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# SMJE 3143

Communication Electronics

MJIIT, UTM
Department of ESE

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Text

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Course Curriculum
Week 1
Introduction and overview
Communication systems, Analogue transmission, Digital transmission
Week 2
Analysis of signal waveform
Periodic signals, Sine-wave signals, Complex sine-wave, Fourier series expansion,
Week 3
Fourier transform, Linear systems, Filters, Convolution integral
Week 4
Amplitude modulation principle. Modulated time varying waveforms and spectrum
Week 5
Concept of angle modulation, Frequency Modulation
Spectrum of frequency-modulated signals, Met.hods for FM demodulation,
Week 6
Analog Trainer (AM, FM)
ASG

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Course Carriculum
Week 7
TEST 1
Week 8
Digital communication system
Sampling, Sampling theorem, Concept of ASK, PSK, FSK and QPSK
Week 9
Noise, bit error rate. Calculation method of communication quality.
Week 10 Mid-Semester Break
Week 11
Multiplex communication systems
Time-division multiplexing, Frequency-division multiplexing
Code-division multiplexing (CDMA)

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Course Carriculum
Week 12
Week 13
ASG
Week 14
TEST 2
Week 15
Revision Week and Final Examination

FINAL EXAM

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Week 1

## Introduction and overview

Communication systems, Analogue
transmission, Digital transmission

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Telephone
Networks

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Fixed Telephone
• 2 wire copper cable to carrier（Moduler）
• -48V DC is supplied from telephone station
• Wires are shorted when off hook the handset
• Switching system is initiated：
- Send dial tone to the terminal
- Waiting for dial signal
• Send dial signal to station
- DP: Pulse dialing, PB: Two tone dialing,
ISDN, Mobile phone: Digital Data
• Full duplex on one pair copper wire (2 wire system)
- No amplifier for voice, Carbon microphone has amplification function,
Balance transformer for duplex

Frequency

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Time 8
Exchange (Switching)
Terminal Exchange Central Exchange
Switching Board
Dial number required
Call blocking at trunk line
Cenral Switch

Number of Circuits
=N(N-1)/2 Number of Circuits
= N (Long Line)

Trunk Exchange
Tool Switch Tool Switch
Trunk Line

Number of Circuits
= N(Short)
+ Trunk Line
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Signaling (Common Channel Signaling)

## •Common Channel Signaling

•Circuit Switching
10 •Usage Based Charge
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Signaling of Mobile Communication
• Area Code registration to Home Location Register(HLR)
• Detect Area Code from MBS broadcast
• Messaging and Registration to HLR
• Call to destination MT
• Dialling, Inquire MT location,

BS　BSC 関門 BSC　BS
MSC

Authentication MSC
HLR

Dialling 位置問合せ
Inquire MT Location Paging ﾍﾟｰｼﾞﾝｸﾞ

Call Request

Call Request 呼出し

ﾁｬﾈﾙ要求
Channel
Request

Authentication

Call Request

Voice Communication
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Internet Protocol

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Basic Configuration of Internet
• E-Mail, Web browsing on TCP/IP protocol
DNS:
Domain Name System
POP3
SNMP
Post Office
Simple
Protocol
Network Mail
Protocol Internet
Correspondent Destination PC
PC

## Mail Server Mail Server

Mail

WWW Server

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Domain Name (roms.comm.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp) ←→ Address (Jalan Semarak, UTM IC, KL,
Malaysia)

## IP Address (133.1.144.132) ←→ ZIP code (54100)

DNS (Domain Name System) ←→ ZIP Address Table

## Top Level Domain (TLD)

(Primary, Secondary)

Japanese
domain
name

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IP packet (Data-garam)
- Contention, Packet Loss : Best Effort, ARQ: Automatic Repeat-Request

Subnet Subnet

Defort Gateway

Defort Gateway
Router

## Frame Structure of Data-garam

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Layer3 Layer4

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Network Topology
Star Topology Star+Trunk Mesh
(Access Line) Topology Topology
(Long Line) (Internet etc.)

## -Best Effort: Contention (ARQ)

-Central Switching -Trunk Relay Switching -Distributed Switching
-Guaranty Mode -Guaranty Mode (Large Delay)
-Flat rate -Metered Rate -Flat rate
(Difficulty of charge count)
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OSI 7 Layer Model

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Analog &
Digital

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Analog & Digital
Cannot reject
noise
in Transmission Line

Analog

Digital

Regenerate original
signal w/o Noise

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Analog to Digital Convert
Max 4kHz for Telephone = 8 ksps

Analog waveform
Quantize
Sampling 8 bits =2^8
Max4kHz for Telephone = 256 level
= 8 ksps

8 bits Coding
00000001, 00001001, …….., 00000001
8 bits x 8 ksps =64k bps Digital waveform
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Quantum Noise Linear Coding

Quantization
4 bits Quantization 1/24 = 1/16
Step Width
(Q=4)

1/28 = 1/256

8 bits Quantization
(Q=8)

## ( Ex. 16 bits, SNR= 6.02X16 = 96.3 dB )

：Sinusoidal wave
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Analog Transmission (Wired)

## Source Channel Channel Source

Coding Coding Decoding Decoding

## Compression Gray Code, Error Correction

(JPEG,MPEG) Nyquist rolloff
Encryption, etc Bi-Phase, CDMA, TDMA,
FDMA, etc

Wireless Transmission

## Source Modulation Demodulation Information

Coding Decoding
AM, FM
TDMA, FDMA, CDMA, OFDMA,
etc 23
Compression
(JPEG,MPEG) Gray Code,
Encryption, etc Error Correction
Nyquist rolloff
Bi-Phase,
CDMA,
TDMA,
FDMA, etc

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Exercise
1) What is the difference of Dial Pulse (DP) and Push Button (PB) in telephone dialing
system
2) Show the topology of the following networks, and describe the features, such as
(a) Star Networks
(b) Trunk Networks
(c) Mesh Networks
3) Where the following protocols exist in the OSI layer number?
TCP, IP, UDP, HDLC, MAC, CSMA-CD, CSMA-CA, Ethernet, SMTP, HTTP, POP3, SIP
4) What is the difference between analogue and digital communication and show
5) Maximum frequency of Voice and Music are 4kHz and 22kHz, respectively.
(a) What should be the sampling rates per second for each signal?
(b) If the signal to quantum noise voltage ratios for voice and music are 45dB and 95
dB respectively, what should be the required bits per sample for each media.
(c) What are the required transmission bit rates per second to reproduce voice and
music at the remote site.

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