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# CALCULATE EARTHQUAKE

## FORCES ON BUILDINGS AND

STRUCTURES
Earthquake resistant design of structures have become integral part of
structural design of any structure. The guide to earthquake resistant design of
building and structures are given by IS1893 2002 in India. Here we will talk
about how to calculate the earthquake forces for buildings and structures as per
above mentioned code.
First step to calculate earthquake loads on structure is to identify the
earthquake zone for which structure needs to be designed. This earthquake
zones are displayed in a map on page 6 of the code.
After earthquake zone has been identified, the following steps are followed:
1. Calculate design horizontal seismic coefficient, Ah, which is given by (cl. 6.4.2
of IS1893 2002:

## Where, Z is the zone factor, given in table 2 of IS1893 2002.

I is the importance factor of the structure depending on the function or use.
This factor can be obtained from table 6 of the code.
R is response reduction factor. This value is obtained from table 7 of the code.
The value of 1/R shall not be more than one.

## Sa/g is average response acceleration coefficient. This value depends on time

period of structure and on soil type. This can be obtained from clause 6.4.5 of
the code.
2. Calculate design seismic base shear for the structure (VB). This is the total
design lateral force along any principal direction. This is calculated as:
VB = Ah x W
Where Ah = horizontal seismic coefficient as calculated above in step 1.
W = Total weight of the structure.
3. Now calculate the distribution of design forces on the structure. The seismic
design base shear calculate in step above is distributed on the structure as
design seismic forces. This is calculated as below:

## Where Qi = Design lateral force at floor i

Wi = seismic weight of the floor i
hi = height of the floor i from the base
n = number of storeys of the building at which masses are located.
4. Distribution of horizontal seismic forces on structure: These forces are
distributed on the vertical elements of the building resisting lateral forces.

Example:
Consider a two-bay two-storied building for which earthquake forces need to be
calculated. Consider total weight of the building as 1000 kN. Top roof has the
weight of 200 kN and both floors have weight of 400 kN as shown in figure
below. The calculation of earthquake seismic forces will be as shown below:

## Total Weight of the

Structure < ?
xml:namespace prefix
= "o" />
Zone Factor (Zone IV)
Importance factor
(Table6)
Response Reduction

Wi =
Z=

1000 kN
0.24

I=
R=

1
3

Factor
Average response acceleration
coefficient
Let time
period
T
Sa/g
Design Horizontal Seismic
coefficient Ah
Base Shear
Store
y

Base
Shear

0.37335
8 (Cl. 7.6)
2.5
0.10
100 kN

Heigh
t
Wi

Wixhi
2

100

8.5

200

100

400

1445
0
1000
0

100

1.5

400
Tota
l

900
2535
0

Design
Qi
Force
57.0019
7
9.50
39.4477
3
6.57
3.55029
6
0.59
(in kN)