Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 11

SUSTAINABILITY IN PALM OIL MANUFACTURING (MILL) THROUGH

OPERATIONAL EFFICIENCY: A SURVEY


Operational efficiency can be defined as the ratio between the input to run a business
operation and the output gained from the business. To be able to compete and survive in the
long-term in many markets, a business needs to be at least as efficient as its main
competitors. A more efficient business will produce lower cost goods than competitors and
may generate more profit possibly at lower prices. Increasing efficiency will also boost the
capacity of a business, assuming there is no change in the number of inputs employed.
Research works are actively carried out in the Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering of
Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka (UTeM) on the operational efficiency optimisation as a
strategy towards greater economic, environment, and social sustainability in Malaysian palm
oil manufacturing.
The aim of this survey is to gather data concerning operational losses and sustainability
development in the palm oil manufacturing. Every effort is being made to include an
appropriate range of companies in this study, and your participation is particularly important
to the success of the project so we have a truly representative sample of palm oil
manufacturing organisations throughout Malaysia. Data collected in these surveys will
remain CONFIDENTIAL and be used only in conjunction with the research. Group data will
be presented in the final report so that confidentiality can be maintained.
Your cooperation is solicited in filling the questionnaire on behalf of your company. Please
pass this questionnaire to the appropriate member (s) of your organization (at least 2 years
of experience in manufacturing operation) if you do not feel comfortable to complete it.
Please fill the enclosed SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE FORM and return the completed
questionnaire using the enclosed envelope or by email as soon as possible. If you require
clarification concerning any of the question in the questionnaire or would like to know more
about the research project, please do not hesitate to contact us. We would be pleased to
assist you in any of your inquiries.
Thank you for your participation and time.
Best regards,
Ms. Ilyana Abdullah

Dr. Wan Hasrulnizzam Wan Mahmood

Researcher
Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering,
Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka,
76100 Hang Tuah Jaya, Melaka, Malaysia.
Hp: 017 9381650
Email: ilyana.abdullah2@gmail.com

Supervisor
Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering,
Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka,
76100 Hang Tuah Jaya, Melaka, Malaysia.
Hp: 013-6188280
Email: hasrulnizzam@utem.edu.my

SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE FORM


[BORANG KAJIAN SOAL SELIDIK]

INSTRUCTION:
Please indicate your response by TICK () the most appropriate and write in the space of
the required information provided, if necessary.
[ARAHAN:
Sila TANDAI () untuk skor yang paling sesuai dan nyatakan alasan anda di dalam ruang maklumat yang
disediakan, jika perlu.]

Part 1: Company Information [Maklumat Syarikat]


Factory Name
[Nama Syarikat]

Factory Address
[Alamat Syarikat]

Year Establish
[Tahun Penubuhan]

RETUS PLANTATION SDN. BHD. , RETUS PALM OIL MILL

CDT 174 9600 SIBU SARAWAK

2005

1. Please tick the your main production output, by-products, and raw materials for the past three
years.
[Sila tandakan apakah produk utama, produk sampingan, dan bahan-bahan mentah untuk tempoh tiga tahun kebelakangan.]

Main products output [Hasil produk utama]

1. Crude palm oil

YES

NO

[Minyak sawit mentah]

2. Crude palm kernel oil

[Minyak isirong sawit mentah]

Other (please specify)

[Lain-lain (sila nyatakan)

Kernels
By-products [Hasil produk sampingan]

1. Kernels

[Isirong]

2. Fibres

[Gentian]

3. Shell

[Tempurung]

4. Empty fruit bunches

[Tandan sawit kosong]

5. Ash from boiler

[Abu daripada penjerang]

6. Wastewater

[Air sisa buangan]

7. Other (please specify)

[Lain-lain (sila nyatakan)]


Empty Bunch ash

Raw Materials [Bahan-bahan mentah]

1. Fresh fruit bunches


[Tandan kelapa sawit segar]

2. Palm Oil Kernels


[Isirong kelapa sawit]

Other (please specify)


[Lain-lain (sila nyatakan)]

Part 2: Sustainability Practices [Amalan kemampanan]


1. Within the past three years, what are the priority and current performance of the sustainability
program and practices implemented in your organisation?
[Dalam tempoh tiga tahun kebelakangan, apakah keutamaan dan prestasi semasa amalan kemampanan (keadaan yang

Reverse logistics* (reuse, recycle, repair)


