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rial

Vol. XXIII

No. 3

March 2015

Corporate Office:

Plot 99, Sector 44 Institutional area,

Gurgaon -122 003 (hr), Tel : 0124-4951200

Regd. Office

406, Taj apartment, Near Safdarjung hospital,

ring road, New Delhi - 110029.

e-mail : info@mtg.in website : www.mtg.in

Managing Editor

Editor

:

:

mahabir Singh

anil ahlawat (BE, mBa)

contents

Physics Musing (Problem Set-20)

AIPMT Special

Practice Paper 2015

12

23

Core Concept

26

30

31

Brain Map

50

CBSE Board

Practice Paper 2015

58

JEE Main

Practice Paper 2015

67

JEE Advanced

Practice Paper 2015

75

91

92

Crossword

93

Owned, Printed and Published by Mahabir Singh from 406, Taj Apartment,

New Delhi - 29 and printed by Personal Graphics and Advertisers (P) Ltd., Okhla

Industrial Area, Phase-II, New Delhi. Readers are adviced to make appropriate thorough

enquiries before acting upon any advertisements published in this magazine. Focus/

Infocus features are marketing incentives MTG does not vouch or subscribe to the claims

and representations made by advertisers. All disputes are subject to Delhi jurisdiction

only.

Editor : Anil Ahlawat

Copyright MTG Learning Media (P) Ltd.

All rights reserved. Reproduction in any form is prohibited.

answer. It is like asking when should children start learning

music. children start learning music when they are in primary school

stage, at home. By the time they are grown up children, it is amazing to

see the advance they have made, when they have not yet reached 14

or 15 years of age.

research is only an attitude of mind which drives a person to think

deeper and deeper. But to avoid the mistakes of repeating what others

have done, a lot reading is also advised. Before starting something new,

one should know what others have done earlier and what the great

scientists are thinking about the problem. In modern books, written

for graduate levels, one finds first a short history of the work and the

thinking of the great scientists in about half a page. We are happy that

in the NcErT books, particularly for high schools, the system of historic

introduction and the thinking of the great scientists are also given. One

may not gain extra marks for learning the history of science, but this

gives extra inputs for the development of mind. reading the biography

of scientists is as interesting as reading a novel.

To keep the attention of the students, after every heavy derivation, one

should give a short digression on the scientists. as the editorial has

a wider readership, every teacher would also like to know about the

methods of research and also teach their students, how to succeed in

research. For success in ones career, one must learn simultaneously

how to concentrate on microproblems as well as the art of increasing

a wide vision.

Anil Ahlawat

Editor

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MUSING

PHYSICS

hysics Musing was started in August 2013 issue of Physics For You with the suggestion of Shri Mahabir Singh. The aim of

Physics Musing is to augment the chances of bright students preparing for JEE (Main and Advanced) / AIIMS / Other PMTs

with additional study material.

In every issue of Physics For You, 10 challenging problems are proposed in various topics of JEE (Main and Advanced) / various

PMTs. The detailed solutions of these problems will be published in next issue of Physics For You.

The readers who have solved five or more problems may send their solutions. The names of those who send atleast five correct

solutions will be published in the next issue.

We hope that our readers will enrich their problem solving skills through "Physics Musing" and stand in better stead while facing

the competitive exams.

By : Akhil Tewari

distance of 20 cm in front of a

equiconvex lens (amg = 1.5) of

focal length 10 cm. The lens is

placed on a liquid of refractive

index 2 as shown in the

figure. Image will be formed

at a distance h from lens. The

value of h is

(b) 10 cm

(a) 5 cm

(c) 20 cm

(d) 40 cm

(a)

3^

i

+

j

2 2

(c)

3^ ^

i+ j

2

(b)

3^

i

j

2 2

(d)

3 ^ 1^

i j

2

2

^

undergoes refraction at an interface of two

media, which is x-z plane. The refractive index

8

3 i 5 j

34

(c)

along the incident ray is ^i and that along the

^

3 ^

i

j .

outward normal of the surface is

2 2

The unit vector along the reflected ray will be

(a)

5

for y > 0 is 2 while for y < 0 it is

. The unit

2

vector along the refracted ray is

3 i 4 j

5

(b)

(d)

(4 i 5 j)

5

^

4i 3 j

5

form a bubble of radius 2r under isothermal

conditions. If s is the surface tension of soap

solution, the energy spent in doing so is

(a) 3psr2

(b) 6psr2

2

(c) 12psr

(d) 24psr2

5. Find the minimum

vertical force required

to pull a thin wire ring

up as shown in figure,

if it is initially resting

on a horizontal water surface. The circumference

of the ring is 20 cm and its weight is 0.1 N.

The surface tension of water is 75 dyne cm1.

(a) 0.125 N

(b) 0.225 N

(c) 0.115 N

(d) 0.130 N

6. A point mass m is welded to a ring of mass m

and radius R as shown in the figure. Assuming

that the ring does not slip and initially the

the speed of the point mass as seen from the

ground after the ring has turned through an

angle of 90 ?

m

(a)

gR

(b)

gR

2

(c)

2gR

(d)

gR

3

connected through a capacitor of capacitance

C as shown in the figure. A perfect conductor

of length l is moved with constant speed v0.

Which of the following graph truly depicts the

variation of current through the conductor

with time ?

massless. The force acting on the block of mass

m is

(a) 2F

(b) F

F

(c)

2

(d) 4F

10. A particle of mass m moves along a circle of

radius R. The modulus of average value of force

acting on particle over the distance equal to a

quarter of circle, if the particle moves uniformly

with velocity v is

2mv 2

2 2mv 2

(a)

(b)

pr

pr 2

(c)

2 2mv 2

pr

(d)

mv 2

pr

nn

B

v0

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

resonates with a tuning fork of frequency

1000 Hz in fundamental tone. The minimum

volume of water to be drained so the pipe again

resonates with the same tuning fork is

(Take velocity of wave = 320 m s1)

(a) 800 cm3

(b) 1200 cm3

3

(c) 1600 cm

(d) 2000 cm3

10 physics for you |

march 15

riya Kataria

Solution Senders (January 2015)

Divya Acharya

Shubhneet Bhatia

Akash Kashyap

spring has a force constant 600 N m1. The

spring is compressed by 5 cm. The greatest

possible horizontal range of the ball for this

compression (Take g = 10 m s 2)

(a) 6 m

(b) 8 m

(c) 10 m

(d) 12 m

2. Two weights w1 and w2 are suspended from the

ends of a light string over a smooth fixed pulley.

If the pulley is pulled up with acceleration g, the

tension in the string will be

4w1w2

2w1w2

(a)

(b)

w1 + w2

w1 + w2

w w2

w1w2

(c) 1

(d)

w1 + w2

2(w1 + w2 )

3. A gas bubble from an explosion under water

oscillates with a time period T, depends upon

static pressure p, density of water r and the

total energy of explosion E. Find the expression

for the time period T. k is a dimensionless

constant.

(a) T = kp5/6r1/2E1/3 (b) T = kp4/7r1/2E1/3

(c) T = kp5/6r1/2E1/2 (d) T = kp4/7r1/3E1/2

4. A charged particle of mass m and charge q is

released from rest in an electric field of constant

magnitude E. The kinetic energy of the particle

after time t is

2 E 2t 2

E 2 q 2t 2

Eqm

Eq2m

(b)

(c)

(d)

qm

2m

2t

2t 2

5. The intensity of magnetic field at a point X on

the axis of a small magnet is equal to the field

intensity at another point Y on its equatorial

(a)

march 15

Exam on

3rd May

centre of the magnet will be

(a) (2)3 (b) (2)1/3 (c) 23

(d) 21/3

6. 5 mole of an ideal gas with g = 7/5 initially at

STP are compressed adiabatically so that its

temperature becomes 400C. The increase in

the internal energy of gas in kJ is

(a) 21.55 (b) 41.55 (c) 65.55 (d) 50.55

7. A circular platform is mounted on a frictionless

vertical axle. Its radius R = 2 m and its moment

of inertia about the axle is 200 kg m2. It is

initially at rest. A 50 kg man stands on the

edge of the platform and begins to walk along

the edge at the speed of 1 m s1 relative to the

ground. Time taken by the man to complete

one revolution with respect to disc is

3p

p

s (c) 2p s (d)

s

(a) p s

(b)

2

2

8. A vessel contains oil (density = 0.8 g cm3 over

mercury (density = 13.6 g cm3). A uniform

sphere floats with half its volume immersed in

mercury and the other half in oil. The density of

the material of sphere in g cm3 is

(a) 3.3

(b) 6.4

(c) 7.2

(d) 12.8

9. Maxwells velocity distribution curve is given for

the same quantity two different temperatures.

For the given curves

(a) T1 > T2

T2

N

T

(b) T1 < T2

1

(c) T1 T2

(d) T1 = T2

v

10. Two capacitors of 25 mF and 100 mF are

connected in series to a source of 120 V. Keeping

| march 15 13

and connected in parallel to each other. Find

out energy loss in the process.

(a) 5.2 J (b) 52 J (c) 50.2 J (d) 0.052 J

11. The steady state current in a 2 W resistor when

the internal resistance of the battery is negligible

and the capacitance of the condenser is 0.1 mF is

A

0.1 F

6V

2.8

12. In an experiment, a magnet with its magnetic

moment along the axis of a circular coil and

directed towards the coil, is withdrawn away

from the coil and parallel to itself. The current

in the coil, as seen by the withdrawing magnet,

is

(a) zero

(b) clockwise

(c) anticlockwise

(d) first (a) then (b)

13. A luminous object is placed at a distance of

30 cm from the convex lens of focal length

20 cm. On the other side of the lens, at what

distance from the lens a convex mirror of radius

of curvature 10 cm be placed in order to have an

inverted image of the object coincident with it?

(a) 12 cm (b) 30 cm (c) 50 cm (d) 60 cm

14. Two slits separated by a distance of 1 mm

are illuminated with red light of wavelength

6.5 107 metre. The interference fringes are

observed on a screen placed one metre from

the slits. The distance between the third dark

fringe and fifth bright fringe on the same side

of centre is equal to

(a) 0.65 mm

(b) 1.63 mm

(c) 3.25 mm

(d) 4.8 mm

15. An electric bulb is marked 100 W, 230 V. If

the supply voltage drops to 115 V, what is the

heat and light energy produced by the bulb in

20 min?

(a) 10 kJ (b) 15 kJ (c) 20 kJ (d) 30 kJ

14 physics for you |

march 15

1 cm at the earths surface. How much will the

same body stretch the spring at a place 16400 km

above the earths surface?

(Radius of the earth = 6400 km)

(a) 1.28 cm

(b) 0.64 cm

(c) 3.6 cm

(d) 0.12 cm

17. A resistor R and 2 mF capacitor in series are

connected through a 200 V direct supply. Across

the capacitor is a neon bulb that lights up at 120

V. Find the value of R to make the bulb light up

5 s after the switch has been closed.

(Take log10 2.5 = 0.4)

(a) 1.7 105 W

(b) 2.7 106 W

7

(c) 3.3 10 W

(d) 1.3 104 W

18. A coil of resistance 400 W is placed in a magnetic

field. If the magnetic flux f (Wb) linked with

the coil varies with time t (s) as f = 50t2 + 4. The

current in the coil at t = 2 s is

(a) 0.5 A (b) 0.1 A (c) 2 A (d) 1 A

19. An electromagnetic wave of frequency 3 MHz

passes from vacuum into a dielectric medium

with permittivity er = 4, then

(a) the wavelength and frequency both remain

unchanged.

(b) the wavelength is doubled and the frequency

remains unchanged.

(c) the wavelength is doubled and the frequency

becomes half

(d) the wavelength is halved and the frequency

remains unchanged.

20. A polyster fibre rope of diameter 3 cm has a

breaking strength of 150 kN. If it is required to

have 600 kN breaking strength. What should be

the diameter of similar rope?

(a) 12 cm (b) 6 cm (c) 3 cm (d) 1.5 cm

21. A thin uniform rod of mass m moves

translationally with acceleration a due to two

antiparallel forces of lever arm l. One force is of

magnitude F and acts at one extreme end. The

length of the rod is

mal

2(F + ma)l

(a)

(b)

ma + F

ma

F

(c) l l +

ma

(d)

(F + ma)l

2ma

from a stretched length of 10 cm to a stretched

length of 20 cm is

(a) equal to the work done in stretching it from

20 cm to 30 cm

(b) less than the work done in stretching it

from 20 cm to 30 cm

(c) more than the work done in stretching it

from 20 cm to 30 cm

(d) equal to the work done in stretching it from

0 to 10 cm.

XC = 40

220 V

20 Hz

R1 = 40

XL = 100

R2 = 40

(a) 0.2

(b) 0.4

(c) 0.8

(d) 0.6

focal length 10 cm and an objective of focal

length 4 cm. Calculate the magnification, if an

object is kept at a distance of 5 cm from the

objective, so that the final image is formed at

the least distance of distinct vision 20 cm.

(a) 12

(b) 11

(c) 10

(d) 13

ideal gas have only translational and rotational

kinetic energies. At high temperatures they

may also have vibrational energy. As a result of

this at higher temperatures

(CV = molar heat capacity at constant volume)

3

(a) CV = R for a monoatomic gas

2

3

(b) CV > R for a monoatomic gas

2

5

(c) CV > R for a diatomic gas

2

5

(d) CV = R for a diatomic gas

2

29. A body is projected vertically upwards with a

velocity of 10 m s1. It reaches the maximum

height h in time t. In time t/2, the height covered

is

h

2

3

5

(a)

(b) h

(c) h (d) h

2

5

4

8

30. A wheel is subjected to uniform angular

acceleration about its axis. Initially, its angular

velocity is zero. In the first 2 s, it rotates through

an angle q1, in the next 2 s, it rotates through an

q

angle q2. The ratio of 2 is

q1

(a) 1

(b) 2

(c) 3

(d) 5

the circuit passes through it. If the resistance

of the galvanometer is G, the shunt resistance S

connected to the galvanometer is

G

G

(a) 19G (b)

(c) 20G (d)

19

20

27. The power factor of the circuit as shown in

figure is

l

lying on a table with

of its length hanging

4

freely from the edge of the table. The amount

of work done in dragging the chain on the table

completely is

mgl

mgl

mgl

mgl

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

4

8

32

16

coming from the sun is 720 N C1. The average

total energy density of the electromagnetic

wave is

(a) 3.3 103 J m3 (b) 4.58 106 J m3

(c) 6.37 109 J m3 (d) 81.35 1012 J m3

24. In Youngs double slit experiment, one of the slits

is wider than the other, so that the amplitude of

the light from one slit is double that from the

other slit. If Im be the maximum intensity, the

resultant intensity when they interfere at phase

difference f is given by

(a)

Im

I

f

f

1 + 2 cos2 (b) m 1 + 4 cos2

3

2

5

2

(c)

Im

I

f

f

1 + 8 cos2 (d) m 8 + cos2

9

2

9

2

| march 15 15

figure has a constant voltage drop at 0.5 V at

all currents and a maximum power rating of

100 milliwatts. What should be the value of the

resistor R, connected in series with diode, for

obtaining maximum current?

R

0.5 V

1.5 V

(d) 5.6 W

50 years. It decays to another element Y which

is stable. The two elements X and Y were found

to be in the ratio of 1 : 15 in a sample of a given

rock. The age of the rock was estimated to be

(a) 100 years

(b) 150 years

(c) 200 years

(d) 250 years

on a metal surface photo-electrons are emitted.

The work function of the metal is 0.1 eV. Find

the kinetic energy of a photo-electron (in eV)

(a) 0.1

(b) 0.2

(c) 0.3

(d) 0.4

35. A mass of 0.2 kg is attached to the lower

end of a massless spring of force constant

200 N m1, the upper end of which is fixed to a

rigid support. Which of the following statement

is not true?

(a) The frequency of oscillation will be nearly

5 Hz.

(b) In equilibrium, the spring will be stretched

by 2 cm.

(c) If the mass is raised till the spring is

unstretched state and then released, it will

go down by 2 cm before moving upward

(d) If the system is taken to a planet, the

frequency of oscillation will be the same as

on the earth.

36. The equation of a wave is represented by

x

10

wave will be

(a) 100 m s1

(b) 4 m s1

(c) 1000 m s1

(d) zero

16 physics for you |

march 15

10 N. Then the force on a satellite revolving

around the earth in the mean orbital radius

3R/2 will be (mass of satellite is 100 kg)

(a) 4.44 102 N

(b) 3.33 102 N

(c) 500 N

(d) 6.66 102 N

38. The far point of a near sighted person is

6.0 m from her eyes, and she wears contacts

that enable her to see distant objects clearly. A

tree is 18.0 m away and 2.0 m high. How high is

the image formed by the contacts?

(a) 1.0 m

(b) 1.5 m

(c) 0.75 m

(d) 0.50 m

39. You drive a car at a speed of 70 km h1 in a

straight road for 8.4 km and then the car runs

out of petrol. You walk for 30 min to reach a

petrol pump at a distance of 2 km. The average

velocity from the beginning of your drive till

you reach the petrol pump is

(a) 16.8 km h1

(b) 35 km h1

1

(c) 64 km h

(d) 18.6 km h1

standard fork and B has a frequency 3% less

than the frequency of same standard fork. The

forks A and B when sounded together produced

6 beats s1. The frequency of fork A is

(a) 116.4 Hz

(b) 120 Hz

(c) 122.4 Hz

(d) 238.8 Hz

41. When a wire of length 10 m is subjected to a

force of 100 N along its length, the lateral strain

produced is 0.01 103. The Poissons ratio was

found to be 0.4. If the area of cross-section of

wire is 0.025 m2, its Youngs modulus is

(a) 1.6 108 N m2 (b) 2.5 1010 N m2

(c) 1.25 1011 N m2 (d) 16 109 N m2

42. In an experiment on photoelectric emission

from a metallic surface, wavelength of incident

light is 2 107 m and stopping potential is

2.5 V. The threshold frequency of the metal is

approximately

(Charge of electron e = 1.6 1019 C, Plancks

constant h = 6.6 1034 J s)

(a) 12 1015 Hz

(b) 9 1015 Hz

(c) 9 1014 Hz

(d) 12 1013 Hz

43. Two cells of emf e1 and e2 (e1 > e2) are connected

as shown in figure. When a potentiometer

is connected between A and B, the balancing

length of the potentiometer wire is 300 cm. On

connecting the same potentiometer between A

and C, the balancing length is 100 cm. The ratio

is e1 : e2 is

1

(a) 3 : 1

(b) 1 : 3

(c) 2 : 3

(d) 3 : 2

tower of 5 m height. It touches the ground at a

distance of 10 m from the foot of the tower. The

initial velocity of the body is (Take g = 10 m s2)

(a) 2.5 m s1

(b) 5 m s1

1

(c) 10 m s

(d) 20 m s1

45. Two bodies of 6 kg and 4 kg masses have

their velocity 5i 2 j + 10k and 10i 2 j + 5k

respectively. Then the velocity of their centre of

mass is

(a) 5i + 2 j 8k

(b) 7i + 2 j 8k

(c) 7i 2 j + 8k

(d) 5i 2 j + 8k

solutions

u2 1 2 2

= mu

g 2

mg

1

1

But mu2 = kx 2

2

2

kx 2

1 2 2

\ Rmax = kx

=

mg mg

2

2

600 (0.05)

=

= 10 m

0.015 10

m2

m1

w2 m2a0 m1a0 w1

( a0 = g)

... (ii)

4. (a) : Here, u = 0, a =

qE

t

m

F qE

=

m m

mq2 E 2t 2 E 2q2t 2

1

KE = mv 2 =

=

2

2m

2m2

( a0 = g)

... (i)

or T = kparbEc

k is a dimensionless constant.

According to homogeneity of dimensions,

LHS = RHS

\ [T] = [ML1T2]a[ML3]b[ML2T2]c

[T] = [Ma+b+c][La3b+2c][T2a2c]

Comparing the powers, we obtain

a+b+c=0

a 3b + 2c = 0

2a 2c = 1

On solving, we get

5

1

1

a= ,b= , c=

6

2

3

v = u + at = 0 +

observer is situated in the frame of pulley (noninertial reference frame).

m1g = w1

m2g = w2

T

T m2a0 w2 = m2a

or T m2g w2 = m2a

or T 2w2 = m2a

From force diagram,

m1a0 + w1 T = m1a

or m1g + w1 T = m1a

or 2w1 T = m1a

From eqs. (i) and (ii), we get

4w1w2

T=

w1 + w2

line and d2 is distance of point Y on equatorial

line, then

m 2M

m M

, B2 = 0

B1 = 0

4 p d13

4 p d23

As B1 = B2

m0 2 M m0 M

\

=

4 p d13 4 p d23

d

d13 = 2d23 ; 1 = 21/3

d2

physics for you

| march 15 17

nR dT

dU =

g 1

5 8.31 (400 0)

=

= 41550 J = 41.55 kJ

(7 / 5) 1

7. (c) : Using angular momentum conservation,

Li = 0, Lf = mvR Iw, so, mvR = I w

mvR 50 1 2 1

w=

=

=

I

200

2

For one complete revolution,

(v + wR)t = 2pR

1

1 + 2 2 t = 2p 2 t = 2p s.

V

V

V rm g = rHg g + roil g

2

2

rHg + roil

rm =

2

13.6 + 0.8

=

2

14.4

=

= 7. 2

2

Oil

Mercury

most probable velocity.

1

1

1

1

1

5

1

= +

= +

=

=

Cs C1 C2 25 100 100 20

Cs = 20 mF = 20 106 F

1

1

U1 = CsV 2 = (20 106 )(120)2 = 144 103 J

2

2

Charge on each capacitor,

10. (d) :

q1 = q2 = Cs V = 20 120 =2400 mC

In parallel, Cp = C1 + C2

\ U2 =

=

2C p

2 125 106

= 92.16 103 J

Loss of energy = U1 U2

= (144 92.16) 103 J

= 51.84 103 J = 0.052 J

11. (b) : Capacitor will work as open key.

Therefore no current flows through resistance

18 physics for you |

march 15

23

= 2. 8 +

= 2. 8 + 1. 2 = 4 W

2+3

6 3

\ Main current, I = = A

4 2

Potential difference across A and B

3

= 1.2 = 1.8 V

2

1.8

\ Current through 2 W =

= 0.9 A

2

12. (b) : As magnet is withdrawn from the coil,

field into the coil decreases. To increase this

field, current induced in the coil must be

clockwise as seen by the withdrawing magnet.

1 1 1 1 1

1

= + = =

v f u 20 30 60

v = 60 cm.

Therefore, to have an inverted image of the

object, coincident with it, image should tend to

form at centre of curvature of convex mirror.

