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v-()2 ?

(3)

v-()2 ?()
v-()
v-()?
v-()2 ?(3)

v-()2 ?(1)

?
Shall we play some basketball?

?
Why don t we rest over here?

?
Which movie shall we see?

Grammar Focus ..... .


-() ? is used when the speaker wants to either to suggest d ng something together
with the listener or to ask about the listeners preference regarding something. The subject of these
sentences is which is often omitted. The English equivalent is Shall we... ? or Why dont we .. .?
When answering , t he suggestive form -() r-/ is used. (See also Unit 12. Asking
Opinions and Making Suggestions 03 V-() ) When the stem ends in a vowel or -2 ? is
used , and when it ends in a consonant , -? is used.

Base Form

-2 ?

Base Form

-?

* I rreg form
Compare with Unit 12. Asking Opinions and Making Suggestions 02 V-()2 ? @, unit 17. Conjecture
03A'V ) 2 ? @)

210

In Conversation ....... .
A ?

A Shall we go sing karaoke over the weekend?

B . .

B Okay, sounds good. Let5 gO.

A ?

A Would you like to go for a drink after work?

B . .

B Sorry. Today, I have other plans. Let s do it next time.

The f lowing is a conversation between Budi and Wang Jing. Look at the pictures and fill in t he blanks
using )2 ? and-/.

: ? (

: (

: (1)
: (2)

? (
. (

? (

: (3)

: (4)

: 3 .

: (5)

? ()

: .
: (6)

?()

: . (7)

()

: .
12. Asking Opinions and Making Suggs:~S

.:_

v-()2 ?
?
Shall I open the window?

?
What shall I wear tomorrow?

?
Would you like (me to get you) some coffee or juice?

Grammar Focus .......... .


-()2 ? is used when the speaker wants to make a suggestion to the listener or to ask the
listener for his or her opinion. The subject is normally | r and may be omitted. In English.
this expression corresponds to Shalll ... ? or 00 you want me to ... ? When responding , the imperative
forms -() or-() | can be used. When the verb stem ends in a vowel or ,

? is used , and when the verb stem ends in a consonant , -? is used.

r-

Base Form

- 2 ?

Base Form

-?

* Irregular form
(Compare with Unit 12. Asking Opinions and Making Suggestions 01
03 AIV-() ?

212

~)

V)? (1),

Unit 17. Conjecture

In Conversation -...................................................................... .t
<1 36

A ?

A When shall 1call you tomorrow?

B .

A .

A It s my girlfriend's

Please call me in the evening.

bihday.

What present should 1get her?

B .

Buy her some perfume.


Girls like perfume

A ?

A Where should 1put this computer?

B .

B Please put it on the desk.

Use -() ? to ask your partner for advice , a nd then use -() or - to complete t he
appropnate response.

A ?
B

A .
B

. .

A .

. .

4)

A .
B

. .

12. Asking Opinions and Making Suggestions

213

V-()
.
Lets eat Korean food.

. .
Let's not take the bus. Lets take the subway.

.
Lets not see a movie.

Grammar Focus ...... .


-() is used to suggest or propose doing something with the listener and corresponds to

Let's or Shall we in English. The same meaning can also be expressed by -/. When the
stem ends in a vowel, - is used , and when it ends in a consonant, - is used. When
suggesting not to do something, however, either - r - is used.

Base Form

-()

* Irregular form
214

In Conversation -.......................................................................f!
.1 3

A ?

A When 5hall we depart?

10

B Let 5 leave in 10 minute5

A ?

A Shall we go to a club on the weekend?

B We have a te5t on Monday, 50 let 5 not go to a ub

Let5 5tudy together

A ?

A Why don t we go hiking today?

B It rained ye5terday, 50 the ground i5 51ippery

Let next

week

-()

can be used in formal situations in which the speaker is suggesting or inviting a group of
people to do something or when the listener is younger or of lower status than the speaker. It cannot
be used toward someone older or of higher status than the speaker. In such cases, -() is
appropriate.

When suggesting or inviting a group of people to do something.


.

Everyone

lets ali study hard.

. It lunchtime.

Let's ali have lunch

6 When the listener is younger or of a similar age or status as the speaker.


, .

Company Director: Lets have lunch together on Saturday

..

Employee: Okay, that sounds good.

Jaejun: Yoko, lets go hiking over the weekend

Yoko: Sure, Jaejun

) When the listener is older or of a higher status than the speaker.


(x)

Teacher, please go sing karaoke together with us

(x)

. (

Professor, please have lunch together with us

12. A5king Opinions and Making Suggestion5

Jisu is planning a trip for summer vacation with her friend , Caro l. Use

-()

and

-/

complete their dialogue in which they plan their trip.

0"

O~

:fi
~

)~
__)
: ?
: . (1)

. (

: ? ?

: .

(2)

" (

: . ! . ?
: ! (3)
(4)

" (
_____ " (

: .
(5)

" ()

: .
: . ?
: . (6)

216

" (

to

V-()?

?
Would you like a donut?

?
Would you like to reserve a room?

?
Would you like sugar in your coffee?

Grammar Focus .....


-()? is used when p itely suggesting something to the listener or w hen asking about
the listener s preference or intention. It corresponds to Would you (mind/ like to) ... ? r Why not...? in
English and conveys a much more formal and polite feeling than -() 2 ?/-()7 . When
the stem ends in a vowel , -7 is used , and w hen it ends in a consonant, -7 is
used.

Base Form

-?

Base Form

- ?

E ?

Irregular form
12. Asking Opinions and Making Sugges-..oc-

f
A ?

A What time will you come tomorrow?

B 3 .

B I will be there by three clock

A .

A Hello, Joel. This is Lila.


Can you talk now?

?
B . .

30 ?

B Sorry. Im in the middle of a meeting.


Wou ld you mind calling me in 30 minutes?

A .

A I want to buy a traditional Korean souvenir.

B ?

B In that case, why dont you go to Insadong?

Find the most appropriate response from the choices given , as shown in the example.

(1 )

(2)

. @ .

@ .
?

(3) .

?
(4) .

218

. @ .

. @ . .

v-()2 ?CD

?
00 you want to go hiking?

?
Would you like to have a cup of coffee?

?
Would you like to go ride a boat on the Han River?

Grammar Focus ....... .


-() ? is used when asking about the listeners preference or intention or when gently making
a request. It is used often in spoken language among close friends and thus does not convey as polite
a feeling as -? It corresponds to Want to ...? r Howabout...? in English. When asking
a question in the form of -() ? the answer can be given in the form of -() ? or

-()2 . -()2 ? can also be replaced with - ?( -()2 ?) which


means the same as -() ? even though it is a negative form. When the relationship with the
listener is ciose but the speaker still wants to show respect , -()? can be used. When the
verb stem ends in a vowel or 2. - 2 ? is used , and when it ends in a consonant , -? is
used.

Base Form

-2 ?

Base Form

- ?

LX}
EEg
~ ?

12. Asking Opinions and Making Sugges-..cr;s

* Irreg ar form
(Compare with Unit 13. Intentions and Plans 03 V-()2 ~)

A .

A I 11 have doenjang stew.


What will you have , Hami?

?
B .

B 1' 11 have beef rib soup

A ?

A Yuki , what do you want to do after we finish our tests?

B ?

B Shall we go see a movie?

A .

A I want to see a night view of Seoul

B ?

B In that case, how about going to Seoul Tower this


evening?

Choose the appropriate word from below to fill in each blank using ) ?
" .... .. . ...

....................................

(1)

........

... .....

....... ...

............

..... , .................... ............... ....................................... .....

. ...... ....... ........ ..... .......

B .
(2)

B .
(3)

A .

B
(4)

A .

E ?

B . .

220

. AN- @
V-()2
V-()2 @

AIV-@
.

This year, I m going to stop smoking.

.
| 11

go on the business trip.

.
We will soon arrive at Incheon Airport.

Grammar Focus .....


1

- is added to the ends of verbs t o express the intention or wil l of the speaker. It

corresponds t (1) wil l/am going to r (1) plan t in English. It is made by adding - to the
verb stem. The negative form is made by adding - r -.

.
I plan to exercise every morning.

.
I wont drink alcohol any more.

When- is used to express intention or will , the subject cannot be in the th ird person.

. (x)
- . (
Kylie will start her diet (from) tomorrow.

- . (
l 11 start my diet (from) tomorrow.

222

- can also be used to convey information t hat something is abo ut to occur. In this se.
corresponds to should r w ill in English.

The train will arrive shortly

It shd rain tomorrow.

+ -

+ -

Base Form

Base Form

(Compare with Unit 17. Conjecture 01 AIV- ~)

A !

A Wang Dan, lets not be late to class!

B .

BI m sorry. 1 11 arrive early

staing

tomorrow

A 80me foreign guests are here,


so 1 need someone to interpret.

.
B .

B In that case, Chief, 1 will interpret for you.

A Professor An Junho will give a


lecture on the Korean economy

B ? .

shIy

B Good afternoon. 1m An Junho.

- i s used i diomatically in the following cases.


. .Its a pleasure to meet you. 0Ne meet for the first time.) I'm Lee Minu
.

Thank you for preparing this food. (1 will enjoy this food.)

Mother 1 m off to school.

f} - is a1so used when the speaker wants to be 1ess assertive and more gentle and p01ite when
expressing a thought.
A . ? Everyone, do you understand (what 1 ve discusse so far?
B .

No 1dont

quite understand.

13. Intentions 'ld ?'!E.."':S

What have the f lowing people decided to do in the new year? Look at the pictures and fill in t he
blanks using -.

(1)

(2)

(3)

( x)

The weather forecast is being shown on television. Look at the weather map below and fill in the
blanks using -.

. (1)
2)

224

. (3)

v-()2

.
l 11 an5Wer the phone.

. .
Sorry. 1have work to do, 50 1 11 be leaving now.

.
1'11 call you in the evening

Grammar Focus .....


-() is used when the speaker wants to express a decision or intention to another person
similar to a promise , and also when actually making a promise to do something w ith the other person.
It is also used simply to express that the speaker wi ll do something. It thus corresponds to (1) w ill

(d

in English. This expression is used in colloquial language mainly among intimates. When the verb stem
ends in a vowel or 2 , then - 2 is used , and when it ends in a consonant, - is used.

Base Form

-2

Base Form

Irregular form
13. Intentions a'1C ? =

___.

This expression can be used only with verbs that express the will of the subjec t.

. ( x)
he

blowing of the wind is not due to the will or intention of the wind.)

. (x)
(It cannot be used with adjectives.)

Only subjects in the first person can be used.

. ( x)

- . (
Budi will call in the evening

. (

This expression cannot be used in questions.

?( x )

? (
Li la, you won t be late in the future, will you?