[Reverse logistik (guna semula, kitar semula,
pembaikan)]

Minimisation waste from production

Zero Waste Manufacturing*

Product Life Cycle Assessment*

Cleaner Production*

End-Of-Pipe technologies*

Pollution Prevention*

Waste-to-Profit* technology for palm oil


waste treatment

Waste-to Energy* technology for energy


generation from palm oil waste

10

Corporate Social Responsibility*

11

Energy Efficiency*

12

Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)

13

Eco-labelling*

14

Cradle-to-cradle Manufacturing*

15

Good Milling Practice for Palm Oil Mills


MPOB

16

Good Crushing Practice for Palm Kernel


Crushers MPOB

17

Utilise Biomass energy

18

Training and technology transfers to


workers

[Pengeluaran bahan buangan yang minima]


[Sifar sisa buangan dalam pembuatan]
[Penilaian Kitaran Hayat Produk]
[Pengeluaran Bersih]
[Teknologi Penghujung Proses]
[Pencegahan Pencemaran]

[Teknologi untuk rawatan bahan buangan minyak


sawit]

[Teknologi untuk penjanaan tenaga daripada sisa


buangan minyak sawit]
[Tanggungjawab Sosial Korporat]
[Kecekapan Penggunaan Tenaga]
[Mekanisma Pembangunan Bersih]
[Pelabelan Alam Sekitar]
[Pembuatan dari permulaan ke permulaan]

[Amalan pengilangan baik untuk kilang minyak


sawit]

[Amalan penghancuran baik untuk penghancur


isirong sawit]
[Menggunakan tenaga Biomas]

Excellent

Very good

Good

Fair

Poor

Critical

Very Important

Important

ImportantSlightly

Sustainability Program & Practice

Unimportant

No
.

Not Applicable

mampu mengekalkan prestasi dan pencapaiann yang baik) yang diguna pakai dalam organisasi anda?]
Current Performance /
Priority
Achievement

[Latihan dan teknologi pemindahan pekerja]

19

Ergonomics* in workstation design

20

Employee well-being

23

Other (please specify)

[Ergonomik dalam reka bentuk stesen kerja]


[Kesihatan, keselamatan dan kebajikan pekerja]
[Lain-lain (sila nyatakan)]

*Note: For further information please refer Glossary

* Note: Refer glossary for the terminology

2. Please indicate the extent to which you agree or disagree with the following statements as they
relate to the sustainability practices in terms of legislation compliance in your organisation. What
are the current performance of your organisation on the matter stated within the past three years?

Excellent

Very good

Good

Fair

Poor

Strongly Agree

Agree

Comply with Environmental Quality Act


1974

Neutral

Disagree

Sustainability practices in terms of


legislation compliance

DisagreeStrongly

No
.

Not Applicable

[Sila nyatakan sejauh mana anda bersetuju atau tidak bersetuju dengan kenyataan berikut berkaitan dengan amalan
kemampanan dari segi pematuhan undang-undang dalam organisasi anda. Apakah prestasi semasa organisasi anda
mengenai perkara ini dinyatakan dalam tempoh tiga tahun yang lalu?]
Current Performance /
Achievement

[Mematuhi Akta Kualiti Alam Sekitar1974]

Comply with Environmental Quality


(Prescribed Premises) (Crude Palm Oil)
Regulation 1977

Comply with Environmental Quality


(Clean Air) Regulation 1978

Comply with Environmental Quality


(Prescribed Activities) (Environmental
Impact Assessment) Order 1987

[Mematuhi Peraturan Kualiti Alam Sekitar) (Premis


Yang Ditetapkan) (Minyak Kelapa Sawit) Peraturan
1977]

[Mematuhi Peraturan Kualiti Alam Sekitar (Udara


Bersih) 1978]

[Mematuhi Kualiti Alam Sekeliling (Aktiviti Yang


Ditetapkan) (Penilaian Kesan Alam Sekitar) 1987]

Comply with Environmental Quality


(scheduled wastes), Regulations, 2005

Comply with Environmental Quality


(Industrial Effluent) Regulation 2009

[Mematuhi Peraturan Kualiti Alam Sekitar (sisa


buangan berjadual) 2005]

[Mematuhi Peraturan Kualiti Alam Sekitar


(kumbahan dari industri) 2009]

Comply with Quality Management


Standard
(e.g. ISO 9001)
[Mematuhi Piawaian Pengurusan Kualiti]

Comply with Environmental Management


Standard (e.g. ISO 14001)
[Mematuhi Piawaian Pengurusan Alam Sekitar]

Comply with Roundtable Sustainability


Palm Oil (RSPO) certification

10

Comply with Eco-labelling Certification

11

Comply with International Sustainability &


Carbon Certification (ISCC).

