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Au Jus


Keeping meats and a or

cheese in a controlled
environment for a specific
amount of time in a
controlled and ventilated
atmosphere to permit natural
flavoring and tenderizing.

Al dente

To the tooth, in Italian.

Pasta is cooked just to a firm
and chewy texture.

This is the natural pan

drippings or juice that comes
from a roasting pan after

To cook in the oven as baking a
cake, but also may be used in meat
cookery such as baked leg of lamb.
To brush or spoon liquid fat or
juices over meat, fish poultry or
vegetables during cooking to help
keep moisture on the surface area.


In French Cooking it means in

the German style. Sauce
Allemande is made from veal
stock, cream, egg yolks and
lemon juice.


Seasonings to enhance the

flavor and aroma usually
herbs and spices and some


A transparent meat flavored

jelly/jello that is firm when
cold. Used to flavor and add
moisture to pate, charcutire
and cold food preparations.

A mixture of flour and liquid that is

beaten or stirred in preparation of
baking, i.e. cake batter.
Briskly whipping or stirring it with a
spoon, fork, wire whisk, beater or
Beurre Noir
Heating salted butter until dark
brown and foamy but not smoking.
A type of butter sauce called black
butter sauce.

Slicing a food crosswise at a 45degree angle.


To thickening a sauce or hot

liquid by stirring in
ingredients such as roux,
flour, butter, cornstarch, egg
yolks, vegetable puree or

To heat water or other liquids

to 212 degrees Fahrenheit,
100 degrees Celsius and to
keep it bubbling and
shimmering in the pot.


A Mediterranean fish soup

made from several varieties
of fish, tomatoes, saffron,
fennel and wine.

-A rich thick shellfish soup with

Cajun-style cooking method

in which highly seasoned
foods are dipped in liquid
butter then cooked over high
heat in a super-heated heavy
skillet until charred.


To partially cook vegetables

by parboiling them in highly
salted water then cooling
quickly in ice water.



Mixing two or more

ingredients together to
obtain an equally distributed

Clear soup made from slow

simmering lean meat, bones and
seasonings and vegetables.
Strained and served with the
shredded cooked meat it was made
Bouquet Garni
A bundle of seasonings; bay leaf,
thyme and parsley stems tied with
leeks, carrot and celery stalk. Its
used to season braised foods and
Meat browned in fat with
vegetables, seasonings and then
cooked slowly in liquid so it is
partially submerged then cooked in
an oven, this combines moist and
dry heat cooking. Making a pot
roast is an example.

To coat the food with bread

crumbs. Standard method is to first
dip in salted flour, then beaten egg
and then bread crumbs. Items
prepared like this are usually pan
fried in oil or clarified butter until
golden and crispy.




To cook food directly under a very

hot 500 degree F. heat source.

To cut food down the center

without cutting all the way through
to open and then spread it apart.
Shrimp cut this way is popular.
Meat may be butterflied when
cooking it well done so it isn't
burned during the process as if it
remained thick.

Broth or stock
A liquid made by gently simmering
meats, fish, or vegetables and/or
their by-products, such as bones
and trimming with herbs, in liquid,
usually water. Broths usually have
a higher proportion of meat to
bones than stock.

A quick sauting/searing
done either at the beginning
or end of meal preparation,
often to enhance flavor,
texture, or eye appeal.


To coat food with melted

butter, glaze, or other liquid
using a pastry brush.

Bundt pan

The name for a tube baking

pan having fluted sides.

A frosting made from sugar,

sweet butter, milk, egg yolks
and flavoring. Confectioner's
or powdered sugar is often
used buy not required.

