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PROCEE

S
G
N
I
D

NEGOTIATING PRACTICES
OF EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION
THE 2014 INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE
OF EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION
Editor: Vina Adriany

PROCEEDINGS
NEGOTIATING PRACTICES
OF EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION
THE 2014 INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE
OF EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION

Editor: Vina Adriany

PROCEEDINGS
NEGOTIATING PRACTICES OF EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION
The 2014 International Conference of Early Childhood Education

ISBN : 978-602-99635-1-9
Editor
Desain sampul
Tata letak

: Vina Adriany
: Endang Dedih
: Yusman

Penerbit
Program Studi PG PAUG Jurusan Pedagogik
Fakultas Ilmu Pendidikan
Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia

WELCOMING NOTES
I would like to welcome all delegates and invited guests at the 2014 International
Conference of Early Childhood Education in the Indonesia University of Education (UPI),
Bandung, West Java, Indonesia.
This conference is held as part of the celebration of UPIs 60th Dies Natalis. The theme
chosen for our conference is Negotiating Practices of Early Childhood Education. We are
aware that nowadays there are different practices of early childhood education that
compliment each other in one way but it may also contradict in another way. Our hope is this
conference will provide a space where those different practices can communicate with one
another.
This conference can only be possible with assistances from so many institutions and
individuals. We are grateful for the support provided by Rector of UPI, Dean of Faculty of
Education and his staffs, School of Postgraduate Studies, as well as hard work of staffs in our
program, Early Childhood Education Teacher Education Program (PG-PAUD) and our
students.
We also would like to extend our deepest gratitude to all our keynote speakers from
Lancaster University, UK, Gothenburg University, Sweden, Flinders University Australia,
National Dong Hwa University, Taiwan, University of Malaya, Malaysia, as well as from
Indonesia University of Education. We also thank our presenters and participants from
various places in Indonesia as well as from oversea like Malaysia, Australia and Oman.
We wish you a wonderful conference.

Head of PGPAUD-Program

Dr. Ocih Setiasih, M.Pd.

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FOREWORD
This proceeding is based on papers presented by participants in our international
conference of early childhood education (ECE). The theme chosen for this year is
Negotiating Practices of Early Childhood Education. The theme is based on understanding
that we live in a hybrid world where different values, ideologies, practice including those of
in early childhood education interact; compete yet they also complete one another.
Papers presented in our conference reflect this theme. This proceeding is commenced by
papers and extended abstract from our keynote speakers. The topic ranges from gender issues
in ECE, negotiating concept of care in ECE, a cross-cultural perspective on parenting and
play. The diverse topic presented in the keynote speech illuminates the richness of practices
and theories of ECE.
The proceeding is divided into 13 themes. There are Philosophical Issues in Early
Childhood Education; Curriculum and Assessment of Early Childhood Education; Quality
and Human Investment in Early Childhood Education; Information, Communication and
Technology (ICT) in Early Childhood Education; Parenting; Gender Issues in ECE; Teachers
Training in Early Childhood Education; Language Development and Literacy in Early
Childhood Education; Childrens Social and Emotional Development; Childrens Cognitive
Development; Creativity in Early Childhood Education; Multiculturalism in early childhood
education; and Primary Education (Grade 1-3). Each theme is hoped to stimulate debates and
discussion in ECE. All these themes take into account new trend and concept that affects the
way childhood is situated and constructed.
The papers presented in the proceeding also reflect different epistemological and
philosophical framework that shape each authors writing. It is not our aim to demonstrate
which framework is the most suitable one, as we do not one to make one particular theory as
the only truth in ECE. Therefore, we welcomed existing theories in ECE while at the same we
attempted to go beyond current theories as well as practices and embrace new perspectives in
ECE. It is our hope that each theory can help us understand children, childhood and ECE
better.

Editor

Vina Adriany, M.Ed., Ph.D

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OUTLINE
Welcoming Notes - i
Foreword - iii
Contents - v
a.

Keynote Speech
Princesses with beards: gender flexible identities in early childhood pedagogyJo Warin ............................................................................................................................ xv
Nordic Light On Gender Relations In Early Childhood Education Anette Hellman ................................................................................................................ xvi
Nordic Light on Gender Relations in Early Childhood Education- Anette Hellman
Feeling better? Deploying emotional capital in early childhood practice. Loving
children is not enough - Yarrow Andrew ................................................................................ xviii
A cross-cultural study of parent involvement: Mother, father, and child
perspectives- Hui-Hua Chen ....................................................................................... xxviii
Caregiver - Child Bonding through Child- centered Play: A Qualitative Case Study
Using Filial Play Therapy with Shelter Home Pre-Schoolers and their Caregiver Diana Lea Baranovich ..................................................................................................... xl

b. Philosophocal Issues in Early Childhood Education


A Childrens Education By Hj. Rahmah El Yunusiyyah - Widia Winata ................... 1
Eudaimonic Wellbeing: Creating a Learning Process in Early Childhood Through
Exciting Perspective Positive Psychology of Self-Actualization as an Effort to Early
Childhood- Idat Muqodas ................................................................................................. 7
Ethnopedagogic: "New Paradigm" Developed The Wisdom for Early Childhood
Educator Candidates to Meet The "Gold Generation" 2045- Herdi, Sunaryo
Kartadinata &Agus Taufiq ............................................................................................... 13
Character Building Early Childhood to Be Gold Generation of Indonesia- Endang
Pudjiastuti & Niken Cahyorinartri ................................................................................... 14
c.

Curriculum and Assessment of Early Childhood Education


Contextual Teaching Learning in Environmental Education for Kindergarten Heny Djoehaeni ................................................................................................................ 23
Schooling Organization Based on Socio-Cultural in Ra Al-Amanah Buah Batu Kota
Bandung - Djem Bangun Mulya ..................................................................................... 32
Improving Child Initiated Learning Within GagasCeria Curriculum
Ami Aminah ..................................................................................................................... 39

The Development of Developmental and Psychoeducational Assesment for


Preschool - Fitri Ariyanti Abidin & Fitriani Yustikasari Lubis ..................................... 45
d. Quality and Human Investment in Early Childhood Education
Inside the Childcare Center: How to ensure quality childcare practices
Zahyah Hanafi & Siti Noor Ismail ................................................................................... 51
Using the Management of Quality Assurance to Improve Early Childhood
Education: Study of Quality Assurance Practices in Central Java and West Nusa
Tenggara, Indonesia YayanTrisakti ............................................................................ 62
Management of Nonformal-Early Childhood Education through Forum for Family
Empowerment in Cintarasa Village - Iip Saripah ....................................................... 73
The Effect of Pre-School Education on Academic Achievement in Indonesia Mohamad Fahmi & Putri Grace Ninibeth Jewelery S ..................................................... 78
e. Information, Communication and Technology (ICT) in Early Childhood Education
Robotics in Early Childhood Development - Yudianto Sujana ................................... 93
Implementing Instructional System Design Between Taiwan and Indonesia Via
Online Teaching - Yeni Rachmawati, Cheng-Hsiung Lu, Hui-Hua Chen, Ocih Setiasih,
& Leli Kurniawati ............................................................................................................ 99
Effect of utilization CD interactive media in science learning motivation For third
grades elementary school (Experimental study in Palmerah 15 state primary school,
West Jakarta Academic Year 2010/2011) - Mohamad Syarif Sumantri &
Rina Kristanti ................................................................................................................ 111
Urgency Computer Games for Stimulation the Early Childhood Development Syahrul Ismet ................................................................................................................ 118
Contents of Advertising in Children Television Shows - Nurist Surayya Ulfa ......... 125
Gadget: What And How? Indonesian Childrens Perspectives on Gadgets
Endah Silawati & Hj. Setyaningsih Rachmania ............................................................. 133
Application Software Development Statistics Processing With VBA and
Instructional Media Branching Linear - Rita Mariyana & Asep Deni Gustiana ...... 138
f. Parenting
Parenting Perception on Emping Melinjos Workers to The 2-To-3-Year-Old
Children In Batang Regency - Yubaedi Siron & Nurul Shofiatin Zuhro ................... 149
Parental Mediation on Televisions Viewing Behavior
Sri Widowati Herieningsih. ............................................................................................ 155

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The Psychological Dynamics of Parents of Children with Special Needs


Putu Rahayu Ujianti ....................................................................................................... 163
Parental Involvement for Early Childhood Education in Kindergarten
Mukti Amini ................................................................................................................... 172
Role of Parents Involvement in Early Childhood Education Program Overview
From Reggio Emillia Approach at Yogyakarta - Avanti Vera Risti P. ..................... 178
g. Gender Issues in ECE
Gender Power Relations in Indonesia Early Childhood Education: An Analysis of
Textbooks for Teachers - Vina Adriany ...................................................................... 185
Neoliberal Early Childhood Education Policy and Womens Volunteerism - Hani
Yulindrasari .................................................................................................................... 197
Gender Responsive Early Childhood Education in Islamic Perspective
Erhamwilda ................................................................................................................... 206
Application Of Gender Responsive Learning in Kindergarten
Anayanti Rahmawati ...................................................................................................... 214
h. Teachers Training in Early Childhood Education
Strategy of Expanding Early Childhood Education Teachers Creativity in
Learning- Titin Faridatun Nisa & Yulias Wulani Fajar ................................................ 221
Discovery Pattern Learning of Distance Higher Education Student Through
Utilization Online Independent Exercise - Sri Tatminingsih & Trini Prastati ........... 226
Counseling Model-Based Collaborative Environment Social Culture Student
Pgpaud Fkip Uninus Bandung - Euis Karwati ........................................................... 234
Developing a professional culture in the preschool teachers: a perspective of
GagasCeria Preschool - Delila Saskia P .................................................................... 239
Development Of Teachers Training Program In Character Based Learning for
Early Childhood Education - Ocih Setiasih, Rita Mariyana, & Ali Nugraha .............. 246
Implementation of Learning Model Collaborative Counseling Based on Tutor
Training In Rancakalong, Sumedang - N. Dede Kohoerioah .................................... 253
Career Guidance Model in Early Childhood Teacher Training Program Fkip
Universitas Islam Nusantara (Uninus) Bandung - Ayi Najmul Hidayat .................. 260
Critical Policy Study for Early Childhood Education Teachers Training Profession Rudiyanto, Rita Mariyana, Euis Kurniati, & Ali Nugraha, M.P .................................... 264

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i. Language Development and Literacy in Early Childhood Education


The Influence of Learning by Language Experience Approach Toward Speaking
And Early Reading Abilities in Child (Quasi Experiment Study Toward Children
Of Group B, Kindergarden Plus Quran Al-Mansyuriyyah, Bandung)
Susan Maulani ............................................................................................................... 275
Effectiveness of The Use of Images on Media Storytelling Ability of Kindergarten
Children Rakimahwati ............................................................................................... 286
Communication Ability of Early Age Child With Emotional Disorder in East Nusa
Tenggara - Oktovianus Halla, Beatriks Novianti, Bunga Indra, & Yohanes Kiling ......290
Improvement of Early Literacy Ability Through Educational Game Tools (An
Action Research Conducted at The Kindergarten of Padu Al Kautsar, in The
District of Serang, West Java In 2013) - Irma Yuliantina .......................................... 295
Linguistic Intelligence Through Improved Method Storytelling, Action Research in
Kindergarten Siger Emas, Age 4-5 Year Bandar Lampung- Gustiana ................... 303
The effectiveness of Singing songs and Action in introducing English to children in
Kindergarten - Elise Muryanti ..................................................................................... 317
Improving Students English Vocabulary Mastery Through The Use Of Multimedia
at Kidergarten Fantasia New Kebayoran South Jakarta - Ratna Sari Dewi .......... 322
The Influence of Total Physical Response on Childrens Listening Skill and Arabic
Vocabulary Mastery (Quasi-Experimental Study on Group B Kindergarten RA AlMuqoddasah Jagabaya Banjaran Bandung Academic. Instead we attempt to show
how each theory can help us to understand childrens development better Year
2010/2011) - Dinar Nur Inten ........................................................................................ 326
The Development of Childrens Understanding on Rhythmic Through Singing Activities
With Keyboard Accompaniment in Kindergarten - Indra Yeni ................................ 335
THE WORLD ACCORDING TO CHILDREN WRITERS (A Cultural Analysis on
the Kecil-Kecil Punya Karya series: Indonesian Children Books Written by
Children) - Rd. Safrina Noorman, Lina Meilinawati Rahayu, Nia Nafisah, Ernie
Diyahkusumaning, & Ayu Imperiani ............................................................................. 344
j. Childrens Social and Emotional Development
Guidance With Behaviour Therapy to Improve Social of Children With Attention
Deficit- Hyperactivity DISORDER (ADHD) - Nur Faizah Romadona ..................... 355
Establishing Politeness of Wisdom Maxim Through Role Play and Puppets (Action
Research in Kindergarten Aisyiyah 08 Group B At Cisalak Depok School Year
2012/2013)- Nenny Mahyuddin ..................................................................................... 362

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Traditional Sundanese Culture-Based Games as A Means of Stimulating The


Development of Early Childhood (Ethnographic Study in The Village
of Jatitujuh, Majalengka Jawa Barat, 2011) - Malpaleni Satriana ........................... 369
The Utilization of Outdoor Environment Using Scientific Method and the
Development of Kindergarten Students Natural Intelligence - Lely Halimah ....... 379
The Role of Children Buddhist Songs in Cultivating Moral Values
in Buddhist Sunday School - Latifah,A. Budiyanto, & Metta Puspita Dewi ............... 392
Psychoeducational Program to Increase Parent Awareness About The Benefits of
Storytelling For Optimization The Development of Preschool Children
Laila Qodariah, Poeti Joefiani, & Anggit Sukma .......................................................... 404
Social Life Description of Early Age Child With Mental Retardation in East Nusa
Tenggara - Kresensia Wea Aga Ngawas, Beatriks Novianti, Bunga Indra, &Yohanes
Kiling ............................................................................................................................. 423
Negotiating The Value of Leadership in Learning Model of Child-Centered
Fitri Sukma Irianti .......................................................................................................... 429
The Implementation of Playing Based Learning Model for Developing Character in
Early Childhood - Euis Kurniati .................................................................................. 443
Thematic Analysis of The Simbolic and Imaginary Play - Dewi Retno Suminar .... 448
Guidance Services through Storytelling Techniques for Developing Character of
Early Childhood - Asep Rohiman Lesmana & Idat Muqodas ..................................... 457
Implementing traditional games Kaulinan Barudak to improve students
character value (Quasi-experimental research in kindergarten Santa Ursula and
state guiding kindergarten Citarip Bandung Academic year 2012-2013) - Ernawulan
Syaodih & H. Mubiar Agustin ....................................................................................... 467
Enhancing Social Emotional Competence of Kindergarten Children Through Social
Play Model - Cucu Eliyawati ........................................................................................ 473
Developing and Development Early Childhood: An Analysis Toward The Change of
Limitation on Public Space In Housing Around of The City - Lucy Yosita ............ 481
Social Competence Profile of Child Kindergarten in Sukasari Bandung
Aan Listiana .................................................................................................................. 494
The Influnces of Storytelling Methode and Parenting Style to The Childrens
Emotional Intellegence (Experimental Study on The Kindergarten Grade B AlHidayah and Daarul Quran School South Semarang in Academic Year 2012/2013) Mila Karmila .................................................................................................................. 502