12

Comply with Roundtable on Sustainable


Biomerials (RSB) certification

13

Comply with Carbon Footprint Labelling


Policy SIRIM

[Mematuhi Pensijilan oleh Meja Bulat


Kemampanan Minyak Sawit (RSPO)]
[Mematuhi Pensijilan Pelabelan Alam Sekitar]

[Mematuhi Kelestarian Antarabangsa & Pensijilan


Karbon (ISCC)]

[Mematuhi pensijilan oleh Meja Bulat Biomerial


Lestari (RSB)]

[Mematuhi Polisi Pelabelan Jumlah Karbon]

14

Comply with Malaysian Sustainable Palm


Oil (MSPO) certification
[Mematuhi Pensijilan Minyak Sawit Mapan Malaysia]

(Continued)

Excellent

Very good

Good

Comply with Social responsibility


standard (ISO 26000)

Fair

18

[Mematuhi Undang undang Kilang dan Jentera


(pendedahan bunyi) 1989]

Poor

17

Comply with Factories & machinery


(noise exposure) regulations 1989

[Mematuhi Akta Pekerjaan 1955]

Strongly Agree

Comply with Employment Act 1955

Agree

16

[Mematuhi Akta Keselamatan dan Kesihatan


(OSHA) 1994]

Neutral

15

Comply with Occupational Safety and


Health Act (OSHA) 1994

Disagree

Sustainability practices in terms of


legislation compliance

DisagreeStrongly

No
.

Not Applicable

Current Performance /
Achievement

[Mematuhi Piawaian Tanggungjawab social]

19

Other (please specify)


[Lain-lain (sila nyatakan)]

Part 3: Operational Efficiency [Kecekapan Operasi]


1. In your experience, please indicate to the extent to which you agree or disagree with the following
statements as they relate to causes of losses in manufacturing system of your organisation within
the past three years.

Preparation of raw materials

Supply failure of raw materials

[Penyediaan bahan-bahan mentah]


[Kegagalan bekalan bahan-bahan mentah]

Planned Shutdown (e.g. holidays, lunch hour, shifts, etc.)


[Penutupan dirancang (cth. cuti, waktu makan tengah hari, perubahan, dan
lain-lain)]

Scheduled shutdown for preventive maintenance

Unplanned stoppage because machine failure/ breakdown

Mechanical failures

Hydraulic failures

Electronic failures

10

Human failures

[Penutupan dijadualkan untuk penyelenggaraan pencegahan]


[Pemberhentian tidak dirancang kerana kerosakan / kegagalan mesin]
[Kegagalan mekanikal]
[Kegagalan hidraulik]
[Kegagalan elektronik]
[Kegagalan manusia]

(Continued)

Strongly Agree

[Penerimaan bahan mentah yang lewat]

Agree

Late receipt of raw materials

Neutral

Disagree

Cause of losses in manufacturing

DisagreeStrongly

No
.

Not Applicable

[Berdasarkan pengalaman anda, sila nyatakan sejauh mana anda bersetuju atau tidak bersetuju dengan kenyataan berikut
yang berkaitan dengan punca-punca kerugian dalam sistem pembuatan organisasi anda bagi tempoh tiga tahun
kebelakangan.]

13

Reliability of equipment

14

Machine set-up and tools adjustment stoppage

15

Lack of orders

16

Waiting for maintenance personnel

17

Waiting for work in progress

18

Waiting for equipment spare parts

19

Labours unavailable

20

Material characteristic/ tolerance

21

Equipment idling

22

Minor stoppages

23

Long cycle time

24

Reduced speed losses

25

Non-value added activities losses

26

Out of specification crude palm oil

28

Low raw material standard quality

29

Rework

30

Start-up losses

31

Process deterioration

32

Logistic losses (space unavailability, huge size of the product,


compact plant layout, etc.)