Cake pan
Round baking pan with straight
sides. It comes in 8", 9" and other
Plural for squid in Italian.
Brunt sugar used for sauces,
coloring, flavoring and candy.
Natural sugars turn brown when
exposed to direct heat over a
flame, with or without the addition
of some oil to aid the process.
Onions when fried in butter over

high heat causes them to turn

brown and have a sweet toasted
flavor. Carrots in a roasting pan
turn golden with a roast chicken.
This process and color change from
raw to cooked is carmelization.
The process of cooking sugar until
it begins to color. Also, while slowly
cooking some vegetables e.g.
onions, root vegetables, the natural
sugars are released and the
vegetables will caramelize in their
own sugars, usually oil is used in
the pan to help the process.
A lettuce used for salad and
sometimes called curly endive. Also
added to coffee in the deep South.
Usually a pureed filling made light
and fluffy with beaten egg whites,
gelatin and or whipped cream.
Lemon chiffon pie is one example.

the small impurities from the liquid

that is strained. It is a must in any
professional kitchen.
To cut into irregular pieces with no
set size as a result. Chopping
parsley is a good example.
Parsley like herb with a basil, mint
and green onion flavor, popular in
Chinese and Mexican/Latin cuisine
A process of making a liquid clear
by adding beaten egg whites,
ground meat and tomato, then
simmering slowly. The liquid is then
strained and the result is
consomm. Also---melting butter
over medium heat so the milk
solids settle to the bottom and
impurities float to the top. The
foamy top is discarded and pure
golden liquid butter is ladled off
into a clean container for other
cooking uses.

Lettuces, sorrel, basil leaves and
other leafy vegetables cut into
julienne strips.

Evenly covering food with flour,

crumbs, herbs, oil or batter.



A very fine conical wire mesh

strainer. Using a chinoise removes

To cook slowly and gently in a

liquid just below the boiling point.

Usually eggs are coddled when

making traditional Caesar salad to
help them absorb and emulsify
evenly with the lemon juice and
olive oil. Coddled eggs for
breakfast a different than poached
as they relatively soft but fully
heated through.
The mixing of two or more
ingredients into a single mixture.
Slowly cook pieces of meat in their
own gently rendered fat until very
soft and tender. With seasonings,
brandy/wine and sometimes
vegetables. Duck and pork are two
popular meats to be used in confit.
When cooked and cooled the meat
is keep submerged in its cooking
fat as a preservative and as a seal
against oxygen.
Applying to raw or cooked
tomatoes: Peeled, seeded and
diced/chopped fine, raw; or then
sauted with minced onions in olive
oil, cooked.
To remove the inedible center of
fruits such apples and pears.

To beat vegetable shortening,

butter, or margarine, with or
without sugar, until light and fluffy.
To create a decorative edge on a
piecrust, also seal the edges
To restore the crunch to vegetables
such as celery and lettuce. This can
be done with an ice water bath.
Stale crackers can be crisped in a
medium oven. Also a type of a pan
baked dessert made of cooked fruit
with a crunchy flour and sugar
topping. Apple or peach crisp are
Chopped seasoned food held
together by cream sauce, eggs,
flour/breadcrumbs, shaped and
then breaded with bread crumbs
and deep fried. Crab cakes that are
deep fried, not sauted are really
crab croquettes.
To reduce a food to small particles,
usually using a mortar and pestle,
rolling pin or bottom of a pot. To
crush crackers you may place them
in a double bag and roll a rolling
pin over them.

To form sugar or honey syrups into
crystals buy cooking it to hard
crack and letting it cool on an oiled
surface. The term also describes a
sugar coating surrounding a fruit
dipped in a egg white and
granulated sugar mixture.
To cut in even pieces. May be 1/4
inch/ 1/2 inch or 1 inch. Sides must
be of even size to be conceded
cubed. This is a description used in
dicing as an exact dice.
Custard-like pie or tart filling made
with whole eggs, sugar,juice and
zest of citrus the fruit, usually
lemon. May also be the solidified
nuggets of milk after citric acid has
been added and rennet introduced.
The curding process is an
important stage in the cheese
making process.

Marinating to preserve an
ingredient with salt and/or sugar
and spices. Preparing gravlax,
marinated salmon, is an example
of curing.
A mixture of beaten egg, egg yolks,
milk, and other ingredients. Which
is cooked with gentle heat, often in
a water bath. A custard differs from
a pudding in that it isn't stirred
during the cooking process.
Cut in
Working butter or vegetable
shortening, margarine, into dry
ingredients for equal distribution.
This is done with the help of a
pastry blender and is an important
procedure in making flaky pie
A measure approximately equal to
1/16 teaspoon, a pinch or less.