Therefore, distance of convex mirror from the

lens = 60 10 = 50 cm.

14. (b) : For dark fringes,

lD

Y3 = 5 lD

Yn = (2n 1)

2d

2 d

For bright fringes,

5lD

nlD

Y5 =

Yn =

d

d

Y = Y5 Y3

Y=

5l D 5 6.5 107 1

=

2 d

2 103

15. (d) : Here, power of the bulb, P = 100 W

Supply voltage, e = 230 V

Let R be the resistance of the bulb.

e2 (230)2

e2

R= =

= 529 W

P

100

R

Changed supply voltage, e = 115 V

Heat and light energy produced by the bulb in

20 min.

As P =

2

e2t 115 20 60

=

= 30,000 J = 30 kJ

R

529

body = stretching force.

\ At the earths surface, mg = k x

At a height h, mg = k x

m, with centre of mass at C. Suppose F1 is the

magnitude of other force. Let F1 > F.

\ F1 F = ma or F1 = F + ma

Re2

g x

(6400)2

= =

=

g

x (Re + h)2 (6400 + 1600)2

F1

L

6400 16

=

=

8000

25

16

16

x = x = 1 cm = 0.64 cm

25

25

17. (b) : As VC = e(1 et/RC)

120 3

V

or 1 et/RC = C =

=

e 200 5

t

or

= 2.3026 log10 2.5 = 0.92

RC

5

t

or R =

=

= 2.7 106 W

0.92C 0.92 2 106

df

d

18. (a) : e = = (50t 2 + 4) = 100t

dt

dt

When t = 2 s, |e| = 200 V

Induced current at t = 2 s,

| e | 200

I=

=

= 0.5 A

R 400

19. (d) : Frequency remains unchanged with

change of medium.

c 1 / e0 m 0

= er m r

m (refractive index) = =

v

1 / em

Since, mr is very close to 1, m = er = 4 = 2

l l

Thus, lmedium = =

m 2

F L

A L

The breaking strength F A.

20. (b) : Y =

F2 A2 p(D22 / 4) D22

=

=

=

F1 A1 p(D12 / 4) D12

1/2

F

or D2 = D1 2

F1

1/2

600

= 3

150

= 6 cm

l

C

no rotation, therefore, net torque about C must

be zero.

L

L

L

\ F = F1 l = (F + ma) l

2

2

2

L

L

L

F = F Fl + ma mal

2

2

2

2(F + ma)l

L

ma = l(F + ma) \ L =

ma

2

1

22. (b) : W = K x22 x12

2

1

= K(202 102 ) = 150 kJ

2

which is less than work done in stretching it

from 20 cm to 30 cm.

1

2

2

viz. 2 K(30 20 ) = 250 kJ

1

1 2

2

< u > = e0 Erms

+

Brms

2

2m0

=

2

1

1 Erms

2

e0 Erms

+

2

2m0 c 2

Brms = rms

c

1

1 2

2

e0 Erms

+

Erms e0m0

2

2m0

1

1

2

2

2

= e0 Erms

+ e0 Erms

= e0 Erms

2

2

= (8.85 1012) (720)2 = 4.58 106 J m3

24. (c) : Here, A2 = 2A1

Intensity (Amplitude)2

=

I2 A2 2 A1

=

=

=4

I1 A1 A1

physics for you

| march 15 19

I2 = 4I1

Maximum intensity, Im =

I1 + I2

I

= I1 + 4 I1 = 3 I1 = 9 I1 or I1 = m ...(i)

9

Resultant intensity, I = I1 + I2 + 2 I1I2 cos f

) (

= I1 + 4 I1 + 2 I1 (4 I1 ) cos f

= 5I1 + 4I1cosf = I1 + 4I1 + 4I1cosf

= I1 + 4I1(1 + cosf)

2 f

f

= I1 + 8 I1 cos2

1 + cos f = 2 cos 2

2

f

= I1 1 + 8 cos2

2

I

f

I = m 1 + 8 cos2

9

2

25. (a) : Here, uo = 5 cm, fo = 4 cm

fe = 10 cm, D = 20 cm

According to lens formula,

1 1 1 1 1 1

= +

= =

vo 4 5 4 5 20

vo = 20 cm

v

D

Magnification, M = o 1 +

uo

fe

20 20

= 1 + = 12

5 10

IG

R = R1 + R2 = 40 W + 40 W = 80 W

Impedance of the circuit,

20 physics for you |

march 15

R 80

=

= 0.8

Z 100

3

28. (c) : Monoatomic gas CV = R

2

This value is same for high temperature also.

In case of diatomic gas

5

CV = R (at low temperature)

2

5

Also, CV > R (at high temperature due to

2

vibrational kinetic energy)

29. (c) : As v2 v02 = 2gh, 0 (10)2 = 2(10) h

or h = 5 m

Also, v = v0 + at, 0 = 10 + (10) t

or t = 1 s

Height covered in time t/2, i.e., (1/2 s),

2

1

1 1

1

h = v0t + ( g )t 2 = 10 10

2

2 2

2

= 3.75 m = (3/4) h

with a galvanometer (of resistance G) as shown

in figure.

(I IG)S = IGG

S

I G

(I IG)

S= G

( I IG )

G

5

I

Here, IG =

100

5

IG

G

\ S = 100

=

5

19

I

I

100

1

1

30. (c) : As q1 = w0t + at 2 = 0 + a(2)2 = 2a

2

2

1

1

(q1 + q2 ) = w0t + at 2 = 0 + a(4)2 = 8a

2

2

q

Thus, q2 = 6a or 2 = 3

q1

l

m

31. (c) : Mass of length of the chain =

4

4

The weight of this part of the chain acts as its

l

CG which is at a distance from the edge

8

of the table.

m l mgl

Work done = g =

4 8 32

2

V 2 (0.5 V)

= 2.5 W

32. (c) : As RD = D =

PD

0.1 W

V

I D = D = 0. 2 A

RD

Total resistance required in the circuit,

V 1.5

=

= 7.5 W

I D 0.2

Resistance of the series resistor, R = Req RD

= 7.5 2.5 = 5 W

NX 1

= , N + NY = 16N X

33. (c) : As

NY 15 X

Req =

NX

1

=

N X + NY 16

1

1

or N X = (N X + NY ) = (N X + NY )

16

24

Age of the rock = number of half-lives of isotope

X passed = 4 = 4 50 years = 200 years

Thus,

hc

Energy of the incident photon, E = hu =

l

(6.6 1034 )(3 108 )

or E =

J

6.2 106

=

6.6 3 1026

As E = K + f0 , K = E f0

eV = 0.2 eV

1 k

1 200

=

= 5 Hz.

2 p m 2 p 0. 2

In equilibrium, kx = mg

mg 0.2 10

or x =

=

= 0.01 m

k

200

When mass is raised till the spring is unstretched,

1

the work = kx 2 = mgx

2

When the mass is released from the unstretched

position of spring, then total work done

1

mgx = (mgx ) + kx 2 = 2mgx

2

35. (b) : u =

or x = 2x = 2 0.1 = 0.02 m

As u of spring is independent of g so that the

frequency of oscillation will be the same as that

on the earth.

x

10

motion

2p 2p

Y = r sin t x

l

T

2p

2p p

2p 1

= , l = 20p

= 100, T =

=

s ;

100 50

l 10

T

l 20p

Velocity, v = =

= 1000 m s 1

T p / 50

37. (a) : On the surface of earth, the force on a

mass of 1 kg is

GMm GM 1

... (i)

F=

=

= 10

R2

R2

When the radius of the satellite, r = 3R/2, the

force on the satellite is

GMm GM 100

F=

=

r2

(3 / 2)2 R2

10 4 100

=

= 4.44 102 N

(Using (i))

9

38. (d) : The far point of 6.0 m tell us that the focal

length of the lens is f = 6.0 m, u = 18 m and

h=2m

1 1 1

=

f v u

1 1 1

1

1

= + =

v f u 6.0 18.0

Using,

v = 4.5 m

\ The image size,

v

4.5

h = h = 2

= 0.50 m

u

18.0

39. (a) : Here, displacement = 8.4 + 2 = 10.4 km

1 8. 4

Total time taken = +

= 0.62 h

2 70

Displacement

Average velocity =

Total time taken

10.4 km

=

= 16.8 km h 1

0.62 h

40. (c) : Let u be frequency of standard fork. The

2

frequency of A, uA = u +

u

100

3

u

and the frequency of B, uB = u

100

According to question,

uA u B = 6

physics for you

| march 15 21

2

3

\ u+

u u

u =6

100

100

u0 =

5

600

u = 6 or u =

= 120 Hz

100

5

The frequency of A

2

2

uA = u +

u = 120 +

120 = 122.4 Hz

100

100

or

Lateral strain

Longitudinal strain =

=

Youngs modulus, Y =

Y=

Longitudinal strain

Lateral strain

Poissons ratio

3

0.01 10

... (i)

0.4

Normal stress

E=

hc

l

2 107

= 9.9 1019 J =

e

e

100

1

or 1 2 =

or 2 = 1

e1 300

e1

3

or

9.9 10

19

hc

or f0 = K max = 6.2 eV 2.5 eV = 3.7 eV

l

f0

Threshold frequency, u0 =

h

march 15

e2 2

e

3

= or 1 =

e1 3

e2 2

44. (c) :

u

5m

Tower

Ground

10 m

ground.

\

1

2H

25

=

=1 s

H = gt 2 or t =

2

g

10

R = ut or 10 = u 1 or u = 10 m s1

45. (c)

nn

Form IV

eV = 6.2 eV

1.6 1019

Kmax = eVs = e 2.5 V = 2.5 eV

According to Einsteins photoelectric equation

hc

K max = f0

l

between A and B, then it measures only e1

and when connected between A and C, then it

measures e1 e2.

e1

l e e

l

\

= 1, 1 2 = 2

e1 e2 l2

e1

l1

(Using (i))

0.01 103

A

0.4

100 0.4

=

N m 2 = 1.6 108 N m2

3

0.025 0.01 10

6.6 1034

Longitudinal strain

1. Place of Publication

2. Periodicity of its publication

3. Printers and Publishers Name

Nationality

Address

:

:

:

:

:

4. Editors Name

Nationality

Address

:

:

:

New Delhi

Monthly

Mahabir Singh

Indian

Physics for You,

406, Taj Apartment,

New Delhi - 110029.

Anil Ahlawat

Indian

Physics for You,

19, National Media

Centre, Gurgaon

Haryana - 122002

Mahabir Singh

406, Taj Apartment

New Delhi

:

individuals who own the

newspapers and partners or

shareholders holding more than

one percent of the total capital

I, Mahabir Singh, hereby declare that particulars given above are true to

the best of my knowledge and belief.

Mahabir Singh

Publisher

irradiated with photons of 10.2 eV energies.

The radiation from the above sample is used to

irradiate two other samples of excited ionised He+

and excited ionised Li2+ respectively. Both the

ionised samples absorb the incident radiation.

(i) How many lines are obtained in the He+

and Li2+ emission spectra?

(ii) What are the smallest and biggest

wavelengths in their spectra?

2. The half-value thickness of an absorber is

defined as the thickness that will reduce the

intensity of a beam of particles by a factor of 2.

Calculate the half-value thickness for lead,

assuming an X-ray beam of wavelength 20 pm.

Total linear attenuation coefficient, m = 55 cm1

for X-rays in lead at wavelength l = 20 pm.

3. When an electron beam interacts with atoms

on the surface of a solid, by studying the

angular distribution of the diffracted electrons,

one can indirectly measure the geometrical

arrangement of atoms. Assume that the

electrons strike perpendicular to the surface of

a solid as shown in figure, and that their energy

is low, K = 100 eV, so that they interact only

with the surface layer of atoms. If the smallest

angle at which a diffraction maximum occurs

is at 24, what is the separation d between the

atoms on the surface?

10 mCi. How many decays per second will be

taking place after 84 years. The half life of 90Sr

is 28 years.

5. Nuclei of a radioactive element A are being

produced at a constant rate a. The element has

a decay constant l. At time t = 0, there are N0

nuclei of the element.

(a) Calculate the number N of nuclei of A at

time t.

(b) If a = 2lN0, calculate the number of nuclei

of A after one half life of A, and also the

limiting value of N as t .

6. Find the decay constant and mean life time of

55Co radio nuclide if its activity is known to

decrease by 4% per hour. The decay product is

non-radioactive.

SOLUTIONS

hydrogen atom would reach the first excited

state of 3.4 eV, since energy difference

*Randhawa Institute of Physics, S.C.O. 208, First Fl., Sector-36D & S.C.O. 38, Second Fl., Sector-20C, Chandigarh, Ph. 09814527699

23

When this excited hydrogen atom deexcites,

it would release 10.2 eV, which is absorbed by

He+ and Li2+.

Energy of nth state of a hydrogen like atom with

atomic number Z is given by,

En =

13.6Z 2

n2

eV

1242

= 10.4 nm

n = 6 n = 1 13.6 9 9

36

l min

the medium, according to relation

I

I ( x ) = I 0 e mx \ 0 = I 0 e mx

2

mx 1

mx

e

= or 2 = e

2

Taking log both sides, mx = ln 2

x=

ln 2

m

or x =

ln 2

55

0.693

55

= 1.26 10 2 cm = 0.126 mm

Hence, we conclude that lead is a very good

absorber for X-rays.

3. The path difference is dsinq.

For constructive interference, dsinq = nl.

For the smallest value of q, dsinq = 1 l

The kinetic energy is

After absorbing 10.2 eV, He+ electron moves

from n = 2 to n = 4 and Li2+ electron moves

from n = 3 to n = 6.

K=

\

l=

=

p2

h2

=

2me 2me l 2

p =

l

h

2me K

6.63 10 34

= 0.123 nm

In the spectrum of He+ there would be

4C = 6 lines.

2

hc

1242

l max =

=

= 470 nm

E

4 4

n=4n=3

13.6

9 16

hc

1242

=

= 24.4 nm

n = 4 n = 1 E 13.6 4 4

16

Similarly, in spectrum of Li2+ there will be

6C = 15 lines.

2

l min

1242

= 830.2 nm

n = 6 n = 5 13.6 9 9

25 36

l max

March 15

atoms is

l

0.123

d=

=

= 0.30 nm

sin q sin 24

4. As T1/2 = 28 year, there will be three half lives in

84 years.

1 1 1 1 1

So the activity will be only as = .

8 2 2 2 8

So the activity of source will be,

\

A = 10

1

= 1.25 mCi = 1.25 10 3 Ci

8

\

= 4.63 107 decays per second

its rate of decay is (lN). Thus the net rate of

change of the nuclei of A is given by

dN

dN

= (a lN ) or

= dt

dt

a lN

N0

1

dN

N

= dt or

log e (a lN )

=t

N0

(a lN )

l

0

or (a lN ) = (a lN 0 )e lt

which gives the number of nuclei at time t,

1

(i)

N = [a (a N 0 l)e lt ]

l

(b) For a = 2lN0, eqn. (i) becomes

N = 2N 0 N 0e lt

(ii)

half life of A, put t = T1/2 =

N = 2N 0 N 0 e

0.693

l

l

N = 2N 0

N0

2

e 0.693 =

3

= N0

2

The limiting value of N as t is

1

2

N = lim 2N 0 N 0e lt = 2N 0 N 0e = 2N 0

t

Integrating, we get

N

0.693

in eqn. (ii)

l

= 2N 0 N 0e 0.693

Activity of nuclei at time t,

A = lN = lN0elt = A0elt

(i)

Since activity decreases at h = 4% per hour, so

activity of 55Co radio nuclide at t = 1 h,

A = A0 hA0 = A0 (1 h)

(ii)

Taking natural log of equation (i), we get

A

ln

= lt

A0

A (1 h)

ln 0

=l

A0

or l = ln(1 h) (h)

\ l=h

Put the value, we get

l 1.1 105 s1

Mean life time, t =

1

= 9 104 s

l

(using (ii))

nn

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25

to relative motion between source and observer is

termed as Dopplers effect. Now, the question is how

does one layman understand whether there has been

any change in frequency or not? The answer is very

easy. If the sound appears to be more or less shrill,

its frequency has either increased or decreased.

Shrillness of sound is directly related to frequency.

This is a common phenomenon experienced in day

to day life. Supposedly, a bike is stationary and it

blows its horn. The sound of the horn will be more

shrill if the bike starts approaching us.

Now, let us explore the details of the how and why

of Dopplers effect.

1

f0

Let, a wave be emitted at t = 0, hence, the wave

would travel a distance l0 = vwT in a time t = T. But

the source itself has moved towards observer by a

distance vST as shown in figure.

hence wavelength decreases for the observer.

1

\ lapp = vwT vST = (vw vS )

f0

T=

vw = wave velocity

f0 = frequency of source towards observer

vS = velocity of source towards observer

In this case, the waves, once emitted, the propagation

speed is only medium dependent, since the observer

is stationary too.

But what about wavelength?

Wavelength is defined as the shortest distance

between two points oscillating in same phase. Had

the source been stationary, this distance surely

would not have changed. Let me explain.

If f0 is the frequency of the wave emitted, its time

period,

vw

1

= (vw vS )

fapp

f0

vw

fapp =

f0

vw vS

where, fapp = apparent frequency detected by

observer.

Clearly, fapp > f0, where source approaches observer.

Similarly, had the source been moving away

(receding) from the observer, the waves would

have expanded, i.e., wavelength increased, hence

frequency decreased.

In general, due to motion of source towards/away

from observer, the apparent frequency detected

would be

march15

| march 15 27

fapp = w f0

vw v s

Adjust the or + sign using the simple logic, that

when separation between S and O decreases, fapp

should be more than f0, hence obviously sign has

to be used here.

Case-II : Source(S) stationary, observer(O) moving

In this case, as the source is stationary, there is no

scope of wavelength appearing to have changed.

But here, as the observer is moving away, the wave

appears to be coming at a slower rate, hence the

wave velocity changes in this case.

\ vapp = vw vO = apparent wave velocity for observer

v

\ vw vO = fapp l0 = fapp w

f0

v v

\ fapp = w O f0

vw

frequency emitted by source.

A more generalised result when the observer moves

towards/away from stationary source, would be

v v

fapp = w O f0

v

separation decreases then frequency should

increase and vice versa.

Case-III : Source(S) as well as observer(O) moving

due to the motion of source, wavelength changes

whereas due to motion of observer, wave velocity

changes, and due to cumulative effect of both,

frequency of wave appears to have changed. A more

28 physics for you |

march15

frequency would be

v v

fapp = w O f0

v v

w

above case shown where the source move towards

observer and observer moves away from source.

Due to motion of source, the separation decreases,

hence frequency should increase (therefore,

negative sign in denominator) whereas due to the

motion of observer, the separation increases, hence

frequency should decrease (hence negative sign in

numerator too).

v v

\ fapp = w O f0

v v

w

case shown.

Typical Examples

same velocity in same direction

v

between source and observer, the observer

would not detect any change in frequency but

this does not mean that wavelength or wave

velocity does not appear to have changed for the

observer. Infact, the wavelength has decreased

due to motion of source whereas the wave

speed decreases due to the motion of observer

and their cumulative effect is that there is no

change in frequency.

v v

fapp = w

f0 = f0

v v

w

does not match with the line joining them.

In this case, break the components of the

velocity of the source and observer along the

line joining them and use the same generalised

formula.

v + v cos O

\ fapp = w O

f0

vw vS cos S

(3) One among the source or observer is stationary

while the other moves perpendicular to the

line joining them

along OS, there would not be any change in

frequency.

\ fapp = f0

(4) Frequency detected after reflection from a

rigid boundary (wall/building/cliff)

A will get to hear two frequencies, one of the

wave which has been emitted from the source

directly and the other after reflection from

the wall. Hence he can also hear beats if the

difference of frequencies is less than 10 Hz

(due to limitation of resolution). The frequency

received by the wall,

v

frec = w f0 ,

vw v

since the wall becomes a stationary observer

and the source is approaching the observer.

The received frequency will be equal to the

reflected frequency (fref).

v

\ fref = frec = w f0

v v

w

of sound of frequency fref whereas A is the

observer (moving with speed v towards wall).

v +v

\ fapp = w

fref

v

w

v + v vw

f0

= w

vw vw v

v +v

fapp = w

f0

vw v

where fapp is the apparent frequency detected

by the observer A after reflection from wall.

\ Beat frequency detected by him (A) is

fb = fref f0

v +v

= w

f0 f0

vw v

2v

=

f0

vw v

Now, what about B?

Since B is stationary, he will receive the same

frequency as received by wall, and the reflected

frequency being equal to the received frequency,

both the frequencies received by B, directly

from the source as well as after reflection are

identical and hence he would not hear any

beats.

A shortcut can also be used to find the reflected

frequency as detected by A, where we create a

virtual source S of S by taking reflection on the

wall as shown in figure.

v +v

\ fapp = w

f0

vw v

nn

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column each month.

attending call during charging ? How can it

be prevented ?

Sachin Vats (New Delhi)

while charging can sometimes lead to

electrocution of the person and other fire and

explosion hazards, but it is important to note that

such accidents happen rarely and that to because

of faulty mobile phone manufacturing, battery

problem and low quality chargers. As a matter of

safety, it is important to follow some precautions.

Make sure the battery and charger are of the same

brand as mobile phone. Avoid using phone on

charging. Dont tamper with the battery or bring

it to contact with other metal objects outside the

phone. Plug off as soon as mobile is fully charged.

Avoid over heating of battery. Most importantly,

follow the instructions of manufacturer for

battery usage, storage, and recharging.

Q2. What are auroras and how are they form?

by collisions between fast-moving particles

(electrons) from space and the oxygen and

nitrogen gas in our atmosphere. These electrons

originate in the magnetosphere, the region of

space controlled by Earths magnetic field. As

they enter into the atmosphere, the electrons

impact energy to oxygen and nitrogen molecules,

making them excited. When the molecules

return to their normal state, they release photon,

small bursts of energy in the form of light. When

billions of these collisions occur and enough

photons are released, the oxygen and nitrogen

in the atmosphere emit enough light for the eye

30 physics for you |

march 15

the night sky in a dance of colours. But since the

aurora is much dimmer than sunlight, it cannot

be seen from the ground in the daytime. The

colour of the aurora depends on which gas is

being excited by the electrons and on how much

energy is being exchanged. Oxygen emits either

a greenish-yellow light or a red light, nitrogen

generally gives off a blue light. Auroras usually

occur in ring-shaped areas centered around the

magnetic poles of Earth. The brighter the colour,

the more intense the aurora. The crescent of

colour on the left is from sunlight scattered over

the upper atmosphere.

Q3. Why magnetic field intensity at the end of

long solenoid is half than at the centre of the

solenoid?