33

Energy losses

34

Other (please specify)

[Kegagalan elektrik]
[Kebolehpercayaan peralatan]
[Pemberhentian set-up mesin dan pelarasan peralatan]
[Kurang tempahan]
[Menunggu kakitangan penyelenggaraan]
[Menunggu kerja semasa perlaksanaan]
[Menunggu alat ganti jentera]
[Tiada pekerja]
[Ciri bahan / toleransi]
[Jentera tidak berkerja]
[Berhenti sekejap]
[Masa kitaran yang panjang]
[Kerugian pengurangan kelajuan]
[Aktiviti yang tidak menambah nilai]
[Minyak sawit mentah di luar spesifikasi]
[Bahan mentah berkualiti rendah]
[Buat semula]
[Kerugian pada permulaan proses]
[Kemerosotan proses]

[Kerugian Logistik (ketiadaan ruang, saiz besar produk, susun atur kilang
padat dan lain-lain)]
[kehilangan tenaga]
[Lain-lain (sila nyatakan)]

Strongly Agree

Electrical failures

Agree

12

[Kegagalan perisian]

Neutral

Software failures

Disagree

11

DisagreeStrongly

Cause of losses in manufacturing

Not Applicable

No
.

2. Within the past three years, what are the benefits of production losses elimination that your
organisation gained in achieving environment, social, and economic sustainability? What are the
priority and the current performance / achievement of your organisation of these benefits?
[Dalam tempoh tiga tahun kebelakangan ini, apakah faedah penghapusan kerugian dalam pengeluaran yang diperolehi
organisasi anda dari segi kemampanan alam sekitar, ekonomi dan sosial? Apakah keutamaan dan prestasi / pencapaian
semasa organisasi anda daripada manfaat ini?]

Excellent

Very good

Good

Improving environmental performance by


the implementation of environmental
management systems

[Penggunaan sumber asli yang lebih cekap dan


berkesan]

Fair

More efficient and effective use of natural


resources

[Mengurangkan kesan buruk pencemaran alam


sekitar daripada bahan buangan dan produk
sampingan]

Critical

Reducing adverse impact of


environmental pollution from wastes and
by-products

[Mengurangkan jumlah dan / atau ketoksikan sisa,


air buangan dan pelepasan yang berkaitan dengan
pengeluaran]

Very Important

Reducing the volume and/or toxicity of


waste, wastewater and emissions related
to production

[Mengurangkan kehilangan bahan-bahan berharga


atau sukar didapati]

Important

Reducing the loss of valuable or scarce


materials

Slightly Important

Unimportant

Benefits of production losses


elimination

Not Applicable

No
.

Poor

Current Performance /
Achievement

Priority

[Meningkatkan prestasi alam sekitar dengan


pelaksanaan sistem pengurusan alam sekitar]

Improving waste recycling

Reducing energy consumption

Compliance with the environmental and


safety issue and regulation

Recyclability activities has been improve


and increase

10

Increase environmental practice,


performance and management

11

Energy consumption in production


process has decreased

12

Reduce emission of greenhouse gasses

13

Established waste reduction and energy


efficiency programmes

[Meningkatkan kitar semula bahan buangan]


[Mengurangkan penggunaan tenaga]

[Pematuhan dengan isu dan peraturan alam sekitar


dan keselamatan]

[Aktiviti kitar semula telah diperbaiki dan


ditingkatkan]

[Meningkatkan amalan, prestasi dan pengurusan


alam sekitar]

[Penggunaan tenaga dalam proses pengeluaran


telah berkurang]
[Pengurangan pelepasan gas rumah hijau]

[Menubuhkan program pengurangan sisa dan

kecekapan tenaga]

(Continued)

Excellent

Very good

Good

Increase business and financial


performance

Fair

17

[Mengurangkan kos pengeluaran keseluruhan]

Critical

Minimise overall production cost

Very Important

16

[Pengurusan dan kawalan alam sekitar yang lebih


baik]

Important

15

Better environmental management and


control

[Mempertimbangkan kesan langsung terhadap


alam sekitar dalam operasi]

Slightly Important

14

Consider the direct environmental effect


on operation

Unimportant

Benefits of production losses


elimination

Not Applicable

No
.

