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The Metcom Engineering and Management System for Plant Grinding Operations

MODULE # 9:

SLURRY PUMPING

Metcom Consulting, LLC

© 1990 GPD Co. Ltd. / Metcom Consulting LLC (Rev.4, 2005)

SLURRY PUMPING

i page Objectives 1 Introduction 2 PART I - Pumping System Capacity and Head 4 Capacity Head / Pressure System elements 4 5 16 • Bernoulli's equation 17 • Static pressure 22 • Velocity head 25 • Vertical lift 33 • Friction loss 38 • Total dynamic head 45 System capacity versus head curve 63 PART II - Centrifugal Slurry Pumps 79 Major components Slurry pump performance 79 81 Manufacturer's pump performance curves Pumping system adjustments • 82 106 Progress Review 1 122 Closing word 133 References 134 Appendix A 135 Glossary 139

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ii LIST OF FIGURES

page

 Figure 1. A typical slurry pumping system. 2 Figure 2. The elements of Bernoulli's equation. 18 Figure 3. The operating point of the system. 63 Figure 4. The vertical lift of the pumping system. 64 Figure 5. The system curve. 65 Figure 6. Changing the vertical lift of the pumping system (example #1). 76 Figure 7. Changing the constant in Bernoulli's equation for the pumping system (example #2). 77 Figure 8. A typical slurry pump assembly. 79 Figure 9. A cross-sectional diagram of a typical slurry pump. 80 Figure 10. Changing the system while maintaining pump impeller speed (reduced TDH). 82 Figure 11. Changing the system while maintaining pump impeller speed (increased TDH). 83 Figure 12. The pump head-capacity curve. 84 Figure 13. The pump head-capacity curves. 85 Figure 14. The pump efficiency curves. 86 Figure 15. The pump NPSH curves. 90 Figure 16. The components of the "net positive suction head" for a pump. 92 Figure 17. A typical manufacturer's pump. 98

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iii LIST OF TABLES

page

 Table 1. Conversion factors for the units of pressure or head 9 Table 2. Fluid velocities and typical friction losses for slurry pumping 26 Table 3. Equivalent length of pipe for open valves and fittings 39

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1 OBJECTIVES

The objective of this module is for you to become familiar with slurry pumping systems. You will learn how to obtain the desired performance from these systems by learning how to:

• Evaluate the elements of the total dynamic head of a pumping system.

• Specify required adjustments to slurry pumps to achieve desired capacity and head.

Before completing this module, you must have completed the module entitled "Introduction to the Metcom System". If you have not completed the module entitled "Hydrocyclone Performance" or if you do not know how to quickly calculate the specific gravity of a slurry, refer to Appendix A of this module before moving on.

This module has two parts and you will need a calculator. The esti- mated time for completion is four hours including a Progress Review at the end.

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2 INTRODUCTION

The slurry pumping systems which are the subject of this module are the typical systems found in a mineral processing plant. Figure 1 shows such a pumping system feeding an installation of hydrocyclones. Figure 1. A typical slurry pumping system.

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3 The components of a typical slurry pumping system are:

• The pump box where slurry (and sometimes water) is collected.

• The pump.

• The piping system including elbows, valves, etc.

• The terminal apparatus, in this case, a hydrocyclone installation.

In Part II of this module, you will learn about centrifugal pumps since these are generally used in the mineral processing plant.

Right now, let's turn to Part I where you will learn about slurry pumping system capacity and head.

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4 PART I - PUMPING SYSTEM CAPACITY AND HEAD

CAPACITY

The pumping system capacity is the volumetric flow rate of slurry that flows from the pump to the terminal apparatus of the pumping system. "System capacity", "pump capacity", and "system slurry flow rate" are interchangeable terms.

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5 The pump provides the desired slurry capacity by exerting the fluid pressure required to overcome all the resistances to flow of the system at the prevailing flow rate. These resistances are measured

in head * or pressure * .

"Pressure" and "head" are interchangeable expressions. They both represent energy per unit weight of the fluid being transported by the system.

In the context of this module, a "fluid" may be any non-viscous fluid such as water or most solids/water slurries encountered in mineral processing plants. Pumping oils and highly viscous fluids required special considerations not covered in this module.

