The Metcom Engineering and Management System for Plant Grinding Operations
MODULE # 9:
SLURRY PUMPING
Metcom Consulting, LLC
© 1990 GPD Co. Ltd. / Metcom Consulting LLC (Rev.4, 2005)
SLURRY PUMPING
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
page 

Objectives 
1 
Introduction 
2 
PART I  Pumping System Capacity and Head 
4 
Capacity Head / Pressure System elements 
4 
5 

16 

• Bernoulli's equation 
17 
• Static pressure 
22 
• Velocity head 
25 
• Vertical lift 
33 
• Friction loss 
38 
• Total dynamic head 
45 
System capacity versus head curve 
63 
PART II  Centrifugal Slurry Pumps 
79 
Major components Slurry pump performance 
79 
81 

Manufacturer's pump performance curves Pumping system adjustments • 
82 
106 

Progress Review 1 
122 
Closing word 
133 
References 
134 
Appendix A 
135 
Glossary 
139 
© 1990 GPD Co. Ltd. / Metcom Consulting LLC (Rev.4, 2005)
SLURRY PUMPING
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LIST OF FIGURES
page
Figure 1. 
A typical slurry pumping system. 
2 
Figure 2. 
The elements of Bernoulli's equation. 
18 
Figure 3. 
The operating point of the system. 
63 
Figure 4. 
The vertical lift of the pumping system. 
64 
Figure 5. 
The system curve. 
65 
Figure 6. 
Changing the vertical lift of the pumping system (example #1). 
76 
Figure 7. 
Changing the constant in Bernoulli's equation for the pumping system (example #2). 
77 
Figure 8. 
A typical slurry pump assembly. 
79 
Figure 9. 
A crosssectional diagram of a typical slurry pump. 
80 
Figure 10. 
Changing the system while maintaining pump impeller speed (reduced TDH). 
82 
Figure 11. 
Changing the system while maintaining pump impeller speed (increased TDH). 
83 
Figure 12. 
The pump headcapacity curve. 
84 
Figure 13. 
The pump headcapacity curves. 
85 
Figure 14. 
The pump efficiency curves. 
86 
Figure 15. 
The pump NPSH curves. 
90 
Figure 16. 
The components of the "net positive suction head" for a pump. 
92 
Figure 17. 
A typical manufacturer's pump. 
98 
© 1990 GPD Co. Ltd. / Metcom Consulting LLC (Rev.4, 2005)
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LIST OF TABLES
page
Table 1. Conversion factors for the units of pressure or head 
9 
Table 2. Fluid velocities and typical friction losses for slurry pumping 
26 
Table 3. Equivalent length of pipe for open valves and fittings 
39 
© 1990 GPD Co. Ltd. / Metcom Consulting LLC (Rev.4, 2005)
SLURRY PUMPING
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OBJECTIVES
The objective of this module is for you to become familiar with slurry pumping systems. You will learn how to obtain the desired performance from these systems by learning how to:
• Evaluate the elements of the total dynamic head of a pumping system.
• Specify required adjustments to slurry pumps to achieve desired capacity and head.
Before completing this module, you must have completed the module entitled "Introduction to the Metcom System". If you have not completed the module entitled "Hydrocyclone Performance" or if you do not know how to quickly calculate the specific gravity of a slurry, refer to Appendix A of this module before moving on.
This module has two parts and you will need a calculator. The esti mated time for completion is four hours including a Progress Review at the end.
© 1990 GPD Co. Ltd. / Metcom Consulting LLC (Rev.4, 2005)
SLURRY PUMPING
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INTRODUCTION
The slurry pumping systems which are the subject of this module are the typical systems found in a mineral processing plant. Figure 1 shows such a pumping system feeding an installation of hydrocyclones.
Figure 1. A typical slurry pumping system.
© 1990 GPD Co. Ltd. / Metcom Consulting LLC (Rev.4, 2005)
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The components of a typical slurry pumping system are:
• The pump box where slurry (and sometimes water) is collected.
• The pump.
• The piping system including elbows, valves, etc.
• The terminal apparatus, in this case, a hydrocyclone installation.
In Part II of this module, you will learn about centrifugal pumps since these are generally used in the mineral processing plant.
Right now, let's turn to Part I where you will learn about slurry pumping system capacity and head.
© 1990 GPD Co. Ltd. / Metcom Consulting LLC (Rev.4, 2005)
SLURRY PUMPING
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PART I  PUMPING SYSTEM CAPACITY AND HEAD
CAPACITY
The pumping system capacity is the volumetric flow rate of slurry that flows from the pump to the terminal apparatus of the pumping system. "System capacity", "pump capacity", and "system slurry flow rate" are interchangeable terms.
© 1990 GPD Co. Ltd. / Metcom Consulting LLC (Rev.4, 2005)
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HEAD / PRESSURE
The pump provides the desired slurry capacity by exerting the fluid pressure required to overcome all the resistances to flow of the system at the prevailing flow rate. These resistances are measured
in head * or pressure * .
"Pressure" and "head" are interchangeable expressions. They both represent energy per unit weight of the fluid being transported by the system.
In the context of this module, a "fluid" may be any _{n}_{o}_{n}_{}_{v}_{i}_{s}_{c}_{o}_{u}_{s} fluid such as water or most solids/water slurries encountered in mineral processing plants. Pumping oils and highly viscous fluids required special considerations not covered in this module.
In the case of slurry pumping, you need to know the _{s}_{p}_{e}_{c}_{i}_{f}_{i}_{c} _{g}_{r}_{a}_{v}_{i}_{t}_{y} _{*} of the slurry in order to carry out pumping system calculations. The specific gravity, SG, of a fluid is the ratio of its density (g/cc) and the density (g/cc) of water (at 4ºC):
Specific gravity of the slurry
=
Slurry density (g/cc)
Density of water (g/cc)
Since the density of water is 1.0 g/cc, the SG of a given slurry can be easily calculated. For example, if the density of a slurry is 1.85 g/cc, then its specific gravity is simply 1.85. Note that SG is unitless as opposed to density which has units of g/cc or t/m ^{3} .
In most of your work on slurry pumping, you will have to calculate results in height of slurry. However, in some calculations, you will encounter values of head or pressure that are initially in "height of water".
© 1990 GPD Co. Ltd. / Metcom Consulting LLC (Rev.4, 2005)
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The relation between "height of slurry" and "height of water" is expressed as follows:
Height of slurry
x
Slurry SG
=
Height of water
Here is an example where "height of water" and "height of slurry" are illustrated.
Example
A column of water is 10 meters high. The equivalent height of this column in meters of slurry (SG = 2.0) is:
10 meters of water
2.0
=
5 meters of slurry
Therefore a 10meter column of water provides the same head as a 5meter column of slurry (SG = 2.0). This is illustrated in the figure below.
Solve the following exercise.
© 1990 GPD Co. Ltd. / Metcom Consulting LLC (Rev.4, 2005)
SLURRY PUMPING
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Exercise
A vertical pipe contains water to a height of 9.5 meters. If another pipe was to contain slurry (SG = 1.8), how high should the slurry level be to exert the same pressure as the column of water?
The answer follows.
© 1990 GPD Co. Ltd. / Metcom Consulting LLC (Rev.4, 2005)
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There are several units for head or pressure, e.g. meters of slurry, meters of water, kiloPascals, pounds per square inch, etc. The conversion factors for the most commonly used units are presented in Table 1.
© 1990 GPD Co. Ltd. / Metcom Consulting LLC (Rev.4, 2005)
SLURRY PUMPING
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Table 1. Conversion factors for the units of pressure or head
1 atmosphere 
= 
101 kPa 
= 
14.7 psi 

