
1.2 102 =

4 (1.4) l
0.28 103

l = 6000
nn

1. A boat which has a speed of 5 km h1 in still


water crosses a river of width 1 km along the
shortest possible path in 15 minutes. The
velocity of the river water in km h1 is
(a) 1
(b) 3
(c) 4
(d) 41
2. A planet is at an average distance d from the
sun, and its average surface temperature is T.
Assume that the planet receives energy only
from the sun, and loses energy only through
radiation from its surface. Neglect atmospheric
effects. If T dn, the value of n is
1
1
(a) 2
(b) 1
(c)
(d)
2
4
3. A glass prism of refractive index 1.5 is immersed
in water (refractive index 4/3). A light beam
incident normally on the face AB is totally
reflected to reach on the face BC if
8
(a) sin q
B
A
9

2
8
(b) < sin q <
3
9
C
1
8
(c)
< sin q <
2
9
(d) none of these
4. A rod of length L lies along the axis of a concave
mirror of focal length f. The near end of the rod
is at a distance L > f from the mirror. Its image
will have a length
(a)
(c)

Lf 2
(L f )(2L f )

2Lf 2
(L f )(2L f )

(b)

L2 f
(L f )(2L f )

(d)

2L2 f
(L f )(2L f )

5. Between two infinitely long

wires having linear charge


A
B
densities l and l there are
two points A and B as shown
a
a
a
in the figure. The amount of
work done by the electric
field in moving a point charge q0 from A to B is
equal to
2 lq0
lq0
ln 2
(a)
(b)
ln 2
pe0
2 pe0

lq0
2 lq0
(d)
ln 2
ln 2
pe0
pe0
6. A uniform chain of length L and mass M is lying
on a smooth table and one third of its length
is hanging vertically down over the edge of the
table. If g is acceleration due to gravity, the work
required to pull the hanging part on the table is
MgL
MgL
MgL
(a) MgL (b)
(c)
(d)
18
9
3
7. A flexible wire loop in the shape of a circle has
a radius that grows linearly with time. There
is a magnetic field perpendicular to the plane
of the loop that has a magnitude inversely
proportional to the distance from the centre of
1
the loop, B(r ) . How does the e.m.f. e vary
r
with time?
(a) e t2
(b) e t
(c) e t
(d) e is constant
(c)

8. A person of mass 60 kg wants to lose 5 kg by


going up and down a 10 m high stairs. Assume
he burns twice as much fat while going up
than coming down. If 1 kg of fat is burnt on
expending 7000 kilo calories, how many times
Physics for you | March 15

67

must he go up and down to reduce his weight


by 5 kg?
(a) 25300 (b) 9989 (c) 8756 (d) 16334
9. Consider the spectral line resulting from the
transition n = 2 n = 1 in the atoms and
ions given below. The shortest wavelength is
produced by
(a) hydrogen atom
(b) deuterium atom
(c) singly ionised helium
(d) doubly ionised lithium
10. A hypothetical experiment conducted to
determine Youngs modulus, gave the formula,
cos qT x t
Y=
. If T = time period, t = torque
l3
and l = length, then the value of x is
(a) zero (b) 1
(c) 2
(d) 3
11. Voltmeter reads the potential difference
between the terminals of an old battery as
1.4 V while a potentiometer reads its voltage
to be 1.55 V. The voltmeter resistance is 280 W.
Then,
(a) the battery of the cell is of 1.4 V
(b) the battery of the cell is of 1.5 V
(c) the internal resistance of the battery is 30 W.
(d) the internal resistance of the battery is 5 W.
12. Two bodies M and N of equal masses are
suspended from two separate massless springs
of spring constants k1 and k2 respectively. If the
two bodies oscillate vertically such that their
maximum velocities are equal, the ratio of the
amplitude of vibration of M to that of N is
k
k2
(a) 2
(b)
k1
k1
(c)

k1k2

(d)

k1
k2

13. A light emitting diode (LED) has a voltage drop


of 2 V across it and passes a current of 10 mA
when it operates with a 6 V battery through a
limiting resistor R. The value of R is
(a) 40 kW (b) 4 kW (c) 200 W (d) 400 W
14. An open pipe is suddenly closed at one end with
the result that the frequency of third harmonic
of the closed pipe is found to be higher by
68 Physics for you |

March 15

100 Hz than the fundamental frequency of the


open pipe. The fundamental frequency of the
open pipe is
(a) 200 Hz
(b) 300 Hz
(c) 240 Hz
(d) 480 Hz.
15. A pure inductor L, a capacitor C and a resistance
R are connected across a battery of e.m.f. e and
internal resistance r as shown in the figure.
The switch Sw is closed at t = 0, select the correct
alternative.
L
R
C

r
Sw

(a) Current through resistance R is zero all the


time.
(b) Current through resistance R is zero at t = 0
and t .
(c) Maximum charge stored in the capacitor is
Ce.
(d) Maximum energy stored in the inductor is
equal to the maximum energy stored in the
capacitor.
16. A block P of mass m is placed on a horizontal
frictionless plane. A second block Q of same
mass m is placed on it and is connected to a
spring of spring constant k. The two blocks are
pulled by distance A. Block Q oscillates without
slipping. What is maximum value of frictional
force between the two blocks?
k

kA
(b) kA
(c) msmg (d) zero
2
17. Two radioactive materials X1 and X2 have decay
constants 10l and l respectively. If initially
they have the same number of nuclei, then the
ratio of the number of nuclei of X1 to that of X2
will be 1/e after a time
1
1
11
1
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
10 l
11l
10 l
9l
(a)

18. Imagine a light planet revolving around a very


massive star in a circular orbit of radius R with
a period of revolution T. If the gravitational force
of attraction between the planet and the star is
proportional to R5/2, then T2 is proportional to
(a) R3
(b) R7/2 (c) R3/2 (d) R7/3
19. A wall of dimensions 2.00 m by 3.50 m has a
single-pane window of dimensions 0.75 m by
1.20 m. If the inside temperature is 20C and the
outside temperature is 10C, effective thermal
resistance of the opaque wall and window are
2.10 m2 K W1 and 0.21 m2 K W1 respectively.
Find the heat flow through the entire wall.
(a) 215 W
(b) 205 W
(c) 175 W
(d) 110 W
20. In the given circuit, the potential difference
between A and B is

(a) 0

(b) 5 V

(c) 10 V (d) 15 V

C1
21. Two capacitors C1 = 2 mF
and C2 = l mF are charged
+
to same potential V = 100 V,
S1
S2
C2
but with opposite polarity
+
as shown in the figure.
The switches S1 and S2 are closed. The ratio of
final energy to the initial energy of the system is
1
1
1
(a) 1
(b)
(c)
(d)
2
9
4
22. A cylinder rolls up an inclined plane, reaches
some height, and then rolls down (without
slipping throughout these motions). The
directions of the frictional force acting on the
cylinder are
(a) up the incline while ascending and down
the incline while descending
(b) up the incline while ascending as well as
descending
(c) down the incline while ascending and up
the incline while descending
(d) down the incline while ascending as well as
descending.