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Play Therapy: Effects as Efforts to Reduce Anxiety in Children Preschool


Hospitalization - Mardiani Bebasar .............................................................................. 513
k. Childrens cognitive development
The Study of Educational Toys (Ape) Based Multiple Intelligences At Tk-Kb
Pedagogia Fip UNY - Nelva Rolina ............................................................................. 521
Logical Thinking Ability Childrens Stimulation of Kling-Kling Byok Games At
Ra Masyithoh I Batursari - Maria Denok Bekti Agustiningrum ............................... 530
Increasing The Ability of Knowing Numbers Through Playing Cards Numbers
(Action Research In Kindergarten Nurul Fallah, Duri Riau, 2014 - Dwi Istati
Rahayu, Baik Nilawati Astini, Moh. Irawan Zain ......................................................... 540
The Influence of Educative Play Tool Toward Multiple Intelligence Of Early
Childhood (Quasi Experiment Study Toward Children Of Group B, Tk Labschool
Upi And Tk Tunas Karya, Subang) - Asep Deni Gustiana ........................................ 547
Increasing The Ability of Knowing Numbers Through Playing Cards Numbers
(Action Research in Kindergarten Nurul Fallah, Duri Riau, 2014) - Elia Delfi ..... 553
l. Creativity in Early Childhood Education
The Development of Dance Learning Model Based on Malay Culture in Improving
The Creativity of Young Learners Nurlita .............................................................. 563
The Role of Early Chilhood Educators in Developing Children Creativity at Ecd
Institutions Nasriah .................................................................................................... 570
Influence of Project Method Toward Increasing of Childrens Creativity of 5-6
Years in Labor Kinder Garden - Devi Risma & Yeni Solfiah .................................. 577
Scribbling as a Manifestation of Children Creativity - Ajeng Ayu Widiastuti ........ 584
m. Multiculturalism in early childhood education
Multicultural Based Learning For Children Education Early Age - Serli Marlina 593
The Application Of Mediation Process in Resolving Conflict in ECE Students Sesilia Monika &Agustina ............................................................................................. 600
The Role of Living Values Education Approach in Assisting Teachers to Build
Positive Values on Children of Early Ages - Putu Rahayu Ujianti ............................ 605
n. Primary Education (Grade 1-3)
Brain Gym Method In Improving Students Listening Skill Susilowati .............. 619

Application of Vct (Value Clarification Tecnique) Learning Model Through The


Pilot Method on Civics Study to Increase Intelligence Effective Low Grade Students
(Experiments in Class 1 International Green School Sumedang )
Ryan Dwi Puspita ........................................................................................................... 628
Self-Training Learning Model to Improve Storytelling Skill of Pgsd Students in
Teaching English in Elementary School - Charlotte Ambat Harun &
Winti Ananthia .............................................................................................................. 634
The Effect of Learning Techniques and Cognitive Learning Styles About Results
Learning of Social Sciences (Experiment Studies in The Grade IV Elementary
School of Government Parongpong West Bandung) - Budiansyah ........................ 649
The Influence Self-Academic Concept and Math Study Attitude Toward Subject
Math With Math Outcomes of Students Third Grade Elementary School in East
Jakarta - Yeni Solfiah .................................................................................................... 657
Improving Children Fine Motoric Skill Thruogh Contructive Play - Nirwana..... 667

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Keynote Speech

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PRINCESSES WITH BEARDS: GENDER FLEXIBLE IDENTITIES


IN EARLY CHILDHOOD PEDAGOGY
Jo Warin
Centre for Social Justice and Wellbeing in Education, Lancaster University
Lancaster University UK
The study discussed here contributes to the project of examining practices of undoing gender.
Haywood and Mac an Ghaill (2012) suggest the need for empirically led descriptions of how
gender is being transgressed so we can move away from a theoretical assumption that
masculinity is necessarily aligned with men and femininity with women. Male preschool
teachers reflections on the practices and performances implicated in their daily work provide
a rich site for examining the potential for gender transformations, especially as the
professional roles of men working as pedagogues with young children have a symbolic
significance with the potential to undo gender because they are public and visible. However,
the teaching of young children in preschool is seen, across the globe, to be mainly the
business of women with professional male pedagogues in a minority or non-existent.
Challenging the popular media-fed call for more males in this profession, this paper argues
that we need a workforce in early childhood education who can perform gender flexible
identities in their relationships with young children. Such a workforce requires the raising of
gender consciousness. The paper draws on interviews undertaken with male preschool staff in
Sweden and in the UK. It examines their beliefs about the performance of their own gender
identities in their relationships with young children, other staff, and childrens parents. It
considers implications for supporting the training of a gender conscious pedagogy.
Reference
Haywood, C. and Mac an Ghaill, M. (2012) Whats next for masculinity? Reflexive directions
for theory and research on masculinity and education. Gender and Education, 24 (6) 577-592.
Key words: gender conscious pedagogy, preschool, global.
Biographical details. Jo Warin is a senior lecturer in the Department of Educational
Research Lancaster University where she teaches the online Doctoral Programme in Social

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NORDIC LIGHT ON GENDER RELATIONS


IN EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION
Anette Hellman
University of Gothenburg
Department of Education, Communication and Learning
anette.hellman@ped.gu.se
Gender research has long argued that gender is constructed through social processes. This
paper explores how this is done among children in Swedish pre-schools. Swedish pre-school
is part of a society with a strong political emphasizing on gender equality. This discourse is,
for example, codified in the national curriculum for Swedish pre-schools where teachers have
an obligation to counteract gender stereotypes. At the same time discoursers of gender
difference and images of typical boys and typical girls are given references in every day
practices.
The material for this paper builds on a study (Hellman, 2010, 2011; 2012, 2014)
produced through ethnographic method and two years of field work. The theoretical
framework rests on concepts from post structural feminist theory and critical masculinity
research (Butler, 1990; 1993; Massey, 2006; Thorne, 1993; Whitehead, 2002).
At preschool girls and boys acted in a wide variety of different ways not distinctly
connected to their gendered identities. One main finding in the study is that out of this maze
of practices certain acts are made visible and categorized as typical boyish or girlish. Included
in these processes of categorization are assumptions about certain behavior as more correct
and natural for different sexes, resulting in discursive positions such as typical boys, for
example. However, this position is ascribed low status both among teachers and other
children. The most attractive position is described as the competent child. When norms
about gender differences are made relevant these are foremost manifested in negotiations
about specific markers and signifiers, such as voices, movements, specific haircuts, colors and
toys. The negotiations did usually not concern if a boy or girl could be part of a play but if the
appropriate signifiers were used. The issue was not if a girl could take the position of a super
hero but whether this figure could wear pink or not. In that way one can say that construing
gender preceded actual experiences of sexually defined bodies.
In the paper it is concluded that the importance of belonging to a specific gender or sex
is accentuated in specific spaces, but less relevant in other. The difference between the spaces
lies in how they are opened or closed to a normative gaze. This gendered gaze is manifested
not only by actually being seen by teachers and children but also in architecture. To evade this
normative gaze children created secret spaces either by building small shelters or
negotiating specific rooms of friendship. A further conclusion is that when age is emphasized
norms about gender are equally stressed. The notion of being a baby consisted a very strong
marker to police the border between being a sexual subject or not. The study brings out the
crucial importance age have also for small children in processes of negotiating and
naturalizing two different sexes and the importance of being gendered to be understood and
normal.

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References
Butler, J. (1990). Gender Trouble. Feminism and the Subversion of Identity. New York:
Routledge.
Butler, J. (1993). Bodies that Matter: On the Dicursive Limits of Sex. New York:
Routhledge.
Massey, D. (2007). Space, Place and Gender. Oxford: Polity Press.
Thorne, B (1993). Gender Play: Girls and Boys in School. Buckingham: Open University
Press.
Whitehead, S. M. (2002). Men and Masculinities: Key Themes and New Directions. Malden,
Mass: Polity.
Hellman, A.; Heikkil M. & Sundhall J. (2014). Dont be such a baby! Competence and age
as intersectional co-markers on childrens gender. International Journal of Early
Childhood Education, Volume 46, Issue 3.
Hellman, A. (2012) Democracy among Girls and Boys in Pre-School. Inclusion and Common
Projects. In Eva Johansson & Donna Berthelsen (ed.). Democracy, Solidarity and
Individualism in Pre-School Practices. Gteborgs Universitet: Acta Universitatis
Hellman, A. (2011). Gender Learning in Pre-School Practices. In Niclas Pramling & Ingrid
Pramling (ed.). Educational Encounters: Nordic Studies in Early Childhood Didactics.
New York: Springer
Hellman, A. (2010). Kan Batman vara rosa? Frhandlingar om pojkighet och normalitet p en
frskola [Have you ever seen a pink Batman? Negotiations of gender and normality at a
Swedish preschool]. Gothenburg Studies in educational sciences 299. Gteborgs
Universitet: Acta Universitatis Gothoburgensis.

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FEELING BETTER? DEPLOYING EMOTIONAL CAPITAL IN EARLY


CHILDHOOD PRACTICE
Loving Children Is Not Enough
by Yarrow Andrew
Across the world, early childhood educators are clear that having warm and close
relationships with children is one of the most meaningful aspects of their our work. I know
from my own time working in childcare that this was what made my own job rewarding.
However today I want to challenge that easy source of comfort, and tell you that loving
children is not really enough.
The problem with focusing on loving children is that our work is often difficult,
physically, intellectually and emotionally. We work with a wide variety of families, and
children whose needs and interests vary enormously. Children have different class and ethnic
backgrounds, experiences of gender, and different levels of ability that make each new group
of children a fresh challenge.
We also do this work with extremely different levels of support across the globe,
depending on how wealthy a country we live in or the sort of service we work in. This affects
how much we are paid, our conditions of work (how long the hours are, how many children
we work with at any one time, and how well-trained our coworkers are if we have any), and
the levels of respect we may get in society.
Altruism is important, but
The conditions we face in the field can impact on such things as our daily stress levels, our
physical health, staff turnover and its impact on those who remain, and long term burnout, as
workers become unable to perform their job effectively. Historically, given the lack of
alternative employment for many in the field, early childhood educators have just put up with
these damaging effects on their wellbeing. I suspect, and argue in my research, that this state
of affairs has only continued because early childhood remains a feminised field of work
(Andrew, 2014), and women in most countries continue to have much less access to systems
of power and control less of the worlds wealth. The gap between the demands of this work,
and the levels of recognition and reward that it receives are usually made up by altruism, the
goodwill of those mostly women who do this work. Early childhood work is often seen as
a vocation which appears to be a way to justify the lack of external or material rewards for
the work (Simms, 2006).
Reframing the problem
Today I want to engage in some reframing, thinking about the field of early childhood from a
different angle. In healthcare provision from the perspective of those providing this at a
regional or national level the focus of much of the energy is devoted to alleviating
symptoms and curing diseases. Increasingly, however, many governments are looking at ways
that these illnesses can be avoided entirely, through focusing on what causes people to
become sick in the first place. This is a shift from damage control to damage avoidance, or in
other words, a shift from sickness to wellbeing.
I want you to think today about how we might take a similar approach in early
childhood. The symptoms of our disease are burnout and staff-turnover turnover. This is
costly for everyone involved; employers must retrain new workers, co-workers may have to

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work harder in the absence of the person who has left, and children are left without a
caregiver with whom they may have a good relationship. When we keep trying to find
treatments for the symptoms caused by an undervalued occupation and workforce, we are
failing to see the opportunities involved in avoiding them entirely, by making changes within
the field of early childhood education so that such symptoms become largely non-existent. I
would like to see changes made in terms of the pay received and the respect for this work
within society, but today I want to focus on a key strategy that would act as preventative
medicine.
A philosophical and sociological approach to emotions
To do so I need to take a short detour, into some of the ways that sociologists and
philosophers are starting to contest traditional understandings of emotions.
Unpacking reason versus emotion
Andrew Sayers (Sayer, 2005, 2011) work challenges many of our current assumptions
around emotions. Drawing on feminist scholarship, he draws attention to the ways that society
is structured through binary dualisms that create arbitrary divisions such as public and
private, light and dark, male and female, and the one that I want to talk about today, reason
and emotion. The problem with these dualisms is not the creation of analytical categories in
itself, but the human tendency to view these in skewed terms, privileging one side of the
dualism over another.
Sayer (2005) demonstrates that this privileging of reason over emotion has lead to the
false idea that emotions are chaotic and fallible human responses. He argues that a more
accurate way to view emotions is as complex evaluative judgements. To understand emotions
in this way is to acknowledge that although they are not consciously chosen in each instance,
they are responsive to ongoing shaping by societal pressures, group norms, as well as
individual choice. So, for example, we may respond as human beings with anger in response
to threats to those we care about, and this is a necessary evaluation of the situation to allow us
to respond quickly if the situation demands it. However, the particular ways in which we
express that anger will vary significantly, depending on the cultures and countries we have
been raised within, the gendered norms within our society and our personal histories in regard
to threatening situations. Learning the strategic importance of emotions for human life is one
of the necessary conditions for greater awareness of our work within early childhood
education and care.
Emotions as work
Arlie Hochschild (Hochschild, 1979, 1983, 2002), a sociologist, has written authoritatively
about emotions and the expectations and stresses in people-oriented forms of work. She
conceptualised emotions not as feeling but as work - a very specific type of labour performed
by human beings both on the self and on others. Emotion work on the self is about people
consciously choosing to change how they feel over time in response to specific situations, so
that they can work more effectively in that context. Performing emotion work for others is
about projecting and expressing emotions in order to support or assist others, such as flight
attendants projecting cheerfulness and calm to passengers, in order to ensure a trouble-free
journey and alleviate peoples fear of flying. Hochschild is very clear that both types of
emotion work, on behalf of others or on the self, take effort and energy, and can be just as
exhausting as physical work. In her book The Managed Heart (1983) she makes a distinction
between emotional labour which she sees as the commodification of this work by employers

