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Odyssey

This article is about Homers epic poem. For other uses,


see Odyssey (disambiguation).
Homers Odyssey redirects here. For The Simpsons
episode, see Homers Odyssey (The Simpsons).
The Odyssey (/dsi/;[1] Greek: Odsseia,

the actions of ghting men. In the English language as


well as many others, the word odyssey has come to refer
to an epic voyage.
The Odyssey has a lost sequel, the Telegony, which was
not written by Homer. It was usually attributed in antiquity to Cinaethon of Sparta. In one source, the Telegony
was said to have been stolen from Musaeus by Eugamon
or Eugammon of Cyrene (see Cyclic poets).

1 Synopsis
1.1 Exposition
The Odyssey began ten years after the end of the tenyear Trojan War (the subject of the Iliad), and Odysseus
has still not returned home from the war. Odysseus son
Telemachus is about 20 years old and is sharing his absent fathers house on the island of Ithaca with his mother
Penelope and a crowd of 108 boisterous young men, the
Suitors, whose aim is to persuade Penelope to marry
one of them, all the while enjoying the hospitality of
Odysseus household and eating up his wealth.

Greek text of the Odyssey's opening passage


pronounced [o.ds.sej.ja] in Classical Attic) is one of two

major ancient Greek epic poems attributed to Homer. It


is, in part, a sequel to the Iliad, the other work ascribed to
Homer. The poem is fundamental to the modern Western
canon, and is the second oldest extant work of Western
literature, the Iliad being the oldest. Scholars believe it Odysseus protectress, the goddess Athena, discusses his
was composed near the end of the 8th century BC, some- fate with Zeus, king of the gods, at a moment when
where in Ionia, the Greek coastal region of Anatolia.[2]
Odysseus enemy, the god of the sea Poseidon, is abThe poem mainly centers on the Greek hero Odysseus sent from Mount Olympus. Then, disguised as a Taphian
(known as Ulysses in Roman myths) and his journey chieftain named Mentes, she visits Telemachus to urge
home after the fall of Troy. It takes Odysseus ten years him to search for news of his father. He oers her hosto reach Ithaca after the ten-year Trojan War.[3] In his pitality; they observe the suitors dining rowdily while
absence, it is assumed he has died, and his wife Penelope the bard Phemius performs a narrative poem for them.
and son Telemachus must deal with a group of unruly suit- Penelope objects to Phemius theme, the Return from
ors, the Mnesteres (Greek: ) or Proci, who Troy,[6] because it reminds her of her missing husband,
compete for Penelopes hand in marriage.
but Telemachus rebuts her objections.
It continues to be read in the Homeric Greek and translated into modern languages around the world. Many
scholars believe that the original poem was composed
in an oral tradition by an aoidos (epic poet/singer), perhaps a rhapsode (professional performer), and was more
likely intended to be heard than read.[2] The details of the
ancient oral performance, and the storys conversion to
a written work inspire continual debate among scholars.
The Odyssey was written in a poetic dialect of Greeka
literary amalgam of Aeolic Greek, Ionic Greek, and other
Ancient Greek dialectsand comprises 12,110 lines of
dactylic hexameter.[4][5] Among the most noteworthy elements of the text are its non-linear plot, and the inuence
on events of choices made by women and serfs, besides

That night Athena, disguised as Telemachus, nds a ship


and crew for the true Telemachus. The next morning,
Telemachus calls an assembly of citizens of Ithaca to discuss what should be done with the suitors. Accompanied
by Athena (now disguised as Mentor), he departs for the
Greek mainland and the household of Nestor, most venerable of the Greek warriors at Troy, now at home in
Pylos. From there, Telemachus rides overland, accompanied by Nestors son, Peisistratus, to Sparta, where he
nds Menelaus and Helen who are now reconciled. He is
told that they returned to Sparta after a long voyage by
way of Egypt. There, on the island of Pharos, Menelaus
encountered the old sea-god Proteus, who told him that
Odysseus was a captive of the nymph Calypso. Inciden1

1 SYNOPSIS

tally, Telemachus learns the fate of Menelaus brother


Agamemnon, king of Mycenae and leader of the Greeks
at Troy: he was murdered on his return home by his wife
Clytemnestra and her lover Aegisthus.