Poor

Current Performance /
Achievement

Priority

[Meningkaktkan prestasi perniagaan dan kewangan]

18

Efficient utilisation of equipment and


technology
[Menggunakan peralatan dan teknologi yang cekap]

19

Efficient utilisation of resources

20

Increase the production productivity

21

[Menggunakan sumber yang cekap]


[Meningkatkan produktiviti pengeluaran]

Reduce the total production lead time


[Mengurangkan masa mendulu pengeluaran
keseluruhan]

22

Improve quality of process

23

Improve productivity

24

Maximise the plant utilization and


capability and retain high asset value

25

Maximise performance efficiency

26

[Meningkatkan kualiti proses]


[Meningkatkan produktiviti]

[Memaksimumkan penggunaan kilang dan


keupayaan dan mengekalkan nilai aset yang tinggi]
[Memaksimumkan kecekapan prestasi]

Increase efficiency and competitiveness


of workers
[Meningkatkan kecekapan dan daya saing pekerja]

27

Improve working conditions

28

Improve the organization of work


environment

[Memperbaik keadaan semasa bekerja]

[Memperbaik organisasi persekitaran kerja]

29

Consider the direct social effect and


community in manufacturing operation

30

Consider the workforce engagement in


process

31

Increase employee empowerment

32

Increase return on investment

33

Improving personnel health

34

Enhancing operational safety

[Mempertimbangkan kesan langsung terhadap


sosial dan masyarakat dalam operasi pembuatan]

[Mempertimbangkan penglibatan tenaga kerja


semasa proses]
[Meningkatkan pemerkasaan pekerja]
[Meningkatkan pulangan daripada pelaburan]
[Meningkatkan kesihatan kakitangan]
[Meningkatkan keselamatan operasi]

(Continued)

Excellent

Very good

Other (please specify)

Good

37

[Meningkatkan motivasi pekerja]

Fair

Increase employees motivation

Critical

36

[Kesetiaan pelanggan dan meningkatkan jualan]

Very Important

Customer loyalty and increase sale

Important

35

Slightly Important

Benefits of production losses


elimination

Unimportant

Not Applicable

No
.

Poor

Current Performance /
Achievement

Priority

[Lain-lain (sila nyatakan)]

Part 4: Respondent Information


Name [Nama]
Job title [Jawatan]
Department [Jabatan]
Contact No. [Nombor telefon]
Email [Emel]

:
:
:
:
:

MOHD HAKIMIE LEMAN


ASSISTANT ENGINEER
RETUS PALM OIL MILL
0124607036
mie_ker@yahoo.com

Would you like to receive a concise summary of the result from the survey?
[Adakah anda berminat untuk mendapatkan keputusan kajian tinjauan?]

YES [Ya]

NO [Tidak]

Would you like to take part in the next phase of this study?
[Adakah anda ingin mengambil bahagian untuk fasa seterusnya dalam kajian ini?]

/ YES [Ya]

NO [Tidak]

Thank you very much for your time and kind co-operation. Please ensure that you answer as many
questions as possible. For analysis purposes, please return the questionnaire even if your company is
not engaged in Sustainable Manufacturing.
[Jutaan terima kasih untuk masa dan kerjasama anda. Sila pastikan bahawa anda menjawab soalan sebanyak mungkin. Bagi
tujuan analisis, sila kembalikan tinjauan walaupun syarikat anda tidak melibatkan diri dalam pembuatan mampan].

Glossary
By-product

A secondary or incidental product of a manufacturing process (e.g., scrap or emissions).

Cleaner
production

(CP) is the international term for reducing environmental impacts from processes,
products and services by using better management strategies, methods and tools. In
doing so, the consumption of natural resources, pollution and waste are reduced,
bringing both financial and environmental benefits

Corporate Social
Responsibility

Form of corporate self-regulation integrated into a business model in which a business


embraces responsibility for its actions and encourages a positive impact through its
activities on the environment, consumers, employees, communities, and stakeholders.

Cradle-to-cradle
Manufacturing

An approach to the design of products that seeks to be essentially waste-free. All


materials used are designated as both technical nutrients, which are non-toxic synthetic
materials that are reused in continuous cycles, and biological nutrients, which can be
disposed of into natural environments to decompose into the soil.

Cycle time

The internal time required to complete a task, or the function, starting from the
beginning of the first step until the completion of the last one.

Downtime

Periods when any form of equipment, or manufacturing system is not available to


perform work. The higher the downtime the lower the productivity.

Eco-label

A visual communication tool that indicates environmentally preferable products,


services, or companies that meet specific standards. Different types of eco-labels
include pass-fail; tiered; multi-attribute; and single attribute.