B .

A Did you bring my book?

8 Sorry. 1forgot

1'11 definitely bring it tomorrow

A Eric , do you know Kylie s email address?

?
B , .

226

Yes , 1do. 111 write it down (on

pap for you

What s the Difference?

-(1m

A relationship exists with the listener, and

IE
No relationship exists with the listener, and

the subject's intention or thought is expressed

the subject thought, intention, or plan is

while taking the listener into consideration

expressed unidirectionally.

A .

A .

B .

(Speaker B hears what Speaker A says and states the


intention to follow the advice.)
A

(Speaker A had already been planning to stop smoking ,


which was a decision unrelated to the relationship with
Speaker B.)

B .

A .

(Speaker B intends to call under the assumption that


Speaker A expects it.)

B | .

(Speaker B plans to call Speaker A irrespective of


Speaker As wishes.)

_ook at the pictures and fill in the blanks as shown in the example.

A . ?

B .

m ,
()

(1)

A
()

B . .

2)
A ?

B
(

3)

A .

B .
(

x)

(4)

A .
B .
( x )

13. Intentions arc ?i.'":5

v-()2 @

. .
l m 50 ful l. 1 m not going to eat any more.

.
1'11 have coffee (to drink).

.
Thi5 vacation , 1 m going on a trip.

Grammar Focus ...... ..


-() 2 expresses the fact that the speaker has the will or intention to do something. It is
used often in colloquial language among intimates , and does not confer a feeling of
meaning corresponds

t be

going

t r will

p iteness.

in English. Used in questions, it is a way to ask the other

person his or her intention (See also Unit 12. Asking Opinions and Making Suggestions 05

? (j)) When the verb stem ends in a vowel or

V)

, - is used , and when it ends in a consonant,

- is used.

Base Form

-2

Base Form

I rregar

228

form

This

This expression can be used only with verbs.

. (x)
-

. (
1 wish 1 were

tall

. ( x )
->

. (
1 wish 1 were

pretty.

See also Unit 8. Expressions of Hope 02 NV-/

Only subjects in the first person can be used.

. (x)
. (
Hoang will go to his hometown next week

. (
l 11 go to my hometown next week.
Compare with Unit 12. Asking Opi nions and Making Suggestions 05 V-() ? Q))

m COMersatMn.
A
?
B .

A Hami , do you want to see an

action movie or a horror movie later?

B 1 don t like horror movies.


1 want to see an action movie.

A ?

A What would you like to drink?

B .

B I d like some coffee.

A ?

A Aren t you going to Li las birthday party today?

B . .

B NO , I m not going. 1 m tired , so 1plan on resting at


home.

13. lntentiors'c ~Z'

Look at the pictures and fill in the blanks using ).

( ,. )

A .
B
()

(2)

A 12. ?
B
()

(3)
[

B
()

(4)

B
(

230

x)

e AN-()L/ @

G v-() @

A1V-()L/

?
It s cold , so shall I close the window?

.
Its raining , and I don t have an umbrella.

.
My little sister is a student , and she studies really hard.

?
Youve bought a lot already, so shall we go?

Grammar Focus .............. .


-()L/ is used when the first clause expresses the reason or background situation for the

second c lause and also when the first clause provides content introducing the second clause. It
corresponds t so/therefore and and in English. When added to adjectives , -

is added t

stems ending in a vowel , and - is added to stems ending in a consonan t. When added to verbs ,
- I is added to the stem.

232

-/

-()

Base Form

-()

Base Form

71

..

Irreg ar

---

form

Compare w it h Unit 4. Li sting and Contrast 04 AIV-()L/

CD)

In Conversation
A ?

A Is Yoko employed at a company?

B No , shes still a student , but she is going

A ?

B
T
h1e
r<e
sl
a
uj

Wher

e'
's a go
od r
est

al
u
e

9
00

d s

1s

ugge

1
s
yo
u go
t

h
ere

gradte this year.

I boughl lhese clothes yeslerday, bul I m nol


pleased with lhem.

B ? .

B Why? They look fine on you (Jisu)

14. Background Information and ExplaratJOf1S

Look at the pictures and choose the appropriate word from below to fill in each blank using )L/.

( 1)

A ?
B

(2)

B .

(3)

B .

(4)

A ?
B

234

v-()@

.
I arrived home to (discover) the smell of something tasty.

.
When I woke up in the morning , the gift had already arrived.

12.
When I arrived home, it was midnigh t.

Grammar Focus .....


-() expresses the d iscovery of the fact described in the second clause as the rest of
performing the action described in the first clause. It corresponds t when or (do something) only to
discover If the verb stem ends in a vowel , - is used , and if it ends in a consonant , - is
used. This form of-() denoting discovery taches only to verbs

-+-

':'

Base Form

I
|

:
||

Base Form

-t|

-7----: --1---

LI

* Irreg ar form
14_ Background Information and Explanations

~~ -

When -()LI expresses the result of an action (discovery) , - and - cannot precede it.

. ( x )
-

. (
I arrived at the office only to discover that nobody was there.

. (x )

. (0)
When I arrived home in the evening , my mother was there.

(Compare with Unit 9. Reasons and Causes 02 NV-() CD)

In Conversation
A ?

A Did you call Jason on the phone?

B .

8 Yes , but only to find he did not answer.

A ?

A How much was that hat?

B .

8 10,000 won. When I went to the department store

yesterday, they were having a sale.

Connect each phrase on the left to the most appropriate phrase on the right, and write sentences using
the phrases as shown in the example.

(1)

(2)

(3)
(4)

71
(1)

(2)
(3)
(4)

236

. @ .
'-....

. @

@ .

@ .

. @.

V-() /

V-()
V-()

N/ () V- ()
V-

V-() /
'tracK

153

.
We re going to Dongdaemun Market to buy clothes ,

.
I came to Korea to see my Korean fans.

.
| m going

to the bank to withdraw some money.

Grammar Focus
-() / expresses going or coming to a place to perform an action , with the action stated
first and the p lace second. It corresponds to (in order) to in English , When the verb stem ends in a
vowel or , then- / is used , and when it ends in a consonant , -() / is
used ,

+ -

/
-

.. Irregular form

238

... ----

1$@

-,--

B ase Form

_,
-
-

- (-I Z

Base Form

+ -

/
----+

Only m ovemen t verbs such as (to go) , (to come) , and (to attend/commut are us
after

-(

. (

(1) go to the market to buy clothes.

. ( x)
. ( (1) withdrew money to buy clhes.

Fl

uj

n
oc

oome

1e
) (to 9
e
up

) n
9
down) (to e
nter) (to leave .
(to trave l), and 0 I (to move/change residences).

(x ), (x ), ( x ), - ( x )

In Conversation . (t~

\154

A -?

A Did you move (change residences)?

B .

B Yes , 1 moved last week


Please come to visit over the weekend

A ?

A Are you busy these days?

B Yes, 1 m a bit busy.


| m attending an academy to learn Korean dance

Look at the pictures and fill in the blanks using -() /.

A ?

.
()

(2)

A ?
. .

B
(

(3)

______

..,

.'0

"'. "

l'Jf:-=-

- 0 l">t' t> !A
...... . . .

. .
F

A ?
B

.
(

15. Purpose anc

le1"..!:a'

v-()

.
1exercise three hours a day to try to lose weight.

.
1bought a present to give to my wife

5 .
1drank five cups of coffee so that 1wouldn t go to sleep.

Grammar Focus .....


-() expresses the intention or plan of the speaker. Specifically, it indicates the speaker w ill d
w hat is stated in the second clause to accomplish what is stated in the first clause. It corresponds to (in
order) to or so that in Enish. When the verb stem ends in a vowel or , then- is used , and
w hen it ends in a consonant , - is used.

Base Form

Base Form

* 1 egular

240

form

In Conversation

A , ?

A Jeonga do yo

u tend an acadermy t

B Yes, I go to an academy tearn how to use

computers

A ?

A We just met a little while ago , so why are you calling


again?

B .

B I called so that I could hear your voice.

A .

A Even though I ve lain down in bed , I can t go t


sleep.

B In that case, try drinking a glass of warm milk

What s the Difference?

II!)
o Used with movement verbs, such as
and .
.

II!)

o Can be used with all verbs.


(

(x)

(1) 90 to the coffee shop to meel my friend.

Present, past, and future tense verbs can all


follow-().

. (
(1) 90 to the coffee shop to meet my friend
. (
(1) went to the coffee shop 10 meet my friend .

. (
(1) will 90 to the coffee shop to meet my friend.

(1) 90 10 lhe coffee shop 10 meel my friend


(

(1) am waitin9 10 meel my friend in lhe coffee


shop.

Present and past tense verbs can follow -(


but the meaning becomes awkward

when used with a verb in the future tense.


- . (
(1) 90 10 the coffee shop 10 meel my friend

. (
(1) wenl 10 lhe coffee shop 10 meet my friend.

- . (x)

E) -() and -() can be used in


combination with this expression.
. (0)

Lets 90 to the restaurant 10 have a meal


(

E) -() and-() sound awkward

when used with this expression.


. ( x )
. (x)

Please 90 10 lhe reslaurant 10 have a meal

15. Purpose and Irntion

2.c.-

Why are the

f lowing

people studying Korean? Write the answers in the blanks as shown in the

example.

| .

(5)

(3)

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)
(5)

242

F.
.

v-()
C
ira::>

.
I plan to travel during the summer vacation.

.
I intend to have two children once Im married.

.
.
I had planned on learning how to drive during the vacation.
But I injured my arm and wasnt able to.

Grammar Focus .....


-() expresses the subject s intention or plan that has yet to be acted upon . It means

plan to or intend t in English. When the verb stem ends in a vowel or 2

, - is used , and

w hen the stem ends in a consonant , - is used. Moreover, while-() is the


past tense form of -() it is used when the intended action or plan did not materialize as
expected.

Base Form

;t

* Irreg ar form
15. Purpose a;x.: l-::e:~

In Conversation '..'
....

.
.
...
.

(fr
rac
j5
A ?

A What will you do once you get your bonus?

B .

B I plan to buy a new car.

A ?

A What do you plan to do after you graduate?

B .

A .

A I plan on getting a job at a company.

I intend to continue my studies at graduate school.

Carol plans to travel during her vacation. Look at the contents of Car s suitcase and write what you
t hink she intends to do during her trip as shown in t he example.

(1)
(2)
(3)

(4)
(5)
(6)

(7)

244

N/ () v- ()

.
I take vitamins daily for my health.

.
Soldiers are people who work for their country.


.
I practice hard to become a great skater.