23. A proton has kinetic energy E = 100 keV which


is equal to that of a photon. The wavelength of
photon is l2 and that of proton is l1. The ratio
l2/l1 is proportional to
(a) E2
(b) E1/2
(c) E1 (d) E1/2
24. Find the pressure at which temperature attains
its maximum value if the relation between
pressure and volume for an ideal gas is
P = P0 + (1 a )V2 .
4 P0
P
2P0
(a)
(b) 0
(c) P0
(d)
3
3
3
25. A small metallic ball is charged positively and
negatively in a sinusoidal manner at a frequency
of 106 cps. The maximum charge on the ball is
106 C. What is the displacement current due
to this alternating current?
(a) 6.28 A
(b) 3.8 A
(c) 3.75 104 A
(d) 122.56 A
26. A body of mass 1 kg, initially at rest, explodes
and breaks into three fragments of masses in
the ratio 1 : 1 : 3. The two pieces of equal mass
fly off perpendicular to each other with a speed
of 30 m s1 each. What is the velocity (in m s1)
of the heavier fragment?
(a) 6 2 (b) 10 2 (c) 8
(d) 12
27. A particle of charge q and mass m starts moving
from the origin under the action of an electric

field E = E0 i and a magnetic field B = B0 i with

a velocity v = v0 j. The speed of the particle will


become 2v0 after a time
2B q
2mv0
(a) t =
(b) t = 0
qE0
mv0
(c) t =

3B0q
mv0

(d) t =

3mv0
qE0

28. A rectangular block of mass m and area of


cross-section A floats in a liquid of density r.
If it is given a small vertical displacement from
equilibrium, it undergoes oscillation with a
time period T. Which one is not possible?
(a) T m
(b) T r
1
1
(c) T
(d) T
g
A
Physics for you | March 15

69

29. In Youngs double slit experiment of equal


width slits, if intensity at the centre of screen is
I0, then intensity at a distance of b/4 from the
central maxima is (b is the fringe width)
I0
I0
I
(a) I0
(b)
(c)
(d) 0
2
4
3
30. Sound of wavelength l passes through a
Quinckes tube, which is adjusted to give a
maximum intensity I0. Through what distance
should the sliding tube be moved to give an
I
intensity 0 ?
2
l
l
l
l
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
2
3
4
8
solutions
1. (b) :
v

vB

1 km
vR

Resultant velocity of boat,


1 km
1 km
v=
=
= 4 km h 1
15 min (1 / 4) h
Velocity of river,
v R = v 2B v 2 = 52 42 = 3 km h 1
2. (c) : Let P = power radiated by the sun,
R = radius of planet.
P
Energy received by planet =
pR2 .
2
4 pd
Energy radiated by planet = (4pR2)sT 4.
For thermal equilibrium,
P
pR2 = 4 pR2sT 4
4 pd 2
1
1
or T
or T d 1/2
or T 4
1
/2
2
d
d
3. (a) : Total internal
B
A
reflection occurs when

the ray of light travels

from denser medium T.I.R.


P
to rarer medium and
the angle of incidence is
greater than the critical
C
angle.
70 Physics for you |

March 15

At P, glass is denser and water is rarer.


g

mw =

mw
mg

4/3 8
=
3/2 9

8
where iC = critical angle
9
\ q = iC or sin q = 8/9 for critical angle.
8
For total internal reflection, sin q
9
\

sin iC =

4. (a) : For the near end of the rod,


uf
Lf
1 1 1
= + v=
=
f u v
u f L f
For far end of the rod,
2L f
1
1
1
1 1 1
=
=
=
+

f u + L v1
v1 f 2L ( f )(2L)
( f )(2L)
2L f
Lf
(2L)( f )
Length of image = v v1 =

L f (2L f )
\ v1 =

=
=

Lf (2L f ) 2Lf (L f )
(L f )(2L f )

2L2 f Lf 2 2L2 f + 2Lf 2


Lf 2
=
(L f )(2L f )
(L f )(2L f )

5. (d) : Electric field at P


l 1
1
E=
+

2 pe0 x 3a x
W=

2a

q0 E dx
a

2a
2a
lq0 dx
dx lq0
=

+
ln 2
2 pe0 x
3a x pe0

a
a
6. (d) : Weight of length L of the chain = Mg
L
1
Weight of length
of the chain = Mg
3
3
As the centre of gravity of the hanging part lies
L
at its midpoint i.e. at a distance equal to
6
below the edge of the table, so the work required
to pull the hanging part on the table is
1
L MgL
W = Force distance = Mg =
3
6
18

Physics for you | March 15

71

1 c
7. (d) : Here, B =
r r
A = pr2
c
= BA = pr 2 = pcr
r
d
dr
\ e=
= pc = pck
dt
dt
So, e is constant.

[... r = r0 + kt]

8. (d) : Work done to burn 5 kg of fat


= 5 7000 103 = 35 106 cal = 147 106 J
Work done towards burning of fat in one trip
(up and down the stairs) = mgh mgh/2
= 60 10 10 + (1/2) 60 10 10 = 9 103 J
(as only half the work done while coming down
is useful in burning fat)
147 106
Number of trips required =
= 16334
9 103
1
1
1

9. (d) : = RZ 2

2
2
l
n2 n1
1
\
Z2
l
l is shortest if Z is largest. Z is largest for doubly
ionised lithium atom (Z = 3) among the given
elements.
Hence wavelength for doubly ionised lithium
will be the least.
10. (a) : As T x =
or

x = zero.

Yl 3
[ML1T2 ][L3 ]
=
=1
cos qt
[ML2 T2 ]

11. (c) : Potentiometer reads the voltage of battery


and voltmeter reads the potential across the
terminals of battery
\ battery of cell is of 1.55 V
VAB = 1.4 V
1.55
1.55 V
r
B
A
I=
280 + r
I
VAB = IR
1.55
280
1.4 = 280
280 + r
r 1.4 = 280 (1.55 1.4)
r 1.4 = 280 0.15
2. 8
r=
15 = 30 W
1. 4
72 Physics for you |

March 15

12. (b) : In case of SHM, maximum velocity = aw


a 2p
\ v M = aM w M = M
TM
2p
vN = aN w N = aN
TN
But vM = vN (given)
a M 2 p aN 2 p
a
T
or M = M ...(i)
\
=
TM
TN
aN TN
As

TM
m 1 k2
= 2p

TN
k1 2 p m

or

TM
k
= 2
TN
k1

...(ii)

a
k
From (i) and (ii), M = 2
aN
k1
13. (d) : As the LED is connected in series with
the limiting resistor R, the potential difference
across R
= Battery voltage voltage drop across LED
=62=4V
4V
4V
V
\ R= =
=
= 400 W
I 10 mA 10 103 A
14. (a) : For open pipe,
N
in fundamental mode,
A
A
l1
l=
l
2
v
v
v
\ Frequency =
=
\ u1 =
...(i)
2l
l1 2l
For closed pipe, vibrating in third harmonic,
3l
l= 2
N
4
N
A
A
\ Frequency
l
v 3v
=
=
l 2 4l
3v
or u2 =
... (ii)
4l
u2 u1 = 100
(given)
3v v
v
\
= 100 or
= 100 or v = 400l
4l 2l
4l
v 400l
\ u1 = =
= 200 Hz
2l
2l
\ Fundamental frequency of open pipe = 200 Hz.
15. (b) : At t = 0, charge on C is zero, so potential
difference across C is zero, so also across R the

potential difference is zero. Hence there is no


current in R. At t = , current through L is
maximum and constant, so potential difference
across L is zero, therefore potential difference
across R is zero. Hence no current in R.
16. (a) : The block Q oscillates but does not slip on
P. This indicates acceleration is same for both
Q and P. A force of friction acts between
the two blocks but the horizontal plane is
frictionless. The system P-Q oscillates with
angular frequency,
k
k
w=
=
m+m
2m
Maximum acceleration of the system will be
kA
amax = w2 A =
2m
This acceleration is provided to the lower block
by the force of friction.
kA kA
\ f max = mamax = m
=
.
2m 2
N
1
17. (d) : Given : 1 =
N = N 0e lt
N2 e
\

N 0e 10 lt
lt

1
1
1
or
= or 9 lt = 1
9
l
t
e
e
e

N 0e
1
or t =
9l
18. (b) : For motion of planet in a circular orbit,
Centripetal force = Gravitational force
GmM
or mRw2 =
or R7/2 w2 = GM
R5/2
GM
GM
T 2 GM
or R7/2 =
=
=
w2 (2 p / T )2
4 p2
or T2 R7/2
19. (a) : The wall and the window are in parallel
arrangement; so net heat flow is the sum of the
heat flow through the wall and the window.
The temperature difference,
TH TC = 30 K
Area of window,
A1= (0.75)(1.20) = 0.90 m2
Heat flow through window pane,
30
dQ TH TC
= (0.90)
= 128.6 W

=
0.21
dt 1
R1
The area of the wall,
A2= (2.00)(3.50) (0.75)(1.20) = 6.10 m2

Heat flow through the wall,


dQ TH TC (6.10)(30)
=
= 87 W

=
dt 2
R2
(2.10)
dQ
= 128.6 + 87 = 215.6 W
dt
20. (c) : The forward biased p-n junction does not
offer any resistance.
10 10
\ RAB =
= 5 kW
10 + 10
Total resistance,
R = 10 + 5 = 15 kW
Current in the circuit,
V
30
I= =
= 2 103 A
3
R 15 10
I
Current through each arm = = 103 A
2
\ VAB = 10 103 103 = 10 V.
21. (c) : Q = total charge shared by the capacitors
= C1V C2V = (C1 C2)V
V1 = Voltage across each capacitor
Q
C C2
=
= 1
V
C1 + C2 C1 + C2
100
2 1
=
100 =
V
2 + 1
3
Ei = Initial energy of the system
1
1
1
= C1V 2 + C2V 2 = (C1 + C2 )V 2
2
2
2
Ef = Final energy of the system
1
= (C1 + C2 )V12
2
E f V12 100 2 1
1
=
=
=

Ei V 2 3 (100)2 9
Net heat flow,

22. (b) : Frictional force acts at the point of contact


of the two surfaces. The frictional force acts
in a direction opposite to the direction of net
acceleration of point of contact.