In the case of slurry pumping, you need to know the specific gravity * of the slurry in order to carry out pumping system calculations. The specific gravity, SG, of a fluid is the ratio of its density (g/cc) and the density (g/cc) of water (at 4ºC):

Specific gravity of the slurry

=

Slurry density (g/cc)

Density of water (g/cc)

Since the density of water is 1.0 g/cc, the SG of a given slurry can be easily calculated. For example, if the density of a slurry is 1.85 g/cc, then its specific gravity is simply 1.85. Note that SG is unitless as opposed to density which has units of g/cc or t/m 3 .

In most of your work on slurry pumping, you will have to calculate results in height of slurry. However, in some calculations, you will encounter values of head or pressure that are initially in "height of water".

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6 The relation between "height of slurry" and "height of water" is expressed as follows:

Height of slurry

x

Slurry SG

=

Height of water

Here is an example where "height of water" and "height of slurry" are illustrated.

Example

A column of water is 10 meters high. The equivalent height of this column in meters of slurry (SG = 2.0) is:

10 meters of water

2.0

=

5 meters of slurry

Therefore a 10-meter column of water provides the same head as a 5-meter column of slurry (SG = 2.0). This is illustrated in the figure below. Solve the following exercise.

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7 Exercise  A vertical pipe contains water to a height of 9.5 meters. If another pipe was to contain slurry (SG = 1.8), how high should the slurry level be to exert the same pressure as the column of water?

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8  5.3 meters
Solution
Height of slurry
=
Height of water
Slurry SG
Height of slurry
=
9.5 meters of water
1.8
Height of slurry
=
5.3 meters of slurry

There are several units for head or pressure, e.g. meters of slurry, meters of water, kiloPascals, pounds per square inch, etc. The conversion factors for the most commonly used units are presented in Table 1.

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9 Table 1. Conversion factors for the units of pressure or head

 1 atmosphere = 101 kPa = 14.7 psi = 29.92 inches of mercury = 33.9 feet of water = 10.33 meters of water 1 psi = 6.9 kPa = 0.068 atmosphere = 2.036 inches of mercury = 2.307 feet of water = 0.703 meter of water 1 kPa = 0.01 atmosphere = 0.145 psi = 0.295 inches of mercury = 0.334 feet of water = 0.102 meter of water 1 meter of water = 9.8 kPa = 0.097 atmosphere = 1.422 psi = 2.896 inches of mercury = 3.281 feet of water

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10 Since you have already learned how to convert "height of slurry" into "height of water", you can convert any "height of fluid" into any of the equivalent units of head or pressure in Table 1.

Here are some examples on how to use the factors in Table 1.

Example 1

The pressure exerted by a three-meter column of water can be expressed in:

kiloPascals:

 3 m water x 9.8 kPa = 29.4 kPa m water • psi: 3 m water x 1.422 psi = 4.3 psi m water

Example 2

A column of slurry (SG = 1.7) is 15.8 meters high. The pressure it exerts may first be expressed in meters of water:

15.8 m slurry

x

1.7

=

26.9 m water

Then it can also be expressed in other units of pressure:

kiloPascals:

26.9 m water x 9.8

feet of water:

kPa

m water

=

26.9 m water x

3.281 ft water m water

=

263.6 kPa

88.3 ft water

Solve the following two exercises.

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11 Exercise 1

A column of slurry is 7.5 meters high. The slurry SG is 1.8. Using the factors in Table 1, convert this information into the following units of pressure.

meters of water:

atmosphere:

kiloPascals:

psi:

inches of mercury:

feet of water:

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12 Answers • meters of water: 7.5 m slurry x 1.8 = 13.5 m water • atmospheres: 13.5 m water x 0.097 atmosphere m water = 1.3 atm • kiloPascals: 13.5 m water x 9.8 kPa = 132.3 kPa • psi: 13.5 m water x 1.422 = 19.2 psi m water • inches of mercury: 13.5 m water x 2.896 inches of mercury m water = 39.1 inches of mercury • feet of water: 13.5 m water x 3.281 ft water = 44.3 ft water m water

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13 Exercise 2 A column of water is 4.3 meters high and exerts a pressure of 42.1 kPa. a) If the water were replaced by slurry (SG = 2.1) to the same height of 4.3 meters, what would be the new pressure of this column: In kPa? In atmospheres? b) If the slurry SG changes to 2.0, what will be the new pressure: In kPa? In inches of mercury?