Grammar Focus
This pattern is used when performing an action for the sake of something or to accomplish something.
Specifically, it indicates the speaker

do what is stated in the second clause for the sake of what

is stated in the first c1ause. In the case of a noun being the reason for the action , / is
used. is the shened form of . Further, can also be omitted , leaving . It
corresponds to for the sake of r (in ord to' in English. When used with a verb , - is
added to the verb stem

+ -
-

-
-
-

v-

Base Form

15. Purpose ano

I rr.-=-~;"'

- -
- -

- cannot be added directly to a djectives. However. if -/ has been added to an


adjective. making it a verb. then it can be used with - .

. (x)

. (
(1) exercise to be healthy.

A . A

Its nice to meet you. 1 m new recruit Lee Minu

B . B Pleased to meet you. 1trust you 11 work ha


for the company.

.
A ?

A What do you do for your family?

B . B I pray for my family eve day.

A .

A Congratulations on buying an apament.

B .

B Thank you. We both worked hard to save money


to buy this home.

=:~)

al

Cannot be used with -/ .-()

Can be used with -/ -()

-() or-()2 ?

-() and -()2 ?

(
(I)studi

hard to enter the university

(x)
(x)
. (x)

. (0)

(1) studied hard to enter the university


(

(1) have to study hard to enter the university.


. (

Lets study hard to enter the university.


(

Please study hard to enter the universi!y.

246

Look at the pictures and choose the appropriate word from below to fill in each blank using either /
() or - ().


. ,,-

(1)

A ?

(2)
A . ?

(3)
A ?
B

>

(4)

15. Purpose and Intem.

v-

i made the decision to stop smoking for my health starting this year.

.
I decided to go hiking with my friend over the weekend.

3 .
We ve decided to get married three years from now.

Grammar Focus ..... .


1 -

expresses the making of a prom ise with another person and is made by adding -

to the verb st em.

A . .
Jeonga, I love you. Let5 get married next year.

B . . Okay. Let5 get maied next year.

- . .
Jeonga and I love each other. We decided to get married next year.

2 -

can also express the making of a p romise with oneself. That is , it can express a

dec ision or resolution to do something. It is m ad e by adding - to t he verb st em

.
I resolved to exercise every day starting this year.

248

+ -

+ - -

Base Form

Base Form

E
A ?

A Jaejun , why are you in such a good mood today?

Carol and I have decided to go on a date this weekend

.
A ? A Who will bring the camera tomorrow when we go
B

B Budi decided to bring one.

A ?

A What plans do you have for the new year?

B Ive decided to write in my journal every day

before

going to sleep

Wh ile- is mainly used in its past tense forms of - / it is sometimes used in

it s present t ense form of -71 . 1n such cases , it refers to the speaker and listener making a prom ise
to do something.
A ?
B .

What shall we do tomorrow?

(=

.)

Let's (decide to) go hiking.

....~

15. Purpose and Intention

~~

What have the

f l owing

people resolved to do in the new year? Look at the pictures and choose the

appropriate word f rom below to fill in each blank using

(1)
(2)
(3)

4)

(5)

250

- .

e NV-()
v-()

NV-/

A1V-()

.
If you spend too much time on the computer, you 11 hurt your eyes.

.
1dance when 1 m in a good mood.

.
If 1make a lot of mone

| mg ng

to buy a house.

Grammar Focus ..... .


-() is used when stating a condition about some fact, daily occurrence , or some repetitive action
mentioned later in the sentence , or when supposing an uncertain situation or a situation that has not
yet been realized. It means if, when , or once in English. When exp ressing a supposition , adverbs
such as and can also be used . When the verb stem ends in a vowel or 2 , - is used ,
and when it ends in a consonant , - is used.

--

Irreg ar

252

form

IL

Base Form

Information about something that happened in the past cannot come before -() in a sentence

Fuhermore when an action only occurs once , -()2 is used

. (x)

. (
Yesterday, when I watched a movie, I cried

. (x)
-->

. (
Yesterday, when my younger brother/sister was not home, my friend came.

ln Conversation

.---------------------------------------------------------------------Fa
R
..1 6

A ?

A What do you normally do on the weekend?

B .

If the weather s nice , I go hiking


But if it rains or snows , then I watch TV at home.

.
A .

A I m going back to my hometown next week.

B ? .

B Really? That s too bad

Please stay in touch when youre back home.

A ?

A Where will you live once you get married?

B .

B We plan to live in an apament near the company.

When the subjects of the first and second clauses are different, the particle fi lowing the subject of the
first clause changes from / to 0 1/.
. (x)- . (0)

When my brother tells a story, his friends laugh.


. (x)
-

( When Tiruen does not go to work

16. Conditions and Suppositions

'-' -

Connect the pict ures that go together, and then select the words from below to fill in the blanks using --{)

(1)

(2)

. @

(3)

. @

(4)

. @

11

~'j ^i

-.'
- .

~:;-

.
3 .

.
.

v-()

trac"

.
If you want to play basketball well , you have to be able to jump high.

4.
If you re trying to get to Dongdaemun , then please take subway line 4.

.
If you want to meet with teacher Lee, then come to school on Monday.

Grammar Focus .....


-() is the shortened form of -() It is used with verbs to express a plan or
intention to do something in the first clause , with the condition required to fulfill that plan or intention
given in the second clause. For this reason , it is common for the f lowing grammatical forms to be
used in the second clause: -/ / -() -() 01/ and

. This expression means if you w ant to or if your intention is to in English. When the
verb stem ends in a vowel or 2 , - is used , and when it ends in a consonant , - is used.

Base Form

Base Form

---

* Irregular form
16. Conditions and Suppositlons

2:5

m COMersatim.
A .

A 1want to be able to speak Korean well.

B If you want to speak Korean well ,


then only speak Korean every day

A .

A 1often lose my pen.

B If you dont want to lose your pen,


then write your name on it

A .

A Mr. President , 1want to work at your company.

B If you intend to work at our company, you have t

be able to speak Korean and use computers wel l.

.~-

Look at the pictures and connect them with the appropriate sentences.

(":)
r-

256

. @

(2)

AN-O~/

.
Grandma can t hear you even if you speak loudly.

. .
I like these clothes. I want to buy them even if they are expensive.

.
Even if I listen to the news , I cant understand it.

Grammar Focus ..... .


-/ indicates that the situation in the second clause occurs regardless of the action or state
described in the first clause. It means even if or regardless whether' in English. When the verb stem
ends in ~ or ...1... - is used , and when the verb stem ends in any other vowel , - is used . For
verbs that end in the form changes to .

Base Form

-/

Base Form

-O t/

* Irregar form
16. Conditions and si::x:s::o:

In

Conver.tion

A 3 .

A We have to be in Myeongdong by 3:00.


Lets take a taxi.

.
B 2 50.

B Its 2:50 right now. We won t make it by 3:00 even if


we take a tax i.

3 .
A .

A I m so busy these days I don t have time to eat


breakfast.

B - .

B You have to eat breakfast even if you re busy.


Its unhealthy not to eat breakfast.

le meaning of -/ can be emphasized by using in front of the verb, giving the expression the

meaning of no matter how (much)'.

-
Even ifl m busy I eat breakfast

No matter how busy I am , I always eat breakfast

01 .
| 11

buy those clothes even if they re expensive. - No matter how expensive those clothes are, I 11 buythem.

Look at the pictures and choose the appropriate word from below to fill in each blan k using -/.

A ?
B

A/V- @

G A/V-()2

A/V-() ? @

A/V-()L//()2

A/V-@

.
Wow, that looks delicious.

. !
Look at that poster. It looks interesting

.
That looks refreshing.

Grammar Focus ............... .


- is an expression of supposition about a certain situation or state corresponding t looks

like , sounds , or appears in English. It is formed by adding - to the stems of verbs and
adjectives. In the case of past tense supposition , -/- is added in front of - to form-/
|

AA AA, - I ..LL.

+ - -

Base Form

Base Form

|Ijlj

I!!8

(Compare wiLn U 13.

260

+ - -

,.,

tentions and Plans 01

A/V- ()

In Conversation ................. .
A .

AI m planning to take a trip to Jeju Island this wee

B . .

A .

A These days , I study English every day after getting

WOW, that

ff

sounds nice. I want to go , too.

work.

B ? .

B Every day? That sounds tough.

A This is the book Ive been using to study

Korean lately.

B .

B It looks difficult.

-E

(1)

-r1

I-

Choose the appropriate word from below to fill in each blan k using -.

-o L-

B ?

(2)

5 .

(3)

(4)

A 1 .

B
(5)

1 .

B ?

(6)

17. cor ::.::

A/V-()2 @

.
You 11 be hot if you wear that

.
I think Hayeong willlook good in a violet shirt.

7 .
I think Dane has already left work because it's 7:00.

)rammar Focus ..... ..

-() expresses the speaker's supposition based on a personal experience or something


seen or heard that provides a basis for the belief. It corresponds

think

will in English. When

the verb or adjective stem ends in a vowel or 2 , - is used , and when the stem ends in a
consonant , is used. In the case of past tense supposition , -/ is added in front of

-() to form-/ .

e Form

- 2

Base Form

- -_...--

'" Irregular fm

262

When used to ind icate supposition , - cannot be used in questions. Fo r ques~ o~s

-()2 ? is used

A ? ( ? (x) )
Do you think these clothes wil l look good on me?

B .
Yes, 1think you11 look nice in them.
(Compare with Unit 1. Tenses 04 V-()2 (1))

In Conversation

. ft
j7

A ?

A Is there a bus that goes from here to school?

B Yes , there is , but it doesnt come very often ,

.
A CD

?
B

so the subway may be more convenien t.

A Do you think Dane would like it if 1gave him


a music CD?
B He listens to music every day on the way to school,
so 1think hed like it.

A ?

A Is Yoko married?

B She has a ring on her left hand , so 1think she's married.

17. C ecture

---. ...:


Choose the appropriate word from below to

( 1)

11

in each blank using -(.2.)2 .

A ?

(2)

A . ?

B 11

(3)

A ?

(4)

A ?

(5)

A .

(6)

A .

(7)

A ?

81 A ?

26

. .

AN-()2 ?

Gi

?
00 you think the weather will be hot this weekend?

?
Will Carol show up today?

?
00 you think Oan has read this book?

Grammar Focus ., .. ,
-()2 ? expresses in quest ion form t he supposition of an actio n or state that has yet to
happen. It corresponds t I wond er if .. . or Do you think ...? in English. In response , -()2

and -()L/ are often used. When the verb or adjective stem ends in a vowel or

2,

-2 ? is used , and when the stem ends in a consonant , -? is used. In the case of a past
tense supposition , -/- is add ed in front of -()2 ? to form-/?

Base Form

-2 ?

Base Form

-?

|1111

* Irregular form
(Compare with Unit 12. Asking Opinions and Making Suggestions 01 V-()2 ? (D, 02 V ) 2 ? ~
17. Con;ect'. ;,.;

~C:


A ?