C denotes centre of mass and A is point of contact.


The acceleration of centre of mass is gsinq down
Physics for you | March 15

73

the plane whether the cylinder rolls up or rolls


down. Accordingly, the point of contact A has an
acceleration down the plane, similar to that of C.
Point of contact A moves down in both the cases
The frictional force, acting on the cylinder, is
always up the incline, while ascending as well
as descending.
hc
hc
or l2 =
l2
E
1
2
For proton, kinetic energy K = m p v p
2
or 2m p K = m2p v 2p or
2mpK = p2

23. (d) : For photon, E =

... (i)

h
or 2m p K = (by de Broglie equation)
l1
h
h
=
or l1 =
... (ii)
2m p K
2m p E
From (i) and (ii),
2m p E
l2 hc
=
l1 E
h

l2 c 2m p
=
= c 2m p E 1/2
l1
E
l2
or
E 1/2
l1
or

24. (a) : Ideal gas equation PV = nRT


(P0 +(1 a)V 2)V = nRT

(P + (1 a)V 2 )V
T= 0
nR
dT P0 3V 2 (1 a)
=
+
=0
dV nR
nR
[For maximum temperature]
P0 = 3(a 1)V2
P0
or V 2 =
3(a 1)
P0
\ P = P0 + (1 a)
3(a 1)
P0 2P0
= P0 =
3
3
25. (a) : Charge oscillating sinusoidally is given by
q = q0sinwt
Displacement current,
dq
Id =
= q0 w cos wt
dt
74 Physics for you |

March 15

(Id )max = q0 w = q0 2 pu
= 106 2 3.14 106 = 6.28 A
26. (b)

27. (d) : E is parallel to B and v is perpendicular


to both. Therefore, path of the particle is a helix
with increasing pitch. Speed of particle at any
time t is
v = v 2x + v 2y + v z2

... (i)

qE
Here, v 2y + v z2 = v02 , v x = 0 t
m
and v = 2v0
Substituting the values in eqn. (i), we get
3 mv0
t=
qE0
28. (b) : In equilibrium, let l = length of the block
immersed.
\ mg = Alrg
If the block is given a further downward
displacement x and its downward acceleration
becomes a then
mg A(l + x)rg = ma
Arg
or a =
x
m
Arg
Put w2 =
.
m
\ a = w2x. This is SHM with time period
T = 2p

m
.
Arg

29. (b) : Let the intensity of individual waves be I,


then
I
I0 = 4 I ; I = 0
4
dy
Also, x = d sin q =
D
d b d lD l
x = =
=
D 4 D 4d 4
2p l p
=
=
l 4 2
So required intensity
I
p
I = I + I + 2 I 2 cos = 2 I = 0
2
2
30. (d)
nn

paper-1
Section-1
One or More Than One Options Correct Type
This section contains 10 multiple choice questions. Each
question has four choices (a), (b), (c) and (d) out of which ONE
or MORE THAN ONE are correct.

1. A planet moves round the Sun in an elliptical


orbit such that its kinetic energy is k1 and k2
when it is nearest to the Sun and farthest from
the Sun respectively. The smallest distance and
the largest distance between planet and the Sun
are r1 and r2 respectively.
(a) If total energy of the planet is U, then
r2 U k1
=
.
r1 U k2
(b) If total energy of the planet is U, then
r2 U k2
=
.
r1 U k1
(c) If r2 = 2r1, the total energy of planet in
terms of k1 and k2 is 2k1 k2.
(d) If r2 = 2r1, the total energy of planet in
terms of k1 and k2 is 2k2 k1.
2. One mole of monoatomic gas is taken through
cyclic process shown below. TA = 300 K.
Process AB is defined as PT = constant. Select
the correct statements.
P
3P0
P0

B
A

(a) Work done in process AB is 400 R.


(b) Change in internal energy in process CA is
900 R.
(c) Heat transferred in the process BC is 2000 R.
(d) Change in internal energy in process CA is
900 R.
3. Three concentric conducting spherical shells
have radii r, 2r and 3r and charges q1, q2 and
q3 respectively. Innermost and outermost shells
are earthed as shown in figure. Select the correct
alternatives.
q3
q2
(a) q1 + q3 = q2
q1
q2
(b) q1 =
4
q3
=3
(c)
q1
q
1
(d) 3 =
q2
3
4. A source is moving across a circle given by
the equation x2 + y2 = R2, with constant speed
330 p
m s 1 , in anti-clockwise direction. A
6 3
detector is at rest at point (2R, 0) with respect to
the center of the circle. If the frequency emitted
by the source is u and the speed of sound is
330 m s1, then
(a) the position of the source when the
detector records the maximum frequency
R
3
is ,
R .
2
2
PHYSICS FOR YOU

| March 15 75

(b) the co-ordinate of the source when the


detector records minimum frequency is
(0, R).
(c) the minimum frequency recorded by the
detector is

6 3
p+6 3

u.

(d) the maximum frequency recorded by the


6 3

u.
6 3p
5. Seven identical rods of material of thermal
conductivity K are connected as shown in
figure. All the rods are of identical length L and
cross sectional area A. If one end A is kept at
100C and the other end B is kept at 0C, what
would be the temperature of the junctions C, D
and E (TC, TD and TE) in the steady state?
detector is

C
K
A

K
K

D
K

K
E

(a) TC > TE > TD


(b) TC = TD = 37.5C, TE = 50C
(c) TC = 62.5C, TD = 37.5C, TE = 50C
(d) TC = 60C, TD = 40C, TE = 50C
6. It is observed that only 0.39% of the original
radioactive sample remains undecayed after
eight hours. Select the correct options.
(a) The half-life of that substance is 1 hour.
1
(b) The mean life of the substance is
hour.
ln 2
(c) Decay constant of the substance is
ln2 per hour.
(d) If the number of radioactive nuclei of this
substance at a given instant is 108 then
the number left after 30 min would be

2 107.
7. Block B in figure weighs 700 N. The coefficient
of static friction between block and table is
0.25, assume that the cord between B and the
knot is horizontal. Choose the correct options.
76 PHYSICS FOR YOU |

March 15

30

(a) If the weight of A is 100 N, block B will start


sliding.
(b) In the static equilibrium condition, the
tension in the inclined string is more than
tension of other two strings.
(c) If the weight of A is 50 N, friction acting on
block B is 175 N.
(d) If the system is in equilibrium, weight of
A cannot be equal to the force of friction
acting on B.
8. In displacement method, the distance between
object and screen is 96 cm. The ratio of length
of two images formed by a convex lens placed
between them is 4.84.
(a) Ratio of the length of object to the length of
11
shorter image is .
5
(b) Distance between the two positions of the
lens is 36 cm.
(c) Focal length of the lens is 22.5 cm.
(d) Distance of the lens from the shorter image
is 30 cm.
9. Which of the following statements is/are
correct?
(a) Average speed of a particle in a given time
period is never less than the magnitude of
average velocity.
(b) It is possible to have situations in which

dv
d|v |
0, but
= 0.
dt
dt
(c) It is possible to have situations in which

d |v |
dv
0, but
= 0.
dt
dt
(d) If the average velocity of a particle is zero in
a time interval, then it is possible that the
instantaneous velocity is never zero in that
interval.