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14 Answers a) The equivalent height of the 4.3-meter column of slurry (SG = 2.1) is 9.0 meters of water: Height of slurry x Slurry SG = Height of water 9.0 m water 4.3 m slurry x 2.1 = In kPa, the pressure is 88.2: 9.0 m water x 9.8 kPa = 84.3 kPa m water In atmospheres, the pressure is 0.87: 9.0 m water x 0.097 = 0.9 atm atm m water b) The equivalent height of the 4.3-meter column of slurry (SG = 2.0) is 8.6 meters of water: 4.3 m slurry x 2.0 = 8.6 m water In kPa, the pressure is 84.3: 8.6 m water x 9.8 kPa = 84.3 kPa m water In inches of mercury, the pressure is 24.9: 8.6 m water x 2.896 inches of mercury = 24.9 inches m water of mercury

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15 In this module, we will ask you to use the units of "kPa" and "meters of fluid" in your calculations. However, feel free to use whichever system you prefer when you perform calculations for the pumping equipment in your plant.

We have just presented you with the topics of "capacity" and "head/pressure". In the next section, we will better define the four elements that make up slurry pumping system head.

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16 SYSTEM ELEMENTS

The pump in a slurry pumping system must overcome all resistances to flow in order to deliver the desired volume of slurry. There are four sources of head or pressure in a pumping system:

1. The change in static pressure * (P) from the initial boundary (surface of the slurry in the pump box) to the terminal boundary of the system.

2. The change in velocity head * (V) from the initial to the terminal boundary of the system.

3. The change in elevation, or vertical lift * (Z) from the initial to the terminal boundary of the system.

4. The total friction loss * (h f ) from the initial to the terminal boundary of the system.

The initial and terminal boundaries of the pumping system are selected to facilitate calculations. The initial boundary is generally the surface of the slurry in the pump box; this is indicated by the digit "1" in a triangle. The terminal boundary is generally at the feed to the terminal apparatus (if the terminal apparatus is a hydrocyclone) or at the surface of the slurry (if the terminal apparatus is an open tank); this is indicated by the digit "2" in a triangle.

These four elements add up to form the total dynamic head * , or TDH, of the system. This is also the total dynamic head that must be provided by the pump. Therefore the TDH of the system equals that provided by the pump!

 TDH = Change in + Change in + Change in + Friction static velocity elevation loss

pressure

The above equation is the long-hand form of Bernoulli's equation.

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17 BERNOULLI'S

EQUATION

In mathematical form, Bernoulli's equation is as follows based on the initial (1) and terminal (2) boundaries of a pumping system:

 ( V 2 2 2 ) TDH = (P 2 - P 1 ) + - 2 g V 1 + (Z 2 - Z 1 ) + h f where TDH = Total dynamic head of the system or provided by the pump (height of slurry). P 1 = Static pressure at the initial boundary of the system (atm, kPa, or psi). P 2 = Static pressure at the terminal boundary of the system (atm, kPa, or psi). V 1 = Fluid (slurry) velocity at the initial boundary of the system (m/sec). V 2 = Fluid (slurry) velocity at the terminal boundary of the system (m/sec). g = Acceleration due to the earth's gravitational field (9.81 m/s 2 or 32.2 ft/s 2 ). Z 1 = Elevation of the initial boundary of the system relative to the pump intake a (height of slurry). Z 2 = Elevation of the terminal boundary of the system relative to the pump intake a (height of slurry). =

h f

Total friction loss of the system (height of water).

a Could be the pump discharge or any other convenient point.

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18 As you can see, the units of TDH and of the elements are not common at this stage; however, each unit is one of head or pressure and all elements will eventually be converted to the common unit of height of slurry.

The elements in Bernoulli's equation are illustrated in Figure 2. Figure 2. The elements of Bernoulli's equation.

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19 Because of the conditions normally found in pumping systems in a mineral processing plant, Bernoulli's equation can be simplified. When the initial boundary of a pumping system is at the surface of

the slurry in the pump box, the static pressure, P

will give a "zero" gauge pressure. Also, since the velocity of the

slurry, V 1 , will be negligible at this point, we can say that:

1

, is atmospheric, or

P

• V

1

1

=

=

0

0

And Bernouilli's equation can be simplified to:

2 g

TDH

=

P 2

+

V 2 2

+

(Z 2

-

Z 1 )

+

h f

Again, when using this equation, the elements will be initially expressed in various units of head or pressure. However, TDH must eventually be expressed in "height of slurry".

Here is a very simple example which will introduce you to Bernoulli's equation.

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20 Example

Joe, the metallurgist, was asked to determine the TDH for a slurry pumping system. Here is the information he is given:

• The static pressure gauge reading at the hydrocyclone inlet is 148 kPa.

