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The contemporaries of Rizal (Chapter 17)

Graciano Lopez Jaena - wished to become a physician and sought enrollment to

UST but lacked Bachiller en Artes of arts degree. He then worked as an apprentice
at the San Juan de Dios Hospital.
Wrote Fray Botod - fat and vice- loving priest.
Studied med at University of Valencia (didnt finish)
On a slaves shoulder should not rest a doctors coat.
Founded La Solidaridad (editor)-> Marcelo H. Del Pilar
Tuberculosis --> Barcelona
Marcelo H. Del Pilar - Plaridel
-Father - Julian Hilario del Pilar - gobernadorcillo
- Mother Blasa Gatmaitan
Bachellier en Artes degree - Letran
Law - UST
Worked as minor official in Pampanga and Quiapo
Founded Diariong Tagalog (countrys first Bilingual)
1888 - led a demonstraction in Manila denouncing frailocracy but at the same
time, praising the Queen regent and the Spanish army
CRY: Viva Espaa! Viva la Reina! Viva el Ejercito! Abajo los Frailes!
Not really for separatism but was advocating change
Called for the removal of the archbishop of Manila
Wrote a pamphlet entitledCaiigat Cayo (Slipery as an Eel) - a reply to
Fr. Jose Rodiguezs Caingat Cayo -tirade against Jose Rizals Noli...
Was the editor of La Solidaridad afte Jaena >> 1. Representation of colony in
Cortes 2. Abolition of Polo y Servicio 3. Institution of the freedom of press,
Speech, and equal rights between Filipinos and Spaards.
Established essays entitled
A. Pasiong Dapat Ipag-alab nang Puso nang Tauong Babasa (Passion
that should inflame the heart of the reader),
B. Cadacilaan ng Dios (Gods Goodness)
C. Sagot ng Espaa sa Hibik ng Pilipinas (Spains reply to the Complaints
Of the Filipinos)
D. Dudas (Doubts)
E. La Frailocracia Filipina (Frailocracy in the Philippines)
Spirit of Katipunan
Emillio Jacinto placed his name as the editor of the Katipunan organ
November 15, 1895- La Solidaridas last issue
Andres Bonifacio Revolutionary
Santiago and Catalina de Castro
Worked as a clerk in Flemming and Co. > Fressel and Co.
Married Monica >> Gregoria de Jesus
Joined Freemasonry and became a member of the Gran Oriente Espaol
Joined La Liga Filipina (established by Rizal)
Formed Kataastaasan Kagalang-galang katipunan ng mga anak ng
Bayan on July 7, 1892
Took pseudonym May Pag-asa and became 3rd Supremo in 1895
Wrote the Decalogue of the Katipunan and wrote pieces in Kalayaan.
Andres Bonifacio cont
Pag-ibig sa Tinubuang Lupa (Love for ones Native land)

Ang dapat mabatid ng mga Tagalog ( What the tagalogs should Know)
August 19, 1896 - Katipunan was discovered by the Spaniards - Ph.
August 23
- tearing of cedula
Katipunan Chapters:
Magdiwang Chapter - Noveleta under Mariano Alvarez
Magdalo Chapter - Kawit under Baldomero Aguinaldo
Haring bayan - title given to him by faction
March 22, 1897 - Katipunan was replaced by Revolutionary
(Director of Interior)
Executed in Barrio Hulog at Mt Nagpatong in Maragondon with Procopio
Emilio Jacinto Brains of Katipuan
Mariano Jacinto and Josefa Dizon
Colegio de San Juan Letran - Bachiller in Artes degree
UST - law
Katipunan pseudonym- Pingkian (flint)
Editor of kalayaan under pen name of Dimasalang
Wote Kartilya or primer
Compilation of Works entitled Liwanag at Dilim
A La Patria - abt love, equivalent to Mi Ultimo Adios
Secretary of fiscal in Katipunan
Malaria >> Himlayang Pilipino in QC
Apolinario Mabini Taong may ulong ginto/ Sublime paralytic/ Brains of the
Dionesia Miranan and Inosencio Mabini
Studied in Simplicio Avelino >>
Colegio de San juan de Letran
Bachiller in Artes & Professor of Latin
UST - law
One of the founders of La Liga Filipina- formed by JR on July 3, 1892
Organized and Sec of Cuerpo de Compromisarios - former La Liga Filipina
June 24, 1898 - Revolutionary government was established
La Camara Negra del Presidente ( the dark chamber of the president)
Wrote La Revolucion Filipina- in Guam
Decalogue of Filipinos entitled Verdadero Decalogo
1. Love God
2. Worship God
3. Cultivate the special Gifts
of God
4. Love thy country after
5. Strive for happiness of the
country before thy own
6. Strive for independence
of thy country