Suraj Gohel (Rajkot)

Ans. A solenoid is made out of a current carrying

wire which is coiled into a series of turns.

In a solenoid, a large field is produced parallel

to the axis of the solenoid. Components of the

magnetic field in other directions are cancelled

by opposing fields from neighbouring coils.

Outside the solenoid the field is also very weak

due to this cancellation effect and for a solenoid

which is long in comparison to its diameter, the

field is very close to zero. Inside the solenoid

the fields from individual coils add together

to form a very strong field along the center of

the solenoid. The magnetic field at any point in

space can be computed by summing over the

magnetic fields produced by each turn of wire

in the solenoid. It turns out that for an infinitely

long solenoid, with the same number of turns

per unit length of the solenoid, the magnetic

field is constant in strength everywhere inside.

If solenoid has ends, then you can think of it

as an infinitely long solenoid minus the end

parts that stretch off to infinity. The magnetic

field strength on the axis going right through

the solenoid, in the place on the end of the

solenoid is then the field of an infinitely

long solenoid minus half of it because half

is missing, and so the field strength is half

as big on the ends (but right in the middle).

The field strength in the middle of a long

solenoid is almost exactly that of an infinitely

long solenoid, or twice that on the ends.

nn

reflection of light

media, a part of it get return back in the initial

medium. It is known as reflection.

laws of reflection

Normal

reflected ray and the normal

i r

to the surface, all lie in the

same plane.

The angle of incidence is equal to the angle of

reflection, i = r

reflection of light at plane surface

plane mirror, the image is always erect, virtual and

of same size as the object. It is also at the same

distance behind the mirror as the object in front of

it.

When two plane mirrors are inclined at an angle

q and an object is placed between them, multiple

images of the object are formed as a result of

multiple successive reflections.

360

If

is an even integer, then the number of

q

360

images (n) is given by n =

1

q

360

If

is an odd integer, then the number of

q

images (n) is decided according to the following

two situations :

If

360

n=

1.

q

If the object lies unsymmetrically, then

360

n=

.

q

360

If

is a fraction, the number of images formed

q

will be equal to its integral part.

KEY POINT

each other and an object is placed between

them, the number of image formed will be

infinite.

reflection of light at spherical surface

surfaces. They are of two types :

Concave mirror : If the reflection occurs from

the inner surface of the spherical mirror, the

mirror is called a concave mirror.

Convex mirror : If the reflection occurs from

the outer surface of the spherical mirror, the

mirror is called a convex mirror.

C

P

f

Concave Mirror

f

Convex Mirror

physics for you

| march 15 31

f = focal length, C = centre of curvature

New cartesian sign conventions : All distances

have to be measured from the pole of the mirror.

Distances measured in the direction of incident

light are taken as positive, while those measured

in opposite direction are taken as negative. Heights

measured upwards and normal to the principal

axis of the mirror are taken as positive, while those

measured downwards are taken as negative.

the Mirror equation

1 1 1

where u is the distance of object from

+ =

u v f

the pole of the mirror and v is the distance of image

from the pole of the mirror. f = R/2 where R is the

radius of curvature of mirror.

KEY POINT

positive for convex mirror

Linear Magnification

m=

size of image(I )

f v

v

f

= =

=

size of object(O)

u f u

f

inverted image.

Axial Magnification

2

v

max =

u

Areal Magnification

area of image

mar =

area of object

Newtons formula is f 2 = xy, where x is distance

of object from the focus and y is distance of image

from the focus of the mirror.

refraction of light

due to change in velocity, when it goes from one

medium to another.

laws of refraction

32 physics for you |

march 15

all lie in the same plane.

The ratio of sine of

angle of incidence to

i

Medium 1

the sine of angle of

Medium

2

refraction for any two

r

media is constant.

sin i 1

i.e.

= m2

sin r

where 1m2 is the refractive index, of the medium

2 with respect to medium 1. This is also known

as Snells law.

If 1m2 > 1, r < i the refracted ray bends towards

the normal. In such a case medium 2 is said to

be optically denser in comparison to medium 1.

If 1m2 < 1, r > i the refracted ray bends away

from the normal. In such a case medium 2 is

said to be optically rarer in comparison to

medium 1.

Absolute refractive index : Refractive index of

a medium with respect to vacuum (or in practice

air) is known as absolute refractive index of the

medium

m=

=

v speed of light in medium

c

v v

sin i

m

1

m2 = 2 = 2 = 1 =

m1 c v 2 sin r

v

1

where c is the speed of light in air, v1 and v2 be

the speeds of light in medium 1 and medium 2

respectively.

Principle of Reversibility :

1

lateral shift

1

m2 = 2

m1

slab, then the deviation of the emergent ray is zero.

That is the emergent ray is parallel to the incident

ray but it does suffer lateral shift with respect to the

incident ray and is given by

Lateral shift, d = t

sin (i r)

cos r

Air (2)

Water (1)

Incident

ray

i2

i 1 i1

Refracted

ray

Reflected

ray

angle iC, the angle of refraction is 90.

i2 = 90

appear to be as deep as it really is. Also when one

looks into a slab of glass, the material does not

appear to be as thick as it really is. This all happens

due to refraction of light.

If a beaker is filled with water and a point lying at

its bottom is observed by someone located in air,

then the bottom point appears raised. The apparent

depth is less than the real depth. It can be shown

that

apparent depth =

real depth

refractive index (m)

between two mediums. It occurs when the angle

of incident is greater than the critical angle for the

two surfaces involved. Critical angle is the angle of

incidence for which the angle of refraction is 90.

It exists only when light passes from a denser to a

rarer medium.

1

Critical angle, sin iC = R

mD

If the rarer medium is air or vacuum, then

sin iC =

1

m

medium (water) into a lower refractive index

medium (air), the refracted ray is bent away from

the normal.

i C iC

total internal reflection occurs.

2

1

iC

Total

internal

reflection

KEY POINT

contact and on the wavelength of light.

application of total internal reflection

for diamond air interface is 24.4. The diamond

is cut suitably so that light entering the diamond

from any face falls at an angle greater than 24.4,

and suffers multiple total internal reflections

which results in sparkling of diamond.

Mirage : It is an optical illusion which occurs

in hot, sunny days. The object such as a tree

appears to be inverted, as if the tree is on the

bank of a pond of water.

Optical fiber : It is a thin tube of transparent

material that allows light to pass through,

without being refracted into the air. Light

undergoes successive total internal reflections

as it moves through an optical fibre.

physics for you

| march 15 33

enclosed by two plane surfaces inclined at an angle.

These surfaces are called the refracting surfaces

and angle between them is known as the refracting

angle or the angle of prism.

The angle between the incident ray and the emergent

ray is known as the angle of deviation.

through the prism. This is the cause of dispersion.

Red

Yellow

Violet

angular Dispersion

is known as angular dispersion.

Angular dispersion dV dR = (mV mR)A where mV

and mR are the refractive index for violet and red

rays.

d = i + e A where A = r1 + r2

d + dR

.

Mean deviation d = V

2

Dispersive power,

w=

\ d = (m 1) A

i = e, and r1 = r2 = r

A + dm

A

and r =

\ i =

2

2

The refractive index of the material of the prism is

(A + d m )

sin

2

m=

A

sin

2

This is known as prism formula, where A is the

angle of prism and dm is the angle of minimum

deviation.

()

Dispersion of light

its constituent colours on passing through a prism.

This is because different colours have different

wavelengths (lR > lV). According to Cauchys

formula

B

m=A+ 2 + 4

l

l

where A, B, C are arbitrary constants. Therefore, m

of material of prism for different colours is different

(mV > mR). As d = (m 1) A, therefore different

34 physics for you |

march 15

mean deviation (d)

m mR

,

w= V

(m 1)

m + mR

where m = V

= mean refractive index

2

Dispersion without Deviation

Suppose we combine two prisms of refracting

angles A and A, and dispersive powers w and w

respectively in such a way that their refracting

angles are reversed with respect to each other.

For no deviation, the condition is

d + d = 0

(m 1) A

(m 1) A + (m 1) A = 0 or A = (m 1)

Under this condition, net angular dispersion

produced by the combination

= (dV d R ) + (dV

dR )

= (mV m R ) A + (mV

mR ) A

Deviation without Dispersion

(mV m R ) A + (mV mR ) A = 0

or A =

(mV m R ) A

(mV mR )

the combination is

R1

R2

= d + d = (m 1) A + (m 1) A

Rainbow : The rainbow is an example of the

dispersion of sunlight by the water drops in

the atmosphere. It is due to combined effect of

dispersion, refraction and reflection of sunlight by

spherical water droplets of rain.

scattering of light

it gets scattered (changes its direction) by the

atmospheric particles. Light of shorter wavelengths

is scattered much more than light of longer

wavelengths. The amount of scattering is inversely

proportional to the fourth power of the wavelength.

This is known as Rayleigh scattering.

refraction froM a spherical surface

refracting medium whose curved surface is a part

of a sphere. Spherical refracting surface are of two

types :

Convex refracting surface

Concave refracting surface

For refraction from rarer to denser medium

m m1

m m

1+ 2= 2

u

v

R

where u, v and R be the object distance, image

distance and radius of curvature from the spherical

surface respectively.

When refraction occurs from denser to rarer

medium we interchange m1 and m2

m

m m m2

2+ 1= 1

u

v

R

refraction by a lens

A lens is a portion of a transparent refracting

medium bound by two spherical surfaces, or one

spherical surface and a plane surface.

Lenses are of two types:

Convex lens is a lens that is thicker in the middle

than at the edges as shown in figure (a).

Concave lens is a lens that is thinner in

the middle than at the edges as shown in

figure (b).

Biconvex

R1

Plano convex

(a)

Concavo convex

R2

Biconcave

R2

R1

(b)

KEY POINT

those of spherical mirrors except that instead

of pole of the mirror, we take use of optical

centre of the lens.

lens Makers formula

1

1

1

= (m 1)

f

R1 R2

surfaces of the lens and m is the refractive index of

material of lens with respect to surrounding medium.

When the refractive index of the material of the

lens is greater than that of the surroundings, then

biconvex lens acts as a converging lens and a

biconcave lens acts as a diverging lens as shown in

the figure.

is smaller than that of the surrounding medium,

then biconvex lens acts as a diverging lens and a

biconcave lens acts as a converging lens as shown

in the figure.

| march 15 35

1 1 1

=

v u f

SELF CHECK

lens, P is negative.

3

in two different liquids having refractive

4

5

indices and , it has the focal lengths f1 and

3

3

f2 respectively. The correct relation between the

focal lengths is

(a) f1 and f2 both become negative

(b) f1 = f2 < f

(c) f1 > f and f2 becomes negative

(d) f2 > f and f1 becomes negative

(JEE Main 2014)

2. An object 2.4 m in front of a lens forms a sharp

image on a film 12 cm behind the lens. A glass

plate 1 cm thick, of refractive index 1.50 is

interposed between lens and film with its plane

faces parallel to film. At what distance (from

lens) should object be shifted to be in sharp

focus on film?

(a) 2.4 m

(b) 3.2 m

(c) 5.6 m

(d) 7.2 m

(AIEEE 2012)

optical instruMents

optical centre of the lens, v is the distance of the

image from the optical centre of the lens, f is the

focal length of lens.

KEY POINT

f is negative for diverging or concave lens.

linear Magnification

m=

size of image (I ) v

= .

size of object (O) u

inverted image.

power of a lens

P=

1

.

focal length in metres

1 D = 1 m1.

...etc. are placed in contact coaxially, the equivalent

focal length F of the combination is given by

1 1

1

1

= +

+ + ....

F f1 f 2 f 3

The total power of the combination is given by

P = P1 + P2 + P3 + ...

The total magnification of the combination is given

by

m = m1 m2 m3 ....

When two thin lenses of focal lengths f1 and f2 are

placed coaxially and separated by a distance d, the

focal length of a combination is given by

d

1 1

1

= +

.

F f1 f 2 f1 f 2

In terms of power P = P1 + P2 dP1P2.

36 physics for you |

march 15

simple Microscope

objects. It consist of a converging lens of small focal

length.

Magnifying power of a simple microscope when

the image is formed at infinity,

M=

D

f

f is the focal length of convex lens.

When the image is formed at near point (at D),

D

M = 1+ .

f

compound Microscope

lenses coaxially separated by some distance. The

the lens through which the final image is viewed is

called the eyepiece.

Magnifying power of a compound microscope

adjustment),

v D

M= o

uo f e

In normal adjustment,

f

Magnifying power, M = o

fe

Length of the tube, L = fo + 4f + fe

Length of tube, L = vo + fe

When the final image is formed at least distance of

distinct vision,

v

D

M = o 1 +

uo

fe

where uo and vo represent the distance of object and

intermediate image from the objective lens, fe is the

focal length of an eye lens.

f D

Length of the tube, L = v o + e

f e + D

astronomical refracting telescope

Refracting telescope use lenses as their main

components. The one facing the object is called

objective or field lens and has large focal length,

while the other facing the eye is called eye-piece or

ocular has small focal length.

Magnifying power of a astronomical telescope

adjustment),

f

M= o

fe

Length of tube, L = fo + fe

When the final image is formed at least distance of

distinct vision,

f

f

M = o 1 + e

fe

D

Length of tube, L = f o +

To achieve it, an inverting convex lens (of focal

length f) is used in between the objective and eye

piece of astronomical telescope. This lens is known

as erecting lens.

fe D

fe + D

terrestrial telescope

The essential requirement of such a telescope is that

order to overcome the drawbacks of refracting type

telescope. In a reflecting type telescope, a concave

mirror of large aperture is used as objective in place

of a convex lens. It possesses a large light gathering

power and a high resolving power. Due to this, it

enables us to see even faint stars and observe their

minute details.

In normal adjustment

()

R

fo

Magnifying power, M =

= 2

fe

fe

mirror.

Reflecting type telescope is free from chromatic

aberration because light does not undergo

refraction.

wave optics

of light and provides an explanation for different

phenomena like reflection, refraction, interference,

diffraction and polarisation.

wavefront

the light source and vibrate in the same phase

constitute a wavefront.

Depending on the type of light source, wavefronts

are of three types:

Spherical wavefront : It is formed by a point

source of light.

Cylindrical wavefront : It is formed by a linear

source of light.

physics for you

| march 15 37

source of light when the observation point is

far away from the light source.

I = I1 + I 2 + 2 I1I 2 cos f

If I1 = I2 = I0, then I = I0 + I0 + 2I0 cos f = 4I0 cos2

I = I1 +I 2 + 2 I1I 2 cos f

huygens principle

the given wavefront called primary wavefront, acts

as a source of new disturbances, called secondary

wavelets, that travel in all directions with the

velocity of light in the medium. A surface touching

these secondary wavelets tangentially in the forward

direction at any instant gives a new wavefront at that

instant, which is known as secondary wavefront.

coherent sources

having the same wavelength, same frequency and

in same phase or having a constant phase difference

are known as coherent sources of light.

interference of light

on account of superposition of light waves from

two coherent sources. Interference pattern produce

points of maximum and minimum intensity. Points

where resultant intensity is maximum, interference

is said to be constructive and at the points of

destructive interference, resultant intensity is

minimum.

conditions for sustained interference of light

the same wavelength or frequency. The amplitudes

of waves from two sources should preferably be

equal. The waves emitted by the two sources should

either be in phase or should have a constant phase

difference. The two sources must lie very close to

each other. The two sources should be very narrow.

intensity Distribution

to two coherent sources and f is constant phase

difference between the two waves at any point P,

then the resultant amplitude at P will be

R = a 2 + b2 + 2ab cos f

If a2 = I1, b2 = I2, then resultant intensity, I = R2

= a2 + b2 + 2 ab cos f

38 physics for you |

march 15

or

I max

=

I min

(

(

I1 I 2

)2

f

2

I1 + I 2

)2

)2 = (a + b)2

2

(a b)2

I2 )

I1 + I 2

I1

f

If the sources are incoherent, I = I1 + I2

youngs double slit experiment

demonstrate the phenomenon of interference of

light. Using two slits illuminated by monochromatic

light source, he obtained bright and dark bands of

equal width placed alternately. These were called

interference fringes.

For constructive interference (formation of

bright fringes)

For nth bright fringe,

d

Path difference = xn = nl

D

where n = 0 for central bright fringe

n = 1 for first bright fringe,

n = 2 for second bright fringe and so on

d = distance between the two slits

D = distance of slits from the screen

xn = distance of nth bright fringe from the

centre.

D

\ xn = nl

d

For destructive interference (formation of dark

fringes).

For nth dark fringe,

d

l

= (2n 1)

D

2

where, n = 1 for first dark fringe,

n = 2 for 2nd dark fringe and so on.

path difference = xn

lD

\ xn = (2n 1)

2 d

Fringe width : The distance between any two

consecutive bright or dark fringes is known as

fringe width.

lD

Fringe width, =

d

l

Angular fringe width, q = =

D d

If W1, W2 are widths of two slits, I1, I2 are intensities

of light coming from two slits; a, b are the amplitudes

of light from these slits, then

W1 I1 a 2

= =

W2 I 2 b2

2

I max (a + b)

=

I min (a b)2

I

I

Fringe visibility, V = max min

I max + I min

When entire apparatus of Youngs double slit

experiment is immersed in a medium of refractive

index m, then fringe width becomes

lD lD

=

=

=

d

md m

When a thin transparent plate of thickness t and

refractive index m is placed in the path of one of the

interfering waves, fringe width remains unaffected

but the entire pattern shifts by

D

= (m 1) t

d

l

This shifting is towards the side in which transparent

plate is introduced.

Dx = (m 1) t

KEY POINT

phase difference between the two waves

reaching that point should be zero or an even

integral multiple of p.

For destructive interference at a point the

phase difference between the two waves

reaching that particular point should be an

odd integral multiple of p.

Diffraction

corners of an obstacle placed in its path, on account

of which it penetrates into the region of geometrical

shadow of the obstacle.

Diffraction of light at a single slit

the screen consists of a central bright band, having

alternate dark and weak bright bands of decreasing

intensity on both sides.

Condition for nth secondary maximum in terms of

l

path difference = a sin qn = (2n 1)

2

where n = 1, 2, 3,.......

Condition for nth secondary minimum in terms of

path difference = asinqn = nl

where n = 1, 2, 3,.......

Width of secondary maxima or minima

lD lf

=

a

a

where, a is the width of slit, D is the distance of

screen from the slit, f is the focal length of lens for

diffracted light.

2lD 2 f l

=

.

Width of central maximum =

a

a

=

2l

.

a

l

minima = .

a

resolving power

distinctly separate images of two close objects i.e. it

is the ability of the instrument to resolve or to see as

separate, the images of two close objects.

limit of resolution

which can just be seen as separate by the optical

instrument is known as the limit of resolution of

the instrument. Smaller the limit of resolution of

the optical instrument, greater is its resolving power

and vice-versa.

physics for you

| march 15 39

distance d between two point objects, which can

just be seen through the microscope as separate.

1 2m sin q

Resolving power = =

d

l

where m is refractive index of the medium between

object and objective lens, q is half the angle of cone

of light from the point object, d represents limit of

resolution of microscope and msinq is known as the

numerical aperture.

resolving power of a telescope

separation (dq) between two distant objects, whose

images are just seen in the telescope as separate.

Resolving power =

1

D

=

dq 1.22 l

of the telescope, dq represents limit of resolution of

telescope.

polarisation

to a single plane is known as polarisation of light.

Angle of polarisation is the angle of incidence for

which an ordinary light is completely polarised in

the plane of incidence when it gets reflected from a

transparent medium.

Plane of vibration

Unpolarised

light

Plane polarised

light

Plane of vibration

are confined is known as plane of vibration and

plane perpendicular to the plane of vibration is

known as plane of polarization.

Brewsters law

is incident at polarising angle on the interface

separating air from a medium of refractive index

m, the reflected light is fully polarised, provided

40 physics for you |

march 15

tangent of the polarising angle.

m = tan ip

Malus law

polarised light is incident on the analyzer, the

intensity of light transmitted from the analyser is

directly proportional to the square of the cosine of

the angle between the planes of transmission of the

polariser and analyser.

I a cos2q

If the intensity of plane polarised light incident on

analyser is I0, then intensity of light emerging from

analyser is

I = I0 cos2q

polaroids

light. It can be used to control the intensity of light

in sunglasses, windowpanes, photographic cameras

and 3D movie cameras.

KEY POINT

reflected and refracted rays are perpendicular

to each other.

SELF CHECK

3. Two beams, A and B, of plane polarized

light with mutually perpendicular planes of

polarisation are seen through a polaroid. From

the position when the beam A has maximum

intensity (and beam B has zero intensity), a

rotation of polaroid through 30 makes the

two beams appear equally bright. If the initial

intensities of the two beams are IA and IB

I

respectively, then A equals

IB

1

3

(a)

(b) 3

(c)

(d) 1

3

2

(JEE Main 2014)

4. A beam of unpolarised light of intensity I0 is

passed through a polaroid A and then through

another polaroid B which is oriented so that its

(b) I0

(c) I0/2

(d) I0/4

Dual nature of Matter anD raDiation

polarisation can be explained only on the basis of

wave nature of radiation whereas phenomena like

black body radiation, photoelectric effect, compton

effect can be explained only on the basis of particle

(quantum) nature of radiation. Thus, radiation has

dual nature i.e. particle and wave.

photoelectric effect

from the surface of metals, when light radiations

of suitable frequency fall on them. The emitted

electrons are known as photoelectrons and the

current so produced is known as photoelectric

current.

work function

come out from a metal surface is known as work

function of the metal. It is denoted by f0 or W0 and

measured in electron volt (eV). The work function

depends on the properties of the metal and the

nature of its surface.

laws of photoelectric emission

For a given metal and frequency of incident

radiation, the number of photoelectrons ejected per

second is directly proportional to the intensity of

the incident light.

For a given metal, there exists a certain minimum

frequency of the incident radiation below which

no emission of photoelectrons takes place. This

frequency is known as threshold frequency. Above

the threshold frequency, the maximum kinetic

energy of the emitted photoelectron is independent

of the intensity of incident light but depends only

upon the frequency (or wavelength) of the incident

light. The photoelectric emission is an instantaneous

process.

detector loop were enhanced when an emitter plate

was illuminated by ultraviolet light from an arc

lamp.

Hallwachs and Lenard found that when ultraviolet

radiation was allowed to fall on the emitter plate of

an evacuated glass tube enclosing two metal plates,

current flowed in the circuit.

After the discovery of electrons, it became evident

that the incident light causes electrons to be emitted

from the emitter plate. It was also observed that no

electrons were emitted at all when the frequency

of the incident light was smaller than a certain

minimum value.

experimental features and observations of

photoelectric effect

photoelectric effect are as follows :

For a given photosensitive material and

frequency of incident radiation (above the

threshold frequency)

the

photoelectric

current is directly

proportional to the

Intensity of light

intensity of incident

light.