Odysseus Overcome by Demodocus' Song, by Francesco Hayez,


181315

Charles Gleyre, Odysseus and Nausica

1.2

Escape to the Phaeacians

The second part tells the story of Odysseus. After having


spent seven years in captivity on Calypsos island, Ogygia,
Calypso falls deeply in love with him but he has consistently spurned her advances. She is persuaded to release him by Odysseus great-grandfather, the messenger
god Hermes, who has been sent by Zeus in response to
Athenas plea. Odysseus builds a raft and is given clothing, food and drink by Calypso. When Poseidon nds out
that Odysseus has escaped, he wrecks the raft but, helped
by a veil given by the sea nymph Ino, Odysseus swims
ashore on Scherie, the island of the Phaeacians. Naked
and exhausted, he hides in a pile of leaves and falls asleep.
The next morning, awakened by the laughter of girls, he
sees the young Nausicaa, who has gone to the seashore
with her maids to wash clothes after Athena told her in
a dream to do so. He appeals to her for help. She encourages him to seek the hospitality of her parents, Arete
and Alcinous, or Alkinous. Odysseus is welcomed and
is not at rst asked for his name. He remains for several
days, takes part in a pentathlon, and hears the blind singer
Demodocus perform two narrative poems. The rst is an
otherwise obscure incident of the Trojan War, the Quarrel of Odysseus and Achilles"; the second is the amusing
tale of a love aair between two Olympian gods, Ares and
Aphrodite. Finally, Odysseus asks Demodocus to return
to the Trojan War theme and tell of the Trojan Horse, a
stratagem in which Odysseus had played a leading role.
Unable to hide his emotion as he relives this episode,
Odysseus at last reveals his identity. He then begins to
tell the story of his return from Troy.

by storms. They visited the lethargic Lotus-Eaters who


gave two of his men their fruit which caused them to
forget their homecoming, and then were captured by
the Cyclops Polyphemus, escaping by blinding him with
a wooden stake. While they were escaping, however,
Odysseus foolishly told Polyphemus his identity, and
Polyphemus told his father, Poseidon, that Odysseus had
blinded him. Poseidon then curses Odysseus to wander
the sea for ten years, during which he would lose all his
crew and return home through the aid of others. After
their escape, they stayed with Aeolus, the master of the
winds and he gave Odysseus a leather bag containing all
the winds, except the west wind, a gift that should have
ensured a safe return home. However, the greedy sailors
foolishly opened the bag while Odysseus slept, thinking it
contained gold. All of the winds ew out and the resulting storm drove the ships back the way they had come,
just as Ithaca came into sight.

After unsuccessfully pleading with Aeolus to help


them again, they re-embarked and encountered the
cannibalistic Laestrygonians. All of Odysseuss ships except his own entered the harbor of the Laestrygonians
Island and were immediately destroyed. He sailed on
and visited the witch-goddess Circe. She turned half of
his men into swine after feeding them cheese and wine.
Hermes warned Odysseus about Circe and gave Odysseus
a drug called moly which gave him resistance to Circes
magic. Circe, surprised by Odysseus resistance, agreed
to change his men back to their human form in exchange
for Odysseus love. They remained with her on the island for one year, while they feasted and drank. Finally,
guided by Circes instructions, Odysseus and his crew
crossed the ocean and reached a harbor at the western
edge of the world, where Odysseus sacriced to the dead.
He rst encountered the spirit of crewmember Elpenor,
who had gotten drunk and fallen from a roof to his death,
which had gone unnoticed by others, before Odysseus and
the rest of his crew had left Circe. Elpenors ghost told
1.3 Odysseus account of his adventures
Odysseus to bury his body, which Odysseus promised to
After a piratical raid on Ismaros in the land of the do. Odysseus then summoned the spirit of the old prophet
Cicones, he and his twelve ships were driven o course Tiresias for advice on how to appease the gods upon his

1.5

Slaying of the Suitors

return home. Next Odysseus met the spirit of his own


mother, who had died of grief during his long absence.
From her, he got his rst news of his own household,
threatened by the greed of the Suitors. Finally, he met
the spirits of famous men and women. Notably he encountered the spirit of Agamemnon, of whose murder he
now learned, and Achilles, who told him about the woes
of the land of the dead (for Odysseus encounter with the
dead, see also Nekuia).