= 
29.92 inches of mercury 

= 
33.9 feet of water 

= 
10.33 meters of water 

1 psi 
= 
6.9 kPa 
= 
0.068 atmosphere 

= 
2.036 inches of mercury 

= 
2.307 feet of water 

= 
0.703 meter of water 

1 kPa 
= 
0.01 atmosphere 
= 
0.145 psi 

= 
0.295 inches of mercury 

= 
0.334 feet of water 

= 
0.102 meter of water 

1 meter of water 
= 
9.8 kPa 
= 
0.097 atmosphere 

= 
1.422 psi 

= 
2.896 inches of mercury 

= 
3.281 feet of water 
Throughout your calculations, carry only one decimal place. Record your answers to one decimal place.
© 1990 GPD Co. Ltd. / Metcom Consulting LLC (Rev.4, 2005)
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Since you have already learned how to convert "height of slurry" into "height of water", you can convert any "height of fluid" into any of the equivalent units of head or pressure in Table 1.
Here are some examples on how to use the factors in Table 1.
Example 1
The pressure exerted by a threemeter column of water can be expressed in:
• kiloPascals:
3 
m water 
x 
9.8 
kPa 
= 
29.4 kPa 
m water 

• psi: 

3 
m water 
x 
1.422 
psi 
= 
4.3 psi 
m water 
Example 2
A column of slurry (SG = 1.7) is 15.8 meters high. The pressure it exerts may first be expressed in meters of water:
15.8 m slurry
x
1.7
=
26.9 m water
Then it can also be expressed in other units of pressure:
• kiloPascals:
26.9 m water x 9.8
• feet of water:
kPa
m water
=
26.9 m water x
3.281 ft water m water
=
263.6 kPa
88.3 ft water
Solve the following two exercises.
© 1990 GPD Co. Ltd. / Metcom Consulting LLC (Rev.4, 2005)
SLURRY PUMPING
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Exercise 1
A column of slurry is 7.5 meters high. The slurry SG is 1.8. Using the factors in Table 1, convert this information into the following units of pressure.
meters of water:
atmosphere:
kiloPascals:
psi:
inches of mercury:
feet of water:
The answers follow.
© 1990 GPD Co. Ltd. / Metcom Consulting LLC (Rev.4, 2005)
SLURRY PUMPING
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Answers 

• meters of water: 

7.5 m slurry 
x 
1.8 
= 
13.5 m water 

• atmospheres: 

13.5 
m water 
x 
0.097 atmosphere m water = 
1.3 atm 

• kiloPascals: 

13.5 
m water 
x 
9.8 
kPa 
= 
132.3 kPa 

• psi: 

13.5 
m water 
x 
1.422 
= 
19.2 psi 

m 
water 

• inches of mercury: 

13.5 
m water 
x 
2.896 inches of mercury m water = 
39.1 inches of mercury 

• feet of water: 

13.5 
m water 
x 
3.281 ft water 
= 
44.3 ft water 

m 
water 
© 1989 GPD Co. Ltd. / Metcom Consulting LLC (Rev.4, 2005)
SLURRY PUMPING
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Exercise 2 

A column of water is 4.3 meters high and exerts a pressure of 42.1 kPa. 

a) If the water were replaced by slurry (SG = 2.1) to the same height of 4.3 meters, what would be the new pressure of this column: 

In kPa? 