PHYSICS FOR YOU

| March 15 77

10. The potential energy of a particle in a certain


a b
field has the form U =
, where a and b
r2 r
are positive constants, r is the distance from the
center of the field. Then
2a
(a) At r =
, particle is in steady equilibrium.
b
2a
(b) At r =
, particle is in unsteady equilibrium.
b
(c) Maximum magnitude of force of attraction
is

b3

27a2
(d) Maximum magnitude of force of attraction
is

27 b3
a2

.
Section-2

One Integer Value Correct Type


This section contains 10 questions. Each question, when worked
out will result in one integer from 0 to 9 (both inclusive).
q3

3m
q1

11. Three charges q1 = 3 mC,


q2 = 3 mC and q3 are
kept at the vertices of a
triangle as shown in the
figure.

4m

q2

If the net force acting on q1 is F, the charge q3 is


2
1
then given as 1 + mC. Find the value of n.
n

12. One end of a spring of natural length l0 = 0.1 m


and spring constant k = 80 N m1 is fixed to
the ground and the other end is fitted with a
smooth ring of mass m = 2 g, which is allowed
to slide on a horizontal rod fixed at a height
h = 0.1 m.
0.1 m

37

Initially the spring makes an angle of 37 with the


vertical when the system is released from rest.
When the spring becomes vertical, if the speed
4
of ring is v m s1, find v. (Given cos 37 = )
5
78 PHYSICS FOR YOU |

March 15

13. A steady current I goes through a wire loop


PQR having shape of a right angle triangle with
PQ = 3x, PR = 4x and QR = 5x. If the magnitude
of the magnetic field at P due to this loop is
m I
k 0 , find the value of k.
48 px
14. In brass, the velocity of longitudinal wave is
100 times the velocity of the transverse wave. If
Y = 1 1011 N m2, then stress in the wire is
x 107 N m2. What is the value of x ?
15. A glass vial containing 16 g sample of an enzyme
is cooled in an ice bath. The bath contains water
and 0.120 kg of ice. The sample has specific heat
capacity 2250 J kg1 K1; the glass vial has mass
6 g and specific heat capacity 2800 J kg1 K1.
How much ice (in g) melts in cooling the enzyme
sample from room temperature (19.5C) to the
temperature of ice bath? Lf (ice) = 80 cal g1.
16. A silver sphere of radius 1 cm and work function
4.7 eV is suspended from an insulating thread in
free space. It is under continuous illumination
of 200 nm wavelength light. As photoelectrons
are emitted, the sphere gets charged and
acquires a potential. The maximum number
of photoelectrons emitted from the sphere is
A 10z (where 1 < A < 10), the value of z is
17. A 2.5 kg wooden block is initially at rest on a fix
horizontal rough table of height 1 m. The block
is initially 2 m away from edge. It is pushed
with a constant force of 50 N for a distance of
1 m and then let go.
The block falls off the
2m
1m
edge and lands 2 m from
the bottom of the table.
2m
The coefficient of kinetic friction between the
n
block and the table is
. Find n.
10
In physics, you dont
have to go around making
trouble for yourselfnature does it for you.
Frank Wilczek

18. A series RC combination is connected to an ac


voltage of angular frequency w = 500 rad s1. If
the impedance of the RC circuit is R 1.25 , the
time constant (in milli second) of the circuit is

source is 3 m away from A, a person standing at


a point O on a road perpendicular to the track
hears a sound of frequency u. The distance of
O from A at that time is 4 m. If the original
frequency is 640 Hz, then the value of u is
340 x Hz. What is the value of x?
(Given : Velocity of sound = 340 m s1)

19. An annular ring with inner and outer radii


R1 = 1.2 cm and R2 = 4.8 cm is rolling without
slipping with a uniform angular speed. What is
the ratio of the forces experienced by the two
particles of same mass situated on the outer
and inner parts of the annular ring?

3m

100 m s1
3
S

4m

100
m s1
3
along a road, towards a point A. When the

20. A source of sound is travelling at

paper-2
Section-1
Only One Option Correct Type
This section contains 10 multiple choice questions. Each question
has four choices (a), (b), (c) and (d) out of which ONLY ONE is
correct.

1. A ball is dropped from a certain height on a


horizontal floor. The coefficient of restitution
between the ball and the floor is 1/2. The
displacement time graph of the ball will be
s

(a)

(b)
t
s

(c)

(d)
t

2. In the circuit shown in figure, I1 and I2 are the


steady state currents in the coils after the switch
S is closed. Then

(a) I1 =

I1

L1

I2

L2

EL2
R(L1 + L2 )

(b) I1 =

EL1
R(L1 + L2 )

(c) I 2 =

EL2

(d) I 2 =

E L1L2
RL2

R L1L2
3. A point object is placed at a distance of 12 cm on
the axis of a convex lens of focal length 10 cm.
On the other side of the lens, a convex mirror
is placed at a distance of 10 cm from the lens
such that the image formed by the combination
coincides with the object itself. What is the
focal length of convex mirror?
(a) 25 cm (b) 50 cm (c) 10 cm (d) 20 cm
4. One end of a string of length l is tied to the ceiling
of a lift accelerating upwards with an acceleration
g/2. The linear mass density of the string is
m(x) = m0x1/2 where, x is measured from the
bottom. The time taken by a pulse to reach
from bottom to top is
(a)

3l
g

(b) 2

l
g

(c)

l
g

(d)

l
3g

5. Magnetic field at the centre of a Bohrs


hypothetical hydrogen atom in the nth orbit of
the electron is
(a) directly proportional to charge of electron e
(b) directly proportional to e2
(c) inversely proportional to n5
(d) directly proportional to n5
PHYSICS FOR YOU

| March 15 79

6. Two point charges +q and q are held fixed at


(d, 0) and (d, 0) respectively of a x-y coordinate
system. Then
(a) the electric field E at all points on x-axis has
the same direction.
(b) electric field at all points on y-axis is parallel
to x-axis.
(c) work has to be done in bringing a test
charge from to the origin.
(d) the dipole moment is 2qd along the x-axis.
7. A hollow sphere of outer radius R is rolling down
an inclined plane without slipping and attains a
speed v0 at the bottom. Now the inclined plane
is made smooth and the sphere is allowed to
slide without rolling. Now it attains a speed
5v0
. What is the radius of gyration of sphere?
4
3
4
2
2
(a)
R (b) R (c) R (d)
R
4
5
5
3
8. Two point monochromatic and coherent
sources of light of wavelength l are each placed
as shown in the figure below. The initial phase
difference between the sources is zero.
Select the incorrect statement.
S1

S2

d
(D > > d)

O
Screen

7l
(a) If d =
, O will be minima.
2
(b) If d = l, only one maxima can be observed
on screen.
(c) If d = 4.8 l, then total 10 minimas would
be there on screen.
5l
(d) If d =
, then intensity at O would be
2
maximum.
9. A particle with charge Q, moving with a
momentum p, enters a uniform magnetic field
normally. The magnetic field has magnitude B
and is confined to a region of width d, where
p
d<
. The particle is deflected by an angle
BQ
q in crossing the field. Then
80 PHYSICS FOR YOU |

March 15


p
Q


B


d

p
BQd
(b) sin q =
BQd
p
Bp
pd
(c) sin q =
(d) sin q =
Qd
BQ
10. A thin uniform rod of length l is pivoted at
its upper end. It is free to swing in a vertical
plane. Its time period for oscillations of small
amplitude is
(a) sin q =

(a) 2p

l
g

(b) 2 p

2l
3g

(c) 2 p

3l
2g

(d) 2 p

l
2g

Section-2
Comprehension Type (Only One Option Correct)
This section contains 3 paragraphs, each describing theory,
experiments, data etc. Six questions relate to the three
paragraphs with two questions on each paragraph. Each
question has only one correct answer among the four given
options (a), (b), (c) and (d).