00 yOL
u
th
i
n1

B -

B It5 graduation time, 50 I think they're probably


expen5lve.

A ?

A Who do you think will get promoted thi5 time?

B Oane i5 a hard worker, 50 I think he 11 be promoted


thi5 time.

A ?

A 00 you think there will be much traffic if we go now?

B .

B No. There5 not much traffic thi5 time of day.

Choose the appropriate word from below to fill in each blank using )?

(1) A

B .

(2) A

B .

(3) A

8 1 .

(4 )

- .

(5) A

8 2 .

266

AIV-()L/l()2

jfracR

75

.
(It) looks like it rained yesterday.

.
(

looks like its raining right now.

.
(It) looks like its going to rain.

Grammar Focus .....


1

This expression is used w hen supposing that something happened in the past or when supposing
the occurrence of an action or situation that has yet to occur. It corresponds t looks/ sounds like

r appears that' in English. For present tense adjectives and past tense verbs , -()L is added
to the stem , for present tense verbs , - is added , and for future tense verbs , -() is added.

A . ?
Dane , you look like you re in a good mood today. Did something good happen?

B .
Yes , yesterday, my wife had our daughter.

It is also used to express the speakers opinion or thought about something indirectly in a polite ,
nonassertive , and gentle manner.

A ? How does the food taste?


B

It seems a little salty.

17. COnj9C

Bas e Form

Adjectives

Verbs

'"

Irreg ar

( The

Past Tense

Present Tense

Future Tense

form

past tense forms of adjectives are introduced at the advanced leve l.)

E
A

B .
A
B

It seems like the week is just flying by

8 YOl

A Th
at
rees
tau
j

. l

8 Yeah , she always gives us lots of and the

se ce

is good , to

Please

he some more to eat

8 1m sorry. I'm quite fI and don t think I 11 be able

268

to

eat any more

-()L is a more direct expression and thus is used when the speaker has a clear and d e finite

basis for the supposition. -()2 on the other hand, is more indirect and therefore is used when
making a vague supposition.
. It looks like the weather today is warm

(Supposition made after either seeing others experience the hot weather or after experiencing the heat d irectly.)
. 1guess the weather today will be warm
(Vague supposition made on the basis that yesterday was hot, so therefore today will likely be hot as wel l.)

What

Supposition based on

k
m

VJ

nm

Do you think this restaurant has


good food?
B . (x)

m m

A ?

n & m a Uk O m
.Ue
aK

reason or basis.

nS

E- -E~ lgU~E.

t he Difference?

that can be used in all cases ,

A . .

1made it. Please give it a try


B (

(At the same moment B sees the


food) Wow, it really looks tasty.

1imagine its good because there


are a lot of customers

intuitive , subjective reasons


regardless of whether there is
a r eason or basis.
A ?

Do you think this restaurant has


good food?
B CD ( )
.

(1 m not s ure , but in my view)


It looks good
B (
.

Seeing how there are many


customers, it seems to be
good
Used to state something
indirectly in a n o n -assertive
manner.
A
?

Can you come to my birthday


pay next week?
B

I want to go , but I dont think I


can make it because I have a
business trip next week. 1 m
sorry

17 . Coec""'..J'

Look at the pictures and choose the appropriate word from below to fill in each blank using
E

\
\

./

(1)

A ?

(2)

A ?

(3)

A ?

(.!)

A ro~ ?

2- 8

-() L //()

-()LJ-J-()2

NV-
A-
A-/

-()L/-/-()2 N

. .

That purse is pretty. I want to buy that purse.

.
I want to buy a pretty purse.

. ?
Theres someone sleeping on the sofa. Who is that person?

?
Who is that person (who is) sleeping on the sofa?

.
?
We 11 have a Korean dish for dinner today. Whats the dish?

?
Whats the Korean dish (that) we 11 have for dinner today?

Grammar Focus .....


Th is pattern is added t o verbs and adjectives to allow t hem t o funct ion as noun modifiers. The English
equivalent is that or w ho For present t ense adjectives and past tense verbs , -() L is ad ded to
the stem , for p resent t ense verbs , - is added , and for fut ure t ense verbs, -() 2 is add ed . The
negative forms are made by adding - to the stem for adjectives , and - to the stem
for verbs.

--
/

Base Form

Past

Present

Future

-L- H

i
L-a- EC-}

=
c
Ca
-f

* Irregular form

In Conversation .....

j 7 8,

A ?

A What kind of movies do you like?

B I like funny movies

A ?

A Who is the person (who is) drinking coffee?

B My friend

A ?

A How was the

restaunt (that) you went to yesteay?

B . B It was nice because of the good service

A ?

A Whycant you meet up during the weekend?

B .

B I have so many things (that I have) to do that I cant


meet up.

When two or m ore adjectives are used in succession , only the final adjective is conjugated to a n oun
modifier form.
. . Of. (Someone who i sincere. And pretty. I like that kind 01 gir1.
-

. (x)

. ( 0 ) I like a girl who is sincere and pretty.

18. Changes in Parts of Speir

Look at the pictures and fill in the blanks using -()L/-/-()2

A ?
B
(.)

(2)
A ? ?
B
()

Read the flowing passage and fill in the blanks using -()-/-()2.

. .
. . (1)
. . (2) .
. (3).
. . (4).
. (5).

. .

.
. (2)
(3)

(4)

(5)

274

(1)

. .

. .
.

AN-
.
Studying Korean i5 difficult.

.
My hobby i5 c<ing.

.
My leg5 hurt , 50 walking i5 hard.

~rammar

Focus ...... .

- functions to turn verbs and adjectives into nouns and corresponds roughly to -ing in English.

In a sentence , this form can be used to represent various parts of speech , including subjects and
bjects. The noun form is made by adding - to the stems of verbs and aectives.

1 Examples of single verbs used as nouns


st rong strength

to speak speaking

big

to listen listening

br ht

jump

AA

AA

to write writing

slze
brightness

jumpmg

thick

run

thickness

to read reading

quick

quickness

runnlng

throw

throwing

18. Changes in Parts of Speech

~ ! :.

Examples of entire phrases used as nouns.

. My house is far way, so coming to sch is diffict

I like listening to Korean songs.

I don t like eating meals by myself.

+ -

+ - -

Base Form

Base Form

71

In Conversation
A ?

A Whats the most difficult pa f studying Korean?

B .

B Speaking is most difficul t.

A ?

A Whywon t you buy this outfit?

B .

Wearing it is uncomfortable.
So I m not going to buy it

A ?

A Shall we take the bus?

. .

276

No , taking the bus from here is inconvenient.


Lets take the subway.

- can be combined with a number of particles to form subjects , objects , and adverbials in a sentence.

-() /
-() /
-() h//
- ////////
-() /

If you can speak Korean well , then living in Korea is easy.

Dane I wish for your successful admission into university.

The printed text of this book is large, which makes reading it easy.

.J

Look at the pictures and fill in the blanks using-.

(1)
A ?

.
(

(2)
A ?
B .

.
(

(3)
A .

.
()

(4)
A ?
B

.
()

18. Changes in Parts of Speecr

A-

.
I cut my hair short.

.
I woke up late today.

.
Please read it loudly.

Jrammar Focus .....

-I functions as an adverb in a sentence and expresses the purpose , basis , degree , method of, or

some thought about the action that follows. It corresponds to in a.. . manner or -Iy in English. The
adverb form is made by adding -I to the stems of adjectives
+ -

278

+ - ->

Base Form

-|

Base Form

-|

tq

In Conversation .....
A ?

A Dear, what should I do now?

B .

8 Please tidy Up the bathroom. Make it clean

A .

A Your necktie really looks nice

B . .

8 Thanks. I bought it cheap on sale.

A ?

A Mom , will the weather be cold today?

B .

8 Yes , its going to be cold , so dress warmly.

Although the adverbial form of an adjective is made by adding - to the stem , in the case of
and the forms and are used in favor of and

A Thank you for the food (idiomatic)

A .

B Please come early tomorrow.

Please eat a 101.

1m sorry for being late.

There are also cases in which both the adverbial form - and a d ifferent form are used.
- 1/

The plane goes by fasl.

0 1 .
Come this way quick

1 /

. .

Onlya little salt, please.


- ?

Wont you have a little more coffee?

1/

My watch is slow.
.

Please take your time eating

(t $.CW1

18. Changes In Pa'tS c' 50c:r

Look at the pictures and choose the appropriate word from below to fill in each blank using

(1)

A ?

(2)
A

B .

(3)
A .
B .

()

- - - -

(4)

280

A .
B ~.

-.

A-O~/

.
The children are hungry.

.
Recently. my father has been tired

.
The child is bored

Grammar Focus ........... .


-/ is added to the end of some adjectives to change them into verbs to ex press the

speaker's feeling or observation about some action or outw ard appearance. It corresponds t appears
(to be) or seems in English. If the stem ends in the vowel ~ or ..L, then - is used. Otherwise

- is used. As for verbs ending in the form changes to -.

..

"JJW'l'J1

tem n mg m owel
1-1filjjI:rffirmTjlTlm'Ilfl
- or ._
han
or ...L

ml'

T:Tii1lmIi
+ -

Base Form

-ou

Base Form

-/

18. Changes in PaS of Speech

-_

~ ::

* Irreg arform
When adding - to the adjective stem , the pattern becomes -/ .

. (

. ( x )

Dont be afraid.

. ( Please don t take it so hard.

. (x)

A ?

A Whyisn t

Budi ding the roller coaster?

B Budi is afraid of roller coasters

A ?

A Do children like this game?

B Yes, they find it amusing

When-/ i s added to and | to form and | the meaning becomes to


hold dear' or to treat with love and affection:
. My grandfather treats me with much affection.

My little brother/sister adores our dog

C'rcle the appropriate words as you read the f ollowing passage.

(1) (
/ ) (2) (/
(3)
( /) . .

(4) (/)
.

282

v- @
v-/
A-/

v-

v-@
.
| m wearing

a necklace and earrings.

.
| m wearing

a blouse.

.
| m wearing

a ski.

.
l m wearing boots.

/ .
| m

wearing glasses.

.
| m wearing

gloves.

.
| m wearing

a suit

.
| m carrying

a briefcase.

.
| m wearing

shoes.

Grammar Focus
When used with verbs that express putting on or t aking 0 something , such as (t o wear clot hes),

(to wear shoes/socks) , (t o wear a hat/glasses) , (to wear a ring/gloves) , and (to
take 0 - means t he rest of the actio n has continued in t hat stat e until the present.
It corresponds t is -ing in English . The same meaning can also be expressed by using the past
tense ronn -/ to indicate a st ate of com pleted action.
= Im wearing a skirt.