For a given photosensitive material and

frequency of incident radiation, saturation

current (the maximum value of photoelectric

current) is found to be proportional to the

intensity of incident radiation whereas the

stopping potential is independent of its intensity.

Photoelectric

current

(a) I0/8

Photoelectric

current

that of A. The intensity of the emergent light is

I3 > I2 > I1

I3

I2

I1

Stopping

potential

V0

Retarding

potential

O

Collector plate

potential

exists a certain minimum cut-off frequency

physics for you

| march 15 41

frequency, below which no emission of

photoelectrons takes place, no matter how

intense the incident light is. Above the

threshold frequency, the stopping potential or

equivalently the maximum kinetic energy of

the emitted photoelectrons increases linearly

with the frequency of incident radiation, but is

independent of its intensity.

Stopping

potential

(V0)

Metal A

> 0

Metal B

> 0

0

0

( )

Frequency of incident radiation

process without any apparent time lag (~ 109 s or

less), even when the incident radiation is made

exceedingly dim.

particle nature of light : the photon

is quantized and exists in elementary amounts we

now call photons.

The photon picture of electromagnetic radiations

and the characteristic properties of photons are as

follows :

In the interaction of radiation with matter,

radiation behaves as if it is made of particles

like photons.

Each photon has energy E (= hu = hc/l) and

hu h

momentum p =

=

, where h is Plancks

c l

constant, u and l are the frequency and

wavelength of radiation and c is the velocity of

light.

Irrespective of the intensity of radiation, all

the photons of a particular frequency have the

same energy and same momentum.

The photon energy is independent of the

intensity of radiations.

All the photons emitted from a source of

radiations travel through space with the same

speed c.

42 physics for you |

march 15

a definite energy (or colour) which does not

change when photon travels through different

media.

The velocity of photon in different media

is different which is due to change in its

wavelength.

The rest mass of a photon is zero. According

to theory of relativity, the mass m of a particle

moving with velocity v, comparable with the

velocity of light c is given by

m0

or m0 = m 1 v 2 /c 2 ...(i)

m=

2 2

1 v /c

where m0 is the rest mass of particle. As a

photon moves with the speed of light,

v = c, so from (i), m0 = 0.

Photons are not deflected by electric and

magnetic fields. This shows that photons are

electrically neutral.

In a photon-particle collision (such as photoelectron collision), the energy and momentum

are conserved. However the number of photons

may not be conserved in a collision.

Matter waves

particles are called matter waves or de Broglie

waves.

de Broglie wavelength

is called de Broglie wavelength and it is given by

l=

h

h

=

p mv

velocity of particle and h is the Plancks constant.

de Broglie wavelength is independent of the charge

and nature of the material particle.

In terms of kinetic energy K, de Broglie wavelength

is given by l =

h

2mK

potential difference V, its de Broglie wavelength is

given by

h

2mqV

1/2

150

l=

For an electron,

V

For a gas molecule of mass m at temperature

T kelvin, its de Broglie wavelength is given by

h

l=

, where k is the Boltzmann constant.

3mkT

Davisson anD gerMer eXperiMent

verified by C.J. Davisson and L.H. Germer in 1927

and independently by G.P. Thomson, in 1928, who

observed diffraction effects with beams of electrons

scattered by crystals.

SELF CHECK

5. The surface of a metal is illuminated with the

light of 400 nm. The kinetic energy of the

ejected photoelectrons was found to be 1.68 eV.

The work function of the metal is

(hc = 1240 eV nm)

(a) 3.09 eV

(b) 1.41 eV

(c) 1.51 eV

(d) 1.68 eV

(AIEEE 2009)

atoMs

J J Thomson in 1898. According to this model, the

positive charge of the atom is uniformly distributed

through out the volume of the atom and the

negatively charged electrons are embedded in it

like seeds in a watermelon. This model was called

as plum pudding model of atom.

alpha particle scattering eXperiMent anD

rutherforDs MoDel of atoM

the discovery of the nucleus. Rutherford and his

co-workers directed a beam of alpha particles at a

thin metal foil made of gold. If the plum pudding

model were correct, then the alpha particles would

be expected to pass nearly straight through the

foil. But in actual, alpha particles were scattered in

different directions.

q and the number of alpha particles scattered at q

for a very large number of alpha particles, as shown

in figure. The following observations can be made

from the graph.

Most of the alpha particles passed straight

through the gold foil undeflected.

Some of the alpha particles were deflected at

small angles.

Very few (one in thousands) alpha particles

retraced their paths after passing through the

gold foil.

Number of alpha particles

scattered

l=

107

106

105

104

103

102

10

Scattering angle ()

velocity vector of an alpha particle from a central

line passing through the centre of nucleus, when

the alpha particle is far away from the nucleus, is

known as its impact parameter.

For larger impact parameters, the force F

experienced by the alpha particle is weak because

1

.

F

(distance)2

The scattering angle q of the alpha particle and

impact parameter b are related as

b=

Ze 2 cot(q / 2)

4 p0 K

Z is the atomic number of the nucleus.

Smaller the impact parameter, larger the angle of

scattering q.

Distance of closest approach

kinetic energy of the alpha particles is converted

into potential energy.

physics for you

| march 15 43

r0 =

hydrogen-like atoms which have only one orbital

electron. His postulates are as follows :

An electron can revolve around the nucleus

only in certain allowed circular orbits of definite

energy and in these orbits it does not radiate.

These orbits are called stationary orbits.

Angular momentum of the electron in a

stationary orbit is an integral multiple of h/2p.

i.e., L = nh or, mvr = nh

2p

2p

where m is the mass of the electron, v is the velocity

of the electron, r is the radius of the orbit and n is a

positive integer called principal quantum number.

This is called as Bohrs quantisation condition.

This postulate is equivalent to saying that in a

stationary state, the circumference of a circular

orbit contains integral numbers of de Broglie

wavelength.

nh

nh

2pr = nl =

i.e. L = mvr = .

mv

2p

The emission of radiation takes place when an

electron makes a transition from a higher to a

lower orbit. The frequency of the radiation is

given by

E E1

u= 2

h

where E2 and E1 are the energies of the electron

in the higher and lower orbits respectively.

Since the centripetal force for circular orbit is

provided by the Coulombs force, we have

1 Ze 2 mv 2

=

r

4p0 r 2

where Z is the atomic number of the element

and e is the electronic charge.

Bohrs formulae

Radius of

rn =

orbit

4p0n2h 2

0n2h 2

=

4p2mZe 2 pmZe 2

n2h 2

rn = 0 2 = a0n2

pme

2 Ze

4 p0 K

nth

march 15

h 2 0

= 0.53 10 10 m

pme 2

is called Bohrs radius

Velocity of electron in nth orbit

where a0 =

1 2pZe 2

acZ

Ze 2

c Z

=

=

=

4p0 nh

20nh

137 n

n

vn =

1

e2

=

20hc 137

a is called fine structure constant and is a pure

number.

Frequency of electron in nth orbit

where a =

un =

vn

1 4p2Z 2e 4m me 4 Z 2

=

= 2 3 3

2prn 4p0

n3h 3

40n h

Tn =

=

=

vn

me 4 Z 2

4p2Z 2e 4m

Kn =

=

1 Ze 2

1 2p2me 4 Z 2

=

4p0 2rn

4p0

n2h 2

13.6Z 2

eV.

n2

Potential energy of electron in nth orbit

Un =

=

1 Ze 2

1 4p2me 4 Z 2

=

4p0 rn

4p0

n2h 2

27.2Z 2

eV

n2

Total energy of electron in nth orbit

2

1 2p2me 4 Z 2

En = U n + K n =

4p0

n2h 2

=

13.6Z 2

eV.

n2

When an electron makes a transition from

initial state ni to final state nf (ni > nf), then the

frequency of emitted radiation is given by

1

1

n2 n2

f

i

Wavelength of emitted radiation is given by

1

1

1

= RZ 2 2 2

n

l

f ni

where R is called Rydbergs constant.

u = RcZ 2

1 2p2me 4

= 1.097 107 m 1.

R=

3

4p0

ch

1 is called wave number and is denoted by

u.

l

This relation holds for radiation by hydrogen

like atoms i.e. H (Z = 1), He+ (Z = 2), Li++

(Z = 3) and Be+++ (Z = 4).

ionization energy and ionization potential

Ionization energy =

13.6Z 2

Ionization potential =

n2

eV.

13.6Z 2

n2

V.

SELF CHECK

6. In a hydrogen like atom electron makes

transition from an energy level with quantum

number n to another with quantum number

(n 1). If n > > 1, the frequency of radiation

emitted is proportional to

1

1

(a) 3

(b)

n

n

(c)

n2

(d)

3/2

energy level to lower energy level, the difference

of energies of the two energy levels is emitted

as radiation of particular wavelength, known as

spectral line.

lyman series

transition of electron from higher energy levels

(n2 = 2, 3, ...,) to first energy level (n1 = 1) constitute

Lyman series.

1

1

1

= R 2 2 where n2 = 2, 3, 4, ......,

l

1 n2

Balmer series

Emission spectral lines corresponding to the

transition of electron from higher energy levels

(n2 = 3, 4, ....) to second energy level (n1 = 2)

constitute Balmer series.

1

1

1

= R 2 2 where n2 = 3, 4, 5...........,

l

n2

2

paschen series

transition of electron from higher energy levels

(n2 = 4, 5, .....,) to third energy level (n1 = 3)

constitute Paschen series.

1

1

1

= R 2 2 where n2 = 4, 5, 6.........,

l

n2

3

Brackett series

Emission spectral lines corresponding to the

transition of electron from higher energy levels

(n2 = 5, 6, 7,.....,) to fourth energy level (n1 = 4)

constitute Brackett series.

1

1

1

= R 2 2 where n2 = 5, 6, 7..........,

l

n2

4

pfund series

transition of electron from higher energy levels

(n2 = 6, 7, 8,.......,) to fifth energy level (n1 = 5)

constitute Pfund series.

1

1

1

= R 2 2 where n2 = 6, 7,...........,

l

n2

5

Number of spectral lines due to transition of

electron from nth orbit to lower orbit is

N=

n(n 1)

.

2

energy quantisation

discrete or quantised. The energy of a particle of

mass m confined to a box of length L can have only

discrete values of energy given by the relation

En =

n2 h 2

8mL2

where n = 1, 2 , 3 , .........

physics for you

| march 15 45

SELF CHECK

(1H1),

H2),

7. Hydrogen

Deuterium (1

singly

ionised Helium (2He4)+ and doubly ionised

lithium (3Li6)++ all have one electron around

the nucleus. Consider an electron transition

from n = 2 to n = 1. If the wavelengths of emitted

radiation are l1, l2, l3 and l4 respectively then

approximately which one of the following is

correct?

(a) l1 = 2l2 = 3l3 = 4l4

(b) 4l1 = 2l2 = 2l3 = l4

(c) l1 = 2l2 = 2l3 = l4

(d) l1 = l2 = 4l3 = 9l4

(JEE Main 2014)

8. Hydrogen atom is excited from ground state to

another state with principal quantum number

equal to 4. Then the number of spectral lines in

the emission spectra will be

(a) 3

(b) 5

(c) 6

(d) 2

(AIEEE 2012)

R = R0 A1/3

where R0 is a constant.

nuclear Density

Nuclear density, =

Volume of the nucleus

order of 1017 kg m3.

KEY POINT

nuclei being bigger than the lighter ones.

But density of nuclear matter is same for all

nuclei.

isotopes, isoBars anD isotones

same atomic number but different mass numbers

are called isotopes.

nuclei

e.g. (1H1, 1H2 and 1H3) and (8O16, 8O17 and 8O18)

are isotopes.

charge and almost entire mass of the atom are

concentrated is called as nucleus.

same mass number but different atomic numbers

are called isobars.

isobars.

The number of protons in a nucleus (called the

atomic number or proton number of the nucleus)

is represented by the symbol Z, the number of

neutrons (the neutron number) is represented

by the symbol N. A neutron is a nucleon with no

charge. The total number of neutrons and protons

in a nucleus is called its mass number A. Thus

A=Z+N

Neutrons and protons, when considered collectively,

are called nucleons.

The atomic mass unit is one-twelfth of the mass of a

12 atom of carbon. It is represented by the symbol

6C

u and it is the average mass of a nucleon.

24

12Mg )

are

the nuclei have the same number of neutrons but

different number of protons are called isotones.

e.g. (11Na23 and 12Mg24) and (19K39 and 20Ca40) are

isotones.

Mass Defect

mass of its constituents.

The difference in mass of a nucleus and its

constituents is called mass defect and is given by

DM = [Zmp + (A Z)mn M]

properties of nucleus

mass of the neutron and M is the mass of the nucleus.

nuclear size

BinDing energy

1 fm = 1015 m

46 physics for you |

march 15

called the binding energy of the nucleus.

Eb =

DMc2

= [Zmp + (A Z)mn

M]c2

is given by

The greater the binding energy per nucleon, the

more stable is the nucleus.

Binding Energy curve

nucleon and mass number as shown in the figure.

1 T1/2

=

= 1.44T1/2

l 0.693

activity

radioactive substance per second is called activity

and it is given by R = dN/dt.

The SI unit of activity is becquerel.

1 becquerel = 1 Bq = 1 decay/sec.

Binding energy

per nucleon (MeV)

1 curie = 1 Ci = 3.70 1010 decays/s = 37 GBq.

activity law

R = Nl.

Fraction of nuclei left undecayed after n half lives is

n

The binding energy per nucleon is practically

constant, i.e. independent of the atomic

number for nuclei of middle mass number

(30 < A < 170). The curve has a maximum of

about 8.75 MeV for A = 56 and has a value of

7.6 MeV for A = 238.

The binding energy per nucleon is lower for

both light nuclei (A < 30) and heavy nuclei

(A > 170).

radioactivity

nucleus undergoes decay with the emission of alpha

particles, beta particles, or gamma rays.

Law of radioactive decay

dN

= lN (t ) or N (t ) = N 0e lt

dt

where l is the decay constant or disintegration

constant, N is the number of nuclei left undecayed

at the time t, N0 is the number of radioactive nuclei

at t = 0.

Half-life of a radioactive substance is given by

T1/2 =

ln 2 0.693

=

l

l

N 1

1

=

=

N0 2

2

t /T1/2

or t = nT1/2

SELF CHECK

9. The half life of a radioactive substance is

20 minutes. The approximate time interval

2

(t2 t1) between the time t2 when of it has

3

1

decayed and time t1 when of it had decayed

3

is

(a) 7 min

(b) 14 min

(c) 20 min

(d) 28 min

(AIEEE 2011)

10. A radioactive nucleus (initial mass number A

and atomic number Z) emits 3a-particles and

2 positrons. The ratio of number of neutrons to

that of protons in the final nucleus will be

(a)

AZ 4

Z 2

(b)

AZ 8

Z4

(c)

AZ 4

Z 8

(d)

A Z 12

Z4

(AIEEE 2010)

| march 15 47

nuclear reaction

of one stable nucleus into another nucleus by

bombarding the former with suitable high energy

particles.

It is represented by A + a B + b + Q

where A is the target nucleus, a is the impinging

particle, B and b the products, Q is the energy

released in the process.

Q value of nuclear reaction,

Q = (mA + ma mB mb)c2

If Q is positive, the reaction is termed as exothermic

and if Q is negative the reaction is termed as

endothermic.

Every nuclear reaction obey following laws :

Conservation of charge

Conservation of mass

Conservation of linear momentum

Conservation of energy

nuclear fission

into two or more smaller nuclei.

The

92 U is represented as

235

1

141

92

1

92 U + 0 n 56 Ba + 36 Kr + 3 0 n + Q

nuclear chain reaction

neutrons may cause further fission of U235 nuclei

The nuclear chain reaction is controlled by

Neutron reproduction factor (K)

rate of production of neutrons

=

rate of loss of neutrons

Uncontrolled nuclear chain reaction is the basis of

an atom bomb. Controlled nuclear chain reaction is

the basis of a nuclear reactor.

nuclear reactor

purposes. It is based on the phenomenon of

controlled nuclear chain reaction. Moderators like

heavy water, graphite, paraffin and deuterium slow

down neutrons. Rods of cadmium or boron serve as

control rods. Ordinary water and heavy water serve

as coolants.

nuclear fusion

nuclei to form a single heavy nucleus.

The nuclear fusion reaction of two deutrons is

represented as

2

1H

Temperature 107 K are required for fusion to take

place. Nuclear fusion is a basis of hydrogen bomb.

nn

1. (c)

2. (c)

3. (a)

4. (d)

5. (b)

6. (a)

7. (d)

8. (c)

9. (c)

10. (c)

An exciting application of crossed polarisers that is, two polarisers which are perpendicular to each other is in viewing IMAX

3-D movies. These movies are recorded on two separate rolls of film, using a camera that provides images from two different

perspectives that correspond to what is observed by human eyes and allow us to see in three dimensions. The camera has two

apertures or openings located at roughly the spacing between our eyes. The 3-D films are projected using a projector with two

lenses. Each lens has its own polariser, and the two polarisers are crossed. Viewers watch the action on-screen using glasses with

corresponding polarisers for the left and right eyes, as the drawing shows. Because of the crossed polarisers the left eye sees only

the image from the left lens of the projector, and the right eye sees only the image from the right lens. Since the two images have

the approximate perspectives that the left and right eyes would see in reality, the brain combines the images to produce a realistic

3-D effect.

march 15

R and focal length f. If f > R, the refractive index of

the material of the lens is

(a) greater than zero but less than 15

(b) greater than 1.5 but less than 2.0

(c) greater than one but less than 1.5

(d) none of these

2. A parallel beam of light of intensity I0 is incident

on a glass plate, 25% of light is reflected by upper

surface and 50% of light is reflected from lower

surface. The ratio of maximum to minimum

intensity in interference region of reflected rays

is

5+2 6

5+ 6

(a)

(b)

5 6

52 6

5

8

(c)

(d)

8

5

3. An electron of mass m and charge e initially at

rest gets accelerated by a constant electric field

E. The rate of change of de-Broglie wavelength

of this electron at time t (ignoring relativistic

effects) is

h

mh

h

eEt

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

2

2

eEt

h

eEt

eEt

1 h and 2 h respectively initially contain the

same number of radioactive atoms. At the end

of two hours, their rates of disintegration are in

the ratio of

(a) 1 : 4 (b) 1 : 3 (c) 1 : 2 (d) 1 : 1

5. A ray of light undergoes a deviation of 30 when

incident on an equilateral prism of refractive

index 2. What is the angle subtended by

the ray inside the prism with the base of the

prism?

(a) 0

(b) 45

(c) 60 (d) 90

6. Youngs double slit experiment is performed

with two wavelengths simultaneously,

are 1.0 m from the screen. What is the

separation of the screen between third order

(n = 3) bright fringes of the two interference

patterns?

(a) 7.2 109 m

(b) 7.2 105 m

9

(c) 5.2 10 m

(d) 5.2 105 m

7. A convex lens of focal length 20 cm and another

plano-convex lens of focal length 40 cm are

placed co-axially. The plano-convex lens is

silvered on plane surface. What should be the

distance d (in cm) so that final image of the

object O is formed on O itself ?

d

O

10 cm

f = + 20 cm

(a) 10

(b) 15

(c) 20

(d) 25

Electrons reaching the anode have kinetic

energies varying from 6 eV to 8 eV. Then which

of the following is true?

h

5V

(b) Work function of the metal is 3 eV.

(c) Current in the circuit is equal to saturation

value.

(d) Both (a) and (c).

9. Ultraviolet light of wavelengths 800 and

700 when allowed to fall on the hydrogen

atoms in their ground state is found to liberate

electrons with kinetic energy 1.8 eV and

physics for you

| march 15 49

constant is

(a) 1.66 1019 J s

(b) 5.67 1019 J s

34

(c) 7.57 10 J s

(d) 6.57 1034 J s

10. Hydrogen atom in its ground state is excited

by means of monochromatic radiation of

wavelength 970.6 . How many different

wavelengths are possible in the resulting

emission spectrum?

(a) 4

(b) 6

(c) 8

(d) 10

11. A sample of isotope 131I which has a half-life of

8.04 days has an activity of 5 mCi at the time of

shipment. Upon receipt in a medical laboratory,

the activity is 4.2 mCi. How much time has

elapsed between the two measurements?

(a) 2 days (b) 3 days (c) 4 days (d) 5 days

12. Assuming that in a star, three alpha particles

join in a single reaction to form 126 C nucleus.

Find the energy released in this reaction.

Given mass of 24 He = 4.002604 u and that of

12 = 12.000000 u.

6C

(a) 12.2 MeV

(b) 10.2 MeV

(c) 7.2 MeV

(d) 3.2 MeV

13. For the given incident ray as shown in figure, the

condition of total internal reflection of ray will

be satisfied if the refractive index of block will be

45

(a)

3 +1

(b)

2

Incident ray

2 +1

(c)

2

3

2

(d)

7

6

If m be the refractive index and R, the radius

of curvature of curved surface, then the system

will behave like a concave mirror of radius of

curvature

R

(a) mR

(b)

(m 1)

R

m +1

(c)

(d)

R

m

m 1

52 physics for you |

march15

of light used is 4 107 m. If the width of fringe

on screen is 4 mm, the distance between screen

and slits is

(a) 0.1 mm (b) 1 cm (c) 0.1 cm (d) 1 m

infinity, as formed by a convex lens of focal

length 30 cm is 2 cm. If a concave lens of focal

length 20 cm is placed between the convex lens

and the image at a distance of 26 cm from the

convex lens, the new size of the image is

(a) 1.25 cm

(b) 2.5 cm

(c) 1.05 cm

(d) 2 cm

17. Interference fringes are produced in Youngs

double slit experiment using light of wavelength

5000 . When a film of material 2.5 106 m

thick was placed over one of the slits, the fringe

pattern shifted by a distance equal to 2 fringe

widths. The refractive index of the material of

the film is

(a) 1.25 (b) 1.33 (c) 1.4

(d) 1.5

18. Two radioactive materials X1 and X2 contain

same number of nuclei. If 6l s1 and 4l s1 are

the decay constants of X1 and X2 respectively,

then the ratio of number of nuclei, undecayed

1

of X1 to that of X2 will be after a time

e

1

1

1

1

s (b)

(a)

s (c)

s (d) s

2l

10l

5l

l

19. The ratio of maximum and minimum intensities

in the interference pattern of two sources is

4 : 1. The ratio of their amplitudes is

(a) 1 : 2 (b) 3 : 1 (c) 1 : 9 (d) 1 : 16

20. Li nucleus has three protons and four neutrons.

Mass of Li nucleus is 7.016005 amu, mass of

proton is 1.007277 amu and mass of neutron is

1.008665 amu. Mass defect of lithium nucleus

in amu is

(a) 0.040486 amu

(b) 0.040500 amu

(c) 0.040524 amu

(d) 0.040555 amu

21. A man is trying to start a fire by focusing sunlight

on a piece of paper using an equiconvex lens of

focal length 10 cm. The diameter of the sun is

earth is 1.5 1011 m, the diameter of the suns

image on the paper is

(a) 3.1 104 m

(b) 6.5 105 m

4

(c) 6.5 10 m

(d) 9.3 104 m

of a particle is 2000 and 1 eV respectively. If

its kinetic energy becomes 1 MeV, then its de

Broglie wavelength becomes

(a) 1

(b) 5

(c) 2 (d) 10

is +3 D. When placed in a liquid its power is

2 D. The refractive index of the liquid is

(a) 1.2

(b) 1.4

(c) 1.5

(d) 1.6

3.31 1019 J. Then, the maximum kinetic

energy of photoelectrons emitted by incident

radiation of wavelength 5000 is

(a) 2.48 eV

(b) 0.42 eV

(c) 2.07 eV

(d) 0.82 eV

1.5 in air is 10 cm. If air is replaced by water of

4

m = , its focal length is

3

(a) 20 cm

(b) 30 cm

(c) 40 cm

(d) 25 cm

24 Half-lives of two radioactive substances A and

B are respectively 20 minutes and 40 minutes.