• The velocity (average across the pipe diameter) of the slurry at the hydrocyclone inlet is 1.94 m/s (this will be covered later).

• The vertical distance between the level of slurry in the pump box and the pump intake is 2.0 m (slurry head).

• The vertical distance between the pump intake and the hydrocyclone inlet is 12.0 m (slurry head).

• The piping system has a total friction loss, h f , equivalent to 2.0 m water.

Here is Bernouilli's equation again:

TDH

=

P 2

+

V 2 2

+

(Z 2

-

Z 1 )

+

h f

2 g

In this case, Joe has:

TDH = 148 kPa + 1.94 2 m slurry + (12.0 - 2.0) m slurry + 2.0 m water

2 g

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21 Joe must convert all units to "height of slurry". In this particular system, the slurry SG is 1.73:

For the static pressure he has:

P 2

=

148 kPa

x

0.102 m water kPa

=

15.1 m water

P 2

=

15.1 m water

1.73

=

8.7 m slurry

For the velocity head he has:

V 2 2

2 g

=

(1.94 m/sec) 2

2 x 9.81 m/sec 2

=

0.2 m slurry

For the vertical lift he has:

Z 2

-

Z 1

=

10.0 m slurry

For the friction loss he has:

h f

=

So finally:

2.0 m water

1.73

=

1.2 m slurry

 TDH = 8.7 + 0.2 + 10.0 + 1.2 TDH = 20.1 m slurry

The pump must therefore provide a total dynamic head of 20.1 m in order to transport the given volumetric flow rate of slurry through the system.

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22 Now, let's study each of the four elements of Bernoulli's equation in more detail.

STATIC PRESSURE

Static pressure is measured at the selected terminal boundary of the system. When the terminal boundary is the surface of an open tank, then the static pressure, P 2 , is atmospheric. If the terminal boundary is at the inlet of a hydrocyclone, then the static pressure, P 2 , is indicated by a pressure gauge at that point.

Here is an example.

Example

Slurry (SG = 1.60) is being pumped from an open vessel (P 1 = 0) into a tank pressurized at 170 kPa. Therefore P 2 is 170 kPa. This static pressure can also be expressed in other units:

• Meters of water:

• Meters of slurry:

170 kPa x 0.102 m water

=

17.3 m water

1.60

=

10.8 m slurry

Solve the following exercise.

17.3 m water

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23 Exercise You are pumping slurry (SG = 1.90) from a pump box to a cluster of hydrocyclones. The pressure gauge at the slurry distributor indicates a static pressure of 13.0 psi. If the terminal boundary of the slurry pumping system has been selected at the inlet to the cluster, what is P 2 for this system in: a) Feet of slurry? b) Atmospheres?

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24 Answers a) 15.8 ft slurry Solution 13.0 psi x 2.307 ft water psi = 30.0 ft water 30.0 ft water = 15.8 ft slurry 1.90 b) 0.9 atmosphere Solution 13.0 psi x 0.068 atm = 0.9 atm psi

You will have other opportunities to use P 2 throughout this module. Next, let's look at the velocity head of a pumping system.

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25 While V 2 is the velocity of the slurry at the terminal boundary of a slurry pumping system, the expression "V 2 2 /2g" is the velocity head element of the total dynamic head. When the initial boundary of the system is the surface of the fluid in an open pump box, we can as- sume that V 1 equals zero.

The velocity head is always expressed in "height of the fluid being pumped ". If the pump is pumping water, then the units are in "height of water". If the pump is pumping slurry, then the units are in "height of slurry". In this case, the slurry SG must be specified.

The "velocity" component of the velocity head is calculated based on the volumetric flow rate of slurry through the piping system (usually at the terminal boundary) and the inside diameter of the pipe through which it flows. These calculations have already been done for you and are found in Table 2. (Values for h f -factor are also displayed in Table 2; we will examine those later.)

Have a look at Table 2.

