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The following is a glossary of animal cell terms:

cell membrane - the thin layer of protein and fat


that surrounds the cell. The cell membrane is
semipermeable, allowing some substances to pass
into the cell and blocking others.
centrosome - (also called the "microtubule
organizing center") a small body located near the
nucleus - it has a dense center and radiating tubules.
The centrosomes is where microtubules are made.
During cell division (mitosis), the centrosome
divides and the two parts move to opposite sides of
the dividing cell. The centriole is the dense center of
the centrosome.
cytoplasm - the jellylike material outside the cell
nucleus in which the organelles are located.
Golgi body - (also called the Golgi apparatus or
golgi complex) a flattened, layered, sac-like
organelle that looks like a stack of pancakes and is
located near the nucleus. It produces the membranes
that surround the lysosomes. The Golgi body
packages proteins and carbohydrates into
membrane-bound vesicles for "export" from the
cell.
lysosome - (also called cell vesicles) round
organelles surrounded by a membrane and
containing digestive enzymes. This is where the
digestion of cell nutrients takes place.
mitochondrion - spherical to rod-shaped organelles
with a double membrane. The inner membrane is
infolded many times, forming a series of projections
(called cristae). The mitochondrion converts the
energy stored in glucose into ATP (adenosine
triphosphate) for the cell.
nuclear membrane - the membrane that surrounds
the nucleus.
nucleolus - an organelle within the nucleus - it is
where ribosomal RNA is produced. Some cells have
more than one nucleolus.
nucleus - spherical body containing many
organelles, including the nucleolus. The nucleus
controls many of the functions of the cell (by
controlling protein synthesis) and contains DNA (in
chromosomes). The nucleus is surrounded by the
nuclear membrane.
ribosome - small organelles composed of RNA-rich
cytoplasmic granules that are sites of protein
synthesis.
rough endoplasmic reticulum - (rough ER) a vast
system of interconnected, membranous, infolded
and convoluted sacks that are located in the cell's
cytoplasm (the ER is continuous with the outer
nuclear membrane). Rough ER is covered with

ribosomes that give it a rough appearance. Rough


ER transports materials through the cell and
produces proteins in sacks called cisternae (which
are sent to the Golgi body, or inserted into the cell
membrane).
smooth endoplasmic reticulum - (smooth ER) a
vast system of interconnected, membranous,
infolded and convoluted tubes that are located in the
cell's cytoplasm (the ER is continuous with the
outer nuclear membrane). The space within the ER
is called the ER lumen. Smooth ER transports
materials through the cell. It contains enzymes and
produces and digests lipids (fats) and membrane
proteins; smooth ER buds off from rough ER,
moving the newly-made proteins and lipids to the
Golgi body, lysosomes, and membranes.
vacuole - fluid-filled, membrane-surrounded
cavities inside a cell. The vacuole fills with food
being digested and waste material that is on its way
out of the cell.

The following is a glossary of plant cell anatomy


terms.
amyloplast - an organelle in some plant cells that
stores starch. Amyloplasts are found in starchy
plants like tubers and fruits.
ATP - ATP is short for adenosine triphosphate; it is
a high-energy molecule used for energy storage by
organisms. In plant cells, ATP is produced in the
cristae of mitochondria and chloroplasts.
cell membrane - the thin layer of protein and fat
that surrounds the cell, but is inside the cell wall.
The cell membrane is semipermeable, allowing
some substances to pass into the cell and blocking
others.