3
Cretans to ght alongside other Greeks in the Trojan War,
and had then spent seven years at the court of the king of
Egypt; nally he had been shipwrecked in Thesprotia and
crossed from there to Ithaca.
Meanwhile, Telemachus sails home from Sparta, evading an ambush set by the Suitors. He disembarks on the
coast of Ithaca and makes for Eumaeuss hut. Father and
son meet; Odysseus identies himself to Telemachus (but
still not to Eumaeus), and they decide that the Suitors
must be killed. Telemachus goes home rst. Accompanied by Eumaeus, Odysseus returns to his own house,
still pretending to be a beggar. When Odysseuss dog
(who was a puppy before he left) saw him, he was so
excited that he died.[7] He is ridiculed by the Suitors in
his own home, especially by one extremely impertinent
man named Antinous. Odysseus meets Penelope and
tests her intentions by saying he once met Odysseus in
Crete. Closely questioned, he adds that he had recently
been in Thesprotia and had learned something there of
Odysseuss recent wanderings.

Odysseuss identity is discovered by the housekeeper,


Eurycleia, when she recognizes an old scar as she is washOdysseus and the Sirens, eponymous vase of the Siren Painter, ing his feet. Eurycleia tries to tell Penelope about the beggars true identity, but Athena makes sure that Penelope
ca. 480-470 BC, (British Museum)
cannot hear her. Odysseus then swears Eurycleia to seReturning to Circes island, they were advised by her on crecy.
the remaining stages of the journey. They skirted the land
of the Sirens, who sang an enchanting song that normally
caused passing sailors to steer toward the rocks, only to 1.5 Slaying of the Suitors
hit them and sink. All of the sailors except for Odysseus,
who was tied to the mast as he wanted to hear the song, The next day, at Athenas prompting, Penelope maneuhad their ears plugged up with beeswax. They then passed vers the Suitors into competing for her hand with an
between the six-headed monster Scylla and the whirlpool archery competition using Odysseus bow. The man who
Charybdis, Odysseus losing six men to Scylla, and landed can string the bow and shoot it through a dozen axe heads
on the island of Thrinacia. Zeus caused a storm which would win. Odysseus takes part in the competition himprevented them leaving. While Odysseus was away pray- self: he alone is strong enough to string the bow and shoot
ing, his men ignored the warnings of Tiresias and Circe it through the dozen axe heads, making him the winand hunted down the sacred cattle of the sun god Helios ner. He then turns his arrows on the Suitors and with
as their food had run short. The Sun God insisted that the help of Athena, Telemachus, Eumaeus and PhiloZeus punish the men for this sacrilege. They suered a teus the cowherd, he kills all the Suitors. Odysseus and
shipwreck as they were driven towards Charybdis. All Telemachus hang twelve of their household maids, who
but Odysseus were drowned; he clung to a g tree above had betrayed Penelope or had sex with the Suitors, or
Charybdis. Washed ashore on the island of Ogygia, he both; they mutilate and kill the goatherd Melanthius, who
was compelled to remain there as Calypsos lover until she had mocked and abused Odysseus. Now at last, Odysseus
identies himself to Penelope. She is hesitant, but accepts
was ordered by Zeus, via Hermes, to release Odysseus.
him when he mentions that their bed was made from an
olive tree still rooted to the ground. Many modern and
1.4 Return to Ithaca
ancient scholars take this to be the original ending of the
Odyssey, and the rest to be an interpolation.
Having listened with rapt attention to his story, the
Phaeacians, who are skilled mariners, agree to help The next day he and Telemachus visit the country farm of
Odysseus get home. They deliver him at night, while he his old father Laertes, who likewise accepts his identity
is fast asleep, to a hidden harbour on Ithaca. He nds only when Odysseus correctly describes the orchard that
his way to the hut of one of his own slaves, the swine- Laertes had previously given him.
herd Eumaeus. Athena disguises Odysseus as a wander- The citizens of Ithaca have followed Odysseus on the
ing beggar so he can see how things stand in his house- road, planning to avenge the killing of the Suitors, their
hold. After dinner, he tells the farm laborers a ctitious sons. Their leader points out that Odysseus has now
tale of himself: He was born in Crete, had led a party of caused the deaths of two generations of the men of Ithaca:

4 GEOGRAPHY OF THE ODYSSEY

his sailors, not one of whom survived; and the Suitors,


whom he has now executed. The goddess Athena intervenes and persuades both sides to give up the vendetta, a
deus ex machina. After this, Ithaca is at peace once more,
concluding the Odyssey.