28L1

Im wearing glasses.

=~

--

.../

k R :

~3.

"

19. Expressions 01 State

In Conversation
A ?

A Who is Hayeong?

B .

B That person (over there) is Hayeong. 8he s weanng

a red dress.

A ?

A Why are you wearing socks inside your house?

B .

B Our house is cold. 80 1m wearing socks.

A ?

A Is Lee Minu married?

B .

B Yes, hes wearing a wedding ring.

What is the person in the picture below wearing? Look at the picture and fill in the blanks as shown in
the example.

(1)

(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)

7
(8

(9)

286

v-o~/
f

.
The teacher is standing.

.
The students are sitting.

.
The patients are Iying down in the hospital.

.
His name is written on the umbrella.

Jrammar Focus .....

-/ expresses a continuing state of a completed action and corresponds t is -ed/ -ing in

English. It is often used with passive verbs , such as (to be opened) , (to be closed),
(to be turned on) , (to be turned o ff) , (to be dropped) , and (to be put , to

be placed).

. . Stem Ending
in Vowher
than ~ or

Stem Endin9
} or ...L

...L

+ -

| + - -

Verb Ending in
Verb E

H:~

->

Base
Form

-/

Base
Form

-/

Passive
Verb

AA

(= ~A )

* Irregular form
19. Expressions 01 &a:


A .

AI ve lost my wallet.

B ?

B What will you do? Was there anything inside it?

A .

A My money and cards were inside.

A ?

A How did you find your boarding house?

B .

B There was an advertisement put up in front of school.

A ?

A Why don t you go inside the restaurant?

B .

B Its closed.

For verbs meaning to put on or to wear: such as and - is added to the stem
to form and instead of and .

(x) - . ( (1) am wearing a coat.


(x)
.

(x)-

(0)

(1) am wearing running shoes.

. (

(1) am wearing a hat

.(x) - . (

(1) am holding a bag.

.(x) - . (

(1) am wearing a necktie.

-/ is used only with verbs that do not require a direct object


. . (0) 1opened the window. Therelore. the window is open.
. (x)

What's the Difference?

-
Expresses an action currently in progress.
-
j So mebody is] in the process 01 sitting in a chair.)
.
19

fIowers are in the process 01 blooming.)


J)o.-e:r- i

li9
Expresses the continuing state of a completed
action.

([Somebody] continues to sit in a chair.)


.

(The Ilowers have bloomed and remain in that state.)

in a state 01 dying gradually.)

([Something] has died and remains dead.)

288

Look at the

f. lowing

pictures and choose the appropriate verb form for each sentence that follows.

( 1)

1" (/) .

(2)

(/) .

(3) (/) .
(4) (/) .

(5) (/) .
(6) ( / ) .
(7) (/) .
(8)

(/) .

(9) (/) .
(10)

(/) .

(11)

(/) .

19. Expressions of State

289

A-O~/
%

&

.
The balloon became bigger.

My elder sister became thinner.

.
Pinocchio s nose grows longer when he tells a lie.

Grammar Focus ..... .


-/ expresses a change in state over time and means become r turn in English . If the

stem ends in the vowel ~ or ...L, then - is used. Otherw ise , - is used. As for verbs

.[

ending in the form changes t .

0 k e

+ -

lr

L'i.e"I:'iIiIIilIWii

Base Form

-/

Base Form

-ou

: l aa

l':

* Irregular form
290

-mg .m V

m1

s em

w
-

n
- -

--

~i
l

In Conversation ......... .
A ?

A Is your company far away?

B It used to be, but s ince 1 ve moved , it has


become c loser.

A ?

A Is the weather really cold?

B .

B After it rained , the weather turned cold .

A . ?

A My vision is bad. What s hould 1 do about it?

B .

B If you eat a lot of ca rrots , your vision will get better

This expression is always used with a ectives and cannot be used with ver bs.
. ( Yoko had become pretty.

. (x) . (

Yoko has begun speaking Korean well.


(See also Unit 19. Expressions ofState 04 V -| )

@ le past tense form -Of/ expresses a ch ange resulting from an action performed in the past
while the p resent tense fo rm -/ is used to d escribe a chan ge that generally occurs when a
partic ar action is performed.
. (x) - . (

1ate a lot 01 ice cream, 50 1have become lat.


.(x) - . (

1I you eat a lot 01 ice cream, you will become lat

19. Expressions 01 State

29~

Look at the

f lowing

pictures. What has changed? Choose the appropriate word from below to fill in

each blank using -/.

( 1)

..

(2)

(3)
|

(4)

(5)
(6)

(7)

(8)
(9)

- -/

v-

.
I became good at cooking.

.
I came to like soccer.

.
(Its been decided) I will go abroad on a business trip.

Grammar Focus .....


-| expresses a change from one state to another or a change in a situatio n as a result of
someone else s action or the environment , regardless of the will of the subject. It is made by adding

-| to the verb stem. It corresponds to became , came to (be/d and has been decided' in
English.

.
I used to dislike soccer, but after I began dating my boyfriend I came to like it.

.
I didn t want to go on the business trip , but I had to because my boss ordered me to

+ - -

+ - -

Base Form

Base Form

19. Expressions of State

293


A ?

A 00 you get up early these days?

B Yes , after starting to work at a company, I became an


early riser (came to get up early).

.
A ?

A 00 you know the movie star Jang Oong-gun?

B I hadnt heard of him before coming to Korea ,


but after coming here , I learned of him.

What changed after Lee Minu got married? Choose the appropriate word from below to fill in each bla nk

using - .

(4)
(5)

(6)

294

(2

(1 )

<

A/V-()LJ

v- /

A/V-?

A/V-()L/
?
00 you know how to get to Myeongdong?

.
I dont know who that person is.

.
I can t remember what I did yesterday.

Grammar Focus .............


-()L/ is a connective ending used when connecting a clause requiring additional information
to the following verb. It corresponds t who/what/where/when/how/whether + Clause in English.
It generally precedes one of the following verbs: (to know), (not to know, be unaware
f) (to be anxious or curious about) , (to ask a question , to inquire) ,

(to investigate) , (to look into , to recognize) , (to recall , to remember), (to
speak , to say) , and (to teach).

?+ ?

Will tomorrows weather be good or bad? + 00 you know?

00 you know whether tomorrow s weather will be good or bad?

?+ -> .
How do you get to Myeongdong? + Please tell me.

Please tell me how to get to Myeongdong.

For present tense adjectives , when the stem ends in a vowel or 2

,-

L is added , and when it ends

in a consonant, - is added. For present tense verbs , - is added to t he stem For past tense
adjectives and verbs , -/ is added while for future tense verbs , -()2 is added.

296

-L

-/

- 2

Base Form

-( )L/

Base Form

-() L/

c>-tTj-
H~^|

* Irregular form
In Conversation ........................................................................ftc
-

--

<

Pu

AU

(1 9

A Jason is in the hospital. Do you know whats wrong?

8 Hmm. No , I don t know what s wrong.

A Dear, is our son studying now?

?
B

8 Hes in his room , but I don t know if hes studying


r

sleeping.

A . .

A I made this. Please take a bite.

B .

8 WOW, this is delicious. Please tell me how you mace :-....

.
20. Confirming I nformau.

,-

- i s used in t h e following forms.

Interrogativ e

+ Verb-() L/

I don t know what our son/ daughter is doing in his/her room

f}

00 you know what country that person is from?

Verb 1-() L / Verb 2-()L/

.
I don t know if our son/daughter is sleeping or studying in his/her room

? Do you know if that person is Japanese or Chinese?

Verb 1-()L/ Verb 1-()L/

. I don t know if our son/ daughter is studying (or not).

I don t know whether that person is Japanese (or not).

W h at do y ou know abo ut t h is person? Use ) L / to ask quest ions about h im .

(1) A

B . .
(2) A

B 22 .

(3) A

B . .

(4) A

B . .
(5) A

B .
(6) A

B .

298

v- r.~/
.
It took (me) two months to learn to drive.

.
It took (me) an hour to finish my homework.

30 .
It cost (me) 300,000 won to repair my car.

Grammar Focus ....


- / is added to the end of verbs to express how much money, time , or effort is
involved in doing a task. It means takes/ requires/ costs to (d in English. This expression is made
by adding- / to the stems of verbs. - is used when expressing an
amount of time required , and - is used when expressing an amount of money requ ired.

. 30

30 .

I will repair my car. It costs 300,000 won. - It costs 300 ,000 won to repair my car.
+ - -

+ - -

Base Form

ime)

(Money)

* Irregular form
20. Confirrrllng I"foc::a:-oc

In Conversation .

f tracK
-1 9

A How long does it take to get to Myeongdong

from here?

B 40

B If you go by bus, it takes 40 minutes, and if you go


by subway, 20 minutes.

20.

A ?

A Did you move (change residences) last week?

How much did it cost to move?

8 150 .

B It cost about 1,500 ,000 Won.

How much time or money does it take to do the f lowing things? Look at the pictures and fill in the
blanks using - /.

A .
B

10 .
(f

A ?

10 .
()

(2)

A ?
B

.
()

(3)

?
(

6
()

A F . ?
B

20 000
(

300

()

AN-?

?
You re Chinese, right?

?
Isnt bulgogi tasty?

?
You study Korean , don t you?

Grammar Focus ...... .


-? is used when the speaker wants to confirm with the listener or to obtain the listener's

agreement about something already known . It means

Isn Aren t...? r Don Doesn t ?

in English.

For present tense adjectives and verbs , -? is added to the st em. For past tense adjectives
and verbs , -/? is added; for future tense verbs , -()2 ? is added. In colloquiaJ
speech -? is sometimes shortened to -?

+ -? - ?

+ -? - ?

Base Form

-?

Base Form

-?

^~ c -!
20. Confirming In~()r.";"".zr


A 10 .

A Our son/daughter is already 10 years old.

Ooesn t time just fly by?

B .

B Yes , time really does fly by.

A ?

A Hoang , you stayed up all night last night , didn t you?

B ?

B How did you know? 0 0 I look tired?

A ?

A You 11 attend the meeting tomorrow , won t you?

B .

B Yes , I will most definitely attend the meeting

Look at the f lowing drawing of Carol , and complete each of the questions based on what you see usi ng
-):17.

(1) A

B .

(2)

B .

(3)

B . .

(4)

B .

(5) A

B .

302

NV-/
NV-|

AN-/

.
Your vision is bad indeed.

.
You really like ice cream!

Grammar Focus .....


-/ is used t o express surprise or wonder upon learning something new either by direct
bservation

or experience or by hearing about it from someone else. It corresponds

1 see (t hat),

indeed , how , or simply an exclamation point (!) in English. For adjectives , - is added to the
stem , while for verbs, - is added. This expression can also attach to nouns by adding -( 0 1)
To express the past tense, it is added t o the past tense ending to form -/.