Paragraph for questions 11 and 12


When a charged capacitor is connected to an
inductor, both the current and the charge on the
capacitor oscillate. The angular frequency of the
oscillations depends solely on the inductance (L)
and the capacitance (C) of the circuit and is given
1
. The variation of charge (Q) on
by w =
LC
the capacitor with time (t) is given by Q = Qmax
cos wt where Qmax is the maximum charge on the
capacitor.
V = 12 V

C = 9 pF
L = 2.81 mH

S2
S1

(c) (6.79 104 A) sin wt

14. Find the minimum height h1 (in situation-1),


for which the block just starts to move up.
2h
5h
(a)
(b)
3
4
5h
5h
(c)
(d)
3
2
Paragraph for questions 15 and 16
Figure shows a rod of length l = 1 m and mass
m = 8 kg. It is hinged at the end P (on wall). At the
end Q, a block of mass M = 50 kg is suspended. At
the point R, which is at a distance equal to 25 cm
from end Q, a string is connected whose other end
is connected to the wall.

(d) (12.6 106 A) sin wt


Paragraph for questions 13 and 14

4
3

Given : sin 37 = 5 and cos 37 = 5

In figure, a capacitor is initially charged when S1


is open and S2 is closed. Then S1 is thrown closed
at the same instant that S2 is opened so that the
capacitor is shorted across the inductor.
11. The maximum value of current (in A) in the
circuit is
(a) 6.79 103

(b) 6.79 104

(c) 6.79 106

(d) 12.6 106

12. The equation of current as a function of time is


(a) ( 6.79 103 A) sin wt
(b) ( 6.79 104 A) sin wt

(Take g = 10 m s2)

h1
h2

4r
/3
Hole

2r

A cylinder tank has a hole of diameter 2r in the


bottom. The hole is covered by wooden cylindrical
block of diameter 4r, height h and density r/3.
Situation 1 : Initially, the tank is filled with water of
density r to a height such that the height of water
above the top of block is h1 (measured from the top
of the block).
Situation 2 : The water is removed from the tank
to a height h2 (measured from the bottom of the
block) as shown in figure. The height h2 is smaller
than h (height of the block) and thus the block is
exposed to the atmosphere.
13. In situation-2, if h2 is further decreased, then
(a) block will not move up and remains at its
original position.
h
(b) for h2 = , block starts moving up.
3
h
(c) for h2 = , block starts moving up.
4
h
(d) for h2 = , block starts moving up.
5

ing
Str
37
R

Wall
m

15. The tension in the string is


(a) 600 N
(b) 80 N
(c) 1200 N
(d) 800 N
16. The horizontal component Nx and vertical
component Ny of the reaction at end P are given
by
(a) Nx = 1300 N, Ny = 960 N
(b) Nx = 960 N, Ny = 140 N
(c) Nx = 960 N, Ny = 960 N
(d) Nx = 1300 N, Ny = 1300 N
Section-3
Matching List Type (Only One Option Correct)
This section contains four questions, each having two matching
lists. Choices for the correct combination of elements from List-I
and List-II are given as options (a), (b), (c) and (d), out of which
one is correct.

17. List-II is depicting a standard situation in which


a modification is introduced. Match the effect on
variable x with appropriate entry in List-I.
PHYSICS FOR YOU

| March 15 81

List I
Must
increase

R. If a transparent paper
3. Bright fringe
(m = 1.45) of thickness
of order 62
t = 0.02 mm is pasted
on S1 i.e. one of the slits,
the nature and order of
interference at P
S. After
inserting
the 4. Bright fringe
transparent paper
of order 280
(m = 1.45) of thickness
t = 0.02 mm in front of slit
S1, the nature and order of
interference at O
Code :
(a) P - 1, Q - 4, R - 2, S - 3
(b) P - 3, Q - 1, R - 2, S - 4
(c) P - 2, Q - 4, R - 1, S - 3
(d) P - 4, Q - 1, R - 2, S - 3
19. The spectral lines of hydrogen-like atom fall
with in the wavelength range given in List II.
Match the following.

18. In Youngs double slit experiment, the point


source S is placed slightly off the central axis as
shown in figure. If l = 500 nm, then match the
following.

Q. If it is atomic 2. l = 134 and it


hydrogen atom and
corresponds to
energy E = 3.4 eV,
transition from
then
2 to 1

2 mm

S1

y = 10 mm

List II
1. Two tuning forks of slightly
different frequency. Wax is
put on tuning fork of higher
frequency. Beat frequency = x
Q. Must
2. An
oscillating
simple
decrease
pendulum, positive charge
is given to the bob and an
electric field is switched on in
vertically downward direction.
Time period of oscillation = x
R. Must
3. A pulse is sent down a taut
remain
string. The tension is suddenly
same
decreased but the string is still
taut. The time taken by the
pulse to reach the other end = x
S. Cannot 4. In a LC oscillation circuit
be
dielectric slab is introduced
predicted
when capacitor is discharged.
Value of maximum current in
inductor = x
Code :
(a) P - 1, Q - 4, R - 2, S - 3
(b) P - 3, Q - 2, R - 4, S - 1
(c) P - 3, Q - 4, R - 2, S - 1
(d) P - 1, Q - 3, R - 4, S - 2
P.

20 mm
S2
1m

2m

List I
List II
P. Nature and order of 1. Bright fringe
interference at the point P
of order 80
Q. Nature and order of 2. Bright fringe
interference at point O
of order 262
82 PHYSICS FOR YOU |

March 15

List I
P. If it is atomic
hydrogen atom
and energy
E = 0.85 eV, then

List II
1. l = 1212 and
it corresponds to
transition from 2 to1

R. If it is doubly 3. l = 303 and it


ionized
lithium
corresponds to
atom, then
transition from
2 to 1
S. If it is singly ionized 4. l = 970 and it
helium, then
corresponds to
transition from
4 to 1
Code :
(a) P - 1, Q - 4, R - 3, S - 2
(b) P - 4, Q - 1, R - 2, S - 3
(c) P - 3, Q - 2, R - 2, S - 4
(d) P - 2, Q - 1, R - 2, S - 3

20. Match the entries of List-I and List-II.

PA TB
1 T
=
= B
PB TA
3 TA

List II
1. Bifocal lens

Now,

Q. Hypermetropia

2. Cylindrical lens

TB =

R. Presbyopia

3. Concave lens

S.

4. Convex lens

P.

List I
Myopia

Astigmatism

\ WAB =

TA/TC = PA/PB
TA/TC = 1/3
TC = 3TA

SolutionS

or TC = 900 K

PaPer-1

1. (a, d) : Apply energy conservation


maximum and minimum distances.

k1 +

GmM
r1

From (i),

sun
M r1

r2

= k2 +

GmM

GmM
r2

=U

...(i)

...(iii)

2U 2k2 = U k1
U = 2k2 k1

2. (a, c, d) :
Process AB : PT = constant = k
dV 2nRT
nRT 2
=
=k
dT
k
V
B
Bk
WAB = PdV =
dV
A
AT

k 2nRT
dT
k

TA T .

DU = nCVDT
3
3
= (1) R (TA TC ) = R (300 900)
2
2
=

GmM
= U k1
r1

r2 U k1
=
r1 U k2
2r U k1
If r2 = 2r1 ; 1 =
r1 U k2

TB

m
k1

...(ii)

WAB =

for

= U k2

r2

100

300 2nR dT = 2nR (100 300)

WAB = 400nR = 400 R (Q n = 1 mole)


Process CA : P/T = constant
\ TA/TC = PA/PC

Code :
(a) P - 3, Q - 4, R - 1, S - 2
(b) P - 4, Q - 3, R - 1, S - 2
(c) P - 2, Q - 3, R - 4, S - 2
(d) P - 4, Q - 2, R - 1, S - 4

k2

300
= 100 K
3

3
R ( 600) = 900R
2

Process BC : Isobaric
Q = nCPDT
5
\ Q = (1) R (TC TB )
2
Q=

5
5
R (900 100) = R 800
2
2

Q = 2000 R
3. (a, b, c) :

q3
q2
q1

r
2r

3r

As shell A is earthed
kq
kq
kq
\ VA = 1 + 2 + 3 = 0
2r
3r
r
q2 q3
q1 +
+
=0
2
3
kq
kq
kq
Also VC = 1 + 2 + 3 = 0
3r
3r
3r
PHYSICS FOR YOU

...(i)

| March 15 83

q1 + q2 + q3 = 0
q1 + q3 = q2

H7 =

...(ii)

Solving (i) and (ii), we get


q3 3 q3
q
1
=
,
= 3 and 1 =
q2
q2
4 q1
4

4. (a, c, d) :
Sound emitted by source at A will result in
maximum frequency while sound emitted by
source at B will result in minimum frequency.