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and emotion work, which may well be work done by employees for their own benefit. I
make the connection here with the concepts from political economy of exchange-value and
use-value. The emotion work done by early childhood staff contains aspects of both types of
value. There are various types of work on the emotions that I will talk about later, that are of
immediate and practical use to workers. We can say that these types of emotional work have
significant use-value for people themselves. However, these emotions also have exchangevalue (which equates with what Hochschild calls emotional labour) in that there is financial
benefit to employers and organisations from expecting their workers to engage in emotional
work. This is particularly relevant to the next idea I want to present.
Emotions as a resource emotional capital
Extending on the ideas of Pierre Bourdieu, who first expanded the metaphors of labour and
capital into new areas, such as social capital and cultural capital (Bourdieu, 1986), feminist
sociologists (e.g., Reay 2004) have argued that this metaphor can also usefully be extended to
emotions, to show how emotions might function as a resource, as a source of power and
influence. This is the idea of emotional capital, which allows emotions and emotional work
to become visible as a distinct phenomenon, financially and culturally, within the workplace.
I have articulated in my own writing the ways I see this playing out within the early childhood
field (Andrew, 2013), and the ways that staff perform two main types of emotional labour, at
times on behalf of the children, building their emotional capital, as well as on their own
behalf, investing in their own emotional skills and dispositions, and accruing their own
emotional capital. Employers will benefit from both forms of emotional labour, as the
organisation functions more smoothly and effectively if both the workers, and the children,
are enabled to manage their own emotions more successfully. I will talk about how this idea
of emotional capital is useful in thinking about the preventative medicine in early childhood
work, and the ways we might feel better across the broader early childhood field.
Emotions and gender
Before moving on to talk specifically about how this looks within the early childhood field, I
need to draw your attention to the implications of early childhood work being done
predominantly by women (Warin & Gannerud, 2014). This is important in two ways. Firstly,
going back to the feminist theorising around binary dualisms, emotions have been devalued in
relationship to reason, and have become associated in most cultures with women, as if women
are naturally more emotional, and men naturally more rational. This becomes something
that most people believe despite any empirical evidence (Fausto-Sterling, 2012; JordanYoung, 2010). When people believe this it becomes true, in a sociological sense, because
people tend to acquire the skills in their culture that are assumed to be natural for them.
Secondly, all forms of work are shaped by what Beverley Skeggs calls prior historical
classificatory schemes of value (Skeggs, 2004, p. 75). These schemes of value are usually not
acknowledged within each society, but they combine to shape perceptions of a persons value
within both the monetary economy as well as the economy of ideas, based on such things as
the colour of their skin, their gender, their perceived ability or disability, their age, and so on.
What this means is that a field such as early childhood education, engaged in mostly by
women, will be judged within the economy of ideas as less important, and thus less worthy of
attention and economic investment. You will know that early childhood education, because of
these gender effects, is seen as less important that primary or secondary education.

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Understanding emotions as a resource in early childhood practice


Having discussed some of the theory that underpins my talk today, I want to lay out for you
some of the ways this becomes apparent in our work as early childhood practitioners.
Examples I use in this section are drawn from my own research with those working in
institutional childcare settings in Australia, as well as some examples from the lives of the
preservice teachers I am now teaching. There is an important connection to be made here for
those of us who are teacher-educators.
However universal, inevitable and irresistible they appear to us, in fact quite different
repertoires of feeling are available to different class fractions and genders within
them. They are related to the mode of production in any given society, to multiple
divisions of labour within it, and to different relationships to the means of production.
In occupations like childcare and care of the elderly, the management of ones own
and others feelings is not a private adjunct to work, nor a sub-category of caring. It
is a key feature of the workplace, a form of paid labour, or to be more accurate, of
labour power the capacity to labour, which can be ever more exploited by those who
own the means of production (Colley, 2006, p. 25)
What we do in our field, as Helen Colley suggests, is take those who have already been
given little choice except to develop emotional skills, and train them into using these skills
that they have acquired informally elsewhere, in their workplaces, to the benefit of children
and their employers. The fact that emotional skills are acquired only by certain members of
society is the result of mechanisms of privilege, which allows those who have such privilege
to expect others to accommodate their negative emotions without complaint. As Hochschild
describes this, it is a process where positive feelings are expressed upwards in hierarchical
situations, and negative feelings flow downwards. The result is that those who are
disadvantaged are even worse off, because they are not only disadvantaged economically or
socially, but also because they experience more negative emotions on a daily basis that more
privileged people.
Emotional learning and emotional capital
Although the flow of emotional benefits within society is unequal, I want to focus on the
learning that results from managing others emotions. The reasons I talk about emotional
capital are strategic, suggesting that there are multiple benefits from developing these
emotional skills. We know as teachers that all practice in skills, whether mathematics, selfhelp, or emotional work, entrenches those skills in the body, making them more accessible,
and able to be deployed with less effort. For the preservice teachers that I have in my
classrooms at university, I help them pay attention to these emotional skills, and become
conscious of how they can continue to shape and use these effectively. These skills become
embodied dispositions for these students, and collectively represent a valuable resource for
those in our field, which I am calling emotional capital. This emotional capital helps early
childhood staff in negotiating respectfully with parents, working cooperatively with
colleagues, guiding childrens behaviour thoughtfully, as well as helping them reflect on the
impacts of their pedagogical strategies on themselves and others.
Today I am going to share with you some aspects of what I consider to be emotional
capital, to give you a practical sense of how this might work in our field. In doing so I will be
sharing with you the ways in which these can also function as a protective mechanism, a
resource for staff wellbeing, in ways that will help in preventing the sorts of turnovers and
burnout experienced in many early childhood settings.

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Empathy
Perhaps the most obvious skill that early childhood workers develop is that of empathy.
Unlike some of the other skills I will discuss, empathy is seen as fundamentally emotional, as
a visceral response of concern to anothers pain or discomfort. In doing so I am showing how
we must not take emotions for granted, or see them as unremarkable, which has been the case
historically within our field (Bown, Sumsion, & Press, 2011), and is a direct result of their
devaluation within the reason/emotion binary. A skill like empathy involves both the
imaginative skill of understanding what someone may be feeling, as well as an understanding
of the interpersonal and societal relations that may be impacting on that feeling. As
Whitehead and Pedwell observe, such emotions represent an important (embodied) circuit
through which power is felt, imagined, mediated, negotiated and/or contested (Pedwell &
Whitehead, 2012, p. 120). As two participants in my childcare research observed;
Dianne: yeah, Ive been crying lots of times over the years, thinking about how this
poor familys going to deal with th...
Ondine: ...and we, we feel it so much... I think thats what a lot of people... they go
home and they dont think about their job like that, you know? You know, you go home
and dream about it, and yeah, to feel those strong emotions, is like, wow! I mean
thats quite powerful, isnt it?
It is not just a case of feeling these strong emotions, of course, although that is where it starts,
and what we tend to pay attention to. Where empathy becomes significant in our field is what
we do about it, and how useful it is to becoming a good teacher. Dianne describes the
imagination that is part of empathy.
youre dealing with, um... you know, little children who... you know, who d... who
dont have much language, and that, so youre... analysing everything, youre trying
to work out all their cues, and clues throughout the day, and what does this mean,
and... everyday I hear staff saying, Oh well yesterday we tried... you know, blah blah
blah, and then they had a sleep, and then they were much better in the afternoon and
its this constant... with every child, trial and error, oh, that worked yesterday...
youre just constantly working and figuring children out, like from babies all the way
up, you know? So that in itself is a big job... yeah, working out what everyone needs
(Dianne, 40s, diploma)
For very young children this is important because they have access to very little power in
their lives, and certainly struggle to express their own desires clearly, or understand their own
needs. The skill of empathy helps us try and understand what is going on for these children,
and make their lives more satisfying, as well as improving the social relations and flow of the
classroom.
Insight
Another aspect of emotional capital is the insight that is needed by workers into the lives of
those with whom they work, both children and families. This insight is not something that we
are born with, because it needs to draw on a large and diverse range of experiences of people,
and the patterns into which human lives fall. One of the problems with the idea of emotional
intelligence, as Daniel Goleman (1996) describes it, is the implication that these are
capacities already encoded into the brain, rather than skills we practise and acquire. Insight, as
I am defining it here, requires us to pay attention to what we are seeing, which is why it is not
acquired by everyone automatically. However those who work in human-service fields with a
great deal of face-to-face relationship work (such as childcare), need to become reflective
about these patterns of human behaviour and to learn from them. In doing so we develop

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increasing insight into what people want and need and feel. Human brains seem to be adept at
finding patterns in disparate phenomena (Ritchie & Spencer, 1994; Yin, 1994), and emotional
capital is about building up those capacities and making sense and meaning of them.
One of the staff who took part in my research, Rachel, felt like she had a good insight into the
particular social dynamics of the impoverished neighbourhood in which she worked because
she had grown up there, and felt familiar with the constraints and stresses experienced by
families in the area;
even though I dont live in this area any more, I choose to still work in this area,
because... I know the dynamics of the community, it makes me able to support... to
support their needs more effectively. Um... I spent my teenage years in this
community... I found it very scary, when I first came to the community, but... as an
adult, um... and, you know, having made friends with a lot of, with a lot of my peers, at
school... and understanding sort-of, the complications in their lives, and what have
you, um... yeah, I feel thats really enabled me to be a more effective participator, as a
professional within this community. So... and even... when I, um... I actually...
deliberately chose to work within a different community, where it would, it would be a
more affluent community, I guess... to... just I guess... to get a different perspective,
but then... bring some aspects back... to this community (Rachel, 40s, degree)
It was interesting to see the strategic thinking that lead her to work elsewhere in early
childhood circles in places of greater privilege in order to understand what is possible
when life is easier. This helped Rachel to have high expectations within the service in which
she worked, despite the different challenges there. As a researcher I saw this moral awareness
being closely connected with the high-level emotional skills displayed by many workers. I
cannot claim that emotional capital necessarily develops a more moral and ethical workforce,
but there do seem to be strong links between these sets of dispositions. This was particularly
evident in Rachels case, in hearing her talk at length about the sophisticated political and
ethical awareness she brought to various moral dilemmas.
Responsibility
This may seem an odd choice for inclusion among the different facets of emotional capital. In
fact I think it is fundamental to emotional capital, but is often normalised as something that all
staff must embody. Murray (1998), writing about childcare work, talks extensively about
responsibility, and how the care of children is always womens responsibility, whether at
home or in the workplace. Women seem to become responsible people in response to being
held responsible for the wellbeing of children, and in learning how to do that effectively.
Bubeck (1995) makes a strong argument that this is why we see an apparent difference in the
ability to care across the genders, not as a result of biology, but as a result of responsibility.
Within early childhood work, I notice many aspects of this responsibility, not just in
managing our own and others feelings, but also in taking ownership of our own mistakes
within this process. There is no perfect way to do something within human relationships, and
this is particularly true in terms of complex skills like guiding the behaviour of a diverse
group of children as they grow and change. Understanding that we can and will make
mistakes helps us to empathise with the mistakes of others, and acknowledge the stressful
nature of early childhood work. Understanding that this stress is a structural feature of our
work, rather than a personal deficit, allows the responsibility taken up by staff each day to be
framed as a choice rather than a burden. I am reminded of the words of an Aboriginal Elder
Melva Johnson - who leads one of the Indigenous childcare services in my home state of
Victoria. In being asked by a non-Aboriginal early childhood worker what she should be

xxiii

doing about teaching Aboriginal cultures effectively, Johnson replied very simply; Do
something, dont do nothing! (Atkinson, Johnson, Briggs, & Bamblett, 2014). This was a
powerful acknowledgement that when most of us are faced with difficult challenges we do not
take on that responsibility because we fear doing it badly or failing. Avoiding, or doing
nothing, however, does not improve the situation, and certainly does not develop our own
emotional capital.
Teaching preservice teachers is always an interesting experience because you see their
fear and intimidation about having to take on these new and sometimes overwhelming
responsibilities. However, this is a necessary part of the work, and it takes courage to walk
into that room as the one responsible. As Serene explains this sense of responsibility;
I mean, for my room, its understanding... twenty-six different personalities on the one
day... so... and adapting to all of them at the same time. And youre really observing
and planning, and sometimes its not just the program, but behaviours, like, youve
gotta think quicker than what the childs doing, to help protect them... all the time.
(Serene, 30s, certificate)
This captures the complexity and effort that goes into this work for most staff in early
childhood services. It is a scary responsibility, given how precious children are within human
society, and to parents themselves. It is only by acknowledging in advance the nature of this
responsibility, and accepting the risks of failure, that we can develop the emotional resources
to deal with the difficult situations we may face. When I was first doing my early childhood
course, back in the early 1990s, and undertook a placement in a pre-primary setting, I was
shocked to learn that my mentor teacher had endured the terrible experience of having a child
die while under her care. At that time and possibly still today I do not know if I could
have survived that experience and continued to work and teach in the ways that she had done.
I had respected her work and her skills before that, but in that moment I was able to see the
costs to her as well, and the weight of what she might be thinking each day. This to me was
an expression of the responsibility she was willing to take in her work, despite its burden.
Resilience (or tenacity, or endurance)
The idea of resilience gets talked about frequently in relationship to children, and certainly I
think it is a valuable quality. What is not often talked about are the ways that this is inevitably
shaped by a persons experiences in life, and the hardships they have had to face, or been able
to avoid. I am concerned that resilience as it is currently understood, is a quality more
available to those who have been raised with some forms of privilege, whether this is
economic privilege, or the emotional privilege of having a loving and supportive family.
These sorts of experiences make it far more likely that someone can bounce back from
difficult experiences. For those without this privilege the impact of micro-aggressions (Sue,
2010) can undermine their ability to be resilient, as a consequence of the emotional work that
must be done to resist these, and the exhaustion that often results. Perhaps we need some new
words to describe this particular skill, such as endurance, tenacity or even stubbornness,
which describe a particular force of character that may be able to hold on to their values
despite the hardships that they experience.
Marie was probably the research participant who talked most eloquently about this
issue, and how she uses her thoughtful work with children, and the insights she has about that,
to explain to parents what she is trying to achieve in her childcare setting.
if they start raising a concern, maybe in a way of a complaint, to try to switch their
focus to see this as a gift, and as an opportunity. And I ask parents, Do you have
someone in your life, in your workplace, have you had people driving down the road