Initially, the samples of A and B have equal

number of nuclei. After 80 minutes, the ratio of

the remaining numbers of A and B nuclei is

(a) 1 : 16 (b) 4 : 1 (c) 1 : 4 (d) 1 : 1

25. An equiconvex lens of focal length f is cut

into two halves along (i) XOX and (ii) YOY

as shown in the figure. Let f , f be the focal

lengths of complete lens, of each half in case (i),

and of each half in case (ii), respectively.

one surface of a prism of small angle A and

emerges normally from opposite surface. If the

refractive index of the material of prism is m,

the angle of incidence i is nearly equal to

mA

(a) A

(b) A

(c) mA

(d)

2

2m

m

30. If the wavelength of the first line of the Balmer

series of hydrogen is 6561 , the wavelength of

the second line of the series should be

(a) 13122

(b) 3280

(c) 4860

(d) 2187

solutions

1.

following.

(a) f = 2f and f = f (b) f = f and f = f

(c) f = 2f and f = 2f (d) f = f and f = 2f

26. A radioactive substance decays at the rate

of 5000 disintegration per minute. After

5 minutes it disintegrates at 1250 disintegration

per minutes. The decay constant is

(a) 0.2ln2 min1

(b) 0.4ln2 min1

1

(c) 0.6ln2 min

(d) 0.8ln2 min1

1

R

2

= (m 1) or f =

R

f

2(m 1)

Now, f > R

R

1

\

> R or

> 1 or 2(m 1) < 1

2(m 1)

2(m 1)

1

1

or (m 1) < or m < 1 + or m < 1.5.

2

2

(c) : Here,

2.

surface is I1 = 25% of I0

25 I0

= I0

=

100 4

The intensity of transmitted light from upper

surface is

3I

I

I = I0 0 = 0

4

4

The intensity of reflected light from lower

surface is

physics for you

| march 15 53

I2 =

3I0 50 3I0

=

4 100

8

through the prism. Thus

A

r1 = r2 = r = = 30

2

Inside the prism, the ray makes an angle 60

with the face AB, so it is parallel to base.

2

I max ( I1 + I2 )

=

I min ( I1 I2 )2

I0

3I 0

4 + 8

6.

2+ 3

5+2 6

=

=

=

2 2 3

52 6

I0

3I 0

4

8

3.

(a) : Here, u = 0, a =

eE

m

eE

t

m

de-Broglie wavelength,

\

v = u + at = 0 +

l=

h

h

h

=

=

mv m(eEt / m) eEt

d l h 1 h

=

=

dt eE t 2 eEt 2

4.

left

8.

In case of source A,

N 1

1

= =

N0

2

4

In case of source B,

N 1 1

=

=

N 0 2 2

\

5.

7.

RA N 0 / 4 1

=

=

RB N 0 / 2 2

A = 60. Let us test whether the prism is in the

position of minimum deviation.

30 + 60

sin

sin 45

2

m=

=

sin 30

60

sin

2

=

1

2

2= 2

march15

A

60

30

B

60

nl

or dq nl q =

d

The angular separation of two maxima

associated with different wavelength and same

order is

n(l2 l1 )

q =

d

The separation on a screen at a distance D

away is

nD(l2 l1 )

y = D tan(q) Dq =

d

(as tanq q for small angles)

3 1. 0

9

5

=

(600 480) 10 = 7.2 10 m

5.0 103

(c)

(a) : Maximum kinetic energy,

Kmax = (5 f) eV

When these electrons are accelerated through

5 V, they will reach the anode with maximum

energy = (5 f + 5) eV

\ 10 f = 8

or f = 2 eV

Current is less than saturation current because

even if slowest electron reaches the plate it will

have 5 eV energy at the anode, but there it is

given that the minimum energy is 6 eV.

l2 = 700 = 7 108 m

Kinetic energy of electron,

hc

= Incident energy Binding energy (13.6 eV)

l

hc

In the first case, 1.8 eV= 13.6 eV

... (i)

l1

9.

hc

13.6 eV ... (ii)

l2

1

l l2

1

2.2 eV = hc = hc 1

l2 l1

l1l2

h=

or

=

(2.2 eV)l1l2

c(l1 l2 )

8

(3 10 m s )(8 10

7 10 ) m

= 6.57 1034 J s

10. (b) : Energy of the monochromatic radiation,

E=

15

eV s)(3 108 m s 1 )

hc (4.14 10

=

l

970.6 1010 m

= 12.79 eV

Energy of the hydrogen atom is given by

13.6

En =

eV

n2

In the ground state, n = 1, E1 = 13.6 eV

Energy of the hydrogen atom after excitation

of the state

En = E1 + E = 13.6 eV + 12.79 eV = 0.81 eV

13.6

As En =

eV

n2

13.6

0.81 eV =

eV

n2

13.6

or n2 =

= 16.8

0.81

\n 4

Thus, when the electron is excited to state

n = 4, six different wavelengths in the emission

spectrum correspond to n = 4 to n = 3, 2, 1

(3 lines) n = 3 to n = 2, 1 (2 lines) and n = 2 to

n = 1 (1 line) transitions.

11. (a) : As R = lN and R0 = lN0.

5 mCi

N 0 R0

=

=

= 1.190

N

R 4.2 mCi

Also, T1/2 = 8.04 days

N0

= 2t /T1/2 1.190 = 2t /T1/2

As

N

t

t /T

log 2

or log 1.190 = log 2 1/2 =

T1/2

log 1.190

0.0755

or t =

8.04 2 days

T1/2 =

0.3010

log 2

12. (c) : According to the assumption, as three

alpha particles form a 12

nucleus,

6C

324 He 126 C

= 3(4.002604 u) = 12.007812 u

Mass of carbon nucleus = 12 u

Mass defect = 12.007812 u 12 u = 0.007812 u

Energy released in the reaction

= 0.007812 931.5 MeV = 7.277 MeV

13. (c) :

C

iC

B

r

45 A

sin i

sin 45

1

m=

=

=

sin r sin(90 iC )

2 cos iC

1

, sin iC = 2 cos iC

As m =

sin iC

2

or tan iC = 2 , sin iC =

3

1

3

=

siniC

2

14. (b) : For planoconvex lens (without its plane

surface silvered)

1

1 1 m 1

R

= (m 1) =

or f L =

R

fL

R

(m 1)

or m =

planoconvex lens with its plane face silvered,

light rays are : (i) refracted at the convex

surface (ii) reflected at the silvered surface and

(iii) refracted again at convex surface. If F is

the effective focal length of the combination,

then

1 1

1

1

2

=

+

+

=

(as f M = )

F fL fM fL fL

or

f

R

F= L =

2 2(m 1)

physics for you

| march 15 55

R

= 2F =

(m 1)

lD

bd

or D =

15. (d) : As, b =

d

l

Here, d = 0.1 mm = 0.1 103 m,

l = 4 107 m, b = 4 mm = 4 10 3m

4 10 3 0.1 10 3

\ D=

=1m

4 10 7

16. (b) : In figure, I1 is image formed by convex

lens. This acts as a virtual object for concave

lens. As for concave lens

1 1 1

1 1

1

=

\ =

v u f

v 4

20

1 1 1 1

\

= = or v = 5 cm

v 4 20 5

Magnification produced by concave lens

v 5

m = = = 1.25

u 4

As size of image I1 is 2 cm, therefore, size of

image I2 = 2 1.25 = 2.5 cm

17. (c) : Here, l = 5000 = 5 107 m,

t = 2.5 106 m, x = 2b

D

As x = (m 1)t

d

lD

D b

But b =

\ =

d

d l

\ x = (m 1)t

b

l

(m 1)(2.5 10 6 )b

5 10 7

m 1 = 0.4 or m = 1.4

2b =

N X 1 = N 0e 6lt , N X2 = N 0e 4lt

\

N X1 e 6lt

=

= e 2lt

N X2 e 4lt

march15

or

1

1

1

=

or 2lt = 1 or t =

s

e e 2lt

2l

2

19. (b) : I max = (a + b) = 4

I min (a b)2 1

a+b 2

=

a b 1

2a 2b = a + b or a = 3b \

a 3

=

b 1

mn = 1.008665 amu,

mLi = 7.016005 amu,

Sum of the masses of three protons and four

neutrons = 3mp + 4mn

= 3 1.007277 + 4 1.008665

= 3.021831 + 4.03466

= 7.056491 amu

\ Mass defect

= 7.056491 7.016005 = 0.040486 amu

f

f u

Here, f = 10 cm = 10 102 m,

u = 1.5 1011 m

10 102

\ m=

= 6.67 1013

10 102 1.5 1011

\ Diameter of the image

d = m 1.39 109

= 6.67 1013 1.39 109

= 9.3 104 m

22. (c) : 1 = (m 1) 1 1 = 3

fa

R1 R2

\

1

1

3 = (1.25 1)

R1 R2

and

1.25 1

1

1

= 2 =

1

m

R1 R2

fl

3

2

\ =

0.25m

0.5m = 3.75 3m

1.25 m

or m = 3.75/2.5 = 1.5

23. (c) : According to lens makers formula

The focal length of the lens in air is

1 ml 1

1

=

1

f air m a R1 R2

1

3/2 1

=

1

1

R

R

1

2

1

1 1

1

=

f air 2 R1 R2

2mK

Since mass of the particle remains constant

\ l 1

1

3/2 1

=

1

4 / 3 R1 R2

1

1 1

1

=

f water 8 R1 R2

...(ii)

f water

=4

f air

fwater = 4 fair = 4 10 cm = 40 cm

n

2

where n is the number of half-lives.

nA

4

N

1

= N0 = 0

2

16

t

80

nA = T = 20 = 4

A

1

For B, N B = N 0

2

nB

2

N

1

= N0 = 0

2

4

t

80

nB = T = 40 = 2

B

\

25. (d)

27. (c) : As l =

1

1

1

ml

=

1

f water m w R1 R2

1

For A, NA = N 0

2

2

= ln 2 = 0.4 ln 2 min 1

5

...(i)

24. (c) : N = N 0 1

1 5000 1

= ln 4

l = ln

5 1250 5

NA 1

= or N A : N B = 1 : 4

NB 4

R = R0elt

where R0 is the initial rate at t = 0.

R0

\

= e lt

R

Taking the natural logarithm on both sides, we

get

R

1 R

ln 0 = lt ; l = ln 0

R

t R

Here, R0 = 5000 dpm, R = 1250 dpm, t = 5 min

1 eV

l

K

1

=

=

=

6

l

K

1 10 eV 103

or l =

l

3

10

2000

103

=2

Wavelength, l = 5000 = 5000 1010 m

Energy of the incident photon,

=

= 3.98 1019 J

10

l

5000 10

According to Einsteins photoelectric equation

Kmax = hu f0

= 3.98 1019 J 3.31 1019 J

= 0.67 1019 J

E=

0.67 1019

1.6 1019

eV = 0.42 eV

opposite surface, r2 = 0

As A = r1 + r2\r1 = A

sin i1 i1 i

= or i = mA

sin r1 r1 A

30. (c) : For Balmer series, n1 = 2, n2 = 3 for 1st

line and n2 = 4 for second line.

Now, m =

1

1

2

2

l1 2

4 = 3 / 16 = 3 36 = 27

=

l2 1 1 5 / 36 16 5 20

22 32

l2 =

20

20

l = 6561 = 4860 A

27 1 27

nn

physics for you

| march 15 57

Maximum Marks : 70

GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS

(ii) This question paper has five sections: Section A, Section B, Section C, Section D and Section E.

(iii) Section A contains five questions of one mark each, Section B contains five questions of two marks each,

Section C contains twelve questions of three marks each, Section D contains one value based question of

four marks and Section E contains three questions of five marks each.

(iv) There is no overall choice. However, an internal choice has been provided in one question of two marks,

one question of three marks and all the three questions of five marks weightage. You have to attempt only

one of the choices in such questions.

(v) You may use the following values of physical constants wherever necessary.

c = 3 108 m/s, h = 6.63 1034 J s, e = 1.6 1019 C, o = 4p 107 T m A1, e0 = 8.854 1012 C2 N1 m2,

9

2 2

1/4pe0 = 9 10 N m C , m = 9.1 1031 kg, mass of neutron = 1.675 1027 kg, mass of proton = 1.673 1027 kg

e

23

section-A

1. Identify the parts X and Y in the block diagram

X

Transmitter

B

G

F

Will the position of the image change if the lens

is reversed?

March 15

JK

1000 km2 ?

(Take Radius of the Earth = 6.37 103 km).

5. There are materials which absorb photons of

Receiver

A

skeleton cube as shown in the

figure, which moves with a v

H

velocity v perpendicular to

E

the magnetic field B. What

B

will be the induced emf in

each arm of the cube?

23

wavelength. Can there be stable substances

which absorb photons of larger wavelength and

emit light of shorter wavelength.

section-B

is the voltage across the device and I the current

through it, find the power wasted. How can it

be reduced?

of 40 cm from it. A plane mirror is placed

30 cm behind the convex lens. Locate the position

of the image formed by this combination.

where angular speed of orbiting electron is w.

9. Voltages across L and C in the series are 180

out of phase while for LC in parallel, currents

in L and C are 180 out of phase. Explain.

10. Two charges q and 3q are placed fixed on

X-axis separated by distance d. Where should

a third charge 2q be placed such that it will not

experience any force?

OR

Find the work done to dissociate the system of

three charges each of value 1.6 109C placed

on the vertices of a triangle as shown in the

figure.

q

10

cm

cm

10

4q

10 cm

+2q

section-c

11. At what angle should a ray of light be incident

that it just suffers total internal reflection at the

other face? The refractive index of the material

of the prism is 1.524.

12. A student performs an experiment on

photoelectric effect, using two materials A and

B. Plot of Vstop versus u is given in the figure.

(a) Which material A or B has a higher work

function?

(b) Given the electric charge on an electron

= 1.6 1019 C, find the value of h obtained

from the experiment for both A and B.

Comment on whether it is consistent with

Einsteins theory.

Vstop(V)

3.0

2.5

2.0

1.5

1.0

a distance of 1 mm. What kind of the

capacitor do they make? Mention one

application of this capacitor.

(b) If the radius of each of the plates is increased

by a factor of 2 and their distance of

separation is reduced to half of its initial

value. Find the ratio of the capacitances in

the two cases.

(c) Suggest any one possible method by which

the capacitance in the second case be

increased by n times.

14. A telephone cable at a place has four long

straight horizontal wires carrying a current of

1.0 A in the same direction east to west. The

earths magnetic field at the place is 0.39 G, and

the angle of dip is 35. The magnetic declination

is nearly zero. What is the resultant magnetic

field at points 4.0 cm below the cable?

15. Define the two current gains of a transistor and

deduce a relation between them.

OR

more (~mA) than the current in the reverse

bias (~A). What is the reason then, to operate

the photodiodes in reverse bias?

16. Explain what is meant by radioactive decay.

symbol abV. How is the new nucleus represented

after the emission of

(i) an alpha particle

(ii) a beta particle

(iii) a gamma ray?

The activity of a source undergoing a single

type of decay is R0 at time t = 0. Obtain an

expression in terms of the half-life T1/2 for the

activity R at any subsequent time t.

10

15

(1014 Hz)

an angle of 60 to the field. Find the radius of

the helical path taken by the beam. Also find

the pitch of the helix.

physics for you

| March 15 59

(a) the percentage modulation

(b) peak carrier voltage

(c) peak value of information voltage.

100 V

20V

figure.

Aq

E

q

B

q

r

q

centre of the pentagon?

(ii) What will be the electric field at O if the

charge from one of the corners (say A) is

removed?

(iii) What will be the electric field at O if the

charge q at A is replaced by q?

20. Using Bohrs postulates, derive an expression

for the radii of the permitted orbits in the

hydrogen atom.

21. In a plane electromagnetic wave, the electric

field oscillates sinusoidally at a frequency of

2.0 1010 Hz and amplitude 48 V m1.

(a) What is the wavelength of the wave?

(b) What is the amplitude of the oscillating

magnetic field?

(c) Show that the average energy density of the

E field equals the average energy density of

the B field.

22. Can reflection result in plane polarised light if

the light is incident on the interface from the

side with higher refractive index?

60 physics for you |

March 15

the vendor used a digital weighing machine.

On another shop, she noticed that the vendor

was using an ordinary weighing machine. She

remembered having studied about logic gates

where, digital codes are used.

(i) What do you mean by logic gate? Mention

the basic universal gates.

(ii) Draw symbols for OR, AND and NOT

gates.

(iii) What is the value, in your opinion, that

Teena created by the above incident?

section-e

section-D

potentiometer. With the help of the circuit

diagram, explain how a potentiometer is

used to compare the emf s of two primary

cells. Obtain the required expression used

for comparing the emfs.

(b) Write two possible causes for one sided

deflection in a potentiometer experiment.

OR

State Kirchhoff s rules for an electrical network.

Explain their use by drawing a simple circuit

diagram. Find the expression of net emf if two

cell of emf s e1 and e2 and internal resistance

r1 and r2 are combined in parallel.

25. Explain with the help of a labelled diagram, the

principle, construction and working of an a.c.

generator.

OR

Explain with the help of a labelled diagram,

the principle, construction and working of a

transformer. Why is the core of transformer

laminated?

Give few energy losses in transformer.

26. With the help of a ray diagram, explain the

formation of image in an astronomical telescope

for a distant object. Define the term magnifying

power of a telescope. Derive an expression for

its magnifying power when the final image is

formed at the least distance of distinct vision.

OR

condition for (i) constructive interference

and (ii) destructive interference at a point

on the screen.

(b) In a Youngs double-slit experiment, the

slits are separated by 0.28 mm and the

screen is placed 1.4 m away. The distance

between the central bright fringe and the

fourth bright fringe is measured to be

1.2 cm. Determine the wavelength of light

used in the experiment.

solutions

then

P

P = VI or I =

...(ii)

V

where V is the voltage across the device and I is

the current through it.

From eqns. (i) and (ii),

2

P 2 RC

P

PC = RC =

V

V2

In order to reduce PC , power should be

transmitted at high voltage.

7. For the lens : u = 40 cm, f = 20 cm

L

10 cm

the arms AD, BC, EH and FG of the cube are

(e = Blv) is set up in these arms (l being the

length of each arm).

3. According to the principle of reversibility of

light, if a reflected or refracted ray is reversed in

direction, it will retrace its original path. Thus,

the position of the image will not change if the

lens is reversed.

4. Given hT = 100 m = 101 km,

population density = 1000 km2

Radio horizon of the transmitting tower

dT = 2RhT

Area covered, A = pdT2 = 2pRhT

Population covered = A population density

= 2 3.14 6.37 103 101 1000

= 40 105 = 40 lakhs

5. If a material absorbs a photon of larger

wavelength (less energy) and emits a photon

of shorter wavelength (more energy), energy

has to be supplied by the material. This is not

possible in case of a stable material.

6. Power wasted in the cables carrying current

PC = I2RC

...(i)

40 cm

I

30 cm

I

10 cm

40 cm

As

1 1 1 1

1

1

= ,

=

v u f v (40) 20

or v = +40 cm

In the absence of mirror M, the image of the

object O would have been formed at I which

lies at a distance of 10 cm (40 cm 30 cm)

behind M.

For the mirror : As I acts at a virtual object for

M, its real image is formed at I at a distance of

10 cm in front of the mirror.

8. The circular electron orbit can be considered to

be a circular coil carrying current I, where

e

e

ew

I= =

=

T 2p / w 2p

Magnetic field at the centre of circular electron

orbit of radius r, i.e.,

I

e w 0e w

=

B= 0 = 0

2r

2r 2 p

4 pr

9. When L and C are in series, the current

everywhere in the circuit has the same phase.

But the voltage in L leads current by p/2 and in

C it lags the current by p/2. Therefore, the same

phase difference between the voltages in L and

C is p. When L and C are in parallel, the voltage

across both L and C has the same phase. But

physics for you

| March 15 61

leads the voltage by p/2 and as such the phase

difference between the current in L and C is p.

10.

FCA

FCB

A

+q

+2q

x

B

3q

or (d + x)2 = 3x2

or 2x2 2dx d2 = 0

d d 3

2

2

Neglecting ve sign because it means that the

point C is between charges + q and 3q, which

is not possible as per the given condition,

x=

d d 3 d

+

= (1 + 3 )

2

2

2

OR

Here, q1 = q, q2 = 4q, q3 = +2q

and x1 = x2 = x3 = r = 10 cm = 101 m

Initial potential energy

q q

q q

q q

Ui = k 1 2 + 2 3 + 3 1

x2

x3

x1

x=

= k

+

+

r

r

r

= k

101

= 2.3 106 J

Final potential energy, Uf = 0

Thus, work to be done to dissociate the system

of three charges,

W = Uf Ui = Ui = 2.3 106 J

11. The beam should be incident at critical angle

reflection at second surface of the prism.

March 15

60

90

90r ic

r ic

at C (farther from charge 3q at B than from

charge +q at A) so that

FCA (force on charge +2q due to charge +q)

= FCB (force on charge + 2q due to charge 3q),

2q (q)

2q (3q)

i.e., k

=k

2

x

(d + x )2

10 q2

interface.