In atmospheres? 

b) If the slurry SG changes to 2.0, what will be the new pressure: 

In kPa? 

In inches of mercury? 
The answers follow.
© 1990 GPD Co. Ltd. / Metcom Consulting LLC (Rev.4, 2005)
SLURRY PUMPING
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Answers 

a) The equivalent height of the 4.3meter column of slurry (SG = 2.1) is 9.0 meters of water: 

Height of slurry 
x Slurry SG 
= 
Height of water 9.0 m water 

4.3 m slurry x 2.1 
= 

In kPa, the pressure is 88.2: 

9.0 
m water 
x 
9.8 kPa 
= 
84.3 kPa 

m water In atmospheres, the pressure is 0.87: 

9.0 
m water 
x 
0.097 
= 
0.9 atm 

atm
m
water
b) The equivalent height of the 4.3meter column of slurry (SG = 2.0) is 8.6 meters of water: 

4.3 
m slurry 
x 
2.0 
= 
8.6 m water 

In kPa, the pressure is 84.3: 

8.6 
m water 
x 
9.8 kPa 
= 
84.3 kPa 

m water 

In inches of mercury, the pressure is 24.9: 

8.6 m water x 2.896 inches of mercury = 
24.9 inches 

m water 
of mercury 
© 1990 GPD Co. Ltd. / Metcom Consulting LLC (Rev.4, 2005)
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In this module, we will ask you to use the units of "kPa" and "meters of fluid" in your calculations. However, feel free to use whichever system you prefer when you perform calculations for the pumping equipment in your plant.
We have just presented you with the topics of "capacity" and "head/pressure". In the next section, we will better define the four elements that make up slurry pumping system head.
© 1990 GPD Co. Ltd. / Metcom Consulting LLC (Rev.4, 2005)
SLURRY PUMPING
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SYSTEM ELEMENTS
The pump in a slurry pumping system must overcome all resistances to flow in order to deliver the desired volume of slurry. There are four sources of head or pressure in a pumping system:
1. The change in static pressure * (P) from the initial boundary (surface of the slurry in the pump box) to the terminal boundary of the system.
2. The change in velocity head * (V) from the initial to the terminal boundary of the system.
3. The change in elevation, or vertical lift * (Z) from the initial to the terminal boundary of the system.
4. The total friction loss * (h _{f} ) from the initial to the terminal boundary of the system.
The initial and terminal boundaries of the pumping system are selected to facilitate calculations. The initial boundary is generally the surface of the slurry in the pump box; this is indicated by the digit "1" in a triangle. The terminal boundary is generally at the feed to the terminal apparatus (if the terminal apparatus is a hydrocyclone) or at the surface of the slurry (if the terminal apparatus is an open tank); this is indicated by the digit "2" in a triangle.
These four elements add up to form the _{t}_{o}_{t}_{a}_{l} _{d}_{y}_{n}_{a}_{m}_{i}_{c} _{h}_{e}_{a}_{d} _{*} , or TDH, of the system. This is also the total dynamic head that must be provided by the pump. Therefore the TDH of the system equals that provided by the pump!
TDH 
= 
Change in 
+ 
Change in 
+ 
Change in 
+ 
Friction 
static 
velocity 
elevation 
loss 
pressure
head
The above equation is the longhand form of Bernoulli's equation.
© 1990 GPD Co. Ltd. / Metcom Consulting LLC (Rev.4, 2005)
SLURRY PUMPING
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BERNOULLI'S
EQUATION
In mathematical form, Bernoulli's equation is as follows based on the initial (1) and terminal (2) boundaries of a pumping system:
( 
V _{2} ^{2} 
2 
) 

TDH 
= 
(P _{2} 
 
P _{1} ) 
+ 
 2 g 
V _{1} 
+ 
(Z _{2} 
 
Z _{1} ) 
+ 
h _{f} 

where 
TDH 
= 
Total dynamic head of the system or provided by the pump (height of slurry). 

P 
_{1} 
= 
Static pressure at the initial boundary of the system (atm, kPa, or psi). 

P 
_{2} 
= 
Static pressure at the terminal boundary of the system (atm, kPa, or psi). 

V 
_{1} 
= 
Fluid (slurry) velocity at the initial boundary of the system (m/sec). 

V 
_{2} 
= 
Fluid (slurry) velocity at the terminal boundary of the system (m/sec). 

g 
= 
Acceleration due to the earth's gravitational 

field (9.81 m/s ^{2} or 32.2 ft/s ^{2} ). 

Z 
_{1} 
= 
Elevation of the initial boundary of the system 

relative to the pump intake ^{a} (height of slurry). 

Z 
_{2} 
= 
Elevation of the terminal boundary of the 

system relative to the pump intake ^{a} (height of slurry). 