Electrical failures

Electrical failures include failures of electro-mechanical devices such as motors, relays,


starters, transformers and wiring. These types of failures occurred regularly but
consume little repair time and therefore result in relatively small MTTRs. For instance,
the low repair time is primarily due to failures such as blown fuses or dirty limit switches

Electronic failures

Electronic failures include failures of the solid-state components such as servo drives,
power supplies, and logic buses. Because of remarkable advances in the field of
electronic components reliability these types of failure require less time to repair.

Employee wellbeing

Includes such issues as employee satisfaction, benefits, recognition, training, and


support services (for example, recreation facilities, counselling, and day care)

Empowerment

The situation that results when managers give employees the authority, responsibility,
confidence, necessary resources to make independent decisions.

End of pipe

Methods used to remove already formed contaminants from a stream of air, water,
waste, product or similar. These techniques are called 'end-of-pipe' as they are normally
implemented as a last stage of a process before the stream is disposed of or delivered.
They operate independently from the production process or are an identifiable part
added on to production facilities.

Energy efficiency

Energy efficiency is a ratio of the energy provided by a system to the energy input into it.
Services provided can include buildings-sector end uses such as lighting, refrigeration,
and heating; industrial processes; or vehicle transportation. Unlike conservation, which
involves some reduction of service, energy efficiency provides energy reductions
without sacrifice of service. Energy efficiency may also refer to the use of technology to
reduce the energy needed for a given purpose or service.

Ergonomic

The science of design for the workplace intended to maximize efficiencies and to
minimize fatigue, discomfort or physical harm.

Human failures

Human failures mainly occur because of errors of omission and commission. Failures in
this category include any stoppage of the system due to improper actions (such as
pushing the wrong button or lever, using the wrong weight of oil, failure to take the
correct remedial actions such as not closing an interlocking door or not tightening a
bolt). Number and rate of human failures is a function of the skill acquired by the
operating and maintenance personnel.

Hydraulic failures

Hydraulic failures consisted of failures of hoses, pumps, solenoids and valves. These
failures can be avoided by performing regular maintenance interventions such as
cleaning oil, maintaining proper oil volume, and changing/cleaning of filters to prevent
contamination of hydraulic components. It takes long time to repair such failures
because when a failure occurs it requires machine to be shut down for the entire
maintenance activity.

Life-Cycle
Assessment

Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA) is the assessment of every impact associated with all life
stages of a product, from raw material extraction, over production, selling and
application and up to disposal or re-use, often in comparison with another, competitive
product.

Mechanical
failures

Mechanical failures include failures of traditional components such as gears, bearings,


fixtures, and tooling. For carrying out necessary repairs these types of failures require
the machine/facility to be shut down.

Pollution
prevention

Practices that reduce or eliminate the creation of pollutants through increased efficiency
in the use of raw materials, energy, water, or other resources, or protection of natural
resources by conservation, including:

Reduction in the amount of any hazardous substance, pollutant, or


contaminant into the environment prior to recycling, treatment, or disposal.
Reduction in hazards to public health and the environment associated with the
release of such substances, pollutants, or contaminants.

Reliability

The probability that a system will perform satisfactorily for a given time when used under
specified operating conditions. More generally, reliability is the capacity of parts,
components, equipment, products and systems to perform their required functions for
desired periods of time without failure, in specified environments and with a desired
confidence. (See also Basic Reliability and Mission Reliability). Also, the engineering
discipline concerned with predicting, monitoring, testing, and improving the reliability of
a system, device or process.

Reverse logistics

the process of planning, implementing, and controlling the efficient, cost-effective flow of
raw materials, in-process inventory, finished goods, and related information from the
point of consumption to the point of origin for the purpose of recapturing value or proper
disposal.

Software failures

Any stoppage or failure of the system due to improper logic or coding leads to failures in
this category. Software failures exhibit many of the characteristics of human failures, as
these are often caused by programmer (human) errors or omissions. However, they
differ significantly from human failures, once corrected they seldom return, unlike human
failures that are often repeated.

Waste

Unwanted materials left over from a manufacturing process.

Waste-to-Energy

A recovery process in which waste is incinerated or otherwise turned into steam or


electricity, and used to generate heat, light or power through the process of combustion.

Waste-to-Profit

The process of using one company's waste or byproduct as the input or raw material for
another company, thereby increasing business profits and decreasing waste; also
referred to as "byproduct synergy."

Zero Waste

A production system aimed at eliminating the volume and toxicity of waste and materials
by conserving or recovering all resources.