1

We know, sin ic =

a

g

1

1

ic = sin 1

= sin 1

a

1.524

g

Critical angle ic = 41

In the smaller triangle,

60 + (90 r) + (90 ic) = 180 or r = 19

Using Snells law, required angle of incidence i

at first surface can be calculated.

sin i

sin i

a

g =

, 1.524 =

sin r

sin 19

sin i = 1.524 (sin 19)

i = sin1 (0.4962) = 29.75

12. (a) Threshold frequency (when Vstop = 0)

for material A,

i.e., uA = 5 1014 Hz

Threshold frequency (when Vstop = 0)

Work function for material A,

i.e., fA = h(5 1014 Hz)

Work function for material B,

i.e., fB = h(10 1014 Hz)

\ fB > fA

h

(b) (i) As = slope of A

e

20

2

=

=

14

5 1014

(10 5) 10

1.6 1019 2

2

h = e

=

14

5 1014

5 10

= 6.4 1034 J s

(ii) As

magnetic field 4.0 cm below.

h

= slope of B

e

2.5 0

2.5

=

=

,

14

(15 10) 10

5 1014

4 cm

=

h = e

5 1014

5 1014

34

= 8.0 10 J s

Since the values of h (which is a constant)

obtained for material A and B are different,

the experiment is not consistent with the

Einsteins theory.

13. (a) The two circular metal plates form a

used in an LC circuit (oscillation circuit)

along with an inductance (L). LC circuit is

an important part of radio circuits.

A ( pr 2 )

(b) Original capacitance, C = 0 = 0

d

d

[ p (r 2 )2 ]

Changed capacitance, C = 0

d/2

=

4 0 pr 2

d

= 4C

C 1

= =1: 4

C 4

(c) By inserting a dielectric of dielectric constant

n between the plates of the capacitor.

Thus,

East

Up

West

N

BV

Down

I=4A

BH

BH = 0.32 G

and BV = B sin d = 0.39 sin 35 G

BV = 0.22 G

Telephone cable carry a total current of 4.0 A

Bwire

BH

BV

2I

24

Now, Bwire = 0

= 107

4p r

4 102

5

= 2 10 T = 0.2 G

Net magnetic field

Bnet =

( BH Bwire )2 + BV2

Bnet =

(0.12 )2 + (0.22 )2

= 0.25 G

for a transistor.

(a) Common base current amplification factor

or a.c. current gain (a): It is defined as the

ratio of the small change in the collector

current to the small change in the emitter

current when the collector-base voltage is

kept constant.

DI

Thus, a = C

DI E V = constant

CB

factor or d.c. current gain (b) : It is defined

as the ratio of the small change in the

collector current to the small change in the

base current when the collector-emitter

voltage is kept constant.

DI

Thus, b = C

DI B VCE = constant

Relation between a and b: For both n-p-n

and p-n-p transistors, we have

IE = IB + IC

For small changes, we can write

DIE = DIB + DIC

Dividing both sides by DIC

DI E DI B

=

+1

DI C DI C

physics for you

| March 15 63

or

1 1

b

a

= + 1, a =

and b =

a b

1+b

1 a

OR

Obviously, the majority carrier density (n) is

considerably larger than the minority hole

density p (i.e., n >>p). On illumination, let the

excess electrons and holes generated be Dn and

Dp, respectively:

n = n + Dn

p = p + Dp.

Here n and p are the electron and hole

concentrations at any particular illumination

and n and p are carrier concentrations when

there is no illumination. Remember Dn = Dp

and n >>p. Hence, the fractional change in the

majority carriers (i.e., Dn/n) would be much less

than that in the minority carriers (i.e., Dp/p). In

general, we can state that the fractional change

due to the photo-effects on the minority carrier

dominated reverse bias current is more easily

measurable than the fractional change in the

forward bias current. Hence, photodiodes are

preferably used in the reverse bias condition for

measuring light intensity.

16. Radioactive decay is the spontaneous

disintegration of the nucleus of an atom with the

emission of one or more penetrating radiations

like a, b and g-rays.

(i) a-decay :

a

bV

a4

b 2X

4

2 He

+Q

(iii) g-decay :

a

bV

Excited

state

ba V

+g

Ground

state

dN

dt

According to radioactivity decay law,

Activity, R =

dN

= lN

dt

As N = N0 elt

R = R0 elt

64 physics for you |

\ R = lN

\ R = lN0 elt

March 15

0.693

Also l =

T1/ 2

\

R = R0 e

0.693 t

T1/2

1

v|| = v cos 60 = 4 105 = 2 105 m s1

2

v = v sin 60 = 4 105

3

2

= 3.464 105 m s1

The component v|| makes the electron move

along the field B while v makes the proton

move along a circular path. Hence the path of

the proton is a helix. The radius r of the helix is

given by

qv B =

2

mv

r

or r =

3.464 10

mv 1.67 10

=

qB

1.6 10 19 0.3

27

\ r = 12 103 m

Period of revolution of the electron is

3

2 pr 2 3.14 12 10

T=

=

v

3.464 105

= 21.75 108 s

Pitch of the helix is

p = v|| T = 2 105 21.75 108

= 43.5 103 m = 4.35 cm

18. Vmax =

100 V

= 50 V, Vmin =

2

(a) Modulation index,

20 V

= 10 V

2

V

Vmin 50 10 2

=

= max

=

Vmax + Vmin 50 + 10 3

Percentage modulation = 100

= (2/3)100 =66.67%

(b) Peak carrier voltage,

V

+ Vmin 50 V + 10 V

VC = max

=

= 30 V

2

2

2

Vm = VC = (30 V) = 20 V

3

19. (i) Let EAO , EBO , ECO , EDO and EEO represent

the electric fields at O due to the five charges

(q each) placed at A, B, C, D and E

respectively. Since we can represent these

fields by the sides of another regular

pentagon taken in the same order,

(ii) When charge on one of the corners (say A)

is removed, EAO = 0

Thus, resultant electric field at O, i.e.,

or ER = EOA

acts along OA

1 q

Also, | EOA | =

4 pe0 r 2

(iii) If the charge q at A is replaced by q, then

resultant electric field at O, i.e.,

being replaced by q)

i.e., E R = 2 EAO

Thus, the resultant electric

1 2q

Also | E R | = | 2 EOA | =

4 p 0 r 2

field

and a single electron of charge e, which revolves

around it in a circular orbit of radius r. Here Z

is the atomic number and for hydrogen Z =1.

The electrostatic force of attraction between the

nucleus and the electron is

F=

k Ze . e

r2

k Ze 2

r2

+Ze r

Nucleus

e, m

force on the electron must be equal to the

electrostatic attraction. Therefore,

2

mv 2 k Ze

=

r

r2

or mv 2 =

or r =

k Ze 2

k Ze 2

...(i)

...(ii)

mv 2

where m is the mass of the electron, and v, its

speed in an orbit of radius r.

Bohrs quantisation condition for angular

momentum is

nh

nh

L = mvr =

or r =

...(iii)

2p

2p mv

From equation (ii) and (iii), we get

k Ze 2

mv

or v =

nh

2 p mv

2 p k Ze 2

...(iv)

nh

Substituting this value of v in equation (iii), we

get

r=

nh

nh

n 2 h2

.

\

r

=

2 pm 2 p k Ze 2

4p2mk Ze 2

be calculated as

c = ul

3 108= 2 1010 l

or l = 1.5 102 m

(b) Amplitude of magnetic field

E

E0

= c ; B0 = 0

c

B0

| March 15 65

48

B0 =

3 108

and NOR.

(ii) OR Gate,

= 16 108 T

1

U E = e0 E 2

2

1

or U E = e0c 2 B2

2

As speed of em wave,

1

c=

0e0

1 e0 2

So, U E =

B

2 0e0

UE =

B = c

22.

Rarer

medium (a)

(i)

90

ic

Rarer

medium (a)

Denser

medium (b)

(ii)

tan ip = ba

where ip = Brewsters angle (or polarising angle)

From figure (ii)

For light travelling from medium (b) to medium (a)

sin ic = ba

We know that for large angles,

|tan ip| > |sin ic|

(e.g., tan45 = 1 and sin 45 = 0.707)

This implies that ip < ic, i.e., polarisation by

reflection always occurs when light is incident

on the interface from the side with higher

refractive index (i.e., denser medium).

23. (i) A gate is digital circuit that is designed for

As it works according to some logical

operation between input and output

voltages, so it is generally known as a logic

gate.

March 15

Y = AB

Y=A

B2

= UB

2 0

Denser

medium (b)

AND Gate

NOT Gate

ip

Y=A+B

room, retaining capacity, co-relating of

what was taught with the real life incident.

24. (a) Refer point 2.5 (7), MTG Excel in Physics

(b) (i) The emf of the cell connected in main

circuit may not be more than the emf

of the primary cells whose emfs are to

be compared.

(ii) The positive ends of all cells are not

connected to the same end of the wire.

OR

Refer points 2.5 (1, 2, 3) and 2.3 (13), MTG Excel

in Physics

25. Refer point 4.8 (2), MTG Excel in Physics

OR

Refer point 4.8 (1), MTG Excel in Physics

26. Refer point 6.9 (2), MTG Excel in Physics.

OR

(a) Refer point 6.13 (6), MTG Excel in Physics

(b) Here d = 0.28 mm, D = 1.4 m

Distance of fourth bright fringe from

center = 1.2 cm

Linear position of nth bright fringe

nD l

yn =

d

Linear position of 4th bright fringe

4 Dl

y4 =

d

1.2 102 =

4 (1.4) l

0.28 103

l = 6000

nn

water crosses a river of width 1 km along the

shortest possible path in 15 minutes. The

velocity of the river water in km h1 is

(a) 1

(b) 3

(c) 4

(d) 41

2. A planet is at an average distance d from the

sun, and its average surface temperature is T.

Assume that the planet receives energy only

from the sun, and loses energy only through

radiation from its surface. Neglect atmospheric

effects. If T dn, the value of n is

1

1

(a) 2

(b) 1

(c)

(d)

2

4

3. A glass prism of refractive index 1.5 is immersed

in water (refractive index 4/3). A light beam

incident normally on the face AB is totally

reflected to reach on the face BC if

8

(a) sin q

B

A

9

2

8

(b) < sin q <

3

9

C

1

8

(c)

< sin q <

2

9

(d) none of these

4. A rod of length L lies along the axis of a concave

mirror of focal length f. The near end of the rod

is at a distance L > f from the mirror. Its image

will have a length

(a)

(c)

Lf 2

(L f )(2L f )

2Lf 2

(L f )(2L f )

(b)

L2 f

(L f )(2L f )

(d)

2L2 f

(L f )(2L f )

A

B

densities l and l there are

two points A and B as shown

a

a

a

in the figure. The amount of

work done by the electric

field in moving a point charge q0 from A to B is

equal to

2 lq0

lq0

ln 2

(a)

(b)

ln 2

pe0

2 pe0

lq0

2 lq0

(d)

ln 2

ln 2

pe0

pe0

6. A uniform chain of length L and mass M is lying

on a smooth table and one third of its length

is hanging vertically down over the edge of the

table. If g is acceleration due to gravity, the work

required to pull the hanging part on the table is

MgL

MgL

MgL

(a) MgL (b)

(c)

(d)

18

9

3

7. A flexible wire loop in the shape of a circle has

a radius that grows linearly with time. There

is a magnetic field perpendicular to the plane

of the loop that has a magnitude inversely

proportional to the distance from the centre of

1

the loop, B(r ) . How does the e.m.f. e vary

r

with time?

(a) e t2

(b) e t

(c) e t

(d) e is constant

(c)

going up and down a 10 m high stairs. Assume

he burns twice as much fat while going up

than coming down. If 1 kg of fat is burnt on

expending 7000 kilo calories, how many times

Physics for you | March 15

67

by 5 kg?

(a) 25300 (b) 9989 (c) 8756 (d) 16334

9. Consider the spectral line resulting from the

transition n = 2 n = 1 in the atoms and

ions given below. The shortest wavelength is

produced by

(a) hydrogen atom

(b) deuterium atom

(c) singly ionised helium

(d) doubly ionised lithium

10. A hypothetical experiment conducted to

determine Youngs modulus, gave the formula,

cos qT x t

Y=

. If T = time period, t = torque

l3

and l = length, then the value of x is

(a) zero (b) 1

(c) 2

(d) 3

11. Voltmeter reads the potential difference

between the terminals of an old battery as

1.4 V while a potentiometer reads its voltage

to be 1.55 V. The voltmeter resistance is 280 W.

Then,

(a) the battery of the cell is of 1.4 V

(b) the battery of the cell is of 1.5 V

(c) the internal resistance of the battery is 30 W.

(d) the internal resistance of the battery is 5 W.

12. Two bodies M and N of equal masses are

suspended from two separate massless springs

of spring constants k1 and k2 respectively. If the

two bodies oscillate vertically such that their

maximum velocities are equal, the ratio of the

amplitude of vibration of M to that of N is

k

k2

(a) 2

(b)

k1

k1

(c)

k1k2

(d)

k1

k2

of 2 V across it and passes a current of 10 mA

when it operates with a 6 V battery through a

limiting resistor R. The value of R is

(a) 40 kW (b) 4 kW (c) 200 W (d) 400 W

14. An open pipe is suddenly closed at one end with

the result that the frequency of third harmonic

of the closed pipe is found to be higher by

68 Physics for you |

March 15

open pipe. The fundamental frequency of the

open pipe is

(a) 200 Hz

(b) 300 Hz

(c) 240 Hz

(d) 480 Hz.

15. A pure inductor L, a capacitor C and a resistance

R are connected across a battery of e.m.f. e and

internal resistance r as shown in the figure.

The switch Sw is closed at t = 0, select the correct

alternative.

L

R

C

r

Sw

time.

(b) Current through resistance R is zero at t = 0

and t .

(c) Maximum charge stored in the capacitor is

Ce.

(d) Maximum energy stored in the inductor is

equal to the maximum energy stored in the

capacitor.

16. A block P of mass m is placed on a horizontal

frictionless plane. A second block Q of same

mass m is placed on it and is connected to a

spring of spring constant k. The two blocks are

pulled by distance A. Block Q oscillates without

slipping. What is maximum value of frictional

force between the two blocks?

k

kA

(b) kA

(c) msmg (d) zero

2

17. Two radioactive materials X1 and X2 have decay

constants 10l and l respectively. If initially

they have the same number of nuclei, then the

ratio of the number of nuclei of X1 to that of X2

will be 1/e after a time

1

1

11

1

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

10 l

11l

10 l

9l

(a)

massive star in a circular orbit of radius R with

a period of revolution T. If the gravitational force

of attraction between the planet and the star is

proportional to R5/2, then T2 is proportional to

(a) R3

(b) R7/2 (c) R3/2 (d) R7/3

19. A wall of dimensions 2.00 m by 3.50 m has a

single-pane window of dimensions 0.75 m by

1.20 m. If the inside temperature is 20C and the

outside temperature is 10C, effective thermal

resistance of the opaque wall and window are

2.10 m2 K W1 and 0.21 m2 K W1 respectively.

Find the heat flow through the entire wall.

(a) 215 W

(b) 205 W

(c) 175 W

(d) 110 W

20. In the given circuit, the potential difference

between A and B is

(a) 0

(b) 5 V

(c) 10 V (d) 15 V

C1

21. Two capacitors C1 = 2 mF

and C2 = l mF are charged

+

to same potential V = 100 V,

S1

S2

C2

but with opposite polarity

+

as shown in the figure.

The switches S1 and S2 are closed. The ratio of

final energy to the initial energy of the system is

1

1

1

(a) 1

(b)

(c)

(d)

2

9

4

22. A cylinder rolls up an inclined plane, reaches

some height, and then rolls down (without

slipping throughout these motions). The

directions of the frictional force acting on the

cylinder are

(a) up the incline while ascending and down

the incline while descending

(b) up the incline while ascending as well as

descending

(c) down the incline while ascending and up

the incline while descending

(d) down the incline while ascending as well as

descending.

is equal to that of a photon. The wavelength of

photon is l2 and that of proton is l1. The ratio

l2/l1 is proportional to

(a) E2

(b) E1/2

(c) E1 (d) E1/2

24. Find the pressure at which temperature attains

its maximum value if the relation between

pressure and volume for an ideal gas is

P = P0 + (1 a )V2 .

4 P0

P

2P0

(a)

(b) 0

(c) P0

(d)

3

3

3

25. A small metallic ball is charged positively and

negatively in a sinusoidal manner at a frequency

of 106 cps. The maximum charge on the ball is

106 C. What is the displacement current due

to this alternating current?

(a) 6.28 A

(b) 3.8 A

(c) 3.75 104 A

(d) 122.56 A

26. A body of mass 1 kg, initially at rest, explodes

and breaks into three fragments of masses in

the ratio 1 : 1 : 3. The two pieces of equal mass

fly off perpendicular to each other with a speed

of 30 m s1 each. What is the velocity (in m s1)

of the heavier fragment?

(a) 6 2 (b) 10 2 (c) 8

(d) 12

27. A particle of charge q and mass m starts moving

from the origin under the action of an electric

become 2v0 after a time

2B q

2mv0

(a) t =

(b) t = 0

qE0

mv0

(c) t =

3B0q

mv0

(d) t =

3mv0

qE0

cross-section A floats in a liquid of density r.

If it is given a small vertical displacement from

equilibrium, it undergoes oscillation with a

time period T. Which one is not possible?

(a) T m

(b) T r

1

1

(c) T

(d) T

g

A

Physics for you | March 15

69

width slits, if intensity at the centre of screen is

I0, then intensity at a distance of b/4 from the

central maxima is (b is the fringe width)

I0

I0

I

(a) I0

(b)

(c)

(d) 0

2

4

3

30. Sound of wavelength l passes through a

Quinckes tube, which is adjusted to give a

maximum intensity I0. Through what distance

should the sliding tube be moved to give an

I

intensity 0 ?

2

l

l

l

l

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

2

3

4

8

solutions

1. (b) :

v

vB

1 km

vR

1 km

1 km

v=

=

= 4 km h 1

15 min (1 / 4) h

Velocity of river,

v R = v 2B v 2 = 52 42 = 3 km h 1

2. (c) : Let P = power radiated by the sun,

R = radius of planet.

P

Energy received by planet =

pR2 .

2

4 pd

Energy radiated by planet = (4pR2)sT 4.

For thermal equilibrium,

P

pR2 = 4 pR2sT 4

4 pd 2

1

1

or T

or T d 1/2

or T 4

1

/2

2

d

d

3. (a) : Total internal

B

A

reflection occurs when

P

to rarer medium and

the angle of incidence is

greater than the critical

C

angle.

70 Physics for you |

March 15

g

mw =

mw

mg

4/3 8

=

3/2 9

8

where iC = critical angle

9

\ q = iC or sin q = 8/9 for critical angle.

8

For total internal reflection, sin q

9

\

sin iC =

uf

Lf

1 1 1

= + v=

=

f u v

u f L f

For far end of the rod,

2L f

1

1

1

1 1 1

=

=

=

+

f u + L v1

v1 f 2L ( f )(2L)

( f )(2L)

2L f

Lf

(2L)( f )

Length of image = v v1 =

L f (2L f )

\ v1 =

=

=

Lf (2L f ) 2Lf (L f )

(L f )(2L f )

Lf 2

=

(L f )(2L f )

(L f )(2L f )

l 1

1

E=

+

2 pe0 x 3a x

W=

2a

q0 E dx

a

2a

2a

lq0 dx

dx lq0

=

+

ln 2

2 pe0 x

3a x pe0

a

a

6. (d) : Weight of length L of the chain = Mg

L

1

Weight of length

of the chain = Mg

3

3

As the centre of gravity of the hanging part lies

L

at its midpoint i.e. at a distance equal to

6

below the edge of the table, so the work required

to pull the hanging part on the table is

1

L MgL

W = Force distance = Mg =

3

6

18

71

1 c

7. (d) : Here, B =

r r

A = pr2

c

= BA = pr 2 = pcr

r

d

dr

\ e=

= pc = pck

dt

dt

So, e is constant.

[... r = r0 + kt]

= 5 7000 103 = 35 106 cal = 147 106 J

Work done towards burning of fat in one trip

(up and down the stairs) = mgh mgh/2

= 60 10 10 + (1/2) 60 10 10 = 9 103 J

(as only half the work done while coming down

is useful in burning fat)

147 106

Number of trips required =

= 16334

9 103

1

1

1

9. (d) : = RZ 2

2

2

l

n2 n1

1

\

Z2

l

l is shortest if Z is largest. Z is largest for doubly

ionised lithium atom (Z = 3) among the given

elements.

Hence wavelength for doubly ionised lithium

will be the least.

10. (a) : As T x =

or

x = zero.

Yl 3

[ML1T2 ][L3 ]

=

=1

cos qt

[ML2 T2 ]

and voltmeter reads the potential across the

terminals of battery

\ battery of cell is of 1.55 V

VAB = 1.4 V

1.55

1.55 V

r

B

A

I=

280 + r

I

VAB = IR

1.55

280

1.4 = 280

280 + r

r 1.4 = 280 (1.55 1.4)

r 1.4 = 280 0.15

2. 8

r=

15 = 30 W

1. 4

72 Physics for you |

March 15

a 2p

\ v M = aM w M = M

TM

2p

vN = aN w N = aN

TN

But vM = vN (given)

a M 2 p aN 2 p

a

T

or M = M ...(i)

\

=

TM

TN

aN TN

As

TM

m 1 k2

= 2p

TN

k1 2 p m

or

TM

k

= 2

TN

k1

...(ii)

a

k

From (i) and (ii), M = 2

aN

k1

13. (d) : As the LED is connected in series with

the limiting resistor R, the potential difference

across R

= Battery voltage voltage drop across LED

=62=4V

4V

4V

V

\ R= =

=

= 400 W

I 10 mA 10 103 A

14. (a) : For open pipe,

N

in fundamental mode,

A

A

l1

l=

l

2

v

v

v

\ Frequency =

=

\ u1 =

...(i)

2l

l1 2l

For closed pipe, vibrating in third harmonic,

3l

l= 2

N

4

N

A

A

\ Frequency

l

v 3v

=

=

l 2 4l

3v

or u2 =

... (ii)

4l

u2 u1 = 100

(given)

3v v

v

\

= 100 or

= 100 or v = 400l

4l 2l

4l

v 400l

\ u1 = =

= 200 Hz

2l

2l

\ Fundamental frequency of open pipe = 200 Hz.

15. (b) : At t = 0, charge on C is zero, so potential

difference across C is zero, so also across R the

current in R. At t = , current through L is

maximum and constant, so potential difference

across L is zero, therefore potential difference

across R is zero. Hence no current in R.