= 
h _{f}
Total friction loss of the system (height of water).
a Could be the pump discharge or any other convenient point.
© 1990 GPD Co. Ltd. / Metcom Consulting LLC (Rev.4, 2005)
SLURRY PUMPING
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As you can see, the units of TDH and of the elements are not common at this stage; however, each unit is one of head or pressure and all elements will eventually be converted to the common unit of height of slurry.
The elements in Bernoulli's equation are illustrated in Figure 2.
Figure 2. The elements of Bernoulli's equation.
© 1990 GPD Co. Ltd. / Metcom Consulting LLC (Rev.4, 2005)
SLURRY PUMPING
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Because of the conditions normally found in pumping systems in a mineral processing plant, Bernoulli's equation can be simplified. When the initial boundary of a pumping system is at the surface of
the slurry in the pump box, the static pressure, P
will give a "zero" gauge pressure. Also, since the velocity of the
slurry, V _{1} , will be negligible at this point, we can say that:
1
, is atmospheric, or
P
• V
•
_{1}
_{1}
=
=
0
0
And Bernouilli's equation can be simplified to:
2 g
TDH
=
P _{2}
+
V _{2} ^{2}
+
(Z _{2}

Z _{1} )
+
h _{f}
Again, when using this equation, the elements will be initially expressed in various units of head or pressure. However, TDH must eventually be expressed in "height of slurry".
Here is a very simple example which will introduce you to Bernoulli's equation.
© 1990 GPD Co. Ltd. / Metcom Consulting LLC (Rev.4, 2005)
SLURRY PUMPING
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Example
Joe, the metallurgist, was asked to determine the TDH for a slurry pumping system. Here is the information he is given:
• The static pressure gauge reading at the hydrocyclone inlet is 148 kPa.
• The velocity (average across the pipe diameter) of the slurry at the hydrocyclone inlet is 1.94 m/s (this will be covered later).
• The vertical distance between the level of slurry in the pump box and the pump intake is 2.0 m (slurry head).
• The vertical distance between the pump intake and the hydrocyclone inlet is 12.0 m (slurry head).
• The piping system has a total friction loss, h _{f} , equivalent to 2.0 m water.
Here is Bernouilli's equation again:
TDH
=
P _{2}
+
V _{2} ^{2}
+
(Z _{2}

Z _{1} )
+
h _{f}
2 g
In this case, Joe has:
TDH = 148 kPa + 1.94 ^{2} m slurry + (12.0  2.0) m slurry + 2.0 m water
2 g
© 1990 GPD Co. Ltd. / Metcom Consulting LLC (Rev.4, 2005)
SLURRY PUMPING
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Joe must convert all units to "height of slurry". In this particular system, the slurry SG is 1.73:
For the static pressure he has:
P _{2}
=
148 kPa
x
0.102 m water kPa
=
15.1 m water
P _{2}
=
15.1 m water
1.73
=
8.7 m slurry
For the velocity head he has:
V _{2} ^{2}
2 g
=
(1.94 m/sec) ^{2}
2 x 9.81 m/sec ^{2}
=
0.2 m slurry
For the vertical lift he has:
Z _{2}

Z _{1}
=
10.0 m slurry
For the friction loss he has:
h _{f}
=
So finally:
2.0 m water
1.73
=
1.2 m slurry
TDH 
= 
8.7 
+ 
0.2 
+ 
10.0 
+ 
1.2 
TDH 
= 
20.1 m slurry 
The pump must therefore provide a total dynamic head of 20.1 m in order to transport the given volumetric flow rate of slurry through the system.
© 1990 GPD Co. Ltd. / Metcom Consulting LLC (Rev.4, 2005)
SLURRY PUMPING
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Now, let's study each of the four elements of Bernoulli's equation in more detail.
STATIC PRESSURE
Static pressure is measured at the selected terminal boundary of the system. When the terminal boundary is the surface of an open tank, then the static pressure, P _{2} , is atmospheric. If the terminal boundary is at the inlet of a hydrocyclone, then the static pressure, P _{2} , is indicated by a pressure gauge at that point.
Here is an example.
Example
Slurry (SG = 1.60) is being pumped from an open vessel (P _{1} = 0) into a tank pressurized at 170 kPa. Therefore P _{2} is 170 kPa. This static pressure can also be expressed in other units:
• Meters of water:
• Meters of slurry:
170 kPa x 0.102 m water
=
17.3 m water
1.60
=
10.8 m slurry
Solve the following exercise.
17.3 m water
© 1990 GPD Co. Ltd. / Metcom Consulting LLC (Rev.4, 2005)
SLURRY PUMPING
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Exercise 

You are pumping slurry (SG = 1.90) from a pump box to a cluster of 

hydrocyclones. The pressure gauge at the slurry distributor indicates 

a 
static pressure of 13.0 psi. 

If 
the terminal boundary of the slurry pumping system has been 

selected at the inlet to the cluster, what is P _{2} for this system in: 

a) Feet of slurry? 