Separation of a milk/cream based
sauce or the cooking of eggs when
over cooked. Sauces look like egg
drop soup when curdled.

To partially or completely submerge

and cook food in hot oil until
golden brown.


Adding liquid to a pan in which

foods have been sauted, fried or
roasted to dissolve the caramelized
juices stuck to the bottom of the


To add hot or spicy ingredients

such as cayenne pepper, mustard
or Tabasco sauce to a food. Sauce
Diable is a classic French sauce
made with demi-glace and Dijon

A combination of ingredients
usually including flour, water or
milk, and, sometimes, a leavener,
producing a pliable mixture for
making baked goods.

To cut food into cubes. The cubes
can be small, medium or large.
Dicing is slightly less exact as
cubing is but still should have
Direct heat
A grilling method that allows food
to be cooked directly over the high
heat of a flame source.
To place small bits of an ingredient
such as butter on foods at random
intervals for the purpose of adding
flavor and to aid in browning during
Double a recipe
To increase recipe amounts by two.

Completely coating in flour and
shaking off the excess.
Drippings are the liquids and bits of
food left in the bottom of a roasting
or frying pan after meat is cooked.
Pouring a liquid such as as melted
butter, olive oil or other liquid in a
slow trickle over food.
Sprinkling flour on a work surface
to evenly coat it, or as with spices,
sugar, or bread crumbs, light
coating a food item.
Egg wash
A mixture of beaten eggs, yolks,
whites, or both with milk or water.

Used in the standard breading

process of foods. May be used to
coat baked goods to give them a
shine when baked. Also may be
used as a sealant of pieces of

A boneless and skinless piece of

meat cut away from the bone,
usually fish.
Filet Mignon
A well trimmed center cut steak
from the whole beef tenderloin.
To remove the bones from fish or
meat for cooking.

A mixture of oil and liquid in which
tiny globules of one are suspended
in the other. Stabilizers, such as
egg or mustard may be used.
Classic example is vinaigrette salad

To remove impurities by passing

through paper, cheesecloth or


Firm-ball stage

In the United States it refers to the

main dish. In France it's a term that
referrers to the first course of a
meal, served after the soup and
before the meat course.

The point where boiling syrup

dropped in cold water forms a ball
that is compact yet gives slightly to
the touch. 243 degrees F.

A strong dark coffee brewed under
steam pressure. Popular in many
European countries, it is the base
for other coffee drinks such as

To ignite liquid that contains an
alcoholic substance so that it
Open tart filled with sweet or
savory ingredients, i.e. a chocolate
ganache flan. Second it is a
Spanish dessert of baked custard
covered with caramel.

It is food garnished or cooked with
To create a decorative scalloped
edge on a pie crust or pastry. Also
mushrooms and vegetables are
fluted to give them an attractive
cut and rolled symmetric edging.
To gently combine and aerate two
or more ingredients using a
bottom-to-top or side-to-side
motion with a spoon or spatula.
A warm creamy dish made of
cheese, eggs, wine, brandy and or
other items. Served warm with
toasted bread cubes, vegetables or
stale bread cubes in which the
bread is skewered and then dipped
in the hot creamy mixture before
eating it.
A stew in which usually poultry is
cut up, fried in butter, and then
simmered in a liquid with
vegetables until done.

A flat Italian style omelet that is

baked and not folded.
A deep fried sweet or savory food
coated or mixed in a batter. Conch
fritters are popular in South Florida
as Corn Fritters are popular in the
Southeastern United States.
To fry thin julienne of vegetables in
hot oil until crisp and slightly curly.
To cook food in hot cooking oil,
usually until a crisp brown crust
A chocolate filling or coating made
with chocolate, egg yolks and
heavy cream. Most often used as a
filling for truffles and coating for
cakes such as Boston Cream Pie.
A decorative piece of an edible
ingredient placed as a finishing
touch to dishes or drinks. A simple
rose made from a radish or sprig of
parsley is a garnish.


The gizzard or sand sack of poultry.

It's popular to boil, skin, clean and
dice these and then add them to
turkey gravy for giblet gravy.

To coat a pan or skillet with a thin

layer of oil.


Green Meat

A liquid that gives an item a shiny

surface. To cover a food with a
shiny liquid. Melted apricot jam is a
popular glaze.