Base Form

Base Form

IK)

* Irregular form
304

In Conversation ..... .
A .

A Budi ha5 changed vehicle5 again.

B ? .

B Really? Budi really does have a lot of money!

A Dane , please say hello. Thi5 is our company


pre5ident.

.
B . .

B Oh , the company pre5ident! Nice to meet you

A ? .

A Do you have an umbrella? It5 raining out5ide now.

B .

B WOW, it5 really raining! 1 dont have

an umbrella, 50 what shall 1 do?

In the i nformal plain style, - changes to-j- in the case of adjectives , -/- in the case
of verbs, and -1)() in the case of nouns
A .

That boy/girl is my little brotherl sister.

B () .

oneself)

Oh, so thats his/her little brother/sister.

A Mom , today I was busy at sChool, and thatswhy Imlate.


B . .

kay

so (1 see) that s why you re late.

Read the f lowi ng dia logu es and fill in the blan ks using -/.

( 1) A

B ?

. (

(2) A .

B
(3) A

. (

. (

(4) A ?

. (
21. Discovery and Surprise

_ ......--

AN-
.
Wow, it's already summer.

.
You certainly have a large family.

.
You really have good handwriting.

.
You really have read a lot of books.

Grammar Focus ................. .


-| is used to express surprise or wonder upon learning something through d irect experience
when agreeing w ith something said by someone else. It is made by adding - to the stems 07
adjectives and verbs. It corresponds t really, ceainly wow , or My(!) in English

1. Expressing surprise or wonder upon learning something through direct experience:


A .

You really do speak Korean wel l.


(While witnessing a friend speak Korean)

B . . Not really. I have to study a lot more.

306

2 Agreeing with s omething said by someone e ls e:


A ? Isn t it cd today?
B

Yes it really is cd

+ -

+ --

Base Form

-|

Base Form

-|

* Irregular fo rm
(Compare with Unit 21 . Discovery and Suprise 01

AN-/)

Used mostly in books and other written texts.

f) Used to expr ess s urprise or wonder upon


learning som ethi ng n ew either by dir ect
experience or by heari ng about it from
someone else.
A ? 3

Have you ever had the galbi at this restaurant? 1


have had three servings of galbi.
B ? . (

Really? The galbi at this restaurant must be


delicious

Used mostly in daily conversation.

f} Cannot b e used to express some th ing


n ot learned directly by t he
expen ence.

sp eaker

own

A ?

Have you ever had galbi? Its really delicious


B ? . (x)

(Cannot be used because the speaker did not try galbi


personally.)

(Can be used because the sentence refers to what is


learned from someone else even though the speaker
has yet to actually try the restaurant's galbi.)

21. Discovery and Suror.s


A .

A Your husband is really tall!

B 187cm().

B Yes , hes 187 cm tal l.

A . .

A Its a present (1got for you). Go ahead and open it

B . .

What a beautiful scarf! Thank you.


| 11 wear it often in winter.

.
A ?

A What do you think of this painting by my daughter?

B .

B My, she really painted well! When did she sta


learning to paint?

Look at the pictures and fill in the blanks using either - or .

(1)
A ? .
B ?

(2)
A . .

Qu

(3)

(4)

A .
B
(

308

A-()L ? v-?
A/V-()L/

A-()L ? V-?

?
0 0 you have a lot of Korean friends?

?
0 0 you love me?

?
Oid you have a pleasant weekend?

Grammar Focus ...... .


-()L ? and-? are used to
po
li
ite
Iy and gent

1
tly ask s
orr

r
to

Is/Were there ... ?, Is/Was it ... ?, Are/Were you .. .?, or Do/Did you .. .? in English. For adjectives,

when the st em ends in a vowel, -

? is used , and when it ends in a co nsonant , -? is

used. For verbs , -? is added to the stem

-l

L ?

-?

-?

-/?

- 2 ?

-?

0-J -?

:7"?

310

Base Form

-() L ?

Base Form

-?

--- -::
--

_.-

.j

* Irregular form

A ?

A 00 you have time today?

B ?

8 Yes , I do , but why do you ask?

A ?

A Are you busy these days?

8 No, Im not that busy

A ?

A Oane, when is your mom coming to Se?

8 Shes coming next week

A ?

A What time will you leave your house?

8 1 11 leave in a few min

Fill in the blanks as shown in the example.

A ?

B .
(1 ) A

B .
(2) A

B .
(3) A

?.

B .
(4) A

B . .
22. Addition aJ End'r.cs

A/V-()L/

.
I think its interesting.

.
Minu is not at his desk right now.

!
We re really high up!

Grammar Focus .....


1 -()L/

is used to express one s disagreement with or opposition to what somebody

says. It corresponds to Well (in my case) in English. For adjectives , when the stem ends in a
vow el , - L is used , and when it ends in a consonant - is used. For verbs , - is
added to the stem.

The weathers not cold today.

B .

Well , I feel

c d.

-() L/ is also used to express the expectation of, or waiting f a response from the

other person and corresponds to ' ... and? or ... but? in English.

A 7 Helio, is this the home of Hayeong?

B . . (7 / 7)
Yes. it is... (And you are? / What is the reason for your cali?)

3 -( L / is also used to express the speaker's surprise at discovering or feeling


l..ii'!cted \'.hen

observing a situation. It corresponds to (1 m surprised to learn that) ... is so ... In

E ISl".
(

.;

something

( ) !
(1 m surprised to see that) your girlfriend is really pretty! (said while observing someones girlfriend)

( ) .
(1 m surprised to see that) he (she) speaks Korean really wel l. (said while observing a foreigner)

-L

-/

Base Form

-()L/

Base Form

-()

* I rreg ar form

..

In Conversation ......
..
..
.
.
.

.
..
..
.
.
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
.....
......
..
.....
...
.....
..
....
..
..
.......
..
.
.
..
......(fracK'
O

A ?

A 00 you have time tomorrow evening?

B .

B Well , tomorrow, 1don t have any time.

A ?

A What do you think of this painting?

B .

B Wow, its really nice

A .

A Wow, Oane , you really are studying hard.

B . .

B Not really. 1 m just reading a book

22. Additional Erc""

Look at the pictures and choose the appropriate word from below to fill in each blank using -()L/.

(1)

A .

A ?

(3)

A .
B .

(4)

31 4

gu

AA

n
/

Direct Quotations

Indirect Quotations
Indirect Quotation Contracted Forms

Direct Q
"

.
To paraphrase Edison , Failure is the mother of success."

" .
Jesus said , "Love each other.'
/

?"
.
Wang Jing asked me, What time will you come tomorrow?"

. .
This problem is too hard ," Budi though t.

Grammar Focus .....


A d irect quotation refers to the word-for-word quoting , using quotation marks , of w hat someone w rote ,
said , or thought. In Korean, / Verb ' follows the quotation m arks. W hen asking a quest ion
about what someone wrote or said , however, is used instead of ;

? " (What did Kylie say?) / is often followed by


} or but t hese verbs can be substituted w ith r .

316\

() (to speak) / (to tal k/converse) /


(to ask)

(to think)
(to request)
(to write)

(to liste
(to be written)

In Conversation .
0

A ?

A Did you speak with Minu?

B ,

"

A "

Yes , Minu said , | ve been too busy recently t


be ae to meet you."

Dear,

ays, No parking here."

.
B ?

B Really? I 11 park somewhere else then

@ is not used after a quotation when the part inside the quotation marks ends in . lt
is also common practice to avoid using as the verb directly following . These conventions
exist because it sounds awkward when is repeated consecutively.
. . ( x)
-

() (

. (

Minu said to me , xercise."


" . (x)

" (). (

" . (

Hayeong said to me, 'See you tomorrow. '


and are used after a quotation in a sentence, they convey slightly different
conveys a feeling of including not just the cited text but a1so the original intonation
emo~ion and feeling of the cited words. Th is is why is used when something must be com ered
vivi1y, such as in fairy tales , childrens stories , and onomatopoeia. 1n the case of everyda"
conversations and speech, however, is used often.

Although both

melings.

|!"

Junho rang the bell, and it chimed ding-dong"


The boy yelled

out, "Help me!'

. LI? " .

The queen asked , "Mirror, mirror on the wall , who is the fairest one of all?"
he ding-dong sound and the accent, intonation , and feeling of the words of the boy and queen are conveyed

23. 0..::az-:xs

Change what each of the

f lowing

people say into direct quotations

A ?

(2)

A ?

(3)
A ?

(4)

A ?
B

(5)

A ?
B

318

Indirect Quotations
9

.
Minu said I was really beautifu l.

.
Hayeong said she loves me.

.
Minu said we should get married.

Grammar Focus ....... .


An indirect quotation refers to the citing , without the use of quotation marks , of what someone wrote
or said. Further, the form of the expression can change depending on the type of quotation , verb
tense , and

pas

of speech involved. Thus , the forms of indirect quotations are more varied and

complex than t hose of direct quotations. After changi ng the form of the content to be quoted , - is
attached and used along w ith a verb such as (to speak, to say) , (to ask, to inqre)

(to tell , to convey) or listen , to he. These verbs can be substituted with or .

* Vst neans Verb stem" , and Ast means Adjective stem" .


The neg~hive forms of suggestive and imperative quotations are - and -
respectively.

Suggestive Sentences

Minu said , Let s not go to the mountain tomorrow."


- Minu

said we shIdnt go to the mountain tomorTO\\

Imperative Sentences

" . The doctor said , Don t smoke."


-

The doctor said not to smoke

23. Quotatocs

When the first person p ro noun / or /I a p pears inside an ind irect quotion it c hanges t

"

Wang Jing said , Please tell me."

Wang Jing said to tell her.

"

Richard said , My hometown is New York."

() Richard said his hometown is New York.

A ?

A Is Jason here?

B .

B No , hes not (here) .

A When he gets here , please tell him to come to the


cafeteria.

.
A ?

A Have you tried samgyetang?

B No , but my friends who have tried it said it was


delicious

W h en i n d i rect quotation s are made from sentences that originally end in or -/ these
parts change to and -/ or and -/ respectively.
Specifically, w h en the speaker is making the request directly to the listener, then and

are used, but when the speaker is asking the listen er to hel p a th ird par ty, th en
and-/ are used.

The speaker makes a direct request of the listener.

-ou

| - O f/

The speaker makes a

reqlst

on behalf of a third person.

is used because Jaejun is requesting something lor


ims
h

elf
.)

I ( is used because
C aro
l
i s requesting tha
t sorrme
t

h1
11n
I be done forWesley tth1ird

dp
ers
on1])

( is used because the speaker [Jaejun] and the


recipient 01 the help aejun] are the same person.)