b) Atmospheres? 
The answers follow.
© 1990 GPD Co. Ltd. / Metcom Consulting LLC (Rev.4, 2005)
SLURRY PUMPING
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Answers 

a) 15.8 ft slurry 

Solution 

13.0 
psi x 2.307 ft water psi 
= 
30.0 ft water 

30.0 
ft water 
= 
15.8 ft slurry 

1.90 

b) 0.9 atmosphere 

Solution 

13.0 
psi 
x 
0.068 atm 
= 
0.9 atm 

psi 
You will have other opportunities to use P _{2} throughout this module. Next, let's look at the velocity head of a pumping system.
© 1990 GPD Co. Ltd. / Metcom Consulting LLC (Rev.4, 2005)
SLURRY PUMPING
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VELOCITY HEAD
While V _{2} is the velocity of the slurry at the terminal boundary of a slurry pumping system, the expression "V _{2} ^{2} /2g" is the velocity head element of the total dynamic head. When the initial boundary of the system is the surface of the fluid in an open pump box, we can as sume that V _{1} equals zero.
The velocity head is always expressed in "height of the fluid _{b}_{e}_{i}_{n}_{g} pumped ". If the pump is pumping water, then the units are in "height of water". If the pump is pumping slurry, then the units are in "height of slurry". In this case, the slurry SG must be specified.
The "velocity" component of the velocity head is calculated based on the volumetric flow rate of slurry through the piping system (usually at the terminal boundary) and the inside diameter of the pipe through which it flows. These calculations have already been done for you and are found in Table 2. (Values for h _{f} factor are also displayed in Table 2; we will examine those later.)
Have a look at Table 2.
© 1990 GPD Co. Ltd. / Metcom Consulting LLC (Rev.4, 2005)
26
Table 2. Fluid velocities and typical friction losses for slurry pumping (continued)
NOMINAL DIAMETER OF SCHEDULE 40 STEEL PIPE (INCHES AND MM) SLURRY FLOW RATE (cubic meters/hour) 
4 
inches 
5 
inches 
6 
inches 

( 102 mm 
) 
( 127 mm 
) 
152 mm ( 
) 

V 
h _{f} factor (m of water) (100 m pipe) 
V 
h _{f} factor (m of water) (100 m pipe) 
V 
h _{f} factor (m of water) (100 m pipe) 

(m/sec) 
(m/sec) 
(m/sec) 

50 
1.70 
0.0 

60 
2.03 
4.3 

70 
2.37 
5.7 

80 
2.70 
7.3 

90 
3.05 
9.2 
1.94 
2.9 

100 
3.40 
11.2 
2.16 
3.6 

120 
4.06 
16.0 
2.58 
5.1 

140 
4.73 
21.6 
3.01 
6.8 
2.09 
2.7 

160 
3.44 
8.8 
2.38 
3.5 

180 
3.86 
11.0 
2.68 
4.4 

200 
4.29 
13.6 
2.98 
5.3 

220 
4.72 
16.3 
3.27 
6.4 

240 
3.57 
7.5 

260 
3.87 
8.8 

280 
4.17 
10.2 

300 
4.46 
11.6 

320 
4.76 
13.2 
© 1990 GPD Co. Ltd. / Metcom Consulting LLC (Rev.4, 2005)
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Table 2. Fluid velocities and typical friction losses for slurry pumping (continued)
NOMINAL DIAMETER OF SCHEDULE 40 STEEL PIPE (INCHES AND MM) SLURRY FLOW RATE (cubic meters/hour) 
8 
inches 
10 
inches 
12 
inches 

( 203 mm 
) 
( 254 mm 
) 
305 mm ( 
) 

V 
h _{f} factor (m of water) (100 m pipe) V (m/sec) 
h _{f} factor (m of water) (100 m pipe) 
V 
h _{f} factor (m of water) (100 m pipe) 

(m/sec) 
(m/sec) 

200 
1.72 
1.3 

220 
1.89 
1.6 

240 
2.06 
1.9 

260 
2.24 
2.2 

280 
2.41 
2.6 

300 
2.58 
2.9 

320 
2.76 
3.3 

340 
2.93 
3.7 
1.86 
1.2 

360 
3.11 
4.1 
1.97 
1.3 

380 
3.27 
4.6 
2.08 
1.4 

400 
3.43 
5.0 
2.18 
1.6 

450 
3.86 
6.3 
2.46 
2.0 
1.73 
0.8 

500 
4.29 
7.8 
2.73 
2.5 
1.92 
1.0 

550 
3.01 
3.0 
2.12 
1.2 

600 
3.29 
3.5 
2.31 
1.5 

700 
3.82 
4.7 
2.69 
2.0 

800 
4.36 
6.1 
3.07 
2.5 

900 
4.92 
7.6 
3.47 
3.2 

1000 
3.85 
3.8 

1100 
4.22 
4.6 

1200 
4.61 
5.5 

1300 
5.00 
6.4 

1400 
5.39 
7.4 
© 1990 GPD Co. Ltd. / Metcom Consulting LLC (Rev.4, 2005)
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Table 2. Fluid velocities and typical friction losses for slurry pumping (continued)
NOMINAL DIAMETER OF SCHEDULE 40 STEEL PIPE (INCHES AND MM) SLURRY FLOW RATE (cubic meters/hour) 
14 
inches 
16 
inches 
18 
inches 

( 356 mm 
) 
( 406 mm 
) 
457 mm ( 
) 

V 
h _{f} factor (m of water) (100 m pipe) 
V 
h _{f} factor (m of water) (100 m pipe) 
V 
h _{f} factor (m of water) (100 m pipe) 

(m/sec) 
(m/sec) 
(m/sec) 