Character of Odysseus

Main article: Odysseus


Odysseus name means trouble in Greek, referring to
both the giving and receiving of troubleas is often the
case in his wanderings. An early example of this is the
boar hunt that gave Odysseus the scar by which Eurycleia
recognizes him; Odysseus is injured by the boar and responds by killing it. Odysseus heroic trait is his mtis, or
cunning intelligence": he is often described as the Peer
of Zeus in Counsel. This intelligence is most often manifested by his use of disguise and deceptive speech. His
disguises take forms both physical (altering his appearance) and verbal, such as telling the Cyclops Polyphemus
that his name is , Nobody, then escaping after
blinding Polyphemus. When asked by other Cyclopes
why he is screaming, Polyphemus replies that Nobody
is hurting him, so the others assume that, If alone as you
are [Polyphemus] none uses violence on you, why, there
is no avoiding the sickness sent by great Zeus; so you had
better pray to your father, the lord Poseidon.[8] The most
evident aw that Odysseus sports is that of his arrogance
and his pride, or hubris. As he sails away from the island of the Cyclopes, he shouts his name and boasts that
nobody can defeat the Great Odysseus. The Cyclops
then throws the top half of a mountain at him and prays
to his father, Poseidon, saying that Odysseus has blinded
him. This enrages Poseidon, causing the god to thwart
Odysseus homecoming for a very long time.

Structure

The Odyssey was written in dactylic hexameter. The


Odyssey opens in medias res, in the middle of the overall story, with prior events described through ashbacks
or storytelling. This device is also used by later authors
of literary epics, such as Virgil in the Aeneid, Lus de
Cames in Os Lusadas[9] and Alexander Pope in The
Rape of the Lock.
In the rst episodes, we trace Telemachus' eorts to assert control of the household, and then, at Athenas advice, to search for news of his long-lost father. Then the
scene shifts: Odysseus has been a captive of the beautiful
nymph Calypso, with whom he has spent seven of his ten
lost years. Released by the intercession of his patroness
Athena, through the aid of Hermes, he departs, but his
raft is destroyed by his divine enemy Poseidon, who is

angry because Odysseus blinded his son, Polyphemus.


When Odysseus washes up on Scherie, home to the
Phaeacians, he is assisted by the young Nausicaa and is
treated hospitably. In return, he satises the Phaeacians
curiosity, telling them, and the reader, of all his adventures since departing from Troy. The shipbuilding Phaeacians then loan him a ship to return to Ithaca, where he is
aided by the swineherd Eumaeus, meets Telemachus, regains his household, kills the Suitors, and is reunited with
his faithful wife, Penelope.
All ancient and nearly all modern editions and translations
of the Odyssey are divided into 24 books. This division is
convenient but it may not be original. Many scholars believe it was developed by Alexandrian editors of the 3rd
century BC. In the Classical period, moreover, several of
the books (individually and in groups) were given their
own titles: the rst four books, focusing on Telemachus,
are commonly known as the Telemachy. Odysseus narrative, Book 9, featuring his encounter with the cyclops
Polyphemus, is traditionally called the Cyclopeia. Book
11, the section describing his meeting with the spirits of
the dead is known as the Nekuia. Books 9 through 12,
wherein Odysseus recalls his adventures for his Phaeacian hosts, are collectively referred to as the Apologoi:
Odysseus stories. Book 22, wherein Odysseus kills
all the Suitors, has been given the title Mnesterophonia:
slaughter of the Suitors. This concludes the Greek Epic
Cycle, though fragments remain of the alternative ending of sorts known as the Telegony.
This Telegony aside, the last 548 lines of the Odyssey, corresponding to Book 24, are believed by many scholars to
have been added by a slightly later poet. Several passages
in earlier books seem to be setting up the events of Book
24, so if it were indeed a later addition, the oending editor would seem to have changed earlier text as well. For
more about varying views on the origin, authorship and
unity of the poem see Homeric scholarship.