Meat that has not had no aging to

become tender and flavorful.


Cook directly over the heat source

on metal racks or rods in the open

Gluten is a wheat protein that gives

yeast dough its characteristic
elasticity and chewyness..
To shred food into fine pieces by
rubbing it against a coarse surface.
Grating cheese or lemon rind are 2
Food mixed together then baked
until cooked, set and golden brown.
Cheese or egg yolks are often and
important ingredient.
A thick sauce made from pan
drippings, other liquids and
thickened with a starch such as a


To mechanically cut a food into
small pieces.
Halve a recipe
Reduce the amounts of a recipe by
Hard-ball stage
In candy making, the point at
which syrup has cooked long
enough to form a solid ball in cold
water. Between 250-268 degrees F.
A dish made of onions, leftover
meats, potatoes and seasonings. It
is molded and then crisply panfried and served with poached eggs
and or demi-glace and vegetables.
Herbes de Provence

A blend of herbs consisting of

chervil, tarragon, chives, rosemary
and lavender. There are many
recipes for this blended used in the
south of France, some may include

season delicate dishes at the last

Insulated baking sheet
A cookie sheet that has a two-layer
bottom with a space of air between
to prevent hot spots.


A process to set or solidify, usually

by adding gelatin.

Corn kernels with the germ and

bran removed with lye. A popular
Southern United States porridge.
Hors d'Oeuvres
Small individual portions of foods,
canaps, served as appetizers
before a meal.
To remove the leafy and stem parts
off fruits such as strawberries.
To spread frosting on a cake,
cupcake or pastry. Also to cool
down cooked food by placing in ice
and water.

Jellyroll pan
A baking pan with sides about an
inch high. Commonly called a sheet
A dry mixture of various spices
such as habenaro chilies, thyme,
garlic, onions, allspice, ginger and
cinnamon used to season meats
such as chicken or pork, a Jamaican
BBQ specialty. If made well and
grilled over a wood fire you will
twitch "Jerk" when eating this very
spicy dish!

Making tea is an example.
Extracting flavors by soaking them
in liquid heated in a covered pan.
Chefs make herbal infusions to

To cut into thin strips 1/8 inch x 1/8

inch strips or smaller, about 2-3

inches long. May be meats or

The natural juices released by
roasting meats that have collected
on the bottom of the roasting pan.

Ingredient, (Yeast) or process

(Whipping Egg Whites) that
produces air bubbles and causes
the rising of baked goods.
To place layers of foil, silicone
paper, or wax paper in a pan to
prevent sticking.

To work dough with the heels of

your hands in a pressing and
folding motion until it becomes
smooth and elastic.


Kosher salt


Salt that is coarser that regular

table salt. There are several brands
but Diamond Crystal is preferred by
many chefs because it isn't flaked
and doesn't contain magnesium
sulfate.1 Tbsp. of Kosher salt
equals 2 tsp. table salt in salting

Pasta made with flour and water

and then dried.

Inserting strips of fat into pieces of
meat, helping the braised meat
stays moist and juicy during
cooking. This isn't used as much as
it was in the earlier days of

A cut of meat that typically comes

from the back of the animal.

A chopped or diced mixture of
several fruits or vegetables cooked
or uncooked. A macedoine of
vegetables may include celery,
carrots, turnips, peas, mushrooms,
chestnuts and pearl onions sauted
in butter.
To gently swirl or layer one food
into another to create a ribbon
effect when cooked and sliced.


Liquid with is seasoned with herbs,

spices and vegetables which is
used to marinate food. thus
enhancing flavor or tenderizing the
item. More often than not
marinades will contain an acid like
vinegar, wine or lemon juice and
sometimes an oil. The pickling
process uses a marinade in the
curing process.
Submerging a food in a seasoned
liquid in order to tenderize and
flavor the food. .
A paste of ground blanched
almonds that is cooked with
glucose and sugar. This paste is of
the cooked almonds and sugar
becomes marzipan when
confectioner's sugar and egg white
is added. It is used to fill and
decorate pastries.
To press or mix a food to remove
lumps and make a smooth
Cold sauce or dressing consisting
of oil, dry mustard, sugar, vinegar
and lemon juice mixed with egg
yolks. Hellmann's is thought buy
chefs to be the best.