cell wall - a thick, rigid membrane that surrounds a


plant cell. This layer of cellulose fiber gives the cell
most of its support and structure. The cell wall also
bonds with other cell walls to form the structure of
the plant.
centrosome - (also called the "microtubule
organizing center") a small body located near the
nucleus - it has a dense center and radiating tubules.
The centrosomes is where microtubules are made.
During cell division (mitosis), the centrosome
divides and the two parts move to opposite sides of
the dividing cell. Unlike the centrosomes in animal
cells, plant cell centrosomes do not have centrioles.
chlorophyll - chlorophyll is a molecule that can use
light energy from sunlight to turn water and carbon
dioxide gas into sugar and oxygen (this process is
called photosynthesis). Chlorophyll is magnesium
based and is usually green.
chloroplast - an elongated or disc-shaped organelle
containing chlorophyll. Photosynthesis (in which
energy from sunlight is converted into chemical
energy - food) takes place in the chloroplasts.
christae - (singular crista) the multiply-folded inner
membrane of a cell's mitochondrion that are fingerlike projections. The walls of the cristae are the site
of the cell's energy production (it is where ATP is
generated).
cytoplasm - the jellylike material outside the cell
nucleus in which the organelles are located.
Golgi body - (also called the golgi apparatus or
golgi complex) a flattened, layered, sac-like
organelle that looks like a stack of pancakes and is
located near the nucleus. The golgi body packages
proteins and carbohydrates into membrane-bound
vesicles for "export" from the cell.
granum - (plural grana) A stack of thylakoid disks
within the chloroplast is called a granum.
mitochondrion - spherical to rod-shaped organelles
with a double membrane. The inner membrane is
infolded many times, forming a series of projections
(called cristae). The mitochondrion converts the
energy stored in glucose into ATP (adenosine
triphosphate) for the cell.
nuclear membrane - the membrane that surrounds
the nucleus.
nucleolus - an organelle within the nucleus - it is
where ribosomal RNA is produced.
nucleus - spherical body containing many
organelles, including the nucleolus. The nucleus
controls many of the functions of the cell (by
controlling protein synthesis) and contains DNA (in
chromosomes). The nucleus is surrounded by the
nuclear membrane
photosynthesis - a process in which plants convert
sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide into food energy
(sugars and starches), oxygen and water.
Chlorophyll or closely-related pigments (substances
that color the plant) are essential to the
photosynthetic process.
ribosome - small organelles composed of RNA-rich
cytoplasmic granules that are sites of protein
synthesis.
rough endoplasmic reticulum - (rough ER) a vast

system of interconnected, membranous, infolded


and convoluted sacks that are located in the cell's
cytoplasm (the ER is continuous with the outer
nuclear membrane). Rough ER is covered with
ribosomes that give it a rough appearance. Rough
ER transport materials through the cell and
produces proteins in sacks called cisternae (which
are sent to the Golgi body, or inserted into the cell
membrane).
smooth endoplasmic reticulum - (smooth ER) a
vast system of interconnected, membranous,
infolded and convoluted tubes that are located in the
cell's cytoplasm (the ER is continuous with the
outer nuclear membrane). The space within the ER
is called the ER lumen. Smooth ER transport
materials through the cell. It contains enzymes and
produces and digests lipids (fats) and membrane
proteins; smooth ER buds off from rough ER,
moving the newly-made proteins and lipids to the
Golgi body and membranes
stroma - part of the chloroplasts in plant cells,
located within the inner membrane of chloroplasts,
between the grana.
thylakoid disk - thylakoid disks are disk-shaped
membrane structures in chloroplasts that contain
chlorophyll. Chloroplasts are made up of stacks of
thylakoid disks; a stack of thylakoid disks is called
a granum. Photosynthesis (the production of ATP
molecules from sunlight) takes place on thylakoid
disks.
vacuole - a large, membrane-bound space within a
plant cell that is filled with fluid. Most plant cells
have a single vacuole that takes up much of the cell.
It helps maintain the shape of the cell.

What are Proteins?Proteins are known as building


blocks of life. Proteins are biomolecules, usually
large in size, that consists of one or more chains of
amino acids. Proteins perform variety of functions
like catalyzing metabolic reactions, replication of
DNA, response to stimuli, and transporting
molecules. Proteins differ from each other mainly in
the sequences of amino acids.

Proteins vary in shape, they may be


simple crystalloid structure to long
fibrilar structures.

Protein structures are of two distinct


patterns - Globular proteins and fibrilar
proteins.

Characteristics of Proteins

General Characteristics of Proteins are as follows:

Proteins are organic substances, they are


made up of nitrogen and also, oxygen,
carbon an d hydrogen.

Globular proteins are spherical in shape


and occur in plants. Fibrilar proteins are
thread-like, they occur generally in
animals.

In general proteins have large molecular


weights ranging between 5 X 103 and 1
X 106.

Due to the huge size, proteins exhibit


many colloidal properties.

Proteins are the most important


biomolecules, they are the
fundamental constituent of the
cytoplasm of the cell.

Proteins are the structural elements of


body tissues.

The diffusion rates of proteins is


extremely slow.

Proteins are made up of amino acids.

Proteins exhibit Tyndall effect.

Proteins gives heat and energy to the


body and also aid in building and repair.

Only small amounts of proteins are


stored in the body as they can be used up
quickly on demand.

Structure of Proteins
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Proteins are considered as the


bricks, they make up bones, muscles,
hair and other parts of the body.
Proteins like enzymes are functional
elements that take part in metabolic
reactions.

There are four structural levels of organization to


describe the complex macromolecule, protein based
on the degree of complexity of of the molecule.
They are Primary Structure, Secondary structure,
Tertiary structure and Quaternary structure.
Primary Structure of Protein

Primary structure of protein is the linear


sequence of amino acids that make up
the polypeptide chain.

his sequence is given by the sequence of


nucleotide bases of the DNA in the
genetic code.

The amino acid sequence determines the


positioning of the different R groups
relative to each other.