xxiv

cut you off, have there been people that... have... sometimes worried you, sometimes
been difficult, sometimes made you unhappy, sometimes made you scared? Wouldnt it
be wonderful to be in a small, nurturing group, where you can be guided to cope? And
to make plans, and to manage, because... were always going to have people in our
life.... that bother us, or make us uncomfortable, or make us worried, and how do we,
how do we learn to be resilient, and to cope, and how to we learn to... maybe help
those people... be less that way, be more included? (Marie, 40s, degree)
In this way she aims to work with parents concerns on behalf of their children which
are valid and reassure them (itself an aspect of emotion work) about the ways she is
teaching children particular emotion skills, particularly around dealing with difficulties and
setbacks. This is valuable learning for those parents and children, but it is also reflective of
the importance Marie places on these qualities for human beings, and how useful she has
found them in her own life. She exemplifies this quality as a practitioner, and has learnt to
survive and thrive in many early childhood situations over her more than twenty years of
work in the field.
Self-reliance and interdependence
These two aspects of emotional capital I want to talk about together, even though they may
seem somewhat contradictory. Self-reliance is the willingness to take the initiative, and to
make decisions on our own when necessary. It expresses a confidence in our own decisions,
in our instincts in a given situation, and a belief that we are in the best position and have the
best information to make decisions in our classrooms. Interdependence represents the
acknowledgement that we rely mutually on each other, rather than relying just on ourselves. I
believe that finding the balance between these two dispositions is a key emotional skill. Life
always presents challenges, some of which we can and should resolve ourselves, and some we
can only achieve with the help of others in our community. In recent years there has been a
growing awareness of the need for good leadership in early childhood, and an exploration of
what particular skills leaders might need in our field (Aubrey, 2011; Day, 2013; Hodson,
2002). I believe that within our field, where our organisations tend to be smaller and less
hierarchical, that we need a particular model of leadership that can draw on both these
dispositions self-reliance and interdependence with confidence. One of the most
significant examples of early childhood leadership I have experienced was a director of a
childcare centre where I worked years ago. With major decisions that would impact on staff
she would endeavour to consult with each of us about our opinions, showing that she
understood our interdependence as a staff team. Yet she also knew that the final decision lay
with herself self-reliance - and took full-responsibility for that, even when that decision was
less than ideal. She would then take the time after she had made the decision to come and talk
with those of us who it would impact hardest on, taking the sort of responsibility for her
actions that is essential to this expression of emotional capital.
The effects of emotional capital
To move from seeing emotions as an unconscious and automatic response to a situation, to
something that we can learn to mobilise powerfully in our work, is a profound shift in
awareness. The power of emotional capital as an idea is that emotions can function as a
resource to those who work in our field. This asset is one that is available to those who are
willing to spend the time and energy to perform emotional labour, and do so with awareness
and the time for critical reflection. For teacher-educators, I encourage you to teach, not just
curriculum or pedagogy or didactics or other specific educational knowledges, but to see the

xxv

place and role of emotional understanding within this learning. This may not take a huge shift
in what you teach, so much as the willingness to reframe what you teach in terms of the
emotional component of that human endeavour. In doing so you will be preparing your
students not just intellectually for their future roles, but also emotionally, and that may end up
being a far more significant achievement (Corr, Davis, LaMontagne, Waters, & Steele, 2014).
Conclusion
I began this talk with the suggestion that we need to move from a focus on sickness in early
childhood to a focus on wellbeing. The symptoms of the ills of early childhood are wellknown across the globe, with rates of burnout and turnover being high within early childhood
services. Today I have suggested that what we need to engage in because we cannot
guarantee a world without the ills of low pay and tough conditions, at least not yet is a
sustained attention to the wellbeing of the staff that we have in the field. The experience and
knowledge of our workforce is a valuable resource to employers, to parents, and to children,
and to squander this resource through undervaluing it is foolish. By helping our workforce to
become aware of the emotional skills they have at their disposal, or can learn to develop, they
will be more able to manage difficult and stressful work environments. We need to talk about
these skills, become analytical about the processes involved, and indeed model them in our
own academic classroom environments. We must do this in ways that demonstrate clearly that
health and wellbeing is not a matter of luck when viewed at a collective level, but a shared
endeavour to support each other in ways that matter. Among the cohort of staff who were
part of my research, what came through with almost every person was the critical importance
of a supportive group of colleagues. To me this is a clear indicator of the importance of
emotional support and understanding within our services

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A CROSS-CULTURAL STUDY OF PARENT INVOLVEMENT: MOTHER,


FATHER, AND CHILD PERSPECTIVES
Hui-Hua Chen
National Dong Hwa University, Hua-Shih College of Education, Department of Early
Childhood Education, Taiwan, R.O.C.
Abstract
This mixed-methods study examined differences in parent involvement, perceptions,
practices, and context by parent gender, nationality, and education level. Mothers, fathers, and
their school-age children participated at two sites: the Midwestern USA (n = 99) and urban
Central Taiwan (n = 100). Parents completed questionnaires regarding their parenting context,
perceptions, and involvement practices. Children completed a parenting dimensions measure
and a qualitative semi-structured interview. Findings revealed differences in mothering and
fathering across nearly all beliefs and involvement activities, as well as differences in
parenting stress and use of social support. There were broad differences by nationality in
parent beliefs and involvement. Differences by parent education level suggest that parents
with a low level of education are less involved and have lower levels of motivation for
involvement. Responses from child interviews clarified some of these differences and
identified childrens unique perspectives regarding parent involvement. These findings
suggest that fathers and mothers support childrens development in unique and
complementary ways, but that parenting is embedded within ecocultural niches which are
impacted by the cultural and socioeconomic context.
Keywords: parent involvement; parent beliefs; context; culture; parent education
Children develop within ecocultural niches, the unique sociocultural environments
surrounding the child and family, which are adaptable, evolving, and constrained by macrolevel economic and political forces (Weisner, 1984, p. 336). Ecocultural niches comprise
daily routines and activities (activity settings), parenting practices, and parental belief systems
(ethnotheories) which guide parenting behaviours (Edwards, Knoche, Aukrust, Kumru, &
Kim, 2005; Harkness et al., 2011; Super & Harkness, 1982, 1986; Weisner, 1984, 2002).
These niches create local cultures, which are influenced by broader cultural values such as
collectivism/individualism and gender norms, but are also adaptable and specific to the
childs everyday routines and activities (Weisner, 2002, p. 277). Many studies fail to specify
the particular and interactive features of ecocultural niches which lead to cross-cultural
differences (Super & Harkness, 2008).
One aspect of ecocultural niches which needs to be considered is the cultural
community and the value systems of that community (Weisner, 2002). One of the most
researched cultural values to be cross-culturally examined is individualism (Edwardset al.,
2005). While Western (especially US) parenting practices often focus on independence,
individualism, autonomy, and spontaneity, Eastern parenting practices and standards are
influenced by a focus on collectivism, filial piety, interdependence, traditional gender roles,
and emotional harmony and control (van IJzendoorn & Sagi-Schwartz, 2008; Newland &
Coyl, 2010; Newland, Coyl, & Chen, 2010; Tamis-LeMonda, Shannon, Cabrera, Lamb, 2004;
Tamis-LeMonda et al., 2008; Weisner, 1984). Even within similar cultures there are
differences in parental practices and perceptions, making it impossible to make sweeping
generalizations across cultures (Edwardset al., 2005; Harkness et al., 2011). There are,

xxviii

however, predictably different parental value systems in Eastern and Western societies (van
IJzendoorn & Sagi-Schwartz, 2008; Weisner, 1984). Relatively few studies have examined
parentchild relations within Eastern societies, and very few have made direct comparisons
across Eastern and Western samples (Ho et al., 2011; van IJzendoorn & Sagi-Schwartz,
2008).
Culturally scripted yet evolving gender norms for parental behaviors represent another
important aspect of ecocultural niches. Fathers with less traditional gender roles from both
Eastern and Western societies tend to be more involved with their children (Du, 2006;
Freeman, Newland, & Coyl, 2008; Ho et al., 2011). However, families in Western societies
tend to have less sex-role segregation in family roles and more democratic family processes
(Weisner, 1984, p. 338). This contrasts with the father role in Asian families, where fathers
are traditionally described as breadwinners and disciplinarians, and mothers as homemakers
and caregivers. However, Asian fathers gender roles are also shifting as women continue to
enter the workforce, leading to increased father involvement in educational and caregiving
activities (Ho, Chen, Tran, & Ko, 2010; Ho et al., 2011; Hsu, Zhang, Kwok, Li, & Ju, 2011;
Shek, 2008; P.J. Wu, 2003, 2004).
Parent gender-based involvement practices point to unique but complementary mother
and father roles, although these differences have been examined primarily from the parent
rather than the child perspective (Day & Padila-Walker, 2009). Mothers often serve as a
secure base, providing a sense of security through warm and responsive involvement in
caregiving, didactic play, and educational activities in the home and school setting
(Ainsworth & Bowlby, 1991; Bowlby, 1969/1982; Kerns, Brumariu, & Seibert, 2011; Yeung,
Sandberg, Davis-Kean,&Hofferth, 2001). Fathers serve as an exploration partner,
encouraging exploration, risk-taking, emotion regulation, and a developing sense of autonomy
through physically challenging, exciting, yet sensitive rough-and tumble play (Bowlby,
1969/1982; Fletcher, 2011; Grossmann, Grossmann, Kindler, & Zimmermann, 2008;
Newland & Coyl, 2010; Paquette & Bigras, 2010; Yeung et al., 2001). While both mothers
and fathers may engage in activities which promote security as well as exploration, in many
cases parents gender is associated with differential role involvement (Ho et al., 2011;
Newland & Coyl, 2010; Paquette & Bigras, 2010).
Features of parental socioeconomic status, including education level and income, are
also important components of ecocultural niches which impact parenting beliefs, practices,
and involvement levels (Weisner, 1984). Parents with higher education levels tend to be more
involved with their children overall, invest more time, energy, and resources in their
childrens education, have higher educational aspirations for their children, report more
positive homeschool relationships, and feel more efficacious about their involvement than
parents from lower educational backgrounds; these findings are consistent across disparate
cultural groups (Bck, 2010; Hill et al., 2004; Seefeldt, Denton, Galper, & Younoszai, 1999;
P.J. Wu, 2003, 2004). Parental ethno theories are another key component of ecocultural
niches.
Parental belief structures and meanings attributed to involvement have consistently been
linked with differential levels of involvement in everyday activity settings with children
(Harkness et al., 2011). There is some disagreement as to whether parental ethnotheories are
the cause of, or the consequence of, everyday parentchild interactions. However, there is
general consensus across studies that parental beliefs, feelings, expectations, motivations,
goals, and levels of investment are related to the quality and types of parentchild interactions
in both home and school settings, and are connected to the broader cultural belief systems in
which families are embedded (Edwards et al., 2005; Weisner, 2002). Parental beliefs,

xxix

practices, and parentchild relationship quality are also related to parenting stress and support
within and outside of the co-parental relationship, which mark additional features of the
ecocultural niche which need to be examined (Caldera & Lindsey, 2006; Coyl, Newland, &
Freeman, 2010). Mothers and fathers report lower levels of parenting stress and engage with
children in more positive and responsive ways when they experience a sense of well-being
stemming from co-parental harmony and support from friends, neighbours, and extended
family (Franco, Pottick, & Huang, 2010; Ochieng, 2011). Inter-parental intimacy, support,
and emotional connection are common features of ecocultural niches in the USA, where
nuclear family exclusiveness, with little reliance on extended family support in day-to-day
activities, is the norm (Harkness et al., 2011, p. 812; Weisner, 1984).
This is in part due to high geographic mobility and neolocal residence customs
where nuclear families live apart from extended families and fathers are expected to be
actively involved in the home and childcare duties (Weisner, 1984, p. 349). In traditional
Asian cultures, however, grandparents play a significant role in raising their grandchildren,
and extended family relationships are valued and prioritized (Edwards et al., 2005; Jia &
Chen, 1999; S.L. Wu, 2003). However, as Asian families become more westernized, and
traditional gender roles shift, grandparents have become less involved than in generations
past, leaving fathers to fill in the caregiving gap and to coordinate their parenting efforts with
mothers (Ho et al., 2010). Thus, it is important to understand the roles of mothers, fathers, and
other caregivers in childrens daily activity settings, and the contextual factors and belief
systems which impact parentchild interactions.
This cross-cultural, mixed-methods study was designed to examine interactive
components of ecocultural niches which collectively influence daily activity settings, parental
belief systems, and parent and child perceptions of family context and parenting practices.
Two broad goals were addressed:
(1) To examine differences in parenting involvement, practices, perceptions, and context
by parent gender, nationality (US, Taiwanese), and education level.
(2) To explore childrens perceptions of parent involvement in home and school settings.
Method
Participants
Participants included 199 families (mother, father, and one child) from the rural
Midwestern USA (n = 99) and urban Central Taiwan (n =100). Childrens ages ranged from 8
to 11 years (mean nine years, four months; 51% female). Mothers ages ranged from 28 to 56
years (average age =38 years); fathers ages ranged from 27 to 76 years (average age =42
years). The majority of children (83%) lived with both of their married, biological parents.
Approximately 95% of mothers and 87% of fathers were biological parents; the remainders
were adoptive parents, step-parents, or other parental figures (including custodial
grandparents). Annual family income levels varied (4%, $20,000, 14% $20,000$40,000,
28% $40,000$65,000, and 55%. $65,000), as did parental education levels (completed high
school: 23% fathers, 10% mothers; some college or a four-year degree: 62% fathers, 73%
mothers; graduate or professional degrees: 15% fathers, 18% mother). Child ethnicity was
primarily Caucasian at the US site (87% Caucasian, 3% Native American, 4% African
American, 3% Hispanic, 1% Asian American, 2% other), while ethnicity within the
Taiwanese sample was 100% Asian.