The World during Rizal's Time

7. Thou shall not recognize

thy country the authority
of a
8. Strive for republic and
never for a monarchy
9. Love thy neighbor as
10. Thou shall not consider
thy countryman more than thy

Rizal's Century - 19th century

o Spain's colonies: Mexico, Chile, Argentina, Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador,
Peru, Nicaragua, El Salvador, Honduras -- already won independence
: Philippines, Cuba, Puerto Rico and Spanish Sahara -- remaining
spanish colonies
o 19th century- Time of enligtenment

The needs for reforms: Representation

o Napoleon's time, Spain (1804-1814) - part of France's alliance against
o 1808- Napoleon invaded Spain and forced King Charles IV to abdicate in
favor of his son, Ferdinand VII
o First guerilla war (little war)- when Spaniards resisted the French
o Constitution of Cadiz- allowing colonies to be represented I the Spanish
parliament called Cortes
Ventura de los Reyes - rich merchant from Manila. Chosen to
represent the colony. Helped draft the constitution
Abolition of forced labor, equality of all citizens. Abolition of
monopolies (galleon trade and free trade)
o 1824- Latin America was freed from Spain with the Battle of Ayacucho
o Ferdinand rules with iron fist
o wife Maria Cristina ruled as regent for her daughter and became Isabella II
Reconvened the Cortes
Philippines was under Overseas Ministry

The Religious Front: Secularization

o 16th century- King of Spain and the Pope's wish to turn over the
country's parishes to the secular priests
o Council of Trent mandated Secularization or placing the
management of the parishes under the secular clergy
o Countries parishes were under Augustinians, Recollects, Jesuits,
Franciscans and Dominicans
o 1826-King Ferdinand VII ordered the transfer of parishes from seculars to
the regular clergy
o Forefront of the seculars Father Pedro Pablo Pelaez, Jacinto Zamora,
Mariano Gomes & Jose Burgos
o Religious officials may remain in the colony for decades-- gave them
oppurtunity to become more powerful
than the civil officials
o Church- chief censor in the colony
o 1865, Queen Isabella II, made the UST Rector as the supervisor of all
higher education in the islands
o Frailocracy- controlled the minds of the Filipinos as they executed orders
of the central government
o Church- owned large tracts of land: haceiendas in Cavite, Laguna,
Batangas, Morong and Manila
o Philippine Revolution first broke out in the provinces where the
religious ordes had extensive landholdings

The Conditions in Europe, America and Asia

Russian serfs emancipated by Tsar Alexander II

Italians under Guissepe Gibaldi- threw out Austrians and took over Papal
o Germany was on the process of unification until 1871
o United States, Pres. Abraham Lincoln emancipated the black slaves also
triggered the American Civil War from 1861-1865
o Mexico was defeated on the French-spported regime of Archduke
o France, regime of Napoleon III, was crumbling after the debacle in Mexico
-later overthrew the monarchists and established a republic
o In Asia-- weakening of Spain and Portugal and the rising of British and
French Empires
o British gained colony in Hong Kong , defeated China in Opium War (18391842) led to opening of their 5 ports
Britain joined by France defeated China in Arrow War (1856-1858),
led to opening of the whole country
o Japan was forced to open by the Americans under Commodore Matthew
Perry in 1854
Was able to parry western requests to make Yokohama a treaty port
o India became a Crown Colony of Britain in 1858 following the suppresion
of the Sepoy Mutiny in 1857
o Burma became a British colony after 3 wars 1824-1826, 1862-1863, and
o Indo-China became protectorate of France following suppresion of the
Kingdoms of Annam and Cochin-China
Conditions in the Philippines in the 19th Century
o Kailianes of Sarrat- under Simon Tomas, Mariano Espiritu, Vicente
Santiago and Andres Bugarin- rose up in revolt on March 3, 1815
o 1826- Mexican born soldiers led by Lt. Andres Novales complained of
discrimination and unfair treatment from officials after the independece of
Mexico from Spain
o June 1, 1826- Novales began a mutiny by seizing the governor general's
palace, Manila Cathedral and other imp't buildings in Intramuros
Proclaimed him as emperor of the Philippines and shouted long
live Philippine Independence
o Mutineers killed Lieutenant governor general of the Philippines Mariano
Fernandez de Folgueras
o Lt. Antonio Novales , brother of Lt. Andres Novales, refused to open
the gates of the fort to the mutineers
o 1840-1841- last serious revolt in the Philippines -- when Apolinario de la
Cruz refuse to disband his religious organization - the Cofradia de San Jose
Apolinario dela Cruz- Hermano Pule --"King of the
November 1, 1842- Hermano Pule was captured and beheaded
o Tayabas regiment in 1843- under Sergeant Samaniego - mutinied on Jan
20 almost took over Manila
o Only officials down to the rank of seargeants were Spaniards
o Principales- leading citizens were granted the titles of captain municipal,
teniente and cabeza
Rewards: commisions from the collection of taxes
: procurement of polistas or community laborers from the