16. (a) : The block Q oscillates but does not slip on

P. This indicates acceleration is same for both

Q and P. A force of friction acts between

the two blocks but the horizontal plane is

frictionless. The system P-Q oscillates with

angular frequency,

k

k

w=

=

m+m

2m

Maximum acceleration of the system will be

kA

amax = w2 A =

2m

This acceleration is provided to the lower block

by the force of friction.

kA kA

\ f max = mamax = m

=

.

2m 2

N

1

17. (d) : Given : 1 =

N = N 0e lt

N2 e

\

N 0e 10 lt

lt

1

1

1

or

= or 9 lt = 1

9

l

t

e

e

e

N 0e

1

or t =

9l

18. (b) : For motion of planet in a circular orbit,

Centripetal force = Gravitational force

GmM

or mRw2 =

or R7/2 w2 = GM

R5/2

GM

GM

T 2 GM

or R7/2 =

=

=

w2 (2 p / T )2

4 p2

or T2 R7/2

19. (a) : The wall and the window are in parallel

arrangement; so net heat flow is the sum of the

heat flow through the wall and the window.

The temperature difference,

TH TC = 30 K

Area of window,

A1= (0.75)(1.20) = 0.90 m2

Heat flow through window pane,

30

dQ TH TC

= (0.90)

= 128.6 W

=

0.21

dt 1

R1

The area of the wall,

A2= (2.00)(3.50) (0.75)(1.20) = 6.10 m2

dQ TH TC (6.10)(30)

=

= 87 W

=

dt 2

R2

(2.10)

dQ

= 128.6 + 87 = 215.6 W

dt

20. (c) : The forward biased p-n junction does not

offer any resistance.

10 10

\ RAB =

= 5 kW

10 + 10

Total resistance,

R = 10 + 5 = 15 kW

Current in the circuit,

V

30

I= =

= 2 103 A

3

R 15 10

I

Current through each arm = = 103 A

2

\ VAB = 10 103 103 = 10 V.

21. (c) : Q = total charge shared by the capacitors

= C1V C2V = (C1 C2)V

V1 = Voltage across each capacitor

Q

C C2

=

= 1

V

C1 + C2 C1 + C2

100

2 1

=

100 =

V

2 + 1

3

Ei = Initial energy of the system

1

1

1

= C1V 2 + C2V 2 = (C1 + C2 )V 2

2

2

2

Ef = Final energy of the system

1

= (C1 + C2 )V12

2

E f V12 100 2 1

1

=

=

=

Ei V 2 3 (100)2 9

Net heat flow,

of the two surfaces. The frictional force acts

in a direction opposite to the direction of net

acceleration of point of contact.

The acceleration of centre of mass is gsinq down

Physics for you | March 15

73

down. Accordingly, the point of contact A has an

acceleration down the plane, similar to that of C.

Point of contact A moves down in both the cases

The frictional force, acting on the cylinder, is

always up the incline, while ascending as well

as descending.

hc

hc

or l2 =

l2

E

1

2

For proton, kinetic energy K = m p v p

2

or 2m p K = m2p v 2p or

2mpK = p2

... (i)

h

or 2m p K = (by de Broglie equation)

l1

h

h

=

or l1 =

... (ii)

2m p K

2m p E

From (i) and (ii),

2m p E

l2 hc

=

l1 E

h

l2 c 2m p

=

= c 2m p E 1/2

l1

E

l2

or

E 1/2

l1

or

(P0 +(1 a)V 2)V = nRT

(P + (1 a)V 2 )V

T= 0

nR

dT P0 3V 2 (1 a)

=

+

=0

dV nR

nR

[For maximum temperature]

P0 = 3(a 1)V2

P0

or V 2 =

3(a 1)

P0

\ P = P0 + (1 a)

3(a 1)

P0 2P0

= P0 =

3

3

25. (a) : Charge oscillating sinusoidally is given by

q = q0sinwt

Displacement current,

dq

Id =

= q0 w cos wt

dt

74 Physics for you |

March 15

(Id )max = q0 w = q0 2 pu

= 106 2 3.14 106 = 6.28 A

26. (b)

to both. Therefore, path of the particle is a helix

with increasing pitch. Speed of particle at any

time t is

v = v 2x + v 2y + v z2

... (i)

qE

Here, v 2y + v z2 = v02 , v x = 0 t

m

and v = 2v0

Substituting the values in eqn. (i), we get

3 mv0

t=

qE0

28. (b) : In equilibrium, let l = length of the block

immersed.

\ mg = Alrg

If the block is given a further downward

displacement x and its downward acceleration

becomes a then

mg A(l + x)rg = ma

Arg

or a =

x

m

Arg

Put w2 =

.

m

\ a = w2x. This is SHM with time period

T = 2p

m

.

Arg

then

I

I0 = 4 I ; I = 0

4

dy

Also, x = d sin q =

D

d b d lD l

x = =

=

D 4 D 4d 4

2p l p

=

=

l 4 2

So required intensity

I

p

I = I + I + 2 I 2 cos = 2 I = 0

2

2

30. (d)

nn

paper-1

Section-1

One or More Than One Options Correct Type

This section contains 10 multiple choice questions. Each

question has four choices (a), (b), (c) and (d) out of which ONE

or MORE THAN ONE are correct.

orbit such that its kinetic energy is k1 and k2

when it is nearest to the Sun and farthest from

the Sun respectively. The smallest distance and

the largest distance between planet and the Sun

are r1 and r2 respectively.

(a) If total energy of the planet is U, then

r2 U k1

=

.

r1 U k2

(b) If total energy of the planet is U, then

r2 U k2

=

.

r1 U k1

(c) If r2 = 2r1, the total energy of planet in

terms of k1 and k2 is 2k1 k2.

(d) If r2 = 2r1, the total energy of planet in

terms of k1 and k2 is 2k2 k1.

2. One mole of monoatomic gas is taken through

cyclic process shown below. TA = 300 K.

Process AB is defined as PT = constant. Select

the correct statements.

P

3P0

P0

B

A

(b) Change in internal energy in process CA is

900 R.

(c) Heat transferred in the process BC is 2000 R.

(d) Change in internal energy in process CA is

900 R.

3. Three concentric conducting spherical shells

have radii r, 2r and 3r and charges q1, q2 and

q3 respectively. Innermost and outermost shells

are earthed as shown in figure. Select the correct

alternatives.

q3

q2

(a) q1 + q3 = q2

q1

q2

(b) q1 =

4

q3

=3

(c)

q1

q

1

(d) 3 =

q2

3

4. A source is moving across a circle given by

the equation x2 + y2 = R2, with constant speed

330 p

m s 1 , in anti-clockwise direction. A

6 3

detector is at rest at point (2R, 0) with respect to

the center of the circle. If the frequency emitted

by the source is u and the speed of sound is

330 m s1, then

(a) the position of the source when the

detector records the maximum frequency

R

3

is ,

R .

2

2

PHYSICS FOR YOU

| March 15 75

detector records minimum frequency is

(0, R).

(c) the minimum frequency recorded by the

detector is

6 3

p+6 3

u.

6 3

u.

6 3p

5. Seven identical rods of material of thermal

conductivity K are connected as shown in

figure. All the rods are of identical length L and

cross sectional area A. If one end A is kept at

100C and the other end B is kept at 0C, what

would be the temperature of the junctions C, D

and E (TC, TD and TE) in the steady state?

detector is

C

K

A

K

K

D

K

K

E

(b) TC = TD = 37.5C, TE = 50C

(c) TC = 62.5C, TD = 37.5C, TE = 50C

(d) TC = 60C, TD = 40C, TE = 50C

6. It is observed that only 0.39% of the original

radioactive sample remains undecayed after

eight hours. Select the correct options.

(a) The half-life of that substance is 1 hour.

1

(b) The mean life of the substance is

hour.

ln 2

(c) Decay constant of the substance is

ln2 per hour.

(d) If the number of radioactive nuclei of this

substance at a given instant is 108 then

the number left after 30 min would be

2 107.

7. Block B in figure weighs 700 N. The coefficient

of static friction between block and table is

0.25, assume that the cord between B and the

knot is horizontal. Choose the correct options.

76 PHYSICS FOR YOU |

March 15

30

sliding.

(b) In the static equilibrium condition, the

tension in the inclined string is more than

tension of other two strings.

(c) If the weight of A is 50 N, friction acting on

block B is 175 N.

(d) If the system is in equilibrium, weight of

A cannot be equal to the force of friction

acting on B.

8. In displacement method, the distance between

object and screen is 96 cm. The ratio of length

of two images formed by a convex lens placed

between them is 4.84.

(a) Ratio of the length of object to the length of

11

shorter image is .

5

(b) Distance between the two positions of the

lens is 36 cm.

(c) Focal length of the lens is 22.5 cm.

(d) Distance of the lens from the shorter image

is 30 cm.

9. Which of the following statements is/are

correct?

(a) Average speed of a particle in a given time

period is never less than the magnitude of

average velocity.

(b) It is possible to have situations in which

dv

d|v |

0, but

= 0.

dt

dt

(c) It is possible to have situations in which

d |v |

dv

0, but

= 0.

dt

dt

(d) If the average velocity of a particle is zero in

a time interval, then it is possible that the

instantaneous velocity is never zero in that

interval.

| March 15 77

a b

field has the form U =

, where a and b

r2 r

are positive constants, r is the distance from the

center of the field. Then

2a

(a) At r =

, particle is in steady equilibrium.

b

2a

(b) At r =

, particle is in unsteady equilibrium.

b

(c) Maximum magnitude of force of attraction

is

b3

27a2

(d) Maximum magnitude of force of attraction

is

27 b3

a2

.

Section-2

This section contains 10 questions. Each question, when worked

out will result in one integer from 0 to 9 (both inclusive).

q3

3m

q1

q2 = 3 mC and q3 are

kept at the vertices of a

triangle as shown in the

figure.

4m

q2

2

1

then given as 1 + mC. Find the value of n.

n

and spring constant k = 80 N m1 is fixed to

the ground and the other end is fitted with a

smooth ring of mass m = 2 g, which is allowed

to slide on a horizontal rod fixed at a height

h = 0.1 m.

0.1 m

37

vertical when the system is released from rest.

When the spring becomes vertical, if the speed

4

of ring is v m s1, find v. (Given cos 37 = )

5

78 PHYSICS FOR YOU |

March 15

PQR having shape of a right angle triangle with

PQ = 3x, PR = 4x and QR = 5x. If the magnitude

of the magnetic field at P due to this loop is

m I

k 0 , find the value of k.

48 px

14. In brass, the velocity of longitudinal wave is

100 times the velocity of the transverse wave. If

Y = 1 1011 N m2, then stress in the wire is

x 107 N m2. What is the value of x ?

15. A glass vial containing 16 g sample of an enzyme

is cooled in an ice bath. The bath contains water

and 0.120 kg of ice. The sample has specific heat

capacity 2250 J kg1 K1; the glass vial has mass

6 g and specific heat capacity 2800 J kg1 K1.

How much ice (in g) melts in cooling the enzyme

sample from room temperature (19.5C) to the

temperature of ice bath? Lf (ice) = 80 cal g1.

16. A silver sphere of radius 1 cm and work function

4.7 eV is suspended from an insulating thread in

free space. It is under continuous illumination

of 200 nm wavelength light. As photoelectrons

are emitted, the sphere gets charged and

acquires a potential. The maximum number

of photoelectrons emitted from the sphere is

A 10z (where 1 < A < 10), the value of z is

17. A 2.5 kg wooden block is initially at rest on a fix

horizontal rough table of height 1 m. The block

is initially 2 m away from edge. It is pushed

with a constant force of 50 N for a distance of

1 m and then let go.

The block falls off the

2m

1m

edge and lands 2 m from

the bottom of the table.

2m

The coefficient of kinetic friction between the

n

block and the table is

. Find n.

10

In physics, you dont

have to go around making

trouble for yourselfnature does it for you.

Frank Wilczek

voltage of angular frequency w = 500 rad s1. If

the impedance of the RC circuit is R 1.25 , the

time constant (in milli second) of the circuit is

a point O on a road perpendicular to the track

hears a sound of frequency u. The distance of

O from A at that time is 4 m. If the original

frequency is 640 Hz, then the value of u is

340 x Hz. What is the value of x?

(Given : Velocity of sound = 340 m s1)

R1 = 1.2 cm and R2 = 4.8 cm is rolling without

slipping with a uniform angular speed. What is

the ratio of the forces experienced by the two

particles of same mass situated on the outer

and inner parts of the annular ring?

3m

100 m s1

3

S

4m

100

m s1

3

along a road, towards a point A. When the

paper-2

Section-1

Only One Option Correct Type

This section contains 10 multiple choice questions. Each question

has four choices (a), (b), (c) and (d) out of which ONLY ONE is

correct.

horizontal floor. The coefficient of restitution

between the ball and the floor is 1/2. The

displacement time graph of the ball will be

s

(a)

(b)

t

s

(c)

(d)

t

steady state currents in the coils after the switch

S is closed. Then

(a) I1 =

I1

L1

I2

L2

EL2

R(L1 + L2 )

(b) I1 =

EL1

R(L1 + L2 )

(c) I 2 =

EL2

(d) I 2 =

E L1L2

RL2

R L1L2

3. A point object is placed at a distance of 12 cm on

the axis of a convex lens of focal length 10 cm.

On the other side of the lens, a convex mirror

is placed at a distance of 10 cm from the lens

such that the image formed by the combination

coincides with the object itself. What is the

focal length of convex mirror?

(a) 25 cm (b) 50 cm (c) 10 cm (d) 20 cm

4. One end of a string of length l is tied to the ceiling

of a lift accelerating upwards with an acceleration

g/2. The linear mass density of the string is

m(x) = m0x1/2 where, x is measured from the

bottom. The time taken by a pulse to reach

from bottom to top is

(a)

3l

g

(b) 2

l

g

(c)

l

g

(d)

l

3g

hypothetical hydrogen atom in the nth orbit of

the electron is

(a) directly proportional to charge of electron e

(b) directly proportional to e2

(c) inversely proportional to n5

(d) directly proportional to n5

PHYSICS FOR YOU

| March 15 79

(d, 0) and (d, 0) respectively of a x-y coordinate

system. Then

(a) the electric field E at all points on x-axis has

the same direction.

(b) electric field at all points on y-axis is parallel

to x-axis.

(c) work has to be done in bringing a test

charge from to the origin.

(d) the dipole moment is 2qd along the x-axis.

7. A hollow sphere of outer radius R is rolling down

an inclined plane without slipping and attains a

speed v0 at the bottom. Now the inclined plane

is made smooth and the sphere is allowed to

slide without rolling. Now it attains a speed

5v0

. What is the radius of gyration of sphere?

4

3

4

2

2

(a)

R (b) R (c) R (d)

R

4

5

5

3

8. Two point monochromatic and coherent

sources of light of wavelength l are each placed

as shown in the figure below. The initial phase

difference between the sources is zero.

Select the incorrect statement.

S1

S2

d

(D > > d)

O

Screen

7l

(a) If d =

, O will be minima.

2

(b) If d = l, only one maxima can be observed

on screen.

(c) If d = 4.8 l, then total 10 minimas would

be there on screen.

5l

(d) If d =

, then intensity at O would be

2

maximum.

9. A particle with charge Q, moving with a

momentum p, enters a uniform magnetic field

normally. The magnetic field has magnitude B

and is confined to a region of width d, where

p

d<

. The particle is deflected by an angle

BQ

q in crossing the field. Then

80 PHYSICS FOR YOU |

March 15

p

Q

B

d

p

BQd

(b) sin q =

BQd

p

Bp

pd

(c) sin q =

(d) sin q =

Qd

BQ

10. A thin uniform rod of length l is pivoted at

its upper end. It is free to swing in a vertical

plane. Its time period for oscillations of small

amplitude is

(a) sin q =

(a) 2p

l

g

(b) 2 p

2l

3g

(c) 2 p

3l

2g

(d) 2 p

l

2g

Section-2

Comprehension Type (Only One Option Correct)

This section contains 3 paragraphs, each describing theory,

experiments, data etc. Six questions relate to the three

paragraphs with two questions on each paragraph. Each

question has only one correct answer among the four given

options (a), (b), (c) and (d).

When a charged capacitor is connected to an

inductor, both the current and the charge on the

capacitor oscillate. The angular frequency of the

oscillations depends solely on the inductance (L)

and the capacitance (C) of the circuit and is given

1

. The variation of charge (Q) on

by w =

LC

the capacitor with time (t) is given by Q = Qmax

cos wt where Qmax is the maximum charge on the

capacitor.

V = 12 V

C = 9 pF

L = 2.81 mH

S2

S1

for which the block just starts to move up.

2h

5h

(a)

(b)

3

4

5h

5h

(c)

(d)

3

2

Paragraph for questions 15 and 16

Figure shows a rod of length l = 1 m and mass

m = 8 kg. It is hinged at the end P (on wall). At the

end Q, a block of mass M = 50 kg is suspended. At

the point R, which is at a distance equal to 25 cm

from end Q, a string is connected whose other end

is connected to the wall.

Paragraph for questions 13 and 14

4

3

is open and S2 is closed. Then S1 is thrown closed

at the same instant that S2 is opened so that the

capacitor is shorted across the inductor.

11. The maximum value of current (in A) in the

circuit is

(a) 6.79 103

(a) ( 6.79 103 A) sin wt

(b) ( 6.79 104 A) sin wt

(Take g = 10 m s2)

h1

h2

4r

/3

Hole

2r

bottom. The hole is covered by wooden cylindrical

block of diameter 4r, height h and density r/3.

Situation 1 : Initially, the tank is filled with water of

density r to a height such that the height of water

above the top of block is h1 (measured from the top

of the block).

Situation 2 : The water is removed from the tank

to a height h2 (measured from the bottom of the

block) as shown in figure. The height h2 is smaller

than h (height of the block) and thus the block is

exposed to the atmosphere.

13. In situation-2, if h2 is further decreased, then

(a) block will not move up and remains at its

original position.

h

(b) for h2 = , block starts moving up.

3

h

(c) for h2 = , block starts moving up.

4

h

(d) for h2 = , block starts moving up.

5

ing

Str

37

R

Wall

m

(a) 600 N

(b) 80 N

(c) 1200 N

(d) 800 N

16. The horizontal component Nx and vertical

component Ny of the reaction at end P are given

by

(a) Nx = 1300 N, Ny = 960 N

(b) Nx = 960 N, Ny = 140 N

(c) Nx = 960 N, Ny = 960 N

(d) Nx = 1300 N, Ny = 1300 N

Section-3

Matching List Type (Only One Option Correct)

This section contains four questions, each having two matching

lists. Choices for the correct combination of elements from List-I

and List-II are given as options (a), (b), (c) and (d), out of which

one is correct.

a modification is introduced. Match the effect on

variable x with appropriate entry in List-I.

PHYSICS FOR YOU

| March 15 81

List I

Must

increase

R. If a transparent paper

3. Bright fringe

(m = 1.45) of thickness

of order 62

t = 0.02 mm is pasted

on S1 i.e. one of the slits,

the nature and order of

interference at P

S. After

inserting

the 4. Bright fringe

transparent paper

of order 280

(m = 1.45) of thickness

t = 0.02 mm in front of slit

S1, the nature and order of

interference at O

Code :

(a) P - 1, Q - 4, R - 2, S - 3

(b) P - 3, Q - 1, R - 2, S - 4

(c) P - 2, Q - 4, R - 1, S - 3

(d) P - 4, Q - 1, R - 2, S - 3

19. The spectral lines of hydrogen-like atom fall

with in the wavelength range given in List II.

Match the following.

source S is placed slightly off the central axis as

shown in figure. If l = 500 nm, then match the

following.

hydrogen atom and

corresponds to

energy E = 3.4 eV,

transition from

then

2 to 1

2 mm

S1

y = 10 mm

List II

1. Two tuning forks of slightly

different frequency. Wax is

put on tuning fork of higher

frequency. Beat frequency = x

Q. Must

2. An

oscillating

simple

decrease

pendulum, positive charge

is given to the bob and an

electric field is switched on in

vertically downward direction.

Time period of oscillation = x

R. Must

3. A pulse is sent down a taut

remain

string. The tension is suddenly

same

decreased but the string is still

taut. The time taken by the

pulse to reach the other end = x

S. Cannot 4. In a LC oscillation circuit

be

dielectric slab is introduced

predicted

when capacitor is discharged.

Value of maximum current in

inductor = x

Code :

(a) P - 1, Q - 4, R - 2, S - 3

(b) P - 3, Q - 2, R - 4, S - 1

(c) P - 3, Q - 4, R - 2, S - 1

(d) P - 1, Q - 3, R - 4, S - 2

P.

20 mm

S2

1m

2m

List I

List II

P. Nature and order of 1. Bright fringe

interference at the point P

of order 80

Q. Nature and order of 2. Bright fringe

interference at point O

of order 262

82 PHYSICS FOR YOU |

March 15

List I

P. If it is atomic

hydrogen atom

and energy

E = 0.85 eV, then

List II

1. l = 1212 and

it corresponds to

transition from 2 to1

ionized

lithium

corresponds to

atom, then

transition from

2 to 1

S. If it is singly ionized 4. l = 970 and it

helium, then

corresponds to

transition from

4 to 1

Code :

(a) P - 1, Q - 4, R - 3, S - 2

(b) P - 4, Q - 1, R - 2, S - 3

(c) P - 3, Q - 2, R - 2, S - 4

(d) P - 2, Q - 1, R - 2, S - 3

PA TB

1 T

=

= B

PB TA

3 TA

List II

1. Bifocal lens

Now,

Q. Hypermetropia

2. Cylindrical lens

TB =

R. Presbyopia

3. Concave lens

S.

4. Convex lens

P.

List I

Myopia

Astigmatism

\ WAB =

TA/TC = PA/PB

TA/TC = 1/3

TC = 3TA

SolutionS

or TC = 900 K

PaPer-1

maximum and minimum distances.

k1 +

GmM

r1

From (i),

sun

M r1

r2

= k2 +

GmM

GmM

r2

=U

...(i)

...(iii)

2U 2k2 = U k1

U = 2k2 k1

2. (a, c, d) :

Process AB : PT = constant = k

dV 2nRT

nRT 2

=

=k

dT

k

V

B

Bk

WAB = PdV =

dV

A

AT

k 2nRT

dT

k

TA T .