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Procedures and measures


Internal Review Board approval, parental consent, and child assent were obtained prior
to data collection. Research assistants recruited parents (via telephone or in person) of schoolage children through after school programs, as well as through social networks in the
community. All measures were administered in the participants homes following a written
protocol. Mothers and fathers separately completed a questionnaire regarding parent
involvement, perceptions and beliefs, close relationships, stress, and use of social support.
After establishing rapport, children participated in a semi structured qualitative interview
regarding their perceptions of parenting and close relationships, and completed a parenting
styles questionnaire. All measures were translated into Mandarin Chinese and back-translated
into English for the Taiwanese sample. The cultural and construct validity of the measures is
supported by the high internal reliability of measures in both samples (Cronbachs a =0.60
0.90) and the similar predictive relations from parent beliefs and involvement to child
outcomes across both samples (see e.g. Newland et al., 2010).
Parenting context
The parent survey included parenting context items rated on a 5- to 6-point Likert scale.
The Dyadic Adjustment Scale (Spanier, 1976) included separate subscales for Dyadic
Consensus (11 items) and Dyadic Satisfaction (10 items). Parenting and Life Stress (Newland
et al., 2010, three items) measured mother and father perceptions of parenting difficulty and
family life stress. Social support was measured with the Family Crises Oriented Personal
Evaluation Scales (FCOPES, McCubbin, Olson, & Larson, 1991), with separate scales for
Family Support (five items), Friend/Neighbour Support (five items), and Church Support
(four items). Barriers to Involvement (Freeman et al., 2008, 16 items) measured parental
perceptions of factors which limit parents involvement with their children, including work,
outside activities, and lack of resources. A final scale, Extended-Family Influences on
Parenting, asked parents to rate the influence of several extended-family members on their
own parenting beliefs on practices (adapted from Fees). Parents also responded to several
demographic items measuring parental ethnicity, socioeconomic status indicators, and parent
and child age and gender.
Parent perceptions and involvement
Parent involvement was assessed with an adapted version of the National Early Head
Start Research and Evaluation Project parent engagement measure, with items rated on a 5point Likert scale (Cabrera et al., 2004). Some items were adapted to better represent parent
activities with school-age children, with separate scales for Caregiving (nine items),
Socialization (three items), Physical Play and Exploration (five items), Outdoor Games and
Sports (five items), and Leisure Activities (10 items). Positive Communication measured the
frequency of positive parentchild communication such as explanations, conversations, and
verbal reinforcements (Shepherd & Newland, 2011, 11 items). Two new measures of parent
motivations for involvement were included: Motivation for Closeness (four items,), and
Motivation for Responsibility (two items). In addition, surveys included two new measures of
ParentTeacherChild Relations (six items,) and Beliefs about Teachers (nine items,).
Measures of parent perceptions and practices regarding school involvement (Green, Walker,
Hoover-Dempsey, & Sandler, 2007) included Parent Efficacy (10 items), Invitations for
Involvement (18 items total, Teacher, and Child scales), and Parent School-Related
Involvement at Home (five items) and School (five items).

xxxi

Child perceptions of parenting


Child measures included The Parenting Styles Questionnaire (Karavasilis, Doyle, &
Markiewicz, 2003; Lamborn, Mounts, Steinberg, & Dornbusch, 1991), with separate scales
for Warm Involvement (10 items), Psychological Autonomy Granting (five items), and
Behavioural Control (nine items). The measure includes a subset of parallel items for
mothers and fathers, except for the behavioural control scale, which is not specific to mothers
or fathers. Each item is rated dichotomously or on a 3- to 5-point Likert scale. Children also
participated in qualitative, semi-structured interviews which lasted from 10 to 30 minutes.
General questions were followed by more specific prompts regarding childrens perceptions
of time spent with parents each week, parent involvement in home and school activities,
enjoyable aspects of parentchild interactions, descriptions of mothers and fathers,
availability of parents when children feel scared, parental influences on children, and
contextual influences on parents.
Qualitative results
Children provided detailed descriptions of their interactions with mothers and fathers and
the contexts that impacted those interactions. Three general themes emerged which represent
unique activity settings: joint activities, mother-specific activities, and father-specific
activities. Subcomponents and variations in each theme by ecocultural niche are addressed.
Joint activities
Children reported spending time with mothers and fathers together engaging in a variety
of triadic or family activities. Activities were further categorized as active activities, leisure
activities, or school activities. Active activities involved joint physical movement or active
engagement, including family outings (shopping, day trips, vacations), indoor play (cards,
games, video games), and outdoor play (biking, walking, playing badminton). As one child
described, . . . if its summertime . . . we usually . . . go outside and play. Leisure activities
involved rest and joint relaxation, including communicating (talking about their day), eating
family meals together (at home/at restaurants), relaxation with parents (watching TV/movies
together), and snuggling (on the couch, co-sleeping).
One child described his time spent with mom and dad in the following way: So our
whole family usually plays the Wii (video game system) ... some days we just hang out and
watch TV.
School activities involved home-based or school-based educational activities. These
included homework activities (supervising, monitoring, modelling, guiding, or assisting with
homework). For example, one child noted that They help me a lot to study my spelling
words. Another child said, They guide me through my homework, like, if I dont get this
theyll guide me through it, and like if Im doing a book report theyll help guide me . . . . and
tell me what I need to do. Children also reported that their parents are involved by motivating
them (setting expectations, challenging the child, offering encouragement, and building selfefficacy). One child said, Um, well they always encourage me; they always go you can do it
if you put your mind to it. Another child said, Theyre involved a lot, they want me to get
As and Bs in my grades, and they want me to work hard. Children described several forms of
parental involvement in the school setting (school events, classroom activities, Parent Teacher
Association (PTA) meetings, parentteacher communications) and in special situations
(assistance with projects, field trips). One child reported, well they help me. . . my mom and
my dad worked on a house for a science project. Finally, they described situations in which
parents were involved by garnering additional resources for them as needed (tutors, supplies,

xxxii

special classes such as art or foreign language classes). One child replied that his parents
challenge him to learn new things by sending him to a learning centre (sometimes called a
cram school in Taiwan). There were variations in joint activities by ecocultural niche.
Children described five main contextual influences on parent involvement, with interactions
among these contextual influences creating unique ecocultural niches. First, they described
the influences of extended family (family members availability, tangible and financial
assistance, and presence at special events). One child said, Um, well they help us if we need
stuff and my grandma and grandpa come to most of our games. Second, they described
community influences on their family (support from friends/neighbors, school quality, and the
impact of community size, safety, and closeness). One child said that the community
influences parenting . . . by having a good school and a good town . . . if they (school staff)
know something happened to a child they communicate with parents and stuff. Third, they
described religious influences (primarily parental strictness in religiously active families). As
one child puts it, Well Christians I guess are a lot stricter than normal parents, but Im glad
Im a Christian.
A fourth contextual influence on joint interactions was family nationality. While children
from both samples described extended family influences on parenting, nearly every child in
the Taiwanese sample described the influence of grandparents and/or aunts and uncles. In
some cases, they lived in multi-generational homes in which grandparents were very involved
in day-to-day parenting decisions. One child described extensive involvement from her aunt
and grandma, explaining that they spend time, teach me skills, and help with homework.
Taiwanese children also described some unique facets of parent involvement. Children
described snuggling and physical closeness with both mothers and fathers more commonly in
the Taiwanese sample (e.g. co-sleeping, co-bathing, and snuggling while watching TV). They
described homework as a nightly, shared activity, as well as more cognitively challenging
activities with parents (playing chess, reading together), additional parent involvement
strategies not included on the quantitative measures (sending children to cram schools,
hiring tutors, taking time to express high academic expectations), greater parental use of
verbal admonishment or corporal punishment, and stronger parent teacher connections (with
immense parental respect for teachers). One Taiwanese child described parental school
involvement like this: They keep contact with my teachers, participate in school activities,
and teach me to be responsible; theyll try to raise my interest, and then Ill do the new things
voluntarily. They tell me stories. A fifth contextual influence on parenting was parent
education level.
In general, the levels and quality of educational interactions were lower within the low
parent education group. In particular, children described more oral admonishment and
corporal punishment affiliated with homework struggles. In some cases, there was little to no
parent involvement, especially from fathers, and some children reported feeling angry or
nervous when parents were involved. When asked how he feels when his parents are involved
in his school life, one child cleared his throat and replied, How do I feel? Sometimes kind of
mad. Another child said, I feel embarrassed. However, some children in the lower parent
education group described fairly extensive parent involvement in homework, with parents
offering suggestions and explanations, offering incentives for good grades or effort, providing
hands on guidance, and learning together. Some children in the higher parent education group
described parental monitoring of homework, but said that parental assistance was unnecessary
since they were able to figure out the problems on their own, or they had finished homework
assignments in school or before their parents returned home from work. One child stated,
Well, usually I dont need help with my homework, I mean I dont have homework that

xxxiii

often. Children in the high parent education group described less TV watching at home, and
more playful and stimulating activities (games, card games, reading, playing sports together,
travelling, doing homework together).
Mother-specific activities
Childrens activities with mothers were focused on housework/caregiving, physically
close activities, and school activities. There were variations in these activities by ecocultural
niche. Mothers involvement with children tended to focus on housework and caregiving
(cooking, baking, cleaning, shopping), and mothers were described as typically multitasking,
completing chores while engaging with their children. Children described their mothers as
organized homemakers (neat, careful) who balanced work and family obligations and who
were very invested in parenting and providing for their children (involved, busy,
hardworking). Because of the high level of involvement in daily care, some mothers were
described as more rule-oriented (i.e. strict, controlled, rule makers/enforcers) than fathers.
Motherchild physically close activities were described as opportunities for intimate quality
time which allowed them to enjoy close proximity at home (snuggling on the couch, watching
TV together, co-sleeping, or co-bathing) and on special outings (shopping, mom and me
days). One girl noted Me and my mom, well sometimes we have special days, like we go out
to eat or we go somewhere fun. This weekend were going somewhere like thats a surprise.
Mothers were generally described as loving (nice, gentle, caring, sweet, soft, sensitive,
generous, helpful, considerate) and affectionate (snuggling, warm, and huggable). They were
also described as protective and safe.
Mothers were also described as more involved in school activities than fathers
(volunteering in the classroom or with extra-curricular activities). They assisted with
homework by reminding, helping, guiding, and answering questions. They often took on
leadership roles in the school/PTA. One child said . . . my mom is now copresident of the
PTA . . . shes in charge of making spring fest come together . . ..There were variations in
motherchild activities by ecocultural niche. The main contextual influence on childrens
descriptions of motherchild activities was nationality. Taiwanese children described their
mothers as more involved in creative activities (painting, drawing, calligraphy) and more
physically active activities (attending a motherchild dance class, gardening together) than
US children. They more often described shared household tasks with mothers (housework,
cooking, grocery shopping), but rarely described engaging in these activities with fathers. US
children more frequently described mother involvement in the schools, whereas Taiwanese
children described fathers as taking those leadership roles in PTAs and school functions.
Father-specific activities
Childrens activities with fathers were focused on physically challenging/risky activities,
shared work, and restricted involvement due to constraints. There were variations in these
activities by ecocultural niche. Father involvement commonly focused on physically
challenging/risky activities which were often outdoors (roughhousing, hunting, fishing,
camping, playing sports, driving a lawnmower or combine, playing with fire, shooting a gun,
go-karting).
Some of these activities, such as hunting, skinning, and then cleaning a deer, might be
considered a type of rite of passage, wherein fathers supervise activities, provide tutelage to
ensure safety, and then challenge children to try it on their own. Fathers were generally
described as limit-pushers (exciting, risky, daring, loud), and outdoorsmen (leading outdoor
adventures, sporty). Complementing the sense of challenge and risk-taking was a sense of

xxxiv

safety in fathers presence. Children described fathers as strong protectors (protective,


providing security, brave, and tough, strong, tall). One child said, Usually when my dads
around, I feel like Im okay, hes got it all under control. A second child said, Hes always
protective . . . if we leave for a bike ride to the park . . . and I havent checked in . . . hell try
to call me on the cell phone and if I dont answer then hell . . . come out on his bike and look
for us. Fathers were also described as active and challenging playmates (childlike, playful,
fun within limits, funny, silly, weird, full of laughter, teasing, energetic). Some children
described shared outdoor or home-improvement work with fathers, for example, I help dad in
the shop and stuff and help dad inside; were doing home improvement projects. Were
tearing apart our bathroom right now. Other examples include, I like to just combine with
my dad and I help dad with the lawn and fixing things. Within the context of shared work
experiences, fathers were described as good-natured (friendly, helpful, nice), loving (caring,
supportive, gentle), and intelligent (brilliant, clever).
Occasionally, fathers were seen as too harsh or even frightening (mean/strict, badtempered, terrifying, vicious, unpredictable), and some children did not like working with
fathers. Fathers were sometimes described as unavailable for involvement due to constraints,
particularly work constraints. One child reported, Well . . . my dad is a farmer so he doesnt
get in much, but my mom usually is in the house all of the time. And because of this I
personally think I have a better social bond with my mother than my father. Another child
said, Well, theres my mom. My daddy always at work so I dont get time to spend with him
a lot. Children did seem to understand that fathers were limited by work schedules and still
felt that fathers were emotionally available to them, even if physically unavailable. They
described fathers as responsible (serious, dignified, hardworking) and dependable (faithful,
always there). Sometimes, however, fathers were described as irresponsible (sleepy, lazy,
boring, uninvolved). One area where work constraints were highlighted was educational
involvement. While fathers were generally described as less involved in education, they also
reportedly had higher expectations for children and more often quizzed and assisted children
with studying. Fathers (along with mothers) attended recitals or school events as time
permitted. There were variations in fatherchild activities by ecocultural niche, particularly by
family nationality and parent education level. Taiwanese children described their fathers as
more serious and strict, as opposed to playful and teasing, with less risky play at home.
They also described fathers as more punitive in regard to school performance. One child said,
He sometimes spanks or scolds me. Children in the low parent education group more often
described low levels of father involvement due to work schedules and reported harsher
punishment from fathers.
Discussion
This study examined key components of the ecocultural niches of middle childhood,
including nationality, parent gender, and education level, and their unique and collective
influences on daily activity settings, parental ethnotheories, and parent and child perceptions
of family context and parenting practices. Results from the qualitative child interviews
highlighted ecocultural variations in childrens perceptions of activity settings, something
which has previously been lacking in the research literature.
Implications and future directions
This study has implications for educators, psychologists, and family service specialists.
Given the scant number of studies examining mother, father, and child perspectives on parent
involvement in the school-age years, this study adds to the research literature on family and

xxxv

contextual influences on the ecocultural niches of child development. However, it could be


extended in several ways. First, it should be replicated with larger and more diverse crosscultural samples from both rural and urban areas, and should explore variations based on
family structure. Second, adapted measures should be included which account for a wider
array of involvement practices of all caregivers in the childs life (including extended family),
which would strengthen the cultural validity of the scales. Third, longitudinal analyses would
be useful for determining the individual and combined influences of mothers, fathers, and
supplemental caregivers on childrens developmental outcomes. Fourth, childrens
perceptions should be considered in future studies, given their potential for illuminating the
ways in which parental beliefs, practices, and contexts influence childrens perceptions and
experiences within ecocultural niches.
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xxxix

CAREGIVER - CHILD BONDING THROUGH CHILD- CENTERED PLAY: A


QUALITATIVE CASE STUDY USING FILIAL PLAY THERAPY WITH SHELTER
HOME PRE-SCHOOLERS AND THEIR CAREGIVER
Associate Professor Dr. Diana Lea Baranovich
University of Malaysia
Department of Education Psychology and Counseling