Small round or oval of lightly
pounded meat such as chicken,
tenderloin, pork and veal.

Sweetened egg whites beaten until
they are stiff, light and airy. There
are 3 types---Swiss, Italian and
To chop or dice food into tiny, 1/8
inch or less irregular pieces.
A mixture of vegetables, 2 parts
onions, 1 part celery, 1 part carrots
and may also contain leeks and
mushrooms in which case the
amount of onions would be
decreased. It's used as a seasoning
and flavor enhancer for the sauce
that be made from it and the pan
To stir two or more foods together
until they are completely

Adding only enough liquid to dry

ingredients to dampen them.

and then baked so that the food

steams in its own moisture and the
pouch puffs.

A cheese that has a mild flavor and
used in Italian-style recipes. This
cheese is best fresh and can be
found in many supermarkets in this
fresh state.

Partly cooking in a boiling salted

liquid as in blanching.


Boiling foods until partially cooked.

Slowly heating wine, juices or cider

with spices, citrus and sugar.




An European term for margarine, a

stick of oleo is a stick of

To peel or trim food of its outer

layer of skin, usually vegetables.

Pan broil
Cooking food in a heavy bottom
pan without added fat, then
removing any fat as it accumulates
so it doesn't burn.
Cooking in a hot pan with small
amount of hot oil, butter, or other
fat, turning the food over once or
A cooking technique in which food
is wrapped in paper or foil pouch

A non-stick, silicone coated, heatresistant paper used in cooking.

The mounds and swirls made in a
mixture; egg whites that has been
whipped are stiff if they stay
upright, or soft if they fall over. The
same applies to whipped cream.
A sauce made of fresh basil, garlic,
olive oil, pine nuts, cheese and
water. Modern pesto may be made
with any fresh herbs and variety of
ingredients as long as it isn't

Pie pan
Round baking pan with slanted
sides, it may be glass (Pyrex) or
A small inexact measurement
amount that basically add up to
1/16 of a teaspoon.
Using a pastry bag to squeeze a
soft food through a decorative tip
to create swirled and artful wisps of
the product on to another surface.
To take out the center stone or
seed of a fruit, such as a nectarine
or a plum.

The term used for the growth of a

yeast dough's rise prior to baking.
The process of of yeast dough's
growth leading to the final baking.
Punch down
For yeast-risen products. After
letting the dough rise, punching it
down knocks out the air before
turning it out onto a floured surface
for shaping.
A smooth pureed and strained
liquid pulp usually slightly thick.
A small oven proof dish used for
individual servings.

To simmer in liquid that is just
below the boiling point. Usually
about 208 degree F.

To restore a dried food back to its

original state by adding hot or cold

Pressure cooking
Cooking method that uses steam
under a locked lid to produce high
temperatures and achieve a faster
cooking time.

To slowly or rapidly cook liquids

down so that some or most of the
water evaporates.


Simmering and cooking a sauce so

that moisture is released in the
form of steam causing the
remaining ingredients to
concentrate, thickening and
strengthening the flavors. A
reduced sauce is the result.

Boiling water very rapidly so that

stirring with a spoon does not
cause it to stop boiling.


A somewhat equal cooked mixture

of flour and oil, fat or butter used
to thicken liquids. Most roux is
made with a little more flour than

Pouring or sprinkling cold water or

ice over cooked or raw vegetables
to prevent oxidation and to retain
the fresh cooked look. Raw, wilted
vegetables are refreshed by
sprinkling them with water.


Royal icing

To melt down hard fat to a liquid


An icing used for decorating

purposes. This icing becomes solid
quickly and is made with
confectioner's sugar, dash of cream
of tartar and lemon juice.



In bread-making, to let the dough

sit a few minutes before shaping.

A small gas or electric broiler used

to brown or glaze the tops of
certain food items, creme brulee
finished under a salamander.


With yeast dough's, to leave the
dough in a warm place and allow to
double in volume.
A method of cooking in an oven
where the item isn't covered
allowing the dry heat to surround
the item.
Rolling boil

A lightly thickened liquid that adds,
flavor, moisture and visual appeal
to foods.
To cook food quickly in a small
amount of fat in a pan over
regulated direct heat.