I ( is used because the speaker [Jaun] and the

320

I recipient 01 the help [Wang Jing] are not the same person.)

Change the following direct quotations to indirect quotations.

" .
-

| If.I . l .
J

(1) " .
-+

(2)

" .

---+

(3) " .
-+

(4) " .

(5) ?" .
-+

(6) " .

(7) " .
-+

(8) " .
-+

(9) " .
-+

23. Quotatl1S

Indirect Quotation Contracted Form

.
Yoko said Korean is interesting.

.
Tiluen said shes getting married next month

.
Wesley said to call this evening.

.
Jaejun said we should play tennis tomorrow.

.
Budi wants to know what (you/we) want to eat.

Grammar Focus ........


Indirect quotations are often used in contracted forms , paIC arly in col loquial speech.

Noun +-()

-->

-(0 1)

- -//

IVVst +-()

322

-()2

Noun +-()

-()

L~

Vst + -()

L~/ L~

Ast +-()

-()

L~

NVst + NVst + -/()

- -/L

(= L~)

L~/ L~
L~

NVst+ -()

L~/

-()2

Vst+ -

Vst +-()

-()

Vst+ -/

- / .

Vst+ -//

-/

* Vst means Verb stem , and Ast means Adjective stem

A 00 you know how Eric is doing these days?

?
B .

B Yes , he said he's been studyi ng Korean ,

A .

A Jisu said we should go hiking this weekend

00 you have time?

B . .

B Yes , 1have time. Let 5 go

A .

A People are asking what time we 11 meet Up tomorrow.

8 9

B Please tell them to come to the front of the school

by 9 clock.

A ?

A Ja un where are you going?

B .

B Yuki said she wants help on her homework.

80 1m going to meet her.

23. Quotati15

What did Tiluen say to Budi? As shown in the example , change each quotation into its appropriate
indirect quotation in contracted f orm .

11-1 ! !

m-

324

(10)

(9J

. (8)

'^ E

. (6)

'5

(4)

(3 )

(2)

(1)

- (Irregular Conjugation)

E (Irre r Conjugation)
(Irre r Conjugation)

I (Irregular Conjugation)
(Irreg ar Conjugation)
(Irreg ar Conjugation)
A (Irreg ar Conjugation)

(Irregular Conjugation)

.
Minu is really busy these days.

.
Please turn off the lights.

.
(1 m) hungry.

Grammar Focus ...... .


For verb and adjective stems that end in - , -

is omitted without exception when adding an ending

that begins with / Then , the vowel that preceded -

determines whether or is used in t he

ending. That is , when the vowel is ~ or ..L, ~ is used , otherwise ~ is used. In the case of singlesyllable stems in which -

+ -
(~

IS

is t he only vowel , ~ is added after -

is omitted.

the vowel preceding - , so therefore - is added.)

C3

.L

( is the vowel preceding - , so therefore - is added.)

(Th e stem

326

IS

a slngle syllable , so therefore - is ad ded.)

-(A)

-/

-/

-/

()

( )

( 7n

( 7~)

t o be hungry

Base Fo rm
t:tt:t

to be pretty

to be busy

to be sick

to be big

to be bad
AA

t o write , use

to turn off

l
l

In Conversation . {fraCK
1

A ?

A Hami , are you crying?

B .

B Yes , 1m crying because the movie was so sad.

A ?

A Did you have a nice picnic over the weekend?

No , the weather was bad , so I couldn t go.

A ?

A Why didnt you come to school yesterday?

B .

I had a bad stomachache. So I couldn t


come to school.

24.1egar

Conjugatlons

Change the words in parentheses to their appropriate forms as shown in the example.
,..--'

71

-/

(1)

. (
-/

(2)

. (


-/

(3)

. (
-/

(4)

. (
-/

(5)

. (0
-/

6)

()
-/

(7)

. (
-

(8) A

? (

-/?

B .

. (
-

(9) '"

. (
-

328

E (Irregular Conjugation)
.
The girl plays well by herself.

.
I'd like to know what time the department store opens.

?
What are you making?

Grammar Focus ....... .


For verb and adjective stems that end in
that begins with

, , or

is omitted without exception when adding an ending

However, when an ending that begins with - is added to such a

stem , even though remains as a final consonant , it is treated as a vowel , and therefore - is
omitted.
+ - (

(x) )

~ + ~I ( (x) )
~ + -

( (x) )

~ + - ( (x) )

Base Form

to live

to sell

-(

-()

-/

-()

-( )LI

Noun Modifier
(Present)
-() L J

LI

-()

24. lrregar

Conjuga:io'"S

to make

to open

to play

to know

to be far

to be sweet

When -() is added to stems ending in 2 , such as () 2

2.._I-C:
c

[[H -()2 and

-()2 ? -() 2 is omitted , and the stem attaches directly to the ending

+ ? ?

7E

A
n

A 1want to lose some weight.


B

like cake and chocolate.

A Do you know where 1can get an electronic dictionary

for a good price?

?
B

In that case, stop eating sweets

Go to Yongsan. They sell electronics cheap there.

A Our house is far from school , so its hard to commute.

B ?

330

Then why dont you move someplace closer to school?

Change the words in parentheses to their appropriate form , as shown in the example.

7'1

? (

-() L /

(1)

. (
-()

(2)

. (
-()

, . (

(3)
-()

(4)

(
-()

(5)

. (
-()

(6)

. (
-

(7) A

? (
)L/

(8) A ?
B

. (
) 2

(9) A ? .
B

. ()
-()

24. Irregular Conjugations

(Irregular Conjugation)

.
The coffee s hot, so be careful.

.
Its cold outside, so I stayed home.

.
I like spicy food

Grammar Focus .....


For a few verb and aective stems that end in , changes to r when added to an ending
that begins with a vowel. (to assist) and (Iovely/charming) are the only two words that
change to while all others change t .

t-
1- -
-()

Base Fonn

-/

-/

-()

Noun Modifier
-()L/

-::.e =a.s

..

T Ig

c-

- :1

=: =
: ";:.:::f.:::

--::: -

to be spicy

to be hot

to be cold

to be heavy

to help

~.Jl

-j1 CL

-jT-L.!..

-.:il

Although the stems of (to be narrow) , (to wear) , (to chew) , and (to catch) end in , they
are conjugated regularly.

Base For m

to wear

to be narrow

Noun Modifier
-(.2_}L/

-()

-/

-/

-()

tj| '-

~.Jl

t:ij-EL

In Conversation .....
A ?

A What kind of movies do you like?

B .

B 1like scary movies.

A .

A The food is a little bland , so could 1have some salt?

B .

A ?

A Who does the child resemble most?

She/Hes adorable.

.
B . .

Here you 90.

Thank you. She/He resembles his/her mother.

24.lrregar Conjugations

..:<:...::

C "1 a n ge the words in parentheses to their appropriate forms as shown in the example.

A ?
B . (
-O f/

(1)

A ?

()
-/

(2)

?()

A
-()

B .

(3)

. (

A
-()

B .

(4)

. (
-/

(5)

. (
-

{ A ?
B

. (
-

. (
-()

B ? .

334

I (Irgular Conjugation)
.
I listen to music while I exercise

.
I had no mone so I went by foot.

.
I asked her for her phone number.

Grammar Focus ..... .


For a few verb stems that end in

c , c changes to

w hen added to an ending that begins wit h a

vowel.

{
Base Form

to listen

to ask

to walk

-() I _

-0 1 -/ -() -()2? I _()

Ec
~jl

EC~jl

2 c;-

L_

24. l rreg ar Conjugati

A.though the stems of (to c1 ose) , (to receive) , and (to believe) end in c , t hey are conjugated
ulay.

Base Form -()

-/ -/ ) -()2 ? -() |

Carol , the weather's nice, so why don t we 9


for a walk outside?

B .

B Okay, that sounds nice.

A ? .

A Have you heard this song? It s really good.

B ? ?

B Really? Who sings it?

Change the words in parentheses to their appropriate forms as shown in the example.

A ?

B . (
-/

(1)

. (
-/

2)

B CD

. (
)

?(
-/

:l

. (
-/

? ()

:i
-Of/

9 . (

--

(Irregar Conjugation)
.
Dane is popular because he can sing well.

R4lX
.
The subway is faster than the bus during rush hour.

.
I dont speak English.

Grammar Focus .....


For m ost verb and adjective stems that end in the -

of is omitted , and an additional 2 is

ad ded to form 2 2 .
+- + 2 + -

+- t + + i

B as e Form

t o b e different

to be fast

to cut

-(A)

-()

-/

-/

-/

24. lrreg ar

Conjugations

..;:

to know

to c all , sing
71

to grow, raise

r-'~

A ? .

A Junho , Did you cut your hair? Its stylish.

B ?.

B Really? Thanks.

A Eric and Jason are twins , but they don t resemble


each other

.
B .

B Right , and their personalities are really different, too.

Change the words in parentheses to their appropriate forms as shown in t he example.

A .
B

. (

-/

(1) A ?
[

. (
-/

21

---_. (
-/

31

B ;.

. (
-/

(4) A

. (
-/

8 oj]. .. .. ..

338

(Irgar Conjugation)
.
Snow White has black hair and a white complexion

.
The queen gave Snow White a red apple.

.
The prince looked at Snow White with his big blue eyes

Grammar Focus ..... .


When an adjective stem ending in is added to an ending that begins w ith a vowel, is omitted.

When endings beginning in vowels ot her than -/ are added to adjective stems ending in ,

is omitted.

5 + -()L ->

+ -()

When endings beginning in -/ are added to adjective stems ending in , is omitted , and

is added.