ABSTRACT
Filial Play Therapy (FPT) is a useful therapy technique that utilizes play as a way to
help strengthen the bond between parent and child by enhancing the parents empathy and
understanding of their child. While much research has been conducting noting the benefits of
FPT with parents and their children, literature is lacking in how FPT can help with caregivers
and children in shelter homes. A qualitative case study will be carried out in Klang Valley,
Malaysia with an NGO shelter home. Four children from the home, two boys and two girls
with a history of oppositional behavior will be chosen along with their caregivers for the
study. It is hypothesized that as a resul of undergoing FPT the prosocial behaviors of the
children will be enhanced. The Goodman (1997) strenghts and difficulties questionaire will be
used to analyze the data. The project will begin in March, 2015.
Introduction
The current practice of marriage and family therapy (MFT) lacks the inclusion of young
children in the therapeutic process. Though it is recognized the important role that children
play with regards to the family unit, many counselors have often excluded them from sessions
they have conducted, as well as lack proper furnishing and equipment in their office for which
to properly work with them in a therapeutic session. This phenomenon was first discovered in
a survey conducted by Korner & Brown (1990), who surveyed the Association of Marriage
and Family Therapists in the United States and found that 68.7% of their clinical membership
reported that in less than 25% of their practices did they involve children. Further, 25% of the
therapists surveyed had no relevant training that enabled them to properly work with children
in the therapy setting. This problem of not including children in the MFT process is not just
limited to the United States but extends globally especially in Asia.
When conducting MFT the importance of including children in the process cannot be
emphasized enough. This point has also been argued by Johnson and Thomas (1999) who
argued that family therapy approaches must provide clear strategies for incorporating children
into the therapy process. This argument was also picked up by Johnson, Bruhn, Winek, Wiley
and Krepps (1999), who highlighted in their research that only with the inclusion of children
can MFT truly be successful. The question then becomes, what is the best way to include
children in the therapy process? One answer that emerges is play. One very important way to
improve a childs relational environment is through play. According to David Elkind, play is
the medium by which individuals learn adaptation and create new learning experiences
throughout the one's lifetime (Elkind, 2007, p. 3). Elkind also explained that play is equally
as beneficial to adults as well as children. Adults who become aware of the value of play and
make efforts to incorporate play into their work and love life become more satisfied and selfactualized individuals (ibid). Therefore, it can be said that when an adult uses play to help a
child, he is also helping himself. Hickey further explained that Elkind is an advocate of
natural play, which I refer to as authentic play, with children. Hickey believed that children

xl

should be allowed to play naturally and not be hindered in their play by efforts to rush them to
grow up or be forced into structured play activities such as organized sports teams or formal
music lessons (Hickey, nd).
Filial Play Therapy (FPT) is recognized as a well-developed form of family treatment.
Filial Play Therapy is a counseling approach that combines psycho-educational,
empowerment and play therapy methods that calls for children to be actively involved in their
childs treatment (VanFleet, 1994). FPT was developed from the research done by Louise and
Bernard Guerney who examined how to enhance relationships through couples therapy
(Guerney, 1977). Unlike traditional play therapy, FPT is open for all family members as it
merges traditional play therapy with conjoint family therapy; thus, providing a workable
strategy for including all members in the therapy process (Guerney, Coufal & Vogelsong,
1981).
Filial Play Therapy is a useful counseling method in MFT in that it allows for parents to
be the ones to conduct play sessions with their children. Guided by the counselor in private
sessions, parents are taught how to set limits as well as how to emphasize with their childrens
needs and emotions. Once this has been done, the parents then partake in play sessions with
their children while a counselor participates as a quiet observer. After the sessions, the
therapist will provide the parents with feedback. The goal of this strategy is to empower the
parents themselves to become better communicators and promote a strong and healthy bond
between them and their children. Johnson (1995) notes that FPT helps to improve the quality
of family interactions by essentially fixing ineffective parent/child interaction patterns, which
allows for more productive therapy sessions to take place.
Given that FPT is recognized as being beneficial in enhancing the parent-child
relationship, which lends to an overall improved family atmosphere, mention must be made of
how this therapy technique can be used on other type of guardian-child relationships. Most
notably, shelter homes where the caregiver is a non-family member. However, caregivers who
are wards of children of the state are often unequipped and ill trained to properly handle the
emotional needs of the children whom they are charged with. Thus, the purpose of this
research is to understand how providing FPT training to shelter home caregivers in Malaysia
could improve the relationship between the caregiver and child as well as the overall
emotional state of the child.
Caring for foster children who have been traumatized, neglected, abandoned and abused
takes a special understanding. These children come to us broken in body, mind and spirit. The
core issue that these children face in their lives is loss. They have lost their parents, siblings,
home, community and, most importantly, their sense of love and belonging. Unfortunately,
without knowledge and understanding of the plight of the hurt child, the caregiver and other
professionals who work with these children are at an extreme disadvantage when trying to
help the child. We quickly learn that unconditional love and the best of intentions is never
enough, so we begin to feel helpless and have no idea where to go or what to do next. All
hope is quickly and easily lost (Baranovich, 2013).
Because each child comes to us with his own unique story and set of circumstances, it is
important not to be too quick to brand the child with any label. However, we must also be
aware that the hurt child will far more often than not come to us with a combination of
attachment disorder, conduct disorder, character disturbances, learning disabilities,
developmental delays and psychosomatic issues that require a special understanding on behalf
of the caregiver for the proper intervention to be implemented and healing to take
place.Without such knowledge, understanding and guidance, along with providing these
children with an environment where they feel that they are loved and have a sense of

xli

belonging these children very often remain incapable of forming a healthy, authentic sense of
self. It is the cultivation of a healthy sense of self that enables an individual to build a healthy
self-esteem. It is a persons healthy self- esteem that enables him to form trusting-reciprocal
relationships with others, and hence grow up to become productive adults who make
positive contributions to society (Baranovich, 2013).
Review of the Literature
The FPT approach has been supported and advocated through numerous studies
conducted on the method. As noted by Guerney and Stover (1971) FPT is quite successful in
helping parents to acquire reflective listening skills appropriate empathy and response to
childrens emotional needs. One important outcome of FPT, as noted by Lobaugh and
Landreth (1998), is the increased measures of empathy and acceptance from parents with
regards to their children. This in turn tends to lead to a decrease in the amount of problem
behaviors parents report experiencing in their children (Bratton & Landreth, 1995). This
therapy method also helps boost childrens self-confidence (ibid) as well as increase their
range and expression of emotions (Glass, 1986). Rather than just being happy, mad, sad, etc.,
children who are involved in FPT can more appropriate direct their emotions to being happy,
mad, sad, etc towards specific things. Instead of a child bursting out I hate you!, perhaps the
child may say I hate that you didnt let me do that. The new response can allow for the
parent to more effectively come in and discuss with the child her feelings. Based on this,
Bratton and Landreth (1995) noted that the ability for children to increase their ability of
expression has led to a reduction in parenting stress scores. Therefore, it can be said that FPT
can work to better equip parents to handle their childrens emotions in an appropriate manner.
The relationship enhancement that families experience by going through the process of
FPT or not fleeting, or used only for the point of therapy and then forgotten, but rather have
proven to be long term. In her research regarding the long term use and benefits of FPT
Sensue (1981) found that the benefits received from the therapy course, including parental
acceptance and perceived child adjustment, were maintained through three years past the time
of therapy. In a later dated research conducted by Cleveland and Landreth (1997), who
qualitatively examined through interviews five childrens, aged three to eight, perceptions
towards FPT, found that the therapy method is capable of producing significant positive
changes in the lives of children who undergo this therapy method.
Regarding the benefits of FPT, it has been found that they reach beyond individual
improvements and into improvements in the systemic family relationship as a whole. Some of
the most noted benefits include reported enhanced and improved parent-child communication
in conjunction with reported turn arounds and improvements in child behavior and better
communication amongst couples (Bavin-Hoffman, Jennings, & Landreth, 1996). Lahti (1992)
noted in her research that parents recognize the positive effects of FPT by reporting better
relationships with their children and spouses.
The FPT technique is not only a useful therapy method for traditional families, but its
benefits have also been recognized for single parents. A study conducted by Bratoon and
Landreth (1995) examining the FPT technique with 43 single parents (22 in the experimental
group and 21 in the control group) and their children found that at the end of the 10 week
study the single parents in the experimental group reported significant increased attitudes and
acceptance towards their empathic behavior towards their children, a significant reduction in
their stress level as well as reporting significantly fewer problems with their childrens
behavior.

xlii

Despite the recognized success of FPT with parents and their children, research is
lacking on how this therapy technique can help enhance the relationship between a child and
their caregiver is a non-family member. It is this gap in the research that has lead to the
formation of the present proposed study. It is hypothesized that the results from the qualitative
case study analysis will reveal that the pro-social behavior of shelter home children who
undergo FPT with their caregivers will improve.
Methodology
This research will utilize a case study qualitative analysis that will include a total eight
participants. The participants will consist of four caregivers and four children (two boys and
two girls) that are between the ages of four to eight years old. The participants, both children
and caregivers will be choosen from four different NGO shelter homes in Klang Valley
Malaysia. The children will be between the ages of four and eight and have a history of acting
out, oppositional behaviors. The caregivers will be the caregivers of the children. The
caregivers will receive five three hour training session on FPT. The children will then
receive four twenty minute FPT sessions each week for a period of six months. The filial
coach along with the principal investigator will meet with the caregivers once a month to
answer any questions and provide feedback about the FPT process. It is hypothesized that the
pro-social behavior of the children will improve as a result of FPT. The Goodman (1997)
scale of strengths and weaknesses will be used to analyze the data. Each child will be
assessed via the Goodman scale at prior to the FPT sessions. There will be a mid review after
three months and a final review after six months whereby each child will be assessed via the
Goodman scale. Scores will be compared.
REFERENCES:
Baranovich, D. (2013). Understanding and Caring for the Hurt Child: When Unconditional
Love is Never Enough; Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, Pearson Publications.
Bavin-Hoffman, R., Jennings, G., & Landreth, G. (1996). Filial therapy: Parental perceptions
of the process. International Journal of Play Therapy, 5 ( 1) , 45 58.
Bratton, S. & Landreth, G. (1994). Filial terapy with single parents: Effects on parental
acceptance empathy and stress. International Journal of Play Therapy, 4, 1; 61-80.
Elkind, D. (2007). The changing world of play. The power of play: Learning what comes
naturally (pp. 3 13). Philadelphia, PA: Da Capo Press.
Hickey,D.(nd). Theories of development. Retrieved 10 17, 2013, from
http://courseroom2.capella.edu/webct/urw/tp0.lc5122011/cobaltMainFrame.dowebct.
Johnson, L. ( 1995). Filial Therapy: A bridge between individual child therapy and family
therapy. Journal of Family Psychotherapy, 6 ( 3) , 55 70.
Johnson, L., Bruhn, R., Winek, J., Wiley, K., & Krepps, J. ( 1999). The use of child-centered
play therapy and filial therapy with head start families: A brief report. Journal of
Marital and Family Therapy, 25, 169 176.
Korner, S. & Brown, G. ( 1990). Exclusion of children from family psychotherapy: Family
therapists beliefs and practices. Journal of Family Psychology, 3, 420 430.
Lahti, S. ( 1992). An ethnographic study of the filial therapy process. Dissertation Abstracts
International, 53( 8-A) , 2691.
Landreth, G., & Lobaugh, F. ( 1998). Filial therapy with incarcerated fathers: Effects on
parental acceptance of child, parental stress, and child adjustment. Journal of
Counseling and Development, 76 ( 2) , 157 165.

xliii

Sensue, M. E. ( 1981). Filial therapy follow-up study: Effects on parental acceptance and
child adjustment. Dissertation Abstracts International42( 1-A) , 148.
VanFleet, R. (1994). Filial therapy: Stengthening parent-child relationships through play.
Satatosa, FL: Professional Resource Pres.

xliv

Philosophocal Issues
in Early Childhood Education

A CHILDRENS EDUCATION by Hj. RAHMAH EL YUNUSIYYAH


Widia Winata
Universitas Muhammadiyah Jakarta
widiakamek@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Hj. Rahmah El Yunusiyyah is a womens movement leader in Minangkabau, South
Sumatera, Indonesia. Her work in advancing women has been started since 1923 by setting
up a girls school, Diniyyah Puteri Padang Panjang. Her movement was motivated by the
condition of the people who discriminated against women. Whereas the role of women is
very important in educating children from an early age. Early childhood educators should
have enough knowledge of various aspects such as household management, pedagogy,
theology, and girls educating. All process of childrens education is mostly influenced by the
environment where they grow up. Based on this literature-based research, there were various
curriculums designed by Hj. Rahmah El Yunusiyyah which emphasize on womens degree as
the forerunners for future generations.
Keywords: education, early childhood, women
INTRODUCTION
Anything about womens figure is a never ending story. Before the glory of Islam,
women were not taken into account. In the era of 1920s, women were not only being
discriminated in Arabic countries, but also in West Sumatera or Minangkabau (what West
Sumatera popular for). The culture in this province applies matrilineal system in which
women as Bundo Kanduang (mother) are ascribed having the position of Rajo Usali, the first
time Minangkabau existed (Amir, 1999:22). Bundo Kanduang was the first real figure in
Minangkabau.
Even Rajo Usali holds the highest position, but in the real life, the one who has the
real power in the family is the brother of a mother (what is called Mamak in Minang
language) (Azra, 2003:1). They have unlimited roles in the family while the women do not.
The activities of women are limited only in the area of rest room, kitchen and bedrooms.
They are not even allowed to go to schools.
In fact, the existance of women is needed in the development of a country. Womens
roles at home will also affect their activities in the society. One nation consists of societies,
societies consists of families which compose roles of the women (Qazan, 2001:2). Thus, it is
important for women to have education and be creative in order to take part in the
development of their countries.
This equality of roles was a concept applied by Hj. Rahmah El Yunusiyyah in
education since 1923. The concept was being included in the curriculum applied directly for
women not only in Minangkabau but also in the areas of Java, Sulawesi and Malaysia.
Female students from those areas came to follow this concept of education by staying the a
boarding rooms of the school. This kind of education system built a comfort place for those
students to share their opinions and experiences since women tend to have complex and
complicated problems (Munawarah cited in Burhanuddin, 2002:30).
Hj. Rahmah El Yunusiyyah expected that through education, women will become
independent, not rely on others and have respectful position in the society. Education women
means educating all humans. Women are the ones who deliver babies as future generations.
Women should know how to educate children and become educators at homes, schools and in
the society (Rasyad, 1978:180).
3

Based on the concept iniated by Hj. Rahmah El Yunusiyyah above, the writer is
interested to investigate to discuss what childrens education should be applied by educators.
re is a question on what childrens education should be implemented by the educators? This
study used literature review to get as much information related to the application of
curriculum applied by Hj. Rahmah El Yunusiyyah. General portrait of her school can be seen
from 1923 1990s.
DISCUSSION
Profile of Hj. Rahmah El Yunusiyyah
Hj. Rahmah El Yunusiyyah was born in Bukit Surungan, Padang Panjang, West
Sumatera on December 20, 1900. His fathers name was Syekh Muhammad Yunus and her
mothers name was Rafiah. She grew up in a rich family at that time. This youngest of 5
children was a shy girl, hard-hearted, strong-willed, aspiring, unyielding, and high-minded.
She passed away in Padang Panjang on February 26, 1969 (Rasyad, 1991:37 and 1978:177).