550 
1.75 
0.8 

600 
1.91 
0.9 

700 
2.23 
1.2 

800 
2.55 
1.6 
1.95 
0.8 

900 
2.86 
2.0 
2.19 
1.0 
1.73 
0.6 

1000 
3.19 
2.4 
2.44 
1.2 
1.92 
0.7 

1100 
3.51 
2.9 
2.68 
1.5 
2.12 
0.8 

1200 
3.83 
3.4 
2.93 
1.7 
2.31 
1.0 

1300 
4.13 
4.0 
3.17 
2.0 
2.50 
1.1 

1400 
4.45 
4.6 
3.41 
2.3 
2.70 
1.3 

1600 
5.09 
5.9 
3.90 
3.0 
3.07 
1.7 

1800 
4.38 
3.8 
3.47 
2.1 

2000 
4.86 
4.6 
3.85 
2.5 

2200 
4.22 
3.1 

2500 
4.82 
3.9 
© 1990 GPD Co. Ltd. / Metcom Consulting LLC (Rev.4, 2005)
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Table 2. Fluid velocities and typical friction losses for slurry pumping (continued)
1100 
1.70 
0.5 

1200 
1.86 
0.6 

1300 
2.01 
0.6 

1400 
2.17 
0.7 

1600 
2.48 
1.0 
1.72 
0.4 
1800 
2.79 
1.2 
1.93 
0.5 
2000 
3.10 
1.5 
2.14 
0.6 
2200 
3.40 
1.8 
2.36 
0.7 
2500 
3.87 
2.3 
2.68 
0.9 
3000 
4.65 
3.2 
3.22 
1.3 
3500 
3.76 
1.7 

4000 
4.29 
2.2 

4500 
4.83 
2.8 
© 1990GPD Co. Ltd. / Metcom Consulting LLC (Rev.4, 2005)
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Notes
1. Select the value of Q in the table which is the closest to yours.
2. If your value of Q falls right between two values of Q in the table, select the bigger one of the two.
Here is an example on how to use Table 2 to determine the velocity head of a pumping system.
Example
Water is being pumped from an open reservoir to a nearby pump box
at a rate of 100 m ^{3} /h. The discharge pipe is 5 inches in diameter. The velocity head in the pipe can be determined as follows.
"V" from Table 2 is 2.16 m/sec. Therefore the velocity head is:
V _{2} ^{2}
2 g
= 
2.16 ^{2} 
= 
0.2 m water 

2 
x 9.81 
Note that this element of the total dynamic head is generally a relatively small part of it.
Solve the problem in the following exercise.
© 1990 GPD Co. Ltd. / Metcom Consulting LLC (Rev.4, 2005)
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Exercise
Slurry (SG = 2.2) is being pumped to a set of hydrocyclones at the volumetric flow rate of 250 m ^{3} /h through a 6inch pipe.
What is the velocity head in this system?
What is the unit for your answer?
The answers follow.
© 1990 GPD Co. Ltd. / Metcom Consulting LLC (Rev.4, 2005)
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Answers 

0.8 meters of slurry 

Solution 

From Table 2, "V" is 3.87 m/sec. Therefore: 

V _{2} ^{2} 
= 
3.87 ^{2} 
= 
0.8 m slurry (SG = 2.2) 



2 g 
2 
x 9.81 
Let's turn to the vertical lift of pumping systems.
© 1990 GPD Co. Ltd. / Metcom Consulting LLC (Rev.4, 2005)
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VERTICAL LIFT
The vertical lift of a pumping system is the net height over which the fluid must be transported. Its units are always in "height of the fluid being pumped ". If the pump is pumping slurry, then the units are "height of slurry".
Here is an example.
Example
Slurry (SG = 1.8) is being pumped to an installation of hydrocyclones from a pump box. The slurry level in the pump box is 2.5 m above
the pump inlet (Z _{1} ).
inlets of the hydrocyclones is 8.2 m (Z _{2} ). This is illustrated in the
following figure.
The vertical distance between the pump and the
© 1990 GPD Co. Ltd. / Metcom Consulting LLC (Rev.4, 2005)
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The vertical lift of this pump is:
8.2

2.5
=
5.7 m slurry
Solve the following exercise.
© 1990 GPD Co. Ltd. / Metcom Consulting LLC (Rev.4, 2005)
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Exercise
Water is pumped from an open vessel to an open tank as shown in the figure below.
© 1990 GPD Co. Ltd. / Metcom Consulting LLC (Rev.4, 2005)
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Exercise (continued)
Based on the vertical distances indicated in the figure:
a) What is the vertical lift of this system?
b) If this system were to transport slurry (SG = 1.50), what would be the vertical lift?
The answers follow.
© 1990 GPD Co. Ltd. / Metcom Consulting LLC (Rev.4, 2005)
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Answers 