: exemption from taxation and community labor (polos y
servicos or prestacion personal)
Galleon Trade & Compania Real de Filipinas - only company authorized to
conduct foreign trade
1815- Galleon Trade ended and Compania Real de Filipinas was
losing money
In 1834, Philippines became the Cash Crop economy from subsistence

Ancestry and birth of Rizal

Rizal descended from a line of Chinese immigrants.
Domingo Lam Co - great grandfather from Fujian Province
Baptized in Binondo in a parish managed by Dominicans
Christian name - Domingo
Married a Chinese mestizo named Ines de la Rosa
Developed friendly relations with 2 domincan friars:
Francisco Marquez
Juan Caballero
Francisco Mercado - son of Domingo Lam Co and Ines de la Rosa
Gobernadorcillo of Bian
Married Bernarda Monica
Clemente Mercado
Juan Mercado (Grandfather of of Rizal)
Elected capitan del pueblo
Married Cirila Alejandro - a Chinese mestiza
Juan Mercado and Cirila had 13 Children
One of the 13 is Francisco Engracio Mercado,
Francisco Engrado Mercado married Teodora Alondo Realonda
Teodora Alonsos linage began with Eugenio Ursua(Japanese origin)
Eugenio Ursua married a filipina named Benigna
Regina - Daughter of Ursua and Benigna was Rizals great
maternal grandmother
Regina married Manuel de Quintos- mestizo from Bian
Brigida Quintos - Daughter of Regina and Quintos
- Teodoras mother
Francisco Mercado & Teodora Alonzo
Had their hacienda at Calamba
Hacienda de calamba was originally owned by the Jesuits> Jesuits were forced
give it up when their orders were expelled by the Spaniards> Spaniards sold
It in a a public auction to a layman named Jose Azanza> Azanza sold it to
Dominicans> haciendas were rented by iunquilinos, one of the
was Francisco Mercado
Francisco Mercado
Was able to lease 500 hectares
Hired Kasamas or sharecroppers to do the cultivation

Was able to put up bahay na bato near town plaza

Town plaza was an indicative of their status as a member of principalia
He boughtanother bahay na bato in Calamba
Doa Teodora managed to a store at the residence and worked the ham press
Don Francisco and Doa Teodora had 11 children
Rizal likened his birth as an entry into this vale of tears - difficult childbirth
As thanksgiving for Rizals birth, Teodora brought young Jose on pilgrimage
to Our Lady of Peace and Good Voyage in Antipolo
Rizal was given the name Jose after St Joseph- patron saint of workers
Protacio after St. Protasius - Archbishop of Milan during Roman Period

Only brother

Rizal was the first one who used the surname Rizal in his family. He used Rizal as his
surname when he enrolled to Ateneo de Manila Municipal. This was done to
dissociate himself from Panciano who was linked to the martyred Filipino priests,
Mariano Gomez, Jose Burgos, and Jacinto Zamora. Paciano was then under
surveillance by the Spanish authorities
Important Dates:
June 19, 1861
June 22, 1862
December 17, 1870

Birth of Rizal
Rizal was baptized
Sa aking Kabata was written
Paciano takes Jose to Bian to study
Latin and Spanish under Justiniano
Aquino Cruz
Jose returns to Calamba using a
motorboat called Talim
Joses mother got imprisoned