H2
100C
A

TD
D

H4
H1

H6
E TE

H7
0C
B

H5

Let H1, H2, H3, H4, H5, H6 and H7 be the rate of


heat flow through AE, AC, CD, CE, EB, ED and
DB respectively. Then
KA(100 TE )
KA(100 TC )
H1 =
, H2 =
L
L
KA(TC TD )
KA(TC TE )
H3 =
, H4 =
L
L
H5 =

KA(TE 0)
L

84 PHYSICS FOR YOU |

, H6 =

March 15

KA(TE TD )
L

(a, b, c) : Here, t = 8 hours

5. (a, c) : This problem can be solved similar to


electric circuit problem.
H3

KA(TE 0)

6.

330
330
umax =
u
u, umin =
330 + 330 p
330 330 p

6 3
6 3

TC
C

Time taken by sound to reach from A to


2R sin 60
detector =
330
Angle travelled by source
330 p 2R sin 60 p
=

=
330
6
6 3R

H1 = H5
KA(100 TE )

or TC + TD = 100
...(ii)
Q H2 = H3 + H4 = H7
KA(100 TC ) KA(TC TD )
\
=
L
L
KA(TC 50) KA(TD )
(Using (i))
+
=
L
L
or 2TC 2TD = 50
...(iii)
Solving (ii) and (iii), we get
TC = 62.5C, TD = 37.5C
TC > TE > TD

Detector

60

or TE = 50C
...(i)
Q H4 = H6
KA(TC 50) KA(50 TD )
\
=
(Using (i))
L
L

2R

KA(TD 0)

As N = N0elt
N
= e lt
N0

0.0039 = el8
1
= 256 or e l8 = 28
el8 =
0.0039
Taking natural logarithm on both sides, we get
8l = 8ln2
l = ln2 per hour
Option (c) is correct.
ln 2
T1/ 2 =
= 1 hour
l
Option (a) is correct.
1
1
Mean time, t = =
hour
l ln 2
Option (b) is correct.
1

8 1 2

N = (10)
2

2
or N = 5 2 107
Option (d) is incorrect.

108

7. (b, d) : T cos30 = T2 = fs
T sin30 = T1 = mA g
From eqn (i) and (ii),
T=

f s2

T1

+ (mA g )

fs

m g
tan 30 = A
fs
\ mA g = WA =
=

...(i)
...(ii)

fs
3

0.25 700 N
3

T2

m mB g

A
mA g

In uniform circular motion,

dv
d|v |
= 0,
0
dt
dt
In circular motion,
A
from point A to point
A again, average velocity = 0
Instantaneous velocity 0 (at any time)

= 101 N

I
8. (a, b, d) : Given, D = 96 cm, 2 = 4.84
I1
Let I1 = a and I2 = 4.84 a
\ O = I1I 2 = 2.2 a
2.2a 11
(a) Required ratio =
=
5
a
v1 11
=
(b) Also,
...(i)
u1 5
v1 + u1 = 96
...(ii)
5v1
\ v1 +
= 96
11
16v1

= 96 or v1 = 66 cm
11
\ u1 = 30 cm
Distance between two positions
= v1 v2 = 66 30 = 36 cm (Q u1 = v2)
1
1
1 30 + 66
(c)
=
+
=
f 66 30 30 66
30 66 330
f =
=
= 20.625 cm
96
16
(d) u1 = 30 cm
9. (a, b, d) : Average speed =

t otal distance

total time
displacement
Average velocity =
time

Q distance displacement
\ Average speed average velocity

d|v |
= tangential acceleration
dt

dv
= net acceleration
dt

dU 2a b
=
+
dr r 3
r2

10. (a, c) :
For

dU
b 2a
2a
= 0, =
r=
2
3
dr
b
r
r

d 2U
dr

At r =
d 2U
dr 2

+6a
r

2b
r

2 3a

b
3 r

2a
,
b
2 b b
2 3a b
b =
=
>0

r3 2 r3
r 3 2a

i.e., U is minimum.
So, it is a position of stable (steady) equilibrium.
dU 2a b
F=
=

dr
r3 r2
2
dF d U
For maximum force,
=
=0
dr
dr 2
2 3a
3a

b = 0 r =
3 r

b
r
F=

2a

2ab3

b3

b3

3
2
27a3 9a2
27a2
3a
3a
b
b

11. (8) : Let F1 be the force on q1 due to q2 and F2


be that due to q3.
As q1 > 0, q2 < 0, the charge q3 should be positive

to get the net force F .

PHYSICS FOR YOU

| March 15 85

kq q
F
kq q
tan q = 2 , F1 = 1 2 , F2 = 1 3
16
9
F1
1
3 q3 16
and k =
\
=

4 p0
4 9 q2
2
27
81 9
\ q3 =
q2 =
= mC
64
64 8

14. (1) : The velocity of longitudinal wave is


Y
vL =
r
The velocity of transverse wave is
vT =

1
= 1 + mC
8
Hence, n = 8.

12. (5) : Loss in elastic potential energy


= Gain in kinetic energy
1
1
2
i.e.,
k(l l0 ) = mv 2
2
2
k
k
l
v = (l l0 )
= 0 l0
m
cos 37
m
1
k
= l0
1
cos 37 m
80
5
= (0.1) 1
4 2 103
1
= 0.1 2 102 = 5 m s1
4
13. (7) : Using the concept of area of triangle
1
1
PD 5x = 3x Q4 x D
2
2
5x
1
1
3x 1
PD 5x = 3x 4 x
2
2
2
R
P
4x
12 x
\ PD =
5
144 x 2 9 x
2
2 = 9x 2
=
QD = (PQ ) (PD )
25
5
9 x 16 x
and DR = 5x
=
5
5
Magnetic field at P due to current elements
PQ and PR is zero as the point P is on the
conductor. Therefore, magnetic field at P due to
current element QR is
m0 I
B=
(sin 1 + sin 2 )
4 pPD
m I 5 (9 x / 5) (16 x / 5)
+
B= 0
4 p 12 x 3x
4 x
=

m 0 I 5 3 4 7m 0 I
+
=
48 px 5 5 48 px

86 PHYSICS FOR YOU |

March 15

\ k=7

T
=
m

pr 2 r

vL
Y pr 2 r
Y
=

=
=
vT
T
r
T / pr 2

\ Stress =

(v L / vT )2

Y
Stress

1 1011
(100)2

= 1 107 N m2
Hence x = 1
15. (3) : The heat lost by the sample (and vial)
melts a mass m of the ice.
Q
\ m=
=
Lf
(16 103 )(2250)(19.5) + (6 103 )(2800)(19.5)
80 4 . 2 103

or m =

702 + 327.6
3

336 10

= 3.06 103 kg 3 g

hc
,
l0
1242 eVnm
4.7 eV = 6.2 eV 4.7 eV
eV0 =
200 nm

16. (7) : As eV0 =

or eV0 = 1.5 eV or V0 = 1.5 V

2
V r 1.5 10
q
As V0 = k , q = 0 =
C
k
r
9 109
Since q = ne,

1.5 102 C
q
=
= 1.04 107
e (9 109 ) (1.6 1019 C)
\ z=7
n=

17. (5) : Since, y = x tan 0


1 =

1
gx 2
2 v 2 cos2 0

1 10 4 2

, v = 20 m2 s2 ,
2
2
v

WF + Wfr = DK

I
L
or L1I1 = L2I2 , 1 = 2
I 2 L1
E
Steady current I passing through R is, I =
R
Also, I = I1 + I2

1
2.5 v 2
2
50 50m = 25 50 25 = 50m
5
or m =
\ n=5
10
50 1 m 2.5 10 2 =

1
18. (4) : As Z = R 2 +
= R 1.25 ,
wC
1
R 2 (1.25) = R 2 +
wC

1
1
= 0.25R 2 or
= 0.5 R
or

wC
wC
or CR =

1
= 0.004 s = 4 ms
0.5 500

F2

R2

F1 R1
19. (4) : As the annular ring
is rolling without slipping,
therefore, its angular velocity
w is constant, so is its linear velocity v. Therefore,
no net force or net torque is acting on the ring.
The force experienced by the two particles, one
on outer part and other on inner part is only
centripetal force directed towards the centre of
ring as shown in figure.
2
R
F2 m R2 w
4.8
=
= 2 =
=4
2
R1 1.2
F1 m R1 w