a) 11.0 m water 
= 
10.4 
+ 
3.9 
 
3.3 

b) 11.0 m slurry 
= 
10.4 
+ 
3.9 
 
3.3 
Note that the vertical lift can be expressed in kPa, inches of mercury, etc. However, when you calculate the total dynamic head (TDH) in Bernouilli's equation, the units must eventually be in "height of the fluid being pumped".
Now, let's look at the last of the four elements of total dynamic head:
friction loss.
© 1990 GPD Co. Ltd. / Metcom Consulting LLC (Rev.4, 2005)
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FRICTION LOSS
The total friction loss in a pumping system is due to the friction of the fluid against the pipe walls as the fluid flows through the piping system; it is also due to the interference to flow that is created by elbows, valves, and fittings which are part of the piping system between the initial and terminal boundaries of the system. We assume that pump boxes do not create any friction.
The friction loss, h _{f} , in a piping system depends on the nominal diameter of the pipe in the piping system and on the volumetric flow rate of slurry that flows through it. The piping system consists of two general parts:
1. The total length of straight pipe.
2. The equivalent length of straight pipe created by the presence of valves (fully open) and fittings.
The former can be measured directly in the plant. The latter can be determined from tables based on the nominal diameter of the pipe.
Table 3 lists the equivalent length of pipe created by several types of open valves and fittings.
© 1990 GPD Co. Ltd. / Metcom Consulting LLC (Rev.4, 2005)
Table 3. Equivalent length of pipe for open valves and fittings (meters)
^{3}^{9}
© 1990 GPD Co. Ltd. / Metcom Consulting LLC (Rev.4, 2005)
_{S}_{L}_{U}_{R}_{R}_{Y} _{P}_{U}_{M}_{P}_{I}_{N}_{G}
SLURRY PUMPING
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In Table 3, we can see, for example, that a regular 90º elbow in a 4inch piping system is equivalent to 1.8 meters of 4inch pipe.
Once you know the equivalent length of a piping system, you can establish the friction loss in the system by using a friction factor, h factor. "h " stands for "head due to friction" and depends on the volumetric flow rate of slurry through the piping system.
f
f
These factors are listed in Table 2 on page 26.
Have a second look at Table 2.
Notes
1. The h _{f} factors quoted in Table 2 are for the pumping of slurry even though the units are "height of _{w}_{a}_{t}_{e}_{r} per length of pipe".
2. The h _{f} factors quoted in Table 2 include an additional 10% to account for the additional loss due to pumping slurry instead of water. This factor is assumed to be the same for all slurries, independent of slurry SG, % solids, solids size distribution, etc.
Different correction factors may be used by others. However, for pumping over the relatively short distances encountered in mineral concentrators, the net effect of the correction factor on the calculated TDH is negligible.
© 1990 GPD Co. Ltd. / Metcom Consulting LLC (Rev.4, 2005)
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Use the following equation to calculate the friction loss, h _{f} , caused by the piping system:
h _{f}
=
Equivalent length of pipe in the system (m pipe)
x
h _{f} factor m water
(
100 m pipe
)
Here is an example on how to use the h _{f} factors to solve for the total
friction loss of the system, h _{f} .
Example
A piping system delivers 160 m ^{3} /h of slurry to a set of hydrocyclones. The piping system is composed of the following items:
• 55.0 meters of straight 6inch pipe
• One squaremouth inlet (at the pump box wall)
• One pinch valve
• Two longradius 90º elbows
From Table 3, we can establish the equivalent length of 6inch pipe created by the presence of the fitting, valve, and elbows:
• For the squaremouth inlet, the equivalent length of 6inch pipe is 4.9 meters of pipe.
• For the pinch valve, the equivalent length of 6inch pipe is 1.2 meters of pipe.
• For the two elbows, the equivalent length of 6inch pipe is (2 x 1.7) 3.4 meters.
© 1990 GPD Co. Ltd. / Metcom Consulting LLC (Rev.4, 2005)
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The total equivalent length of 6inch pipe for this system is:
55.0
+
4.9
+
1.2
+
3.4
=
64.5 meters of 6inch pipe
To determine the total friction loss in this piping system, we must go to Table 2.
In Table 2, the value of h _{f} factor associated with a slurry volumetric
flow rate of 160 m
/h is 3.5 meters of water per 100 meters of pipe.
3
Since we have a piping system that has an equivalent length of 64.5 meters of 6inch pipe, the total friction loss in this system is:
64.5 m of pipe
x
3.5
m water
100 m pipe
=
2.3 m water
This piping system therefore contributes 2.3 m water to the total dynamic head of the system. If the pump is transporting slurry
(SG = 1.50) instead of water, then the friction loss, h _{f} , becomes (2.3/1.50) 1.5 m slurry.
Solve the following exercise.
© 1990 GPD Co. Ltd. / Metcom Consulting LLC (Rev.4, 2005)
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Exercise
Calculate the total friction loss, h _{f} , in a system which is pumping
slurry (SG = 1.44) at 300 m ^{3} /h. The piping system consists of:
20.5 m of straight 8inch pipe One squaremouth inlet One pinch valve Two nonreturn valves Six regular 90º elbows
The answer follows.
© 1990 GPD Co. Ltd. / Metcom Consulting LLC (Rev.4, 2005)
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Answer 

2.0 m water (or 1.4 m slurry) 

Solution 

For the valves and fittings, the equivalent length of 8inch pipe, from Table 3, was: 

20.5 
m 

7.0 
m 

1.4 
m 

2 
x 
8.2 m 

6 
x 
3.7 m 

67.5 
m water 

From Table 2, the friction loss associated with 8inch piping and a 

300 m ^{3} /h flow rate of slurry is 2.9 meters of water per 100 meters of pipe. 