Hj. Rahmah El Yunusiyyah


(https://m.facebook.com/notes/sejarah-dunia-islam/rahmah-el-yunusiyyah)
Supported by her brother, Zainuddin, Hj. Rahmah El Yunusiyyah built Diniyyah
School Puteri Padang Panjang on November 1, 1923. The idea of having this school came
after Zainuddin built a co-education system Diniyyah school in which Hj. Rahmah El
Yunusiyyah was one of the students here. She felt unsatisfied with its education system. She
faced many problems of women that could not be solved in the class. Women had many
complex and complicated problems. That was why she got an idea to build a female school
(school for female only). It was the first female school in Indonesia and got many
compliments from other countries such as from Syekh Al Azhar, Egypt. She was being
invited to Al Azhar and awarded as Syekhah Hj. El Yunusiyyah (Yunus, 1996: 69).
There were many important people as her students, such as Rasuna Said (national
hero of Indonesia and his name is also used as main streets in Jakarta), Aisyah Amini
(Indonesian political), Tan Sri Datin Aisyah Gani (Minister for Human Rights and Legal
Policy of Malaysia, for the period of 1972-1984), Nurhayati Subakat (the owner of Wardah
cosmetics, one of female moslem cosmetics brands in Indonesia), the mother of Taufik Ismail
(Indonesias writer), mother of Fasli Djalal (Vice Minister of Education and Arts of
Indonesia), and others (Singgalang: 2008).

The Education at Diniyyah Puteri as the First Preparation to Educate Children


Diniyyah Puteri was firstly named by Diniyyah School Puteri, or referred to Diniyyah
School established by Zainuddin Labay El Yunusi, the brother of Hj. Rahmah El Yunusiyyah
. In one chance, Hj. Rahmah said that Diniyyah School Puteri is intended to create Mothers
as educators for their children, so that the children will worship God the Almighty, do their
obligation to their country, and respect their self-esteem (15 Anniversary Book of Diniyyah
Putri, 1923: 4). This statement was realized in the curriculum of Diniyyah Puteri Padang
Panjang school. The curriculum was designed on the basis of up-dated issues of education on
the basis of religion, knowledge and skill needed by women to play their roles as educators at
school, home and in the society.
At the beginning of its establishment, the islamic studies taught to students covered
Arabic language, fiqih, translation of holly Quran, sharaf, nahu, adab, and hadits. Then it
was developed with additional subjects which focused on skills, i.e. weaving, sewing, dyeing
fabric by many colors, cooking and decorating rooms. Skill for first aid in small accidents
commonly happened at home was also taught (Rasyad, 1982:211). This kind of education
system balances aspects of cognitive, affective, and psychomotor especially in skill subjects.
The skills could be used by those female students when they get married. The were prepared
already to play their roles as wives, mothers and educators for their children.
Education skills is aimed to create a sakinah mawaddah and wa rahmah family; a
wife who serves her husband well, cooks delicious and nutritious food for famiy, and
maintain her house well so that all family members feel comfort staying in that house. As a
mother, a woman must be able to give love, care, attention, and education to her children so
that the children will become religious and devoted generations (Rasyad in Abdullah,
1994:223). Family is the main and first environment for children in the process of their
education in which the women as mothers play their crucial parts.
After family, school becomes the second focus of Hj. Rahmah El Yunusiyyah in
developing her concept of education. In her opinion, the characters of women who are soft
and nurtured, should be explored to become good educators both at home and at schools.
Thus, the students were given paedagogic, psychology, and other supporting studies (Ahmad,
2001:221). Further, students are taught also as educators in the society joining in one
institution or organization. Hj. Rahmah El Yunusiyyah equipped the curriculum with
leadership training and preaching. The skill they got in the class then should be implemented
in the boarding house supervised by their teachers. The education system was also supported
by extra curricular activities such as having cooperation system, ubudiyah (reading and
reciting al-Quran, wirid and praying together), muhadarah (how to deliver speech), Family
Welfare Education, Scoutting, Arts, and Sports (Rasyad, 1978:38).
CONCLUSION
Education for children starting from the education for women as mothers who deliver
future generations. Well-prepared in the early education will also create how women can be
good educators not only at homes but also at schools and in the society. Educating children is
not an instant process. It starts from the female students as future mothers.
What had been done by Hj. Rahmah El Yunusiyyah was a renewal concept of
education both in general and in females world. The women who were being discriminated
in the era of 1920s in Minangkabau could play their roles and get good position in the
society after Hj. Rahmah El Yunusiyyah launched her concept of education.
This education concept prepared female students as the forerunners to deliver smart,
religious, and devoted young generations. In can be said that children who live and grow up
in comfortable and full of love family will become best children. A sakinah mawaddah and

wa rahmah family is built by firstly educating the women as educators in their family.
Furhter, the women can also become educators at schools or leaders in the society.
Even the education of Hj. Rahmah El Yunusiyyah was firstly launched in 1923, but
nowadays this concept still becomes good topic to be discussed since womens problems are
very complex. Diniyyah Putri school also keeps on coping with the needs of the society by
reviewing its curriculum, boarding system and extra-curricular activities.
References
Abdullah, Taufiq. (1994). Manusia dalam Kemelut Sejarah. Jakarta: LP3ES.
Ahmad, Zulfa. (2001). Konsep Pendidikan Perguruan Diniyyah Putri Padang Panjang 19781997, Disertasi Doktor. Jakarta: Perpustakaan IAIA Syarif Hidayatullah.
Amir. MS. (1999). Adat Minangkabau: Pola dan Tujuan Hidup Orang Minang. Jakarta:
Mutiara Sumber Widya.
Azra, Azyumardi. (2003). Surau: Pendidikan Islam Tradisional dalam Tradisi dan
Modernisasi. Jakarta: Logos.
Buku Peringatan 15 Tahun Diniyah Putri Padang Panjang. (1939). Padang Panjang: Diniyah
Putri.
Burhanuddin, Jajat (ed.). (2002). Ulama Perempuan Indonesia. Jakarta: Gramedia Pustaka
Utama.
https://m.facebook.com/notes/sejarah-dunia-islam/rahmah-el-yunusiyyah-seorang-muslimahyang-berjuang-untuk-hak-pendidikan-perempuan. diakses 20 Oktober 2014.
Rasyad, Aminuddin. (1978). Buku Peringatan 55 Tahun Diniyah Putri Padang Panjang.
Jakarta: Ghalia Indonesia.
-------, (1982). Perguruan Diniyyah Puteri Padang Panjang 1923-1978 Suatu Studi
Mengenai Perkembangan Sistem Pendidikan Agama. Disertasi Doktor. Jakarta:
Perpustakaan UIN Syarif Hidayatullah.
-------, (1991). H. Rahmah El Yunusiyyah dan Zainuddin Labay El Yunusi Dua Bersaudara
Tokoh Pembaharu Pendidikan Islam. Jakarta: Pengurus Perguruan Diniyyah Puteri
Padang Panjang.
Singgalang. (2008). Rahmah El Yunusiyyah, Pahlawan Tanpa Penghargaan.
http://urangminang.wordpress.com/2008/09/02/rahmah-el-yunusiyyah/
Qazan, Shalah. (2001). Membangun Gerakan Menuju Pembebasan Perempuan. Terj. Khazin
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Yunus, Mahmud. (1996). Sejarah Pendidikan Islam di Indonesia. Jakarta: Hidakarya Agung.

EUDAIMONIC WELLBEING: CREATING A LEARNING PROCESS IN EARLY


CHILDHOOD THROUGH EXCITING PERSPECTIVE POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY
OF SELF-ACTUALIZATION AS AN EFFORT TO EARLY CHILDHOOD

Idat Muqodas
idatmuqodas@upi.edu
Department Teacher Education of Early Childhood Education,
Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia, Purwakarta Campus.
Abstract, Self-actualization early childhood usually be done in various ways, one of them
with early childhood education. But sometimes the teacher ran out thinking how to develop it.
The research used descriptive method with observation and interview as data collection
techniques. Subjects of the research included teachers and perents of children of TK
Nurrurosydah Bayongbong Garut 2013-2014 Academic Years. Result, Positive psychology
brings color to the educators how to make education a fun process with shades eudaimonic
willbeing as an attempt to develop a child's own unique character. Eudaimonic willbeing
bring teachers to develop the character of young children through fun learning process, so that
students are able to actualize himself through shows a positive character. Eudaimonic
willbeing can help teachers to develop a unique character through the early childhood
teaching and learning process..
Keywords: Eudaimonic Willbeing, Positive Psychology, Early Childhood, Self Actualization

INTRODUCTION
Basically God made man born into the world with the intellectual background,
personality, interests, and talents are different. Every man has his own way to achieve the
perfection of life in accordance with what has been destined by God. Indicators perfection of
human life can never be predicted, but some people have a belief that life looks perfect when
humans are able to make sense of this life with a happy indication and can actualize himself.
The happiness is real and self-actualization are important, but need a real effort to be
able to achieve it. When a kindergarten student shows drawing works, and tells the meaning
of the picture, and suddenly his classmates gave a very rousing applause and the teacher
praised the students work very good, the students are happy.
Indeed, the meaning of life is not simply to feel happy, but more than that, the welfare
of the one who would be an indicator of the ultimate achievement of understanding of life.
One of these forms of eudaimonic wellbeing, prosperity lies in the actualization of human
potential (Hefferon & Boniwell, 2011: 77) self-actualization are intimately associated with
eudaimonic wellbeing. Researchers within the eudaimonic framwork argue that happiness and
the good life are not simply the experiences of feel good. There has to be more to life than just
pleasure and satisfaction. Eudaimonic wellbeing proposes that true happiness is found in the
expression of virtue and doing what is worth doing. Thus, the realization of human potential
is an ultimate goal (Aristotele). Individual must therefore seek and pursue happiness through
prudence (John Locke) and self-discipline (Epicurus). Eudaimonia according Hefferon &
Boniwell (2011:77) is defined as fulfilling or realizing one's daimon or true nature. This
occurs when people's life activities are most congruent with their deep value (Waterman,

1993) such as developing our self (Vitterso, 2004), engaging in activities for their own sake
(Csikszentmihalyi, 2002) and belonging to and serving institution larger than oneself.
Self-actualization is an instinctive human need to do the best he can. Maslow
(Maslow, 2006), claimed self-actualization is the process of being yourself and develop
properties and unique psychological potential. Self-actualization will be helped or hindered by
the experience and by learning, especially in childhood. Self-actualization is changed in line
with the development of a person's life. When it reaches a certain age (adolesence) a person
will experience a shift from physiological to self-actualization psychology. (Sarwono, 2002).
Self-actualization can be defined as the highest growth of all the talents, fulfilling all
the quality and capacity. Actualization also facilitate and enhance the maturation and growth.
As individuals increasingly large, the "self" begins to develop. At that moment, the pressure
switches actualization in terms of the physiological to the psychological aspect. The shape of
the body and its functions have reached a mature level of development, so that subsequent
developments centered on personality.
According to Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, the human is driven by the
needs of the universal and innate. These needs are arranged in levels from the lowest to the
highest. The needs of the lowest and most powerful must be satisfied before the next level
needs arise. The highest needs in Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs the individual is selfactualization. This is very important and is a fixed price if you want to achieve success. Selfactualization is the stage of achievement by a man on what started realizing it was in him. All
humans will experience that phase, only a portion of a human trapped in values or measures
achievement of each stage of Maslow proposed. If only a man could quickly surpass every
stage of it and soon reached the final stage of self-actualization that is, then he has a chance to
find out who he really is. (Sarwono, 2002).
Abraham Maslow, in his Hierarchy of Needs to use the term self-actualization as the
need and highest achievement a human being. Maslow found that regardless of a person's
ethnic origin, every man experiences the stages of increased need or achievement in life.
These needs include (Maslow, 2006):
1. Physiological Needs, include the need for food, clothing, and shelter as well as biological
needs,
2. Safety and security need, including the need for job security, freedom from fear or
pressure, or the security of events that threaten the environment,
3. The need for a sense of belonging, social and affectionate (social), covers the need of
friendship, family, group, interaction and affection,
4. The need for esteem, include the need for self-esteem, status, prestige, respect, and
appreciation of others,
5. The need for self-actualization, including the need for a fulfilling existence (selffulfillment) through maximizing the use of the capabilities and potential.
People who are able to actualize himself was well aware that there are other barriers to
the existence or stay (indwelling) inside (internal) or outside (external) that control the
behavior of its own existence and actions to do something.
1. Internal
The internal factors is a form of barrier that comes from within a person, which
includes: 1) Ignorance of the potential 2) Feelings of doubt and fear revealing their
potential, so that its potential can not continue to grow. Potential is capital that needs
to be known, explored and maximized. Indeed, the change can only happen if we

know the potential that exists within us and then directing it to the proper action and
tested.
2. External
External factors are barriers that come from outside the person, such as:
1) culture of society that do not support the self-actualization of one's potential as a
different character. In fact, the environmental community is not completely selfactualization menuunjang efforts of its citizens.
2) Environmental factors affect the effort to realize a society of self-actualization.
Self-actualization can be done if the environment permits. Environment is one of the
factors that influence the formation and development of individual behavior, both
physical environments and socio-psychological.
3) Parenting in the formulation of self-actualization means a child is enormous. Many
factors affect the families who participated in the process of child development. One
of the factors in the family has an important role in the self-actualization is the practice
of parenting.
Self-actualization is a person's ability to regulate itself, free from the pressures, both
from inside and outside the self. The ability of a person to free themselves from internal and
external pressures in actualizing itself indicates that the person has reached maturity
themselves. In early childhood education, teachers have had to create a learning process that
is able to free students from the internal and external pressures. One way is by learning the
nuances of eudaimonic wellbeing.
METHOD
This research was conducted to obtain in-depth overview of the application of
eudaimonic wellbeing in the process of learning in kindergarten (TK Nurrurosydah
Bayongbong Garut 2013-2014 Academic Years) to develop early childhood self-actualization.
Nasution (1988: 9) suggests that direct observation is a naturalistic penekatan also called
qualitative approach. The study was conducted in a natural situation by looking at the
interaction between the researcher and the respondents in order to gain an understanding of
the perception of the respondents (Alwasilah: 2003: 90).
In accordance with the problems of the research subject of this study is that early
childhood is a kindergarten student. The selection of research subjects done purposively, in
accordance with the opinion of Patton (Alwasilah, 2003: 143) states that qualitative research
enough to use purposive sampling.
The data required in this study will be obtained through interviews, observation and
documentation which according Moleong (2001: 121) in qualitative research, research as well
as a planner, implementer, data collection, analysis, interpretation of data and in the end
became a reporting research results so that the sense of man as a research instrument is
appropriate since he became everything from kesuluruhan research process. Attitude
researchers, speech, hospitality, patience and will greatly affect the overall performance of the
content or subject of study respondents received by researchers.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
These results indicate that the kindergarten teachers Nurrurosydah Bayongbong Garut
2012-2013 academic year in addition to understand the stage, tempo, and rhythm to achieve
self-actualization early childhood students. Understanding and skills obtained teacher, first
through debriefing and training on learning models nuanced eudaimonic wellbeing, briefing