20. (2) : Effective value of velocity of source,


100
vs =
cos q
3m
S
3
100 3
=
= 20 m s1
4m
3v 5
5m
u =
u
v vs
340
640 Hz = 340 2 Hz
u =
340 20
\ x=2
PaPer-2

1. (c) : The ball will stop after a long time. The


final displacement of the ball will be equal to
the height. The motion is first accelerated, then
retarded, then accelerated and so on.
2. (a) : L1

dI
dI1
= L2 2 or L1dI1 = L2dI2
dt
dt

L2
EL2
I=
\ I1 =
R(L1 + L2 )
L1 + L2
L1
EL1
and I 2 =
I=

L
+
L
R(L1 + L2 )
1
2
3. (a) : For convex lens,
1
1
1

=
or, v = 60 cm
v 12 10
In the absence of convex mirror, convex lens will
form the image I1 at a distance of 60 cm behind
the lens. Since, the mirror is at a distance of
10 cm from the lens, I1 will be at a distance of
60 10 = 50 cm from the mirror,
i.e., MI1 = 50 cm.
I2
L

I1

10 cm

50 cm
60 cm

12 cm

Now as the final image I2 is formed at the


object O itself, the rays after reflection from the
mirror retraces its path, i.e., rays on the mirror
are incident normally, i.e., I1 is the centre of the
mirror, so that
R = MI1 = 50 cm
R 50
Hence f = =
= 25 cm
2
2
Solution Senders of Physics Musing
SET-19
1. Anjali Sharma (New Delhi)
2. Sattwik Sadhu (W.B.)
3. Koushik Das (W.B.)
SET-18
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Soumik Chandra (W.B.)


Ronal Gaonkhowa (Assam)
Satyajeet Kumar (Kerala)
Shubhneet Bhatia (Ambala Cantt)
Rushikesh Joshi
PHYSICS FOR YOU

| March 15 87

4. (b) : Consider a small element dx at a distance


x from the bottom of string.
Weight of this element
g
= [m( x )dx ]( g + )
2
Tension at this element,
x
3
Tx = m( x ) gdx
2
0

dx

m en me 2
m pm 2 e 7
= 0
= 0

4 pm 4 p0 2n2
830h5n5
h

Q = 2p

g
2

3
g m x1/ 2dx
2 0
0
3 g m 0 x 3/ 2
=
= g m 0 x 3/ 2
2 (3 / 2)

Tx =

m e v m e (n / mrn )
B= 0 n = 0
2rn 2 prn 4 p
rn2

6. (b) : (a) E will not have same direction along


entire x-axis. Option (a) is incorrect.
q

+q
(d, 0)

(d, 0)

(0,0)
E(+q)

y
P

E
E(q)

Velocity of transverse wave at this element


v=
dt =

T
, v = dx =
m
dt
dx

g m 0 x 3/ 2
m 0 x1/ 2

gx

gx

Integrate both sides, we get


t

dx

l
x 1/ 2dx t = 2

gx
g
g 0
0
0
5. (c) : An electron revolving in a circular orbit in a
hydrogen atom is equivalent to a current of eu.
Magnetic field at the centre of Bohrs
hypothetical orbit
m I m eu
B= 0 = 0
...(i)
2rn
2rn
where rn is the radius of nth orbit.
The electric force between the nucleus and
electron in the nth orbit provides the centripetal
force for circular motion.

dt =

t=

mvn2
e2
or rn =
...(ii)
rn
4 p0rn2
4 p0mvn2
According to Bohrs quantisation condition
n
...(iii)
mvnrn = n or vn =
mrn
From equations (ii) and (iii), we get
\

e2

rn =

2 2

4 p0 n

me 2
Then equation (i) becomes
88 PHYSICS FOR YOU |

March 15

+q
(d, 0)

(0, 0)

(d, 0)

For d x d, the field is along + x-axis


For all other points, E is along negative x-axis
(b) Electric field at P, a point on y-axis is
parallel to x-axis.
(c) Electric potential at origin = zero.
No work has to be done in bringing a test
charge from infinity to the origin. Option
(c) is incorrect.
(d) The dipole moment is directed from
q charge to + q charge, along negative
direction of x-axis.
\ Dipole moment = 2 qd along x-axis.
The option is incorrect.
Hence option (b) is correct answer.
7. (b) : Let the sliding acceleration be a. So rolling
a
,
acceleration =
1 + K 2 / R2
where K is the radius of gyration
Using v2 u2 = 2as,
2

5
v0 = 2aS
4

and v02 =

...(i)
2aS
2

... (ii)

1+ K /R
From (i) and (ii), we get

K2
2

25
or
16

K2

25
1
16
R
R
9R 2 or K = 3R
K2 =
4
16

1+

PHYSICS FOR YOU

| March 15 89

8. (d) : Path difference, Dx at O = d.


7l
So, if d =
, O will be a minima.
2
If d = l, O will be maxima.
5l
, O will be minima and hence intensity
If d =
2
is minimum.
If d = 4.8 l, then total 10 minimas can be
observed on screen, 5 above and 5 below O,
which correspond to
l
3l
5l
7l
9l
Dx = ,
,
,
,
2
2
2
2
2
9. (a) : A to D is part of circle with centre C and
radius CD = r.

mv = p = BQr
p
or r =
BQ

ED d BQd
sin q =
= =
CD r
p

E
A

12. (c) : I = Imax sin wt = (6.79 104 A) sin wt


13. (a) : When h2 is decreased, the upward force
(buoyancy) on the block decreases while the
downward force (weight) remains the same.
Thus, the block does not move up and remains
at its original position.
14. (c) :

P0 (acting through hole)


[P0 + (h1+ h)g]

For the equilibrium of the block,


(P0 + h1rg) [p(2r)2] + p(2r)2 h(r/3)g
=[P0 + (h1 + h) rg] [p(2r)2 pr2] +P0(pr2)
5h
On solving, we get h1 =
3
15. (c) :
Tsin37

mg

3g
2l
This represents an angular SHM with the time
period
2
Comparing with a = w2q, w =

2l
3g

11. (b) : The initial charge on the capacitor equals


the maximum charge, i.e., Qmax = CV

= (9 1012 F) (12 V) = 1.08 1010 C


dQ
As Q = Qmax cos wt, I =
= wQmax sin wt ,
dt
w=

1
LC

1
2.81 10

9 10

12

= 6.28 106 s 1

Imax = wQmax = 6.28 106 1.08 1010


= 6.79 104 A

90 PHYSICS FOR YOU |

March 15

37 Tcos37

3g
or a = q
2l

2p
= 2p
w

Block

l
1
10. (b) : T = mg sin q mg lq = I a
2
2
1
1
or
mg lq = ml 2a

2
3

T=

(P0 + h1g)

500 N

80 N

Nx

Ny

25 cm
50 cm

For equilibrium, about P : StP = 0


\ [(500)(1) + 80(0.5) (Tsin37)(0.75)] = 0
Torque produced by Tcos37, Nx and Ny about
the point P is equal to zero.
3
500 + 40 T (0.75) = 0
5
540(5)
T=
= 1200 N
3(0.75)
16. (b) : For equilibrium, SFx = 0
\ T cos37 Nx = 0
4
4
or N x = T = (1200) = 960 N
5
5
For equilibrium, SFy = 0
\ Ny Tsin37 + 500 + 80 = 0
3
or N y = (1200) 500 80 = 140 N
5
17. (b)

18. (d)

19. (b)

20. (b)
nn

2
2
As, Q = V t1 = V t 2 R1 = t1 = 15 = 1

R1

solution set-19

1.

F F0
(b) : As, a = = [cos(t ) ^i + sin(t ) ^j ]
m m
t
F0

^
v = a dt = [sin(t ) i^+ (1 cos t ) j]
m
0

Q=

2.

F02
(1 cos t )
m

where n is number of half lives elapsed for species A.