+ - i 1 + -

5 + - +

+ -0

24.lrregar Conjugations

~~~

~:::-

-()

-/

-/

aEaE}?
t i:!

-()

Base Form

to be black

to be yellow

to be blue

to be red

to be white

to be like this

to be like that

to be like that

-()L/ -/

to be how ,
to be like w hat

Althoug h the stems of (to be good) , (many) , (to bear, to give birth t and (to put in , t
insert) etc. end in

Base Form

they are conjugated regularly.

-(A)

-()

-()L/ -/

-/

-0 1
j

=".l

=-

tE=gf
c

=-

gZC=

~9.tolR

A ! .

B The sky is blue , and the clouds are white, just like

Look! The autumn sky is really blue.

a painting.

A .

Your face has tanned really brown (black).

B .

That5 because I went to the beach during vacation

340

A Do you know who that boy w earing the blue T-shirt is?

?
B . ?

When the stems of

B Yes , that5 my little brother. Are you interesled in him?

and are added to endings that begin w i th -O~/ they

conjugate to and instead of and .


?

(x ) ?

How is the weather?

( x)- . ( Eric said to me, I'm notgng."

Look at the pictures and fill in the blanks appropriately

(1)

A ?
B

. ()
-() L /

A .
B .

()
-/

(3)

A !
B

()
-/

(4)

,_,

1 1,1 "'''-1/\

J:.. --:-__

,J['J) ,.

W k;"'1

,_

. Y "' _

A .
B

. (
)L /

? (

A
-{)L/

. (
-() L /

24.lrregar Conjugations

A (Irgular Conjugation)
.
A mosquito bit me , so my eye became swollen.

.
I put coffee, cream , and sugar in the cup and stir it all together.

?
Which outfit is better?

Grammar Focus ........ ......... .


For a few verb and adjective stems that end in

is o mitted when ad ded to an ending that begins

with a vowel.

k + -

+ -

8ase Form

to connect , to link

-()

-ou

-/

-/

-()

<D to be cured
~ to be better

<D to swell
(g} to pour

342


to draw (a line)

to stir, to whip

:
/.::Ll

to name , to bui ld ,
to write

L _ _ -

Although the stems of (to take o ff),

(to laugh) , and

(to wash) end in .A., they are conjugated

regularly.
Base Form

-(A)

-/

-/

-/

-()

-a.::Ll

A ?

A Who named your child?

B .

His/Her grandfather named him/her.

A ?

Did you get over your cold?

B .

Yes , I m fine now.

This word is important , so please underline it.

Okay, I wil l.

.
B .

In Korean, vowels will often combine when they meet. For example, + combine to become
However, in the case of irregular .A. stems , even though vowels may meet after the .A. is deleted, they do
not combine.
+ -

( / (x)( is the combined form of + -.)

+ - ( / (x) ( is the combined form of + -.)

24. Irregular Conjugations

. .

-
J

Change the words in parentheses to their appropriate forms as shown in the example.

]::1

? (

-/

(1)

. (
-/

(2)

. (

-/

(3)

. (
)L/

(4)

? (
-

(5)

. (
)2

(6)

()
-/

(7)

. ()
-()

. (
-/

. (
)L

(10) ==-:

. (
)

344

Good Things to Know


Answer Key
Grammar Explanations in Korean
Grammar Index

1. Demonstrative Pronouns
_--- --------------------------.-_-.----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

----------- - - - -- - ---------------~

A ?
What is this?

A ?
What is that?

A ?

B .

B .
Thatsabag

B .

This is a penci l.

What is that (over there)?

That's a c10ck

-._---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------_------.----------------_-_-------------------
When indicating an object or location , 01// is used in front of the n oun representing it. Of these , 0 I
is used when the noun is close to the speaker, is used when it is close to the listener, and is used w hen
it is located away from both the speaker and listener.

Close to Speaker

C lose to Li stener

Away from 80th


Speaker and Listener

Thing

Person

Place

()

()

When the particle is added t and the result is and .


However, in conversation these forms are contracted to 0 1 and . The particles and are als
contracted in the same w ay.

346

01

01

01

A ?

What is this?

B .

This is a f10wer.

A . ?

1t's too big. 1cant eat this. (How is one to eat this?)

B .

Then eat that one (over there) because it's smaller.

Demonstrative pronouns are also used to refer to something already mentioned in a particar context.

Ye5terday 1went to Namdaemun Market

. There were IOt5 of pretty clothe5 there

(= -)

(= Namdaemun Market)

1met Dane la5t week

e
(ttha
tp
er
s

n
1) wa5 very 1k

<In
1
d

(= 1)

(
=D
ane
)

2. Temporal Adverbs

(not) yet, still /

already (previously) /

already (so soon)

(not) yet , still , only

(1) O~ ind icates that more time must pass before something can happen or some state can be
reached . It is used together w ith negative expressions.

A ?

Have you eaten yet?

B .

NO, l haven t eaten yet

(2) can also indicate that something or some state s1 continues w ithout ending.

A ?

Did you fini5h your homework?

B .

NO Im5 1

doing it. JU5t a little more and 1 11 be done

~
Indicates something that has completely finished or
already passed by.

Sooner than expected.

A ?
Do you think we can 5ee the movie if we go now?

A ?

B . 6 : 40.

B .

9 .
No , it5 6:40 now. It5 already too late, 50 let 5 5ee the
9:00 movie.

What do you want to eat for dinner?

|ve eaten dinner.

A 5 ?
It5 5:00, and youve already eaten?

Appendix

:.:

A ?
I'd like to meet with Dane. Is he in Korea now?

A ?
I'd like to meet with Dane. Is he in Korea now?

B .
Hes already left for the U.S

B .

(Dane has gone to the U.S., and thus there is no way t


meet him even if one wanted to.)

A ? He's already left?

He left for the U.S. last week.

(Dane left for the U.S. sooner than expected)

(right) now /

(from) now /

recently

rmr:

01|

Th e precise moment when the speaker is speaking.

A ?

Canmean now but has a sense 01 separation fro m


the past and includes a sense of from now

A .
1 won t go to that restaurant anymore (from now on)

What are you doing (right) now?

B ? ?

Li stening to music

Why? Is the food not good?

Can be used with the present progressive form of

cannot be used w ith t he present p rogressive fo rm

verbs -

of verbs - .

(
(1) am studying now.

(x)

. (x)

( )
.

( 0)

(After doing something unrelated to oneswork)


Okay, let's get to work

recently

refers to t he pe rio d 01 t ime beginnin g a short t ime ago unt il t h e present

348

A ?

Have you been t ired recently?

Yes (I've been) a little tired

A ?

What s been the popar hairstyle recently?

Bobbed hair is popular

first /

a while ago

later /

in a ewhile

first

refers to something being first in temporal order.

A ?

Nalalie , aren'l you gong 10 have lunch?

Please eal first because I have something to take care of

A ?

Did Minu leave?

Yes he I (firsl) because he has to

O~m a while ag
refers to a time just before the present that is within the same day; earlier.

A ?

Have you seen Dane?

B .

I saw him going 10 Ihe library a while ag

A ?
Who was thal person who greeled (you/us) earlier al the coffee shop?

B .
He/shes one of my younger classmates from undergraduate school

...

After some time has passed and after one has

After a little time has passed.

finished doing some other task. The range of time


can be within the same day or sometime in the
future.

A ?
Are you going to go see a movie loday?

B .
Yeah , in a little while.

A ?
Are you coming to the meeling today?

B .
Yes. See you in a liUle while.
hey

will meet later today after some time has passed.)

A ? ?
Hello? Dane, can you talk now?

B . .
Sorry. I'm busy righl now, so 1'11 call you laler.

A ?
Are you coming 10 Ihe meeting loday?

B . .
No. I can t aUend. Lets meet up laler.
(1Iwon1 be laler today, but Ihey will meel somelime in
the fulure after some time has passed.)

A ?
When will you get married?

B . (X)

Append ix

,...,

.~

.::;.:.:..':;!


(right) now

11 while ag

in a little while

later

3. Frequency Adverbs

a lways

~ h a rdly

often /

somImes

~ never

( ) . a nd are used in positive sent ences wh ile and are u sed in


negative sent e nces.

. ) .
I exercise every day in the morning. I always exercise.

4 . .
I exercise four times a week. I exercise often.

. .
I exercise once a week. I sometimes exercise.

. .
I exercise once a month. I hardly (ever) exercise

. .
I dont like to exercise. I never exercise

350

4. Connective Adverbs

and
is used when indicat ing that t wo sentences f.m a list or series or that the two sentences are in

temporal order. It means 'and' in English.

. .
Hayeong is thin. And she's pretty

. .
1like basketball. And I like soccer. too.

. .
1met a friend on the weekend. And we saw a movie together.

however
is used w hen the content of the first sentence is in contrast w ith that of the second senten ce.

It means how ever or but' in English. 80th and also have the same mean ing , but
is used mainly in cloqal speech while is used main ly in the written , literary style.

. .
Yoko is Japanese. However, Jaejun is Korean

. .
Korean is different from English. HNever it is not difficult to learn.

. .
1like (to eat) meat 8ut 1don't like vegetables

50 , that i5 why

is used w hen the first sentence is the reason or cause for the rest described in the second
sentence. It means ' (an s or 'th at is w hy' in English.
A ?
Where does it hurt?

B . .
1drank a lot of alcohol last night. 50 my head hurts

Appendix

35

A ?
Why aren't we moving (while traveling in this car)?

B . .
It's the weekend and so theres a lot of traffic

. .
|m a foreigner, so thats why 1cant speak Korean

therefore , for that reason


is used when the first sentence is the inevitable or natural reason for the second sentence. It

means 'therefore in English. Normally, is followed by -() -()-/

r -()2 .

. .
It s raining. Therefore (you shoul take an umbrella with you

. .
Thismovie s boring. 30 (for Ihal reason) lels see a different one.

. .
.
1wanl to enler a Korean university. And 1want to get a job at a Korean company and live in Korea. Therefore (for those
reasons), 1plan to sludy Korean diligenlly.

A - ?
Dear, why are we laking Ihe bus when we have a car?

B . : .
The car broke down , so Iherefore we have 10 lake Ihe bus

then in that case

indicates that t h e first sentence is the premise o r assumption behind the second sentence It
m eans then r in that case' in English. In colloquial speech , the contracted form of is used often
in p lace of .

A . .
II's lunchlime. I'm hungry.

B (=) ?
In that case, shall we go 10 a reslaurant and eal logelher?
A .
I wanl 10 be able 10 speak Korean wel l.

B ? .
Really? Th en you should make some Korean friends

352

. .
When 1m tired , 1take a bath. Then 1feel better.

however, by the way

indicates that the first sentence is background information about the second sentence. In this
sense , it corresponds to 'however, by the way, r now in English

(1) It can be used when the first and second sentences are in contrast. In this sense , it means the same
as .

. .
The father is short. However, his son is tall.
(2) It can be used when the first sentence provides background or other information related to the
situation described in the second senten ce. In this sense it corresponds t (and) yet r 'and then (to
ne s

surprise) in English.

. .
1went to Myeongdong yesterday. And (to my surpris 1saw a movie star there
(3) It can be used when the speaker broaches a new topic rather than continues to speak about the
topic under discussion.
A ?
B 7

......

How old are you this year?


Pardon? 1, oh , by the way, what time is it now?

b ut (stll) , neveheless

indicates that what is stated in the second sentence is true regardless of what is stated in the
firs t. It means 'but (still) or 'nevertheless ' in English.

. .
1ate so much a l ie while ago. But 1m still hungry

5 . .
I lived in Korea for five years. But 1still cant speak Korean well

. .
That girl doesnt like me. Nevertheless , 1like her.

Appendix