DU = nCVDT

3

3

= (1) R (TA TC ) = R (300 900)

2

2

=

GmM

= U k1

r1

r2 U k1

=

r1 U k2

2r U k1

If r2 = 2r1 ; 1 =

r1 U k2

TB

m

k1

...(ii)

WAB =

for

= U k2

r2

100

Process CA : P/T = constant

\ TA/TC = PA/PC

Code :

(a) P - 3, Q - 4, R - 1, S - 2

(b) P - 4, Q - 3, R - 1, S - 2

(c) P - 2, Q - 3, R - 4, S - 2

(d) P - 4, Q - 2, R - 1, S - 4

k2

300

= 100 K

3

3

R ( 600) = 900R

2

Process BC : Isobaric

Q = nCPDT

5

\ Q = (1) R (TC TB )

2

Q=

5

5

R (900 100) = R 800

2

2

Q = 2000 R

3. (a, b, c) :

q3

q2

q1

r

2r

3r

As shell A is earthed

kq

kq

kq

\ VA = 1 + 2 + 3 = 0

2r

3r

r

q2 q3

q1 +

+

=0

2

3

kq

kq

kq

Also VC = 1 + 2 + 3 = 0

3r

3r

3r

PHYSICS FOR YOU

...(i)

| March 15 83

q1 + q2 + q3 = 0

q1 + q3 = q2

H7 =

...(ii)

q3 3 q3

q

1

=

,

= 3 and 1 =

q2

q2

4 q1

4

4. (a, c, d) :

Sound emitted by source at A will result in

maximum frequency while sound emitted by

source at B will result in minimum frequency.

H2

100C

A

TD

D

H4

H1

H6

E TE

H7

0C

B

H5

heat flow through AE, AC, CD, CE, EB, ED and

DB respectively. Then

KA(100 TE )

KA(100 TC )

H1 =

, H2 =

L

L

KA(TC TD )

KA(TC TE )

H3 =

, H4 =

L

L

H5 =

KA(TE 0)

L

, H6 =

March 15

KA(TE TD )

L

electric circuit problem.

H3

KA(TE 0)

6.

330

330

umax =

u

u, umin =

330 + 330 p

330 330 p

6 3

6 3

TC

C

2R sin 60

detector =

330

Angle travelled by source

330 p 2R sin 60 p

=

=

330

6

6 3R

H1 = H5

KA(100 TE )

or TC + TD = 100

...(ii)

Q H2 = H3 + H4 = H7

KA(100 TC ) KA(TC TD )

\

=

L

L

KA(TC 50) KA(TD )

(Using (i))

+

=

L

L

or 2TC 2TD = 50

...(iii)

Solving (ii) and (iii), we get

TC = 62.5C, TD = 37.5C

TC > TE > TD

Detector

60

or TE = 50C

...(i)

Q H4 = H6

KA(TC 50) KA(50 TD )

\

=

(Using (i))

L

L

2R

KA(TD 0)

As N = N0elt

N

= e lt

N0

0.0039 = el8

1

= 256 or e l8 = 28

el8 =

0.0039

Taking natural logarithm on both sides, we get

8l = 8ln2

l = ln2 per hour

Option (c) is correct.

ln 2

T1/ 2 =

= 1 hour

l

Option (a) is correct.

1

1

Mean time, t = =

hour

l ln 2

Option (b) is correct.

1

8 1 2

N = (10)

2

2

or N = 5 2 107

Option (d) is incorrect.

108

7. (b, d) : T cos30 = T2 = fs

T sin30 = T1 = mA g

From eqn (i) and (ii),

T=

f s2

T1

+ (mA g )

fs

m g

tan 30 = A

fs

\ mA g = WA =

=

...(i)

...(ii)

fs

3

0.25 700 N

3

T2

m mB g

A

mA g

dv

d|v |

= 0,

0

dt

dt

In circular motion,

A

from point A to point

A again, average velocity = 0

Instantaneous velocity 0 (at any time)

= 101 N

I

8. (a, b, d) : Given, D = 96 cm, 2 = 4.84

I1

Let I1 = a and I2 = 4.84 a

\ O = I1I 2 = 2.2 a

2.2a 11

(a) Required ratio =

=

5

a

v1 11

=

(b) Also,

...(i)

u1 5

v1 + u1 = 96

...(ii)

5v1

\ v1 +

= 96

11

16v1

= 96 or v1 = 66 cm

11

\ u1 = 30 cm

Distance between two positions

= v1 v2 = 66 30 = 36 cm (Q u1 = v2)

1

1

1 30 + 66

(c)

=

+

=

f 66 30 30 66

30 66 330

f =

=

= 20.625 cm

96

16

(d) u1 = 30 cm

9. (a, b, d) : Average speed =

t otal distance

total time

displacement

Average velocity =

time

Q distance displacement

\ Average speed average velocity

d|v |

= tangential acceleration

dt

dv

= net acceleration

dt

dU 2a b

=

+

dr r 3

r2

10. (a, c) :

For

dU

b 2a

2a

= 0, =

r=

2

3

dr

b

r

r

d 2U

dr

At r =

d 2U

dr 2

+6a

r

2b

r

2 3a

b

3 r

2a

,

b

2 b b

2 3a b

b =

=

>0

r3 2 r3

r 3 2a

i.e., U is minimum.

So, it is a position of stable (steady) equilibrium.

dU 2a b

F=

=

dr

r3 r2

2

dF d U

For maximum force,

=

=0

dr

dr 2

2 3a

3a

b = 0 r =

3 r

b

r

F=

2a

2ab3

b3

b3

3

2

27a3 9a2

27a2

3a

3a

b

b

be that due to q3.

As q1 > 0, q2 < 0, the charge q3 should be positive

| March 15 85

kq q

F

kq q

tan q = 2 , F1 = 1 2 , F2 = 1 3

16

9

F1

1

3 q3 16

and k =

\

=

4 p0

4 9 q2

2

27

81 9

\ q3 =

q2 =

= mC

64

64 8

Y

vL =

r

The velocity of transverse wave is

vT =

1

= 1 + mC

8

Hence, n = 8.

= Gain in kinetic energy

1

1

2

i.e.,

k(l l0 ) = mv 2

2

2

k

k

l

v = (l l0 )

= 0 l0

m

cos 37

m

1

k

= l0

1

cos 37 m

80

5

= (0.1) 1

4 2 103

1

= 0.1 2 102 = 5 m s1

4

13. (7) : Using the concept of area of triangle

1

1

PD 5x = 3x Q4 x D

2

2

5x

1

1

3x 1

PD 5x = 3x 4 x

2

2

2

R

P

4x

12 x

\ PD =

5

144 x 2 9 x

2

2 = 9x 2

=

QD = (PQ ) (PD )

25

5

9 x 16 x

and DR = 5x

=

5

5

Magnetic field at P due to current elements

PQ and PR is zero as the point P is on the

conductor. Therefore, magnetic field at P due to

current element QR is

m0 I

B=

(sin 1 + sin 2 )

4 pPD

m I 5 (9 x / 5) (16 x / 5)

+

B= 0

4 p 12 x 3x

4 x

=

m 0 I 5 3 4 7m 0 I

+

=

48 px 5 5 48 px

March 15

\ k=7

T

=

m

pr 2 r

vL

Y pr 2 r

Y

=

=

=

vT

T

r

T / pr 2

\ Stress =

(v L / vT )2

Y

Stress

1 1011

(100)2

= 1 107 N m2

Hence x = 1

15. (3) : The heat lost by the sample (and vial)

melts a mass m of the ice.

Q

\ m=

=

Lf

(16 103 )(2250)(19.5) + (6 103 )(2800)(19.5)

80 4 . 2 103

or m =

702 + 327.6

3

336 10

= 3.06 103 kg 3 g

hc

,

l0

1242 eVnm

4.7 eV = 6.2 eV 4.7 eV

eV0 =

200 nm

2

V r 1.5 10

q

As V0 = k , q = 0 =

C

k

r

9 109

Since q = ne,

1.5 102 C

q

=

= 1.04 107

e (9 109 ) (1.6 1019 C)

\ z=7

n=

1 =

1

gx 2

2 v 2 cos2 0

1 10 4 2

, v = 20 m2 s2 ,

2

2

v

WF + Wfr = DK

I

L

or L1I1 = L2I2 , 1 = 2

I 2 L1

E

Steady current I passing through R is, I =

R

Also, I = I1 + I2

1

2.5 v 2

2

50 50m = 25 50 25 = 50m

5

or m =

\ n=5

10

50 1 m 2.5 10 2 =

1

18. (4) : As Z = R 2 +

= R 1.25 ,

wC

1

R 2 (1.25) = R 2 +

wC

1

1

= 0.25R 2 or

= 0.5 R

or

wC

wC

or CR =

1

= 0.004 s = 4 ms

0.5 500

F2

R2

F1 R1

19. (4) : As the annular ring

is rolling without slipping,

therefore, its angular velocity

w is constant, so is its linear velocity v. Therefore,

no net force or net torque is acting on the ring.

The force experienced by the two particles, one

on outer part and other on inner part is only

centripetal force directed towards the centre of

ring as shown in figure.

2

R

F2 m R2 w

4.8

=

= 2 =

=4

2

R1 1.2

F1 m R1 w

100

vs =

cos q

3m

S

3

100 3

=

= 20 m s1

4m

3v 5

5m

u =

u

v vs

340

640 Hz = 340 2 Hz

u =

340 20

\ x=2

PaPer-2

final displacement of the ball will be equal to

the height. The motion is first accelerated, then

retarded, then accelerated and so on.

2. (a) : L1

dI

dI1

= L2 2 or L1dI1 = L2dI2

dt

dt

L2

EL2

I=

\ I1 =

R(L1 + L2 )

L1 + L2

L1

EL1

and I 2 =

I=

L

+

L

R(L1 + L2 )

1

2

3. (a) : For convex lens,

1

1

1

=

or, v = 60 cm

v 12 10

In the absence of convex mirror, convex lens will

form the image I1 at a distance of 60 cm behind

the lens. Since, the mirror is at a distance of

10 cm from the lens, I1 will be at a distance of

60 10 = 50 cm from the mirror,

i.e., MI1 = 50 cm.

I2

L

I1

10 cm

50 cm

60 cm

12 cm

object O itself, the rays after reflection from the

mirror retraces its path, i.e., rays on the mirror

are incident normally, i.e., I1 is the centre of the

mirror, so that

R = MI1 = 50 cm

R 50

Hence f = =

= 25 cm

2

2

Solution Senders of Physics Musing

SET-19

1. Anjali Sharma (New Delhi)

2. Sattwik Sadhu (W.B.)

3. Koushik Das (W.B.)

SET-18

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Ronal Gaonkhowa (Assam)

Satyajeet Kumar (Kerala)

Shubhneet Bhatia (Ambala Cantt)

Rushikesh Joshi

PHYSICS FOR YOU

| March 15 87

x from the bottom of string.

Weight of this element

g

= [m( x )dx ]( g + )

2

Tension at this element,

x

3

Tx = m( x ) gdx

2

0

dx

m en me 2

m pm 2 e 7

= 0

= 0

4 pm 4 p0 2n2

830h5n5

h

Q = 2p

g

2

3

g m x1/ 2dx

2 0

0

3 g m 0 x 3/ 2

=

= g m 0 x 3/ 2

2 (3 / 2)

Tx =

m e v m e (n / mrn )

B= 0 n = 0

2rn 2 prn 4 p

rn2

entire x-axis. Option (a) is incorrect.

q

+q

(d, 0)

(d, 0)

(0,0)

E(+q)

y

P

E

E(q)

v=

dt =

T

, v = dx =

m

dt

dx

g m 0 x 3/ 2

m 0 x1/ 2

gx

gx

t

dx

l

x 1/ 2dx t = 2

gx

g

g 0

0

0

5. (c) : An electron revolving in a circular orbit in a

hydrogen atom is equivalent to a current of eu.

Magnetic field at the centre of Bohrs

hypothetical orbit

m I m eu

B= 0 = 0

...(i)

2rn

2rn

where rn is the radius of nth orbit.

The electric force between the nucleus and

electron in the nth orbit provides the centripetal

force for circular motion.

dt =

t=

mvn2

e2

or rn =

...(ii)

rn

4 p0rn2

4 p0mvn2

According to Bohrs quantisation condition

n

...(iii)

mvnrn = n or vn =

mrn

From equations (ii) and (iii), we get

\

e2

rn =

2 2

4 p0 n

me 2

Then equation (i) becomes

88 PHYSICS FOR YOU |

March 15

+q

(d, 0)

(0, 0)

(d, 0)

For all other points, E is along negative x-axis

(b) Electric field at P, a point on y-axis is

parallel to x-axis.

(c) Electric potential at origin = zero.

No work has to be done in bringing a test

charge from infinity to the origin. Option

(c) is incorrect.

(d) The dipole moment is directed from

q charge to + q charge, along negative

direction of x-axis.

\ Dipole moment = 2 qd along x-axis.

The option is incorrect.

Hence option (b) is correct answer.

7. (b) : Let the sliding acceleration be a. So rolling

a

,

acceleration =

1 + K 2 / R2

where K is the radius of gyration

Using v2 u2 = 2as,

2

5

v0 = 2aS

4

and v02 =

...(i)

2aS

2

... (ii)

1+ K /R

From (i) and (ii), we get

K2

2

25

or

16

K2

25

1

16

R

R

9R 2 or K = 3R

K2 =

4

16

1+

| March 15 89

7l

So, if d =

, O will be a minima.

2

If d = l, O will be maxima.

5l

, O will be minima and hence intensity

If d =

2

is minimum.

If d = 4.8 l, then total 10 minimas can be

observed on screen, 5 above and 5 below O,

which correspond to

l

3l

5l

7l

9l

Dx = ,

,

,

,

2

2

2

2

2

9. (a) : A to D is part of circle with centre C and

radius CD = r.

mv = p = BQr

p

or r =

BQ

ED d BQd

sin q =

= =

CD r

p

E

A

13. (a) : When h2 is decreased, the upward force

(buoyancy) on the block decreases while the

downward force (weight) remains the same.

Thus, the block does not move up and remains

at its original position.

14. (c) :

[P0 + (h1+ h)g]

(P0 + h1rg) [p(2r)2] + p(2r)2 h(r/3)g

=[P0 + (h1 + h) rg] [p(2r)2 pr2] +P0(pr2)

5h

On solving, we get h1 =

3

15. (c) :

Tsin37

mg

3g

2l

This represents an angular SHM with the time

period

2

Comparing with a = w2q, w =

2l

3g

the maximum charge, i.e., Qmax = CV

dQ

As Q = Qmax cos wt, I =

= wQmax sin wt ,

dt

w=

1

LC

1

2.81 10

9 10

12

= 6.28 106 s 1

= 6.79 104 A

March 15

37 Tcos37

3g

or a = q

2l

2p

= 2p

w

Block

l

1

10. (b) : T = mg sin q mg lq = I a

2

2

1

1

or

mg lq = ml 2a

2

3

T=

(P0 + h1g)

500 N

80 N

Nx

Ny

25 cm

50 cm

\ [(500)(1) + 80(0.5) (Tsin37)(0.75)] = 0

Torque produced by Tcos37, Nx and Ny about

the point P is equal to zero.

3

500 + 40 T (0.75) = 0

5

540(5)

T=

= 1200 N

3(0.75)

16. (b) : For equilibrium, SFx = 0

\ T cos37 Nx = 0

4

4

or N x = T = (1200) = 960 N

5

5

For equilibrium, SFy = 0

\ Ny Tsin37 + 500 + 80 = 0

3

or N y = (1200) 500 80 = 140 N

5

17. (b)

18. (d)

19. (b)

20. (b)

nn

2

2

As, Q = V t1 = V t 2 R1 = t1 = 15 = 1

R1

solution set-19

1.

F F0

(b) : As, a = = [cos(t ) ^i + sin(t ) ^j ]

m m

t

F0

^

v = a dt = [sin(t ) i^+ (1 cos t ) j]

m

0

Q=

2.

F02

(1 cos t )

m

N 5 1

1

+

= =

n

+

1

n

N 32

+1

2

22

1

r1

1

r2

2(0.07) 1

1

2T 1 1

=

h=

5

2

When it dissociates,

R2

t = 10 minutes

R1 + R2 1

1

2

3 2

mr

, I 2 = I 3 = mr ,

2

2

7

\ I = I1 + I 2 + I 3 = mr 2

2

I1 =

1

Now, DW = I w 2

2

1 ml 2 2 1 2 2

=

w = ml w

2

2

4

DU = qlE

\

4. (c) : Initial CV = R

+q B

A q

qE

ml 2 2

w = qlE w = 2

4

ml

mv1 + m(v1 + wR) = mv0

2v1 + wR = v0

(i)

By applying conservation

of angular momentum

n f +n f

1 . 2 3 + 0. 4 5 7

f av = 1 1 2 2 =

=

n1 + n2

1. 2 + 0. 4

2

f R 7

initial CV 10

\ Final CV = av = R \

=

2

4

final CV

7

C = 2CV = 2

t 3 = 3t1 = 45 minutes

V 2t 4 (R1 + R2 ) V 2t1

=

R1R2

R1

8. (b) : As DW = DU

DQ = DU + DW

Here, DQ = Q, DW = Q/2

So, DU = Q Q/2 = Q/2 = DW

DU = DW = nCVDT

From eqn (i)

DQ = 2nCVDT

nCDT = 2nCVDT

30

\ 3mk 2 = 7 mr 2 k = 7 r

\

t2

radius of gyration.

On solving, we get, n = 4

3. (b) : As, rgh = 2T

t4 =

R2

system about the given axis, I

= I1 + I2 + I3

N

N

(a): As, N = 2 + 2

n

2

2n/2

Now

V 2 t 3 V 2 t1

=

Req

R1

In parallel, Q =

1 1 F2

= m (v v ) = m 0 (2 2 cos t ) =

2

2 m2

R2

or 2R1 = R2

In series, Req = R1 + R2.

v1

(i)

f

R = 3R

2

and the second coils and V be mains voltage.

frame near the point of collision)

Lf = mv1R + mR2w [only due to ring applying

as positive]

Li = Lf v1 = Rw

(ii)

v0

v

Solving (i) and (ii), we get w =

=

3R 3R

10. (a): As, DV = E Dr \ VA VB = E(a b)

Here, E =

VA VB = (b a)

0

0

nn

91

Every particle of a rigid body rotating about a

fixed axis moves in a circle, which lies in a plane

perpendicular to the axis and has its centre on

the axis.

A rigid body fixed at one point or along a line

can have only rotational motion.

When a rigid body rotates about a fixed axis,

every part of the body has the same angular

velocity and angular acceleration.

If all the external forces acting on a body or

system of bodies are applied on the center of

mass of the body, the state of rest or motion

of the body or system of bodies remains

unaffected.

The centre of mass of a system of two particles

lies on the straight line joining the two

particles.

The centre of mass of all homogenous bodies

of regular shape coincides with the geometrical

centre of the bodies.

To determine the motion of the center of mass

of a system, the knowledge of external forces

acting on the body is required.

The position of centre of mass of a system

is independent of the choice of coordinate

system.

The system as a whole can change its shape or

orientation due to internal forces, but it will

have no effect on the trajectory of center of

mass of isolated system.

The centre of gravity of an external body is that

point where the total gravitational torque on

the body is zero.

The centre of gravity of a body coincides with

its centre of mass only when the gravitational

field does not vary from one part of the body

to the other.

The total torque on a system is independent of

the origin if the total external force is zero.

92 Physics for you |

March 15

of our arms and legs.

The vector sum of all the torque acting on a

particle is equal to the time rate of change of

the angular momentum of that particle.

In case of pure rotation, a vector defines an axis

of rotation and not the direction in which an

object moves.

The linear momentum of the body must be zero

for static equilibrium.

Angular acceleration of a body in rotational

equilibrium will be zero.

If algebraic sum of moments of all forces acting

on the body about a fixed point is zero, the body

will be in rotational equilibrium.

Moment of inertia plays the same role in

rotational motion as mass plays in translational

motion.

The moment of inertia of a body about a given

axis is equal to twice the kinetic energy of

rotation of the body rotating with unit angular

velocity about the given axis.

According to sign convention, anticlockwise

moments are taken as positive and clockwise

moments are taken as negative.

The radius of gyration of a body about an axis

is equal to the root mean square distance of the

various particles constituting the body from

the axis of rotation.

Moment of inertia of circular ring about a given

axis is greater than the moment of inertia of

circular disc of same mass and same size about

the same axis.

Rolling motion of a body is a combination of

translatory as well as rotatory motion.

In rolling motion, there is no loss of mechanical

energy because the contact point is at rest

relative to the surface at any instant.

nn

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down

1.

2.

3.

6.

7.

8.

11.

13.

18.

21.

22.

23.

25.

27.

28.

29.

31.

34.

ACRoSS

1.

4.

5.

9.

10.

12.

14.

15.

15

Biggest moon of saturn. (5)

Force of attraction between like

molecules. (8)

Alloy involving the metal mercury. (7)

A fold in rocks with younger layers

closer to the centre of the structure. (8)

Gradual loss in intensity of any flux

through a medium. (11)

An electron in combination with a hole

in a crystalline solid. (7)

Wave that obeys superposition principle.

(6, 4)

An angle whose value is 0 at the equator

and 90 at the poles. (8)

Instrument used for navigation and

orientation. (7)

The condition of a body in free fall.

(14)

A body that absorbs all the radiation

incident upon it. (5, 4)

Branch of physics dealing with the flow

of air and gases. (12)

Displacement of a vibrating body at zero time. (5)

Tendency of a material to undergo permanent

deformation. (10)

Instrument for determining the angle of dip. (3, 6)

Technique which enables 3D images to be made. (10)

An isolating circuit used to minimize the reaction

between a driving and driven circuit. (6)

Reciprocal of dynamic viscosity. (8)

Shortest path between points in the space. (8)

Fuel material that comes from living or recently living

organism. (7)

Solidification curve. (3, 4)

Sound with frequency higher than the human audible

range. (10)

Production of transverse electric field in a conductor

carrying current when it is placed in a magnetic field

perpendicular to the current. (4, 6)

Repetitive layering in metamorphic rocks. (9)

An area of closed circular fluid motion rotating in the

same direction as the earth. (7)

17. Temperature scale designed in 1717. (10)

19. A theory that is not proven but leads to further study.

(10)

20. A material used to reduce the frictional force between

two surfaces in contact. (9)

24. Ratio of angular momentum to angular velocity. (6, 2, 7)

26. Residual periodic variation of dc output which has been

derived from an ac source. (6)

30. It happens when wavelength of light from an object

gets increased. (8)

32. Rupture in the earths crust where molten lava and gases

from below the earths crust escape into the air. (7)

33. Invented by scientist William Sturgeon in 1824. (13)

34. A small area on the retina that is insensitive to light. (5, 4)

35. Emission of EM radiation from a body as a result of its

temperature. (13)

36. Inverse of collision frequency. (4, 4, 4)

37. A type of collision where kinetic energy is conserved.(7)

38. Speed of fluid defined on the basis of Torricellis

theorem. (6, 5)

gg

| march 15 93

march 15

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