26

Table 2. Fluid velocities and typical friction losses for slurry pumping (continued)

 NOMINAL DIAMETER OF SCHEDULE 40 STEEL PIPE (INCHES AND MM) SLURRY FLOW RATE (cubic meters/hour) 4 inches 5 inches 6 inches ( 102 mm ) ( 127 mm ) 152 mm ( ) V h f factor (m of water) (100 m pipe) V h f factor (m of water) (100 m pipe) V h f factor (m of water) (100 m pipe) (m/sec) (m/sec) (m/sec) 50 1.70 0.0 60 2.03 4.3 70 2.37 5.7 80 2.70 7.3 90 3.05 9.2 1.94 2.9 100 3.40 11.2 2.16 3.6 120 4.06 16.0 2.58 5.1 140 4.73 21.6 3.01 6.8 2.09 2.7 160 3.44 8.8 2.38 3.5 180 3.86 11.0 2.68 4.4 200 4.29 13.6 2.98 5.3 220 4.72 16.3 3.27 6.4 240 3.57 7.5 260 3.87 8.8 280 4.17 10.2 300 4.46 11.6 320 4.76 13.2

© 1990 GPD Co. Ltd. / Metcom Consulting LLC (Rev.4, 2005)

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27

Table 2. Fluid velocities and typical friction losses for slurry pumping (continued)

 NOMINAL DIAMETER OF SCHEDULE 40 STEEL PIPE (INCHES AND MM) SLURRY FLOW RATE (cubic meters/hour) 8 inches 10 inches 12 inches ( 203 mm ) ( 254 mm ) 305 mm ( ) V h f factor (m of water) (100 m pipe) V (m/sec) h f factor (m of water) (100 m pipe) V h f factor (m of water) (100 m pipe) (m/sec) (m/sec) 200 1.72 1.3 220 1.89 1.6 240 2.06 1.9 260 2.24 2.2 280 2.41 2.6 300 2.58 2.9 320 2.76 3.3 340 2.93 3.7 1.86 1.2 360 3.11 4.1 1.97 1.3 380 3.27 4.6 2.08 1.4 400 3.43 5.0 2.18 1.6 450 3.86 6.3 2.46 2.0 1.73 0.8 500 4.29 7.8 2.73 2.5 1.92 1.0 550 3.01 3.0 2.12 1.2 600 3.29 3.5 2.31 1.5 700 3.82 4.7 2.69 2.0 800 4.36 6.1 3.07 2.5 900 4.92 7.6 3.47 3.2 1000 3.85 3.8 1100 4.22 4.6 1200 4.61 5.5 1300 5.00 6.4 1400 5.39 7.4

© 1990 GPD Co. Ltd. / Metcom Consulting LLC (Rev.4, 2005)

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28

Table 2. Fluid velocities and typical friction losses for slurry pumping (continued)

 NOMINAL DIAMETER OF SCHEDULE 40 STEEL PIPE (INCHES AND MM) SLURRY FLOW RATE (cubic meters/hour) 14 inches 16 inches 18 inches ( 356 mm ) ( 406 mm ) 457 mm ( ) V h f factor (m of water) (100 m pipe) V h f factor (m of water) (100 m pipe) V h f factor (m of water) (100 m pipe) (m/sec) (m/sec) (m/sec) 550 1.75 0.8 600 1.91 0.9 700 2.23 1.2 800 2.55 1.6 1.95 0.8 900 2.86 2.0 2.19 1.0 1.73 0.6 1000 3.19 2.4 2.44 1.2 1.92 0.7 1100 3.51 2.9 2.68 1.5 2.12 0.8 1200 3.83 3.4 2.93 1.7 2.31 1.0 1300 4.13 4.0 3.17 2.0 2.50 1.1 1400 4.45 4.6 3.41 2.3 2.70 1.3 1600 5.09 5.9 3.90 3.0 3.07 1.7 1800 4.38 3.8 3.47 2.1 2000 4.86 4.6 3.85 2.5 2200 4.22 3.1 2500 4.82 3.9

© 1990 GPD Co. Ltd. / Metcom Consulting LLC (Rev.4, 2005)

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29

Table 2. Fluid velocities and typical friction losses for slurry pumping (continued) NOMINAL
DIAMETER OF
SCHEDULE 40
STEEL PIPE
(INCHES AND MM)
20
inches inches
24
inches inches
inches
(508 ( mm)
)
(610 ( mm)
)
(
)
SLURRY FLOW
RATE
(cubic meters/hour)
V
(m/sec)
h f factor
(m of water)
(100 m pipe)
V
(m/sec)
h f factor
(m of water)
(100 m pipe)
V
(m/sec)
h f factor
(m of water)
(100 m pipe)
 1100 1.70 0.5 1200 1.86 0.6 1300 2.01 0.6 1400 2.17 0.7 1600 2.48 1.0 1.72 0.4 1800 2.79 1.2 1.93 0.5 2000 3.10 1.5 2.14 0.6 2200 3.40 1.8 2.36 0.7 2500 3.87 2.3 2.68 0.9 3000 4.65 3.2 3.22 1.3 3500 3.76 1.7 4000 4.29 2.2 4500 4.83 2.8

© 1990GPD Co. Ltd. / Metcom Consulting LLC (Rev.4, 2005)

SLURRY PUMPING

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30 Notes

1. Select the value of Q in the table which is the closest to yours.

2. If your value of Q falls right between two values of Q in the table, select the bigger one of the two.

Here is an example on how to use Table 2 to determine the velocity head of a pumping system.