The positioning determines the way the


protein folds and the final structure of
the molecule.

Properties of Proteins
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The general properties of proteins are similar to
those of the amino acids:
Physical Properties of Proteins

Proteins are colorless and tasteless.

They are homogeneous and crystalline.

Quaternary Structure of Protein

Secondary Structure of Protein

The linear, unfolded structure of


polypeptide chain assumes helical shape
to produce the secondary structure.

The secondary structure refers to the


regular folding pattern of twists and
kinks of the polypeptide chain.

The regular pattern is due to the


hydrogen bond formation between atoms
of the amino acid backbone of the
polypeptide chain.

The most common types of the


secondary structure are the alpha helix
and the pleated sheet.
Tertiary Structure of Protein

Tertiary structure of proteins is the three


dimensional structure formed by the
bending and twisting of the polypeptide
chain.

The linear sequence of polypeptide chain


is folded into compact globular structure.

The folding of the polypeptide chain is


stabilized by weak, noncovalent
interactions.

These interactions are hydrogen bonds


and electrostatic interactions.

Hydrogen bonds are formed when


hydrogen atom is shared with two other
atoms.

Electrostatic interactions between


charged amino acid chains.

Electrostatic interactions are between


positive and negative ions of the
macromolecules.

Hydrophobic interactions, disulphide


linkages and covalent bonds also
contribute to tertiary structure.

Some proteins contain more than one


polypeptide chains, this association of
polypeptide chains refers to the
quaternary structure.

Each polypeptide chain is called


a subunit.

The subunits can be same or different


ones.

Example: Haemoglobin the oxygen


carrying component of blood is made up
of two polypeptide chains, one with 141
amino acids and the other is a different
type of 146 amino acids.

Fats and Oils


Dietary fats and oils are both triglycerides. Fats are
generally solids and oils are generally liquids at
ordinary room temperatures. The characteristics of
fats and oils are related to the properties of the fatty
acids that they contain. The larger the number of
carbon atoms, the higher the melting point ; the
larger the number of double bonds, the lower the
melting point. Oils contain a higher percentage of
unsaturated fatty acids than fats. Fats from animal
sources tend to be solids and fats from vegetable
sources tend to be liquids. Thus fats are often
referred to as "animal fats" and "vegetable oils."
When fats or oils are exposed to air, they react with
the oxygen or water vapor to form short-chain
carboxylic acids. The short-chain acids are volatile
and have unpleasant smells and tastes. For example,
the strong smell and sour taste of vinegar are due to
acetic acid, a two-carbon carboxylic acid . The
oxidation process is called rancidification and can
make foods unpalatable. The characteristic smell of
rancid butter is due to the presence of butyric acid
(a four-carbon acid). (Rancidity can also be the
result of the hydrolysis of fats or oils.)
Composition of Fats and Oils
Fat and oil glyceride molecules can contain a single
fatty acid species or any combination of up to three
fatty acids. Most naturally occurring fat and oil
molecules contain a combination of fatty acids. As
indicated previously, the greater the percentages of
carbon-carbon bonds that are double bonds

in the fatty acids of a glyceride, the lower is the


melting point and the more likely the glyceride will
exist as a liquid at room temperature. Figure 2
shows the composition (in terms of their saturated,
monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated portions) of
some common fats and oils. Note that the oils tend
to contain fewer saturated fatty acids. Coconut oil is
an exception; although it does contain an ample
amount of saturated fatty acids, approximately twothirds of its fatty acid content is derived from lauric
and myristic acids. Lauric and myristic acids have
shorter chains of 12 and 14 carbons, respectively,
and they are responsible for the low melting point of
coconut oil.
WATER
o help you out, here's a list of some characteristics
and properties.
-Water stores heat efficiently: Water heats more
slowly and retains heat longer than many
substances. For example, you know that when we
sweat, we cool down. This is because the water lost
through sweat carries the heat away from our
bodies.

-Water bonds to itself: This is called cohesion,


where substances of the same kind are attracted to
each other (water sticks to water, like drops of water
on a plant).
-Water bonds to other substances: Water can also
bond to substances other than itself; this is called
adhesion, the attraction between different
substances. An example is how water drops stick to
a window.
-Polarity: Water is polar, which means that its water
molecules have an uneven distribution of charge.
Some parts of the molecules are negatively charged,
while another is positively charged. Because it has
an imbalance of charges, it is attracted to ions
(which are charged molecules) and other polar
molecules (uneven + uneven = even).
-pH of water: The pH of pure water is neutral, or 7.
When an acid (pH less than 7) dissolves in pure
water, hydrogen ions are formed. When a base (pH
more than 7) dissolves in pure water, hydroxide ions
are formed.