4 Geography of the Odyssey


Main articles: Homers Ithaca and Geography of the
Odyssey
The events in the main sequence of the Odyssey (excluding Odysseus embedded narrative of his wanderings)
take place in the Peloponnese and in what are now called
the Ionian Islands. There are diculties in the apparently simple identication of Ithaca, the homeland of
Odysseus, which may or may not be the same island that is
now called Ithake. The wanderings of Odysseus as told to
the Phaeacians, and the location of the Phaeacians own
island of Scheria, pose more fundamental problems, if
geography is to be applied: scholars, both ancient and
modern, are divided as to whether or not any of the places
visited by Odysseus (after Ismaros and before his return

5
to Ithaca) are real.

edges of the earth are the result of the inuence of the


Gilgamesh epic upon the Odyssey.

The Cyclops origins have also been surmised to be the


results of Ancient Greeks nding an elephant skull, by paleontologist Othenio Abel in 1914. The enormous nasal
In 2008, scientists Marcelo O. Magnasco and Constantino passage in the middle of the forehead could have looked
Baikouzis at Rockefeller University used clues in the text like the eye socket of a giant, to those who had never seen
[12]
and astronomical data to attempt to pinpoint the time a living elephant.
of Odysseuss return from his journey after the Trojan
War.[10]

Dating the Odyssey

The rst clue is Odysseus sighting of Venus just before


dawn as he arrives on Ithaca. The second is a new moon
on the night before the massacre of the Suitors. The nal
clue is a total eclipse, falling over Ithaca around noon,
when Penelopes Suitors sit down for their noon meal.
The seer Theoclymenus approaches the Suitors and foretells their death, saying, The Sun has been obliterated
from the sky, and an unlucky darkness invades the world.
The problem with this is that the 'eclipse' is only seen by
Theoclymenus, and the Suitors toss him out, calling him
mad. No one else sees the sky darken, and it is therefore not actually described as an eclipse within the story,
merely a vision by Theoclymenus.
Doctors Baikouzis and Magnasco state that "[t]he odds
that purely ctional references to these phenomena (so
hard to satisfy simultaneously) would coincide by accident with the only eclipse of the century are minute.
They conclude that these three astronomical references
"'cohere', in the sense that the astronomical phenomena
pinpoint the date of 16 April 1178 BCE as the most
likely date of Odysseus return.
This dating places the destruction of Troy, ten years before, to 1188 BC, which is close to the archaeologically
dated destruction of Troy VIIa circa 1190 BC.

Inuences on the Odyssey

Scholars have seen strong inuences from Near Eastern


mythology and literature in the Odyssey. Martin West has
noted substantial parallels between the Epic of Gilgamesh
and the Odyssey.[11] Both Odysseus and Gilgamesh are
known for traveling to the ends of the earth, and on their
journeys go to the land of the dead. On his voyage to the
underworld, Odysseus follows instructions given to him
by Circe, a goddess who is the daughter of the sun-god
Helios. Her island, Aeaea, is located at the edges of the
world, and seems to have close associations with the sun.
Like Odysseus, Gilgamesh gets directions on how to reach
the land of the dead from a divine helper: in this case, the
goddess Siduri, who, like Circe, dwells by the sea at the
ends of the earth. Her home is also associated with the
sun: Gilgamesh reaches Siduris house by passing through
a tunnel underneath Mt. Mashu, the high mountain from
which the sun comes into the sky. West argues that the
similarity of Odysseus and Gilgameshs journeys to the

7 Text history
The Athenian tyrant Peisistratos, who ruled between
546 and 527 BC, is believed to have established a
Commission of Editors of Homer to edit the text of
the poems and remove any errors and interpolations,
thus establishing a canonical text.[13]
The earliest papyrus fragments date back to the 3rd
century BC.[13]
The oldest complete manuscript is the Laurentianus
from the 10th or 11th century.[13]
The editio princeps of both the Iliad and the Odyssey
is by Demetrius Chalcondyles in Florence, most
likely from 1488.

8 Cultural impact
Cyclops by Euripides, the only extant satyr play,
retells the respective episode with a humorous twist.
True Story, written by Lucian of Samosata in the 2nd
century AD, is a satire on the Odyssey and on ancient
travel tales, describing a journey sailing westward,
beyond the Pillars of Hercules and to the Moon,
the rst known text that could be called science ction.[14]
Merugud Uilix maicc Leirtis (On the Wandering
of Ulysses, son of Laertes) is an eccentric Old
Irish version of the material; the work exists in a
12th-century AD manuscript that linguists believe
is based on an 8th-century original.[15][16]
Dante Alighieri has Odysseus append a new ending
to the Odyssey in canto XXVI of the Inferno.
Il ritorno d'Ulisse in patria, rst performed in 1640,
is an opera by Claudio Monteverdi based on the second half of Homers Odyssey.
Every episode of James Joyce's modernist novel
Ulysses (1922) has an assigned theme, technique and
correspondences between its characters and those of
Homers Odyssey.