Example

Water is being pumped from an open reservoir to a nearby pump box

at a rate of 100 m 3 /h. The discharge pipe is 5 inches in diameter. The velocity head in the pipe can be determined as follows.

"V" from Table 2 is 2.16 m/sec. Therefore the velocity head is:

V 2 2

2 g

 = 2.16 2 = 0.2 m water 2 x 9.81

Note that this element of the total dynamic head is generally a relatively small part of it.

Solve the problem in the following exercise.

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31 Exercise

Slurry (SG = 2.2) is being pumped to a set of hydrocyclones at the volumetric flow rate of 250 m 3 /h through a 6-inch pipe.

What is the velocity head in this system?

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32 Answers 0.8 meters of slurry Solution From Table 2, "V" is 3.87 m/sec. Therefore: V 2 2 = 3.87 2 = 0.8 m slurry (SG = 2.2) 2 g 2 x 9.81

Let's turn to the vertical lift of pumping systems.

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33 VERTICAL LIFT

The vertical lift of a pumping system is the net height over which the fluid must be transported. Its units are always in "height of the fluid being pumped ". If the pump is pumping slurry, then the units are "height of slurry".

Here is an example.

Example

Slurry (SG = 1.8) is being pumped to an installation of hydrocyclones from a pump box. The slurry level in the pump box is 2.5 m above

the pump inlet (Z 1 ).

inlets of the hydrocyclones is 8.2 m (Z 2 ). This is illustrated in the

following figure.

The vertical distance between the pump and the

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34  The vertical lift of this pump is:

8.2

-

2.5

=

5.7 m slurry

Solve the following exercise.

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35 Exercise

Water is pumped from an open vessel to an open tank as shown in the figure below. SLURRY PUMPING

36 Exercise (continued)

Based on the vertical distances indicated in the figure:

a) What is the vertical lift of this system?

b) If this system were to transport slurry (SG = 1.50), what would be the vertical lift?

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37 Answers a) 11.0 m water = 10.4 + 3.9 - 3.3 b) 11.0 m slurry = 10.4 + 3.9 - 3.3

Note that the vertical lift can be expressed in kPa, inches of mercury, etc. However, when you calculate the total dynamic head (TDH) in Bernouilli's equation, the units must eventually be in "height of the fluid being pumped".

Now, let's look at the last of the four elements of total dynamic head:

friction loss.

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38 FRICTION LOSS

The total friction loss in a pumping system is due to the friction of the fluid against the pipe walls as the fluid flows through the piping system; it is also due to the interference to flow that is created by elbows, valves, and fittings which are part of the piping system between the initial and terminal boundaries of the system. We assume that pump boxes do not create any friction.

The friction loss, h f , in a piping system depends on the nominal diameter of the pipe in the piping system and on the volumetric flow rate of slurry that flows through it. The piping system consists of two general parts:

1. The total length of straight pipe.

2. The equivalent length of straight pipe created by the presence of valves (fully open) and fittings.

The former can be measured directly in the plant. The latter can be determined from tables based on the nominal diameter of the pipe.

Table 3 lists the equivalent length of pipe created by several types of open valves and fittings.

Table 3. Equivalent length of pipe for open valves and fittings (meters)

39 NOMINAL DIAMETER OF
SCHEDULE 40 STEEL PIPE
(INCHES AND MM)
4 in.
5 in.
6 in.
8 in.
10 in.
12 in.
14 in.
16 in.
18 in.
20 in.
24 in.
(102 mm)
(127 mm)
(152 mm)
(203 mm)
(254 mm)
(305 mm)
(356 mm)
(406 mm)
(457 mm) (508 mm)
(610 mm)
FITTINGS © 1990 GPD Co. Ltd. / Metcom Consulting LLC (Rev.4, 2005)

SLURRY PUMPING

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40 In Table 3, we can see, for example, that a regular 90º elbow in a 4-inch piping system is equivalent to 1.8 meters of 4-inch pipe.