Cooking a liquid such as milk to

just below the point of boiling. To
loosen the skin of fruits or
vegetables by dipping them in
boiling water and then plunging
them into ice water so they can be
peeled easily.

A thick, lumpy mass when melted

items get cold.

To tenderize meat, fish or shellfish
by making a number of shallow
often diagonal cuts across its
A scraper is a flexible piece of
rubber attached to a handle and
used for scraping food down the
sides of a pan, bowl or jar. A
spatula is used to turn food in a
pan, like what is used to turn eggs
To quickly brown and caramelize
the outside of meats at a high
To enhance the flavor of foods by
adding ingredients such as salt,
pepper, and a variety of other
herbs, and spices. Also to treat a
pan so it becomes non-stick.

Let food become solid.
To cut or tear into narrow strips,
either by hand or by using a grater
or food processor.
Pressing items through a screen or
strainer to break up the mass. It
produces a lump free mixture that
won't clog a pastry tip during

Removing lumps from dry
ingredients such as flour or
confectioners' sugar by passing it
through a strainer. It also aerates
the item making them lighter.
Cooking food in a liquid at just
below a boil point so that small
bubbles begin to rise the surface.
Simple syrup

Syrup that results from cooking 2

parts water and 1 part sugar
together, then using it warm or

use these threads in a wistful

manner to call attention to the
pastry chef's artistic talents.
Spring form pan

Removing the top layer of fat and
impurities that rise to the top of
stocks, soups, sauces, or other

A two-part spring-loaded baking

pan in which a collar fits around a
base, the collar is removed after

A cutting shape usually meaning
thin slices 1/4 inch by 1/8 inch by
1/8 inch.

To cook over boiling water in a

covered pan or to cook in a special
pressurized steam compartment.

Smoking Point
Temperature at which a fat begins
to break down and emit smoke.

A dowel shaped tool used to hone

knife blades.

Soft ball/Soft crack

Candy making term that denote
what a ball of the candy does when
placed in a cup of cold water, 234239 degrees F.

To soak dry ingredients such as

ground coffee, herbs, spices, etc. in
liquid until the flavor is infused into

Spin a thread
Creating a thread that appears
between the spoon and candy
when the spoon is lifted and
turned. A popular garnish on
modern dessert presentations is to

Browning pieces of meat, then

simmering them with vegetables
seasonings and enough liquid to
cover them. This method produces
tender well cook items.
Fast frying of small pieces of meats
and vegetables over very high heat

with continuous stirring in a small

about of oil.
The liquid that results from
simmering bones, vegetable and
seasonings in water or another

A round cake pan with tall, smooth

sides and a metal tube in the
middle. Often used for angel food
cake, but an excellent all-purpose
cake pan for baking batters of
heavy density.

A crumbly baked good topping,
made by combining butter, sugar,
ground nuts, spices and flour.
Cooking vegetables over low heat
in a small amount of fat to release
their moisture, flavor and to have
them look translucent..
Reducing thickness with the
addition of more liquid.
To completely combine several
ingredients by mixing lightly in an
upward motion.
To tie with twine to hold together a
roast to maintain its shape while it
Tube pan

Baked goods that contain no

ingredients to give them volume,
such as eggs, baking powder, or
Sour juice made from under ripe
grapes, it's popular as a substitute
for vinegar and has a mild
grapelike flavor..
Cold soup made from a puree of
the white part of leeks, potatoes,
onions, chicken stock, cream and
An acidic sauce or dressing made
with vinegar, oil, mustard and
Water bath

A storage method in which a

container is set in a pan of
simmering water to keep it hot.
To quickly mix air into ingredients
such as cream or egg whites by
beating until light and fluffy, it also
is the the utensil used in this
whipping and whisking action.
Fluff by beating. The utensil used
for this is also called a whisk

A thin mixture of 1/3 flour and 2/3
cold water that is used to quickly
thicken soups, sauces and stocks in
an emergency..
The thin outer part of the rind of
citrus cut into a thin narrow strip. It
contains none of the white pith on
the inside of the skin.

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