N 5 1
1
+
= =

n
+
1
n
N 32
+1
2

22
1
r1

1
r2

2(0.07) 1
1

2T 1 1
=

h=

rg r1 r2 103 9.8 1 103 1.5 103

5
2
When it dissociates,

R2
t = 10 minutes
R1 + R2 1

1
2

3 2
mr
, I 2 = I 3 = mr ,
2
2
7
\ I = I1 + I 2 + I 3 = mr 2
2
I1 =

1
Now, DW = I w 2
2
1 ml 2 2 1 2 2
=
w = ml w
2
2
4
DU = qlE
\

4. (c) : Initial CV = R

+q B
A q

qE
ml 2 2
w = qlE w = 2
4
ml

9. (b) : By conservation of linear momentum


mv1 + m(v1 + wR) = mv0

2v1 + wR = v0
(i)
By applying conservation
of angular momentum

n f +n f
1 . 2 3 + 0. 4 5 7
f av = 1 1 2 2 =
=
n1 + n2
1. 2 + 0. 4
2
f R 7
initial CV 10
\ Final CV = av = R \
=
2
4
final CV
7

C = 2CV = 2

t 3 = 3t1 = 45 minutes

= 4.76 103 m = 4.76 mm

V 2t 4 (R1 + R2 ) V 2t1
=
R1R2
R1

8. (b) : As DW = DU

T = 0.07 N m1, r1 = 1mm, r2 = 1.5 mm,

5. (c) : From first law of thermodynamics


DQ = DU + DW
Here, DQ = Q, DW = Q/2
So, DU = Q Q/2 = Q/2 = DW
DU = DW = nCVDT
From eqn (i)
DQ = 2nCVDT
nCDT = 2nCVDT

30

\ 3mk 2 = 7 mr 2 k = 7 r

Here, r = 103 kg m3, g = 9.8 m s2,


\

t2

Also, moment of inertia, I = 3mk2 , where k is


radius of gyration.

On solving, we get, n = 4
3. (b) : As, rgh = 2T

t4 =

R2

7. (a): Moment of inertia of the


system about the given axis, I
= I1 + I2 + I3

N
N
(a): As, N = 2 + 2
n

2
2n/2
Now

V 2 t 3 V 2 t1
=
Req
R1

In parallel, Q =

\ Kinetic energy at time t,

1 1 F2
= m (v v ) = m 0 (2 2 cos t ) =
2
2 m2

R2

or 2R1 = R2
In series, Req = R1 + R2.

v1

(i)

f
R = 3R
2

(Q f = 3 for monoatomic gas)

6. (b) : Let R1 and R2 are the resistances of the first


and the second coils and V be mains voltage.

about O, Li = 0 (where O is a point of ground


frame near the point of collision)
Lf = mv1R + mR2w [only due to ring applying

rcm p + I cm w considering outward normal


as positive]
Li = Lf v1 = Rw
(ii)
v0
v
Solving (i) and (ii), we get w =
=
3R 3R
10. (a): As, DV = E Dr \ VA VB = E(a b)
Here, E =

VA VB = (b a)
0
0

nn

physics for you | march 15

91

System of Particles and Rotational Motion


Every particle of a rigid body rotating about a
fixed axis moves in a circle, which lies in a plane
perpendicular to the axis and has its centre on
the axis.
A rigid body fixed at one point or along a line
can have only rotational motion.
When a rigid body rotates about a fixed axis,
every part of the body has the same angular
velocity and angular acceleration.
If all the external forces acting on a body or
system of bodies are applied on the center of
mass of the body, the state of rest or motion
of the body or system of bodies remains
unaffected.
The centre of mass of a system of two particles
lies on the straight line joining the two
particles.
The centre of mass of all homogenous bodies
of regular shape coincides with the geometrical
centre of the bodies.
To determine the motion of the center of mass
of a system, the knowledge of external forces
acting on the body is required.
The position of centre of mass of a system
is independent of the choice of coordinate
system.
The system as a whole can change its shape or
orientation due to internal forces, but it will
have no effect on the trajectory of center of
mass of isolated system.
The centre of gravity of an external body is that
point where the total gravitational torque on
the body is zero.
The centre of gravity of a body coincides with
its centre of mass only when the gravitational
field does not vary from one part of the body
to the other.
The total torque on a system is independent of
the origin if the total external force is zero.
92 Physics for you |

March 15

The concept of torque accounts for the motion


of our arms and legs.
The vector sum of all the torque acting on a
particle is equal to the time rate of change of
the angular momentum of that particle.
In case of pure rotation, a vector defines an axis
of rotation and not the direction in which an
object moves.
The linear momentum of the body must be zero
for static equilibrium.
Angular acceleration of a body in rotational
equilibrium will be zero.
If algebraic sum of moments of all forces acting
on the body about a fixed point is zero, the body
will be in rotational equilibrium.
Moment of inertia plays the same role in
rotational motion as mass plays in translational
motion.
The moment of inertia of a body about a given
axis is equal to twice the kinetic energy of
rotation of the body rotating with unit angular
velocity about the given axis.
According to sign convention, anticlockwise
moments are taken as positive and clockwise
moments are taken as negative.
The radius of gyration of a body about an axis
is equal to the root mean square distance of the
various particles constituting the body from
the axis of rotation.
Moment of inertia of circular ring about a given
axis is greater than the moment of inertia of
circular disc of same mass and same size about
the same axis.
Rolling motion of a body is a combination of
translatory as well as rotatory motion.
In rolling motion, there is no loss of mechanical
energy because the contact point is at rest
relative to the surface at any instant.
nn

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down
1.
2.
3.
6.
7.
8.
11.
13.
18.
21.
22.
23.
25.
27.
28.
29.
31.
34.

ACRoSS
1.
4.
5.

9.
10.
12.
14.
15.

15

A unit equal to 10 metre. (5)


Biggest moon of saturn. (5)
Force of attraction between like
molecules. (8)
Alloy involving the metal mercury. (7)
A fold in rocks with younger layers
closer to the centre of the structure. (8)
Gradual loss in intensity of any flux
through a medium. (11)
An electron in combination with a hole
in a crystalline solid. (7)
Wave that obeys superposition principle.
(6, 4)
An angle whose value is 0 at the equator
and 90 at the poles. (8)
Instrument used for navigation and
orientation. (7)
The condition of a body in free fall.
(14)
A body that absorbs all the radiation
incident upon it. (5, 4)
Branch of physics dealing with the flow
of air and gases. (12)
Displacement of a vibrating body at zero time. (5)
Tendency of a material to undergo permanent
deformation. (10)
Instrument for determining the angle of dip. (3, 6)
Technique which enables 3D images to be made. (10)
An isolating circuit used to minimize the reaction
between a driving and driven circuit. (6)
Reciprocal of dynamic viscosity. (8)
Shortest path between points in the space. (8)
Fuel material that comes from living or recently living
organism. (7)
Solidification curve. (3, 4)
Sound with frequency higher than the human audible
range. (10)
Production of transverse electric field in a conductor
carrying current when it is placed in a magnetic field
perpendicular to the current. (4, 6)
Repetitive layering in metamorphic rocks. (9)
An area of closed circular fluid motion rotating in the
same direction as the earth. (7)

16. Zero rank tensor. (6)


17. Temperature scale designed in 1717. (10)
19. A theory that is not proven but leads to further study.
(10)
20. A material used to reduce the frictional force between
two surfaces in contact. (9)
24. Ratio of angular momentum to angular velocity. (6, 2, 7)
26. Residual periodic variation of dc output which has been
derived from an ac source. (6)
30. It happens when wavelength of light from an object
gets increased. (8)
32. Rupture in the earths crust where molten lava and gases
from below the earths crust escape into the air. (7)
33. Invented by scientist William Sturgeon in 1824. (13)
34. A small area on the retina that is insensitive to light. (5, 4)
35. Emission of EM radiation from a body as a result of its
temperature. (13)
36. Inverse of collision frequency. (4, 4, 4)
37. A type of collision where kinetic energy is conserved.(7)
38. Speed of fluid defined on the basis of Torricellis
theorem. (6, 5)
gg

physics for you

| march 15 93

94 physics for you |

march 15