Once you know the equivalent length of a piping system, you can establish the friction loss in the system by using a friction factor, h -factor. "h " stands for "head due to friction" and depends on the volumetric flow rate of slurry through the piping system.

f

f

These factors are listed in Table 2 on page 26.

Have a second look at Table 2.

Notes

1. The h f -factors quoted in Table 2 are for the pumping of slurry even though the units are "height of water per length of pipe".

2. The h f -factors quoted in Table 2 include an additional 10% to account for the additional loss due to pumping slurry instead of water. This factor is assumed to be the same for all slurries, independent of slurry SG, % solids, solids size distribution, etc.

Different correction factors may be used by others. However, for pumping over the relatively short distances encountered in mineral concentrators, the net effect of the correction factor on the calculated TDH is negligible.

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41 Use the following equation to calculate the friction loss, h f , caused by the piping system:

h f

=

Equivalent length of pipe in the system (m pipe)

x

h f -factor m water

(

100 m pipe

)

Here is an example on how to use the h f -factors to solve for the total

friction loss of the system, h f .

Example

A piping system delivers 160 m 3 /h of slurry to a set of hydrocyclones. The piping system is composed of the following items:

• 55.0 meters of straight 6-inch pipe

• One square-mouth inlet (at the pump box wall)

• One pinch valve

From Table 3, we can establish the equivalent length of 6-inch pipe created by the presence of the fitting, valve, and elbows:

• For the square-mouth inlet, the equivalent length of 6-inch pipe is 4.9 meters of pipe.

• For the pinch valve, the equivalent length of 6-inch pipe is 1.2 meters of pipe.

• For the two elbows, the equivalent length of 6-inch pipe is (2 x 1.7) 3.4 meters.

SLURRY PUMPING

42 The total equivalent length of 6-inch pipe for this system is:

55.0

+

4.9

+

1.2

+

3.4

=

64.5 meters of 6-inch pipe

To determine the total friction loss in this piping system, we must go to Table 2.

In Table 2, the value of h f -factor associated with a slurry volumetric

flow rate of 160 m

/h is 3.5 meters of water per 100 meters of pipe.

3

Since we have a piping system that has an equivalent length of 64.5 meters of 6-inch pipe, the total friction loss in this system is:

64.5 m of pipe

x

3.5

m water

100 m pipe

=

2.3 m water

This piping system therefore contributes 2.3 m water to the total dynamic head of the system. If the pump is transporting slurry

(SG = 1.50) instead of water, then the friction loss, h f , becomes (2.3/1.50) 1.5 m slurry.

Solve the following exercise.

SLURRY PUMPING

43 Exercise

Calculate the total friction loss, h f , in a system which is pumping

slurry (SG = 1.44) at 300 m 3 /h. The piping system consists of:

20.5 m of straight 8-inch pipe One square-mouth inlet One pinch valve Two non-return valves Six regular 90º elbows

SLURRY PUMPING

44 Answer 2.0 m water (or 1.4 m slurry) Solution For the valves and fittings, the equivalent length of 8-inch pipe, from Table 3, was: 20.5 m 7.0 m 1.4 m 2 x 8.2 m 6 x 3.7 m 67.5 m water From Table 2, the friction loss associated with 8-inch piping and a 300 m 3 /h flow rate of slurry is 2.9 meters of water per 100 meters of pipe. The total friction loss in the piping system is therefore: 67.5 m pipe x 2.9 m water 100 m pipe = 2.0 m water In meters of slurry, this represents (2.0 / 1.44) 1.4 meters of slurry.

Now you know how to determine the value of each element of the total dynamic head of a pumping system.

Take a break and when you return, you will practice calculating the total dynamic head of pumping systems.

SLURRY PUMPING

45 To summarize what you have learned so far in this module, here is the simplified Bernouilli's equation: TDH
=
+
+
(Z 2
-
Z 1 )
+
P 2
V 2 2
h f
2 g

Each of the four elements in this equation carries its own units of head or pressure. However, the total dynamic head of the pump must be expressed in "height of slurry".

We have already presented an example on the use of this equation on page 20. Solve the following exercise.

Exercise

Determine the total dynamic head, TDH, of the slurry pumping system illustrated in the following Worksheet 1. This worksheet contains all the information you need to obtain your answer.