The total friction loss in the piping system is therefore: 

67.5 m pipe x 
2.9 
m water 100 m pipe 
= 
2.0 m water 

In meters of slurry, this represents (2.0 / 1.44) 1.4 meters of slurry. 
Now you know how to determine the value of each element of the total dynamic head of a pumping system.
Take a break and when you return, you will practice calculating the total dynamic head of pumping systems.
© 1990 GPD Co. Ltd. / Metcom Consulting LLC (Rev.4, 2005)
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TOTAL DYNAMIC HEAD
To summarize what you have learned so far in this module, here is the simplified Bernouilli's equation:
Each of the four elements in this equation carries its own units of head or pressure. However, the total dynamic head of the pump must be expressed in "height of slurry".
We have already presented an example on the use of this equation on page 20. Solve the following exercise.
Exercise
Determine the total dynamic head, TDH, of the slurry pumping system illustrated in the following Worksheet 1. This worksheet contains all the information you need to obtain your answer.
Give your final answer in "meters of slurry". Use this space and the blank page that follows the worksheet for your calculations.
© 1990 GPD Co. Ltd. / Metcom Consulting LLC (Rev.4, 2005)
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1
WORKSHEET
SYSTEM INFORMATION
Slurry SG Vol. flow rate of slurry Pressure gauge reading
=
=
=
1.60
205 m ^{3} /h 55 kPa
PIPING SYSTEM INFORMATION
Pipe nominal diameter 
= 
6 inches 
Length of straight pipe Valves and fittings: 
= 
50.0 m 
• One squaremouth inlet
• One nonreturn valve
• Two 45º elbows
• One longradius 90º elbow
• One pinch valve
© 1990 GPD Co. Ltd. / Metcom Consulting LLC (Rev.4, 2005)
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Exercise (continued)
The answer follows.
© 1990 GPD Co. Ltd. / Metcom Consulting LLC (Rev.4, 2005)
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© 1990 GPD Co. Ltd. / Metcom Consulting LLC (Rev.4, 2005)
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Answer (continued) 

The friction loss equals 2.2 m slurry: 

The equivalent length of pipe for the piping system is 67.3 meters: 

Straight 6inch pipe: 
50.0 m 

One squaremouth inlet: 
4.9 m 

One nonreturn valve: 
6.1 m 

Two 45º elbows: 
3.4 m 

One longradius 90º elbow: 
1.7 m 

One pinch valve: 
+ 
1.2 m 

67.3 m 

From Table 2, h _{f} factor equals 5.3 m water per 100 meters of pipe: 

67.3 m pipe x 5.3 m water 100 m pipe 
= 
3.6 m water 

3.6 m water 
= 
2.3 m slurry 

1.60 

Finally we have: 

TDH 
= 
3.5 
+ 
0.5 
+ 
12.8 
+ 
2.2 

TDH 
= 
19.0 m slurry 
© 1990 GPD Co. Ltd. / Metcom Consulting LLC (Rev.4, 2005)
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How did you do in this exercise?
• Well? Good work!
• Not so well? Study the solution carefully to make sure that you understand each step.
Move on to learn more about pumping systems!
© 1990 GPD Co. Ltd. / Metcom Consulting LLC (Rev.4, 2005)
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Up to now, we have defined the boundaries of a pumping system as the level of slurry in the pump box and the point where the slurry is discharged to atmosphere or enters a set of hydrocyclones.
In fact, it doesn't matter where you decide to set the boundaries on
each side of the pump: the total dynamic head of the pump will be the same regardless of the location of the boundaries.
Here is an example.
Example
A 
slurry pumping system is illustrated in the following Worksheet 1. 
In 
this system, there is one initial boundary (1); however, two 
terminal boundaries (2 and 3) have been identified so that we can calculate the total dynamic head of the pump in two different ways.
© 1990 GPD Co. Ltd. / Metcom Consulting LLC (Rev.4, 2005)
52
WORKSHEET
1
SYSTEM INFORMATION
Slurry SG Vol. flow rate of slurry Pressure gauge reading
=
=
=
1.60
300 m ^{3} /h 95 kPa
PIPING SYSTEM INFORMATION
Pipe nominal diameter 
= 
6 inches 
Length of straight pipe Valves and fittings: 
= 
42.5 m 
• One squaremouth inlet
• One nonreturn valve
• Two longradius 90º elbows
© 1990 GPD Co. Ltd. / Metcom Consulting LLC (Rev.4, 2005)
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We are going to calculate the TDH for this pump in two ways:
from point "1" to "3" and from "1" to "2".
From point "1" to "3":
Since the slurry is at atmospheric pressure at point "3", P _{3} equals
zero. Since the velocity of the slurry at point "3" is negligible, V _{3} is also zero.
Here is the starting equation:
TDH
=
0
+
0
+
(17.8 
4.1)
+
h _{f}
Let's solve for h _{f} . The piping system is as follows.
Straight 6inch pipe: 
42.5 m 

One squaremouth inlet: 
4.9 m 

One nonreturn valve: 
6.1 m 

Two longradius 90º elbows: 
+ 
3.4 m 
56.9 m 
From Table 2, h _{f} factor equals 11.6 m water per 100 m pipe:
56.9 m pipe x 11.6 m water 100 m pipe 
= 
6.6 m water 
6.6 m water 
= 
4.1 m slurry 
1.6 

Finally we have: 

TDH 
= 
0 
+ 
0 
+ 
13.7 
+ 
4.1 
TDH 
= 
17.8 m slurry 
Now let's see what we get if we use points "1" and "2".
© 1990 GPD Co. Ltd. / Metcom Consulting LLC (Rev.4, 2005)
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From point "1" to "2":
Since there is a pressure gauge at point "2", P _{2} has a value. And
since the slurry velocity at point "2" is significant, V _{2} also has a value.
Here is the starting equation:
TDH
=
95 kPa +
V _{2} ^{2}
+
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