9
The rst canto of Ezra Pound's The Cantos (1922)
is both a translation and a retelling of Odysseus
journey to the underworld.
Nikos Kazantzakis aspires to continue the poem and
explore more modern concerns in The Odyssey: A
Modern Sequel (1938).

NOTABLE ENGLISH TRANSLATIONS

Margaret Atwood's 2005 novella The Penelopiad is


an ironic rewriting of The Odyssey from Penelope's
perspective.

9 Notable English translations

Homers Daughter by Robert Graves is a novel imag- Further information: English translations of Homer
ining how the version we have might have been invented out of older tales.
This is a partial list of translations into English of Homers
The Japanese-French anime Ulysses 31 (1981) up- Odyssey.
dates the ancient setting into a 31st-century space
opera.
George Chapman, 1616 (couplets)
Omeros (1991), an epic poem by Derek Walcott,
Thomas Hobbes, 1675
is in part a retelling of the Odyssey, set on the
Caribbean island of St. Lucia.
Alexander Pope, 17251726 (iambic pentameter
couplets); Project Gutenberg edition; Gutenberg.org
The Odyssey (1997), a made-for-TV movie directed
by Andrei Konchalovsky, is a slightly abbreviated
version of the epic.
Similarly, Daniel Wallace's Big Fish: A Novel of
Mythic Proportions (1998) adapts the epic to the
American South, while also incorporating tall tales
into its rst-person narrative much as Odysseus does
in the Apologoi (Books 9-12).
The Coen Brothers' 2000 lm O Brother, Where Art
Thou? is loosely based on Homers poem.

William Cowper, 1791 (blank verse) An audio CD


recording abridged by Perry Keenlyside and read
by Anton Lesser is available (ISBN 9626345314),
1995.
Samuel Henry Butcher and Andrew Lang, 1879
(prose); Project Gutenberg edition
William Cullen Bryant, 1871 (blank verse)
Mordaunt Roger Barnard, 1876 (blank verse)

Zachary Mason's The Lost Books of the Odyssey


(2007) is a series of short stories that rework
Homers original plot in a contemporary style reminiscent of Italo Calvino.

William Morris, 1887

The lm Ulysses Gaze (1995) directed by Theo Angelopoulos has many of the elements of the Odyssey
set against the backdrop of the most recent and previous Balkan Wars.

Padraic Colum, 1918 (prose), Bartleby.com

The poem "Ulysses" by Alfred, Lord Tennyson is


narrated by an aged Ulysses who is determined to
continue to live life to the fullest.
Between 1978 and 1979, German director Tony
Munzlinger made a documentary series called Unterwegs mit Odysseus (roughly translated: Journeying with Odysseus), in which a lm team sails
across the Mediterranean Sea trying to nd traces of
Odysseus in the modern-day settings of the Odyssey.
Cream's 1967 song "Tales of Brave Ulysses" is
based on the encounters that Odysseus had on his
way back, such as the sirens.
Steely Dan's 1977 song "Home at Last (song)" on the
album Aja (album) is based loosely on Odysseus's
eorts to return home. It includes lyrics such as,
Well, the danger on the rocks is surely past/Still I
remain tied to the mast/Could it be that I have found
my home at last?/Home at last.

Samuel Butler, 1898 (prose); Gutenberg.org Project


Gutenberg edition or Perseus Project Od.1.1

A. T. Murray (revised by George E. Dimock),


1919; Loeb Classical Library (ISBN 0-674-995619). Available online here.
George Herbert Palmer, 1921, prose. An audio CD
recording read by Norman Deitz is available (ISBN
1-4025-2325-4), 1989.
T. E. Shaw (T. E. Lawrence), 1932
W. H. D. Rouse, 1937, prose
E. V. Rieu, 1945, prose (later revised in 1991 by
D.C.H. Rieu for increased literal accuracy)
Robert Fitzgerald, 1963, unrhymed poetry with
varied-length lines (ISBN 0-679-72813-9) An audio
CD recording read by John Lee is available (ISBN
1-4159-3605-6) 2006
Richmond Lattimore, 1965, poetry (ISBN 0-06093195-7)
Albert Cook, 1967 (Norton Critical Edition), poetry, very accurate line by line version