Give your final answer in "meters of slurry". Use this space and the blank page that follows the worksheet for your calculations. 46

1

WORKSHEET SYSTEM INFORMATION

Slurry SG Vol. flow rate of slurry Pressure gauge reading

=

=

=

1.60

205 m 3 /h 55 kPa

PIPING SYSTEM INFORMATION

 Pipe nominal diameter = 6 inches Length of straight pipe Valves and fittings: = 50.0 m

• One square-mouth inlet

• One non-return valve

• Two 45º elbows

• One pinch valve

© 1990 GPD Co. Ltd. / Metcom Consulting LLC (Rev.4, 2005)

SLURRY PUMPING

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47 Exercise (continued)   SLURRY PUMPING

48  TDH
=
19.0 m slurry
Solution
TDH
=
+
+
(Z 2
-
Z 1 )
+
P 2
V 2 2
h f
2 g
The static pressure equals 3.5 m slurry:
55 kPa
x
0.102 m water
kPa
=
5.6 m water
5.6 m water
=
3.5 m slurry
1.60
The velocity head equals 0.5 m slurry:
From Table 2, V 2 is approximately 2.98 m/sec based on a slurry
3
volumetric flow rate of 205 m
6 inches.
/h and a nominal pipe diameter of
2.98 2
=
0.5 m slurry
2 x 9.81 m/sec 2
The vertical lift equals 12.8 m slurry:
15.8
-
3.0
=
12.8 m slurry

SLURRY PUMPING

49 Answer (continued) The friction loss equals 2.2 m slurry: The equivalent length of pipe for the piping system is 67.3 meters: Straight 6-inch pipe: 50.0 m One square-mouth inlet: 4.9 m One non-return valve: 6.1 m Two 45º elbows: 3.4 m One long-radius 90º elbow: 1.7 m One pinch valve: + 1.2 m 67.3 m From Table 2, h f -factor equals 5.3 m water per 100 meters of pipe: 67.3 m pipe x 5.3 m water 100 m pipe = 3.6 m water 3.6 m water = 2.3 m slurry 1.60 Finally we have: TDH = 3.5 + 0.5 + 12.8 + 2.2 TDH = 19.0 m slurry

SLURRY PUMPING

50 How did you do in this exercise?

• Well? Good work!

• Not so well? Study the solution carefully to make sure that you understand each step.

SLURRY PUMPING

51 Up to now, we have defined the boundaries of a pumping system as the level of slurry in the pump box and the point where the slurry is discharged to atmosphere or enters a set of hydrocyclones.

In fact, it doesn't matter where you decide to set the boundaries on

each side of the pump: the total dynamic head of the pump will be the same regardless of the location of the boundaries.

Here is an example.

Example

 A slurry pumping system is illustrated in the following Worksheet 1. In this system, there is one initial boundary (1); however, two

terminal boundaries (2 and 3) have been identified so that we can calculate the total dynamic head of the pump in two different ways.

52

WORKSHEET

1 SYSTEM INFORMATION

Slurry SG Vol. flow rate of slurry Pressure gauge reading

=

=

=

1.60

300 m 3 /h 95 kPa

PIPING SYSTEM INFORMATION

 Pipe nominal diameter = 6 inches Length of straight pipe Valves and fittings: = 42.5 m

• One square-mouth inlet

• One non-return valve

© 1990 GPD Co. Ltd. / Metcom Consulting LLC (Rev.4, 2005)

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53 We are going to calculate the TDH for this pump in two ways:

from point "1" to "3" and from "1" to "2".

From point "1" to "3":

Since the slurry is at atmospheric pressure at point "3", P 3 equals

zero. Since the velocity of the slurry at point "3" is negligible, V 3 is also zero.

Here is the starting equation:

TDH

=

0

+

0

+

(17.8 -

4.1)

+

h f

Let's solve for h f . The piping system is as follows.

 Straight 6-inch pipe: 42.5 m One square-mouth inlet: 4.9 m One non-return valve: 6.1 m Two long-radius 90º elbows: + 3.4 m 56.9 m

From Table 2, h f -factor equals 11.6 m water per 100 m pipe:

 56.9 m pipe x 11.6 m water 100 m pipe = 6.6 m water 6.6 m water = 4.1 m slurry
 1.6 Finally we have: TDH = 0 + 0 + 13.7 + 4.1 TDH = 17.8 m slurry

Now let's see what we get if we use points "1" and "2".

SLURRY PUMPING

54 From point "1" to "2":

Since there is a pressure gauge at point "2", P 2 has a value. And

since the slurry velocity at point "2" is significant, V 2 also has a value.

Here is the starting equation:

TDH

=

95 kPa +

V 2 2

+