given by researchers to the kindergarten teacher. Both bring the teachers to get used to read a
lot of books related to self-actualization, eudaimonic wellbeing, positive psychology,
seminars or training in order to develop self-actualization protege optimally. This is consistent
with the opinion Sukmadinata (2003: 258) that teachers need to have a great curiosity, the
teachers are required to always be learning, not just for his own benefit but also for the
progress of their students.
The first step researchers conducted training for kindergarten teachers about
eudaimonic wellbeing. Approach to learning the nuances of eudaimonic wellbeing that
learning approaches that bring early childhood students to enjoy the learning process and
interpret each in kindergarten. Each student delivered learning process to find the happiness
of every learning process itself. So that the success rate of the real achievement of learning
objectives. This brings the student is able to actualize themselves as students feel a happiness
of every learning process. The training lasted for 5 meetings, ranging from discussion of the
concept of eudaimonic wellbeing, materials development, to the creation of instructional
media.
Step two researchers conducted observations of the implementation of eudaimonic
wellbeing in the process of learning in kindergarten. The teacher becomes the subject of the
source of observation and student teaching observation of each given by the teacher. So the
results can be seen from the results of the learning process on the day.
With an understanding of the stages, tempo, and rhythm of the child's selfactualization, according to the K teacher in the learning process nuanced eudaimonic
wellbeing, students showed high creativity, capable of doing the work that should be done,
show tolerance, spontaneity, simple, self-contained, as well as independence.
Similar delivered by teacher A during the learning process of students demonstrate
mutual respect, tolerance, high creativity, and be able to finish the work independently.
According to the teacher Fi characteristics of each child learns differently, and there are
those that are self should always be assisted by a teacher, but by learning eudaimonic
wellbeing of teachers bringing students to enjoy every step of learning with patience, sincerity
and intentions as a way of worship. Conditions of students in such a course is influenced by
the emotional state of the student as stated Beatty (1990: 70) that the short-lived children's
emotions and then suddenly stopped, children's emotions deeply but easily changed and in
addition to the open also more frequent.
The learning process eudaimonic wellbeing nuanced bring student teachers to
understand emotions very early age helps children meet actualizing. Through learning the
nuances eudaimonic wellbeing of students were taken on a fully self-actualization condition.
This is caused by the presence of two strengths of attraction and will always influence upon
within the students themselves throughout the course of his life. The power of one leads to
self-defense, resulting in a fear of one or insecure, afraid to face the risk of decision to be
taken, glorify the past by ignoring the present and future, hesitant in making a decision /
action, and so on . While other power is the power that leads to wholeness and self-realization
of the full potential of which is owned, resulting in a self-confidence and self-acceptance in
full. This is similar to that expressed by Hefferon & Boniwell (2011: 77) eudaimonic
wellbeing bringing individuals are at an optimal realization of self-potential.
Some findings in the field showed the attitudes of students who have reached selfactualization to be optimal in general show the characteristic of self-actualization. Some of
the findings are in line with the findings Kozier & Erb (1998) as follows:
1. Being able to see reality more efficiently characteristics or capacities will make a person
to be able to recognize the lies, deception, and falsehood that other people do, and be able

10

to analyze critically, logically, and depth to all the phenomena of nature and life. As an
example of the behavior of the students indicated that students will listen to what it
should be heard, not heard what he wanted, and feared by others. The sharpness of
observation of the reality of life will produce a brilliant mindset to look far into the future
without being influenced by self-interest or momentary advantage.
2. Acceptance of ourselves and others what adanyaatau genuine nature. These properties
will result in a high tolerance towards others and patience in accepting yourself and
others. He will open up to criticism, suggestions, or advice from others against him.
3. The unique attitude of kindergarten students is the attitude of spontaneity, but students
who take learning the nuances eudaimonic wellbeing shows all actions, behavior, and
spontaneous ideas, reasonable, and not contrived. Thus, what he does not pretend. These
properties will bear gracefully attitude towards what is becoming a habit asak community
is not opposed to the principle that the most important, though inwardly he laughed it off.
However, if the environment / habits in the community is contrary to the principles which
he believed, he did not hesitate to bring it with assertive.
4. Minimize the egocentric behavior, because students are familiar with mutual tolerance.
5. Showing the attitude of autonomy. Students who have reached self-actualization, does
not depend on the environment (such as a teacher, friend, or parent). He can do anything
and anywhere without being influenced by the environment (circumstances) that
surrounds it. This independence showed resistance to all the problems that rocked
without despair
6. Interpersonal relationships. Students are able to express themselves have a tendency to
establish good relationships with others. He can develop intimate relationship with a
sense of love and affection. Interpersonal relationship is not based on personal tendencies
ynag moment, but based on the feelings of love, compassion, and patience even though
the person may not match the behavior of the people around him.
7. Democratic because of the democratic nature of this was born the self-actualizing person
and does not have uncomfortable feeling to get along with others. Also because of his
humility, so he always respect others without exception.
8. Sense of humor is meaningful and ethical. He will not laugh at the humor is insulting,
demeaning and even vilify others. Humor self-actualizing person not only raises a laugh,
but loaded with meaning and value of education. Humor really describe human nature to
respect and uphold human values.
9. The creative attitude shown by other characteristics possessed by students actualize
themselves. Creativity is manifested in its ability to make innovations that spontaneous,
genuine, not limited by the environment or other people.
10. Independence, students are able to maintain the establishment and the decisions he took.
Do not falter or be affected by various shocks or interests.
CONCLUSION & SUGGESTIONS
The meaning of the results obtained from this study is the description of the profile
empirical understanding of kindergarten teachers and parents about the stages, tempo, and
rhythm early childhood self-actualization and eudaimonic wellbeing efforts that have been
implemented kindergarten teacher. That understanding is reflected in how the teacher creates
a learning atmosphere eudaimonic wellbeing with a different treatment for each child.
Tailored to the needs of children, calm, attentive, patient, and sincere.
Based on the results of a study of students revealed that students' creativity can arise
when learning to walk with a pleasant situation, and students enjoy every learning process.

11

Indicators of the achievement of self-actualization in the creativity that many students are
awarded when following the race early age student skills. Teachers guide children by first
recognizing each one of their students, invites conversation, and became a cathartic children
to explore the potential, interests, and talents. Once the child is familiar with will meneritakan
interest and teacher will assist students in achieving their potential.
Recommendations for kindergarten, especially teachers to better follow the simple steps
to actualize the student:
1. Recognize the unique potential and existing talent in students. Never hide talent, because
the talent is created to be used, so the advice of Benjamin Franklin. Therefore, teachers of
kindergarten are required to recognize the unique talents and potential that exist in
students. Because of this potential is an invaluable gift of God. Believe each human being
is born with talent and tremendous potential. The task of the teacher to understand, detect
and recognize the talent and potential of what are the have.
2. Sharpen the unique ability of students every day because it will bring the student's ability
to realize self-actualization. Involve students in various races, because it follows the race
is a form of business in realizing self-actualization.
3. Create each individual differently and be "one in a million kind of person". Every human
being is born different and created to make a difference in life. Believe masterpiece of
God's amazing. Students are gold and diamonds that are priceless. Then have the students
make themselves valuable by being unique.
REFERENCE
Alwasilah, A. (2003). Pokoknya kualitatif. Jakarta: PT Dunia Pustaka Jaya.
Beaty, Janice. (1994). Observing Development Of The Young Child. Ohio: Merrill an imprint
of Prentice Hall
Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2002). Flow: The Classic Work on How to Achieve Happiness. New
York: Harper & Row
Hefferon, K., & Boniwell, I. (2011). Positive Psychology: Theory, Research and
Applications. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Kozier, B.B., & Erb, G. (1987). Fundamentals of Nursing: Concepts and Procedures (3rd
ed). Massachussets: Eddison Wesley.
Maslow, A., (2006). On Dominace, Self Esteen and Self Actualization. Ann Kaplan: Maurice
Basset
Moleong, J.L. (1980). Metodologi penelitian kualitatif. Jakarta: Erlangga.
Sarwono, S. W., (2002). Berkenalan dengan Aliran-aliran dan Tokoh-tokoh Psikologi.
Jakarta: Bulan Bintang.
Sukmadinata, N.S., (2003). Landasan Psikologi Proses Pendidikan. Bandung : PT Remaja
Rosda Karya
Waterman, A.S. (1993). Two Concept of Happiness: Contrasts of persinal expresiveness
(eudaimonia) and hedonic enjoyment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,
64:678-91.
Vitterso, J. (2004). Subjective wellbeing versus self-actualization: using the flowsimplex to
promote a conceptual clarification of subjective quality of life. Social Indicators
Research, 65(3): 299-331.

12

ETHNOPEDAGOGIC: "NEW PARADIGM" DEVELOPED THE WISDOM for EARLY


CHILDHOOD EDUCATOR CANDIDATES TO MEET THE "GOLD GENERATION" 2045
Oleh:
Herdi, M.Pd. 1
Prof. Dr. H. Sunaryo Kartadinata, M.Pd. 2
Dr. H. Agus Taufiq, M.Pd. 3

ABSTRACT
Educators in early childhood education has roles and responsibilities to facilitate counseling activities,
expanding from the natural objective condition to the appropriate normative condition based on the
nature of human existence that is constantly evolving and becoming/well-being "golden generation".
Become an educator in early childhood education is not only an emphasis on mastery teaching
methods/special skills, but more important is having the right personality characteristics. Wisdom is
the endpoint of individual personality development, including the educators, as an integrated personal
characteristic, psychological maturity, psychological well-being, creativity, and the endpoint of
effective educator. Therefore, it is necessary for proper and adequate education to develop the wisdom
of would-be educators in early childhood education. Proper and adequate education that is in line with
and derived from philosophy, eduation, and human development, insights, goals, and framework of the
education itself which has frames of moral values of the natives. On this paper will be discussed the
philosophical framework, theoretics, and practices comprehensively and integrative Ethnopedagogic
as a "new paradigm" to develop the wisdom of early childhood educator candidates.
Key words: ethnopedagogic, wisdom, early childhood education, the golden generation

Doctoral student in the Guidande and Counseling Department, Graduate School, Indonesia University of Education.

Promotor of the thesis in the Guidance and Counseling Department, Graduate School, Indonesia University of Education

Co-promotor the thesis in the Guidance and Counseling Department, Graduate School, Indonesia University of Education

13

CHARACTER BUILDING EARLY CHILDHOOD TO BE GOLD GENERATION OF


INDONESIA
Endang Pudjiastuti1, Niken Cahyorinartri2
1. Fakultas Pendidikan & Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Islam Bandung
2. Jurusan Psikologi, Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia
Email: anugrahaji77@yahoo.com, nikencahyo@gmail.com
Delivered in Negotiating Practices of Early Childhood Education
ABSTRACT
To prepare early childhood into a golden generation of Indonesia, Knowledge is Power but
Character is More should be realized. Character education start from early childhood would
be effective because children are experiencing tremendous development (the golden age). For
ease of forming the character, needs to be known about the four personality types, sanguine,
phlegmatic, choleric and melancholic. Educational method that appropriate with children
development are Modeling, Habituation, Playing, Singing, Storytelling and Field Trip. The
values that implemented from character education are 1. Religiosity, 2. Honesty, 3. Tolerance,
4. Discipline, 5. Hard-working, 6. Creative, 7. Independent, 8. Democratic, 9. Curiosity, 10.
Spirit of nationality, 11. Love of country, 12. Appreciating achievement, 13. Friendly, 14.
Peaceful, 15. Joy of reading, 16. Environmental care, 17. Social caring, 18. Responsibility.
By following educational motto from Ki Hajar Dewantoro : 1) Ing Ngarso Sung
Tulodo; 2) Ing Madyo Mbangun Karso; 3) Tut Wuri Handayani, parenting and education
activities aim to build early childhood character will be achieved by mutual cooperation
between parents, teachers and community.
Key words : Early childhood, building character, golden generation

1. Introduction

Preparing the early childhood to be Indonesian generation with character, Knowledge is


Power but Character is More (Pudjiastuti, 2011) should be realized. Children is their parent
wished. Their birth are awaited every new family as successor. The crying of new born baby
will be greeted with happines and hopefulness. Child has a very important meaning in human
life. Child is a chain and progressors of human existence from generation to generation.
Maintenance of child survival start from the idea how to keep the child can growing
healthy, physical and spiritual. This effort began before the birth, even since the parent start
the household. This effort really important to grown future generation with character. Because
of that the care of the child should be realized as an effort to provide provision, especially by
education so child can handle any challenge yhat he would be faced. It can be conclude that
the maintenance of child survivor are including two basic aspects, caring and education.
Building indonesian generation by character education for early childhood really
important for facing their life in the future. Character education is a good habit which able to
keep somebody from many moral crisis that nowaday is become problem in Indonesia. Many
forms of criminalities such as fighting, brawl, robbery and even corruption become an
indication the lack someone character.
The indonesian native educator Ki Hadjar Dewantoro stated that the hallmark of early
childhood education is budi pekerti and sistem among. Budi pekerti education aims to
organize human life by instill human dignity and values, moral values, and ultimately
establishment human that have good personality.

14

2. Basic of character education for early childhood


Many researchers argued that implementation of character education that begins in early
childhood were effective because on the age a child is experiencing incredible growth (the
golden age) and hasnt get many influence from outside. The golden age is the gold period
that childs brain experiencing the fastest development. This period only happen when child
in the womb until an early age, which is zero to six years. However, the baby in the womb
until four years old are the most crusial period. This period called golden period because on
this period childs brain is the key factor for the establishment of childs intelligence that
growing and developing very fast. At this period, growth and brain development of children
reach eighty percent of his brain in adulthood. Its mean after that period the brain
development only growth twenty percent.
Maria Montessori (Solehuddin, 2000) said that on the golden period every child has
what is reffered to the absorbent mind. It said that childs brain power for absorbing
everything like sponse that ready to absorb anything which it touch. On this period, brain that
absorb only lasted a lifetime. This period as well as a key to the development of potential and
intelligence in the later period.

3. Recognizing Personality of early childhood


In psychology known four types of personalities, chorelis, sanguine, phlegmatic, and
melancholic. Actually, this four types of personalities are too simple to explain childrens
overall personality because every child has their own uniqueness. However this theory can be
used to recognizing personality of children. The following is an explanation for the four