7
Walter Shewring, 1980 (ISBN 0-19-283375-8),
Oxford University Press (Oxford Worlds Classics),
prose
Allen Mandelbaum, 1990 Verse Translation

[17]

Robert Fagles, poetry, 1996 (ISBN 0-14-0268863); an unabridged audio recording by Ian McKellen
is also available (ISBN 0-14-086430-X).
Stanley Lombardo, Hackett Publishing Company,
2000 (ISBN 0-87220-484-7). An audio CD recording read by the translator is also available (ISBN 1930972-06-7).
Martin Hammond, 2000, prose
Rodney Merrill, 2002, unrhymed dactylic hexameter, accurate line by line version, University of
Michigan Press
Edward McCrorie, 2004 (ISBN 0-8018-8267-2),
Johns Hopkins University Press.
Barry B. Powell, 2014 ISBN 978-0199360314, Oxford University Press

10

See also

Hellenismos portal
Odyssean gods

11

References

[1] Odyssey. Random House Websters Unabridged Dictionary.

[9] The Lusiads. World Digital Library. 18001882. Retrieved 2013-08-31.


[10] Baikouzis, Constantino; Magnasco, Marcelo O. (June 24,
2008), Is an eclipse described in the Odyssey?", Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (Proceedings
of the National Academy of Sciences) 105 (26): 8823,
doi:10.1073/pnas.0803317105, PMC 2440358, PMID
18577587, retrieved 2008-06-27.
[11] West, Martin. The East Face of Helicon: West Asiatic Elements in Greek Poetry and Myth. (Oxford 1997) 402-417.
[12] Abels surmise is noted by Adrienne Mayor, The First
Fossil Hunters: Paleontology in Greek and Roman Times
(Princeton University Press) 2000.
[13] Odyssey Criticism.
[14] Swanson, Roy Arthur:
Lucian of Samosata, the Greco-Syrian
satirist of the second century, appears today
as an exemplar of the science-ction artist.
There is little, if any, need to argue that
his mythopoeic Milesian Tales and his literary fantastic voyages and utopistic hyperbole
comport with the genre of science ction; ...
[15] Merugud Uilix maicc Leirtis. Kuno Meyer (ed), First edition [v + 36 pp.; vxii Introduction; 115 Critical edition of Text; 1629 Translation; 3036 Index Verborum.]
David Nutt270 Strand, London (1886)
[16] https://archive.org/details/meruguduilixmai00homegoog
[17] Homers Odyssey. New York: Bantam. 1991. Trans.
Mandelbaum, Allen. ISBN 978-0-553-21399-7.

12 External links
Odyssey on Perseus Project:

[2] D.C.H. Rieu's introduction to The Odyssey (Penguin,


2003), p. xi.

Ancient Greek

[3] The dog Argos dies autik' idont' Odusea eeikosto eniauto
(seeing Odysseus again in the twentieth year), Odyssey
17.327; cf. also 2.174-6, 23.102, 23.170.

English translation by A.T. Murray, 1919

[4] Homer (1996). The Odyssey. Trans. by Robert Fagles.


Introduction by Bernard Knox. United States of America:
Penguin Books. p. 13. ISBN 978-0-14-026886-7.

English translation by Samuel Butler, 1900


Homers Odyssey: A Commentary by Denton Jaques
Snider on Project Gutenberg
BBC audio le. In our time BBC Radio 4 discussion
programme. 45 minutes.

[5] Fox, Robin Lane (2006). The Classical World: An Epic


History from Homer to Hadrian. United States of America: Basic Books. p. 19. ISBN 978-0-465-02496-4.

The Meaning of Tradition in Homers Odyssey in


English

[6] This theme once existed in the form of another epic,


Nostoi, of which only fragments remain.

The Odyssey Comix A detailed retelling and explanation of Homers Odyssey in comic-strip format by
Greek Myth Comix

[7] Homer. The Odyssey. p. Scroll 17 Line 8-8. Retrieved


16 January 2015.
[8] From the Odyssey of Homer translated by Richmond Lattimore [Book 9, page 147/8, lines 410 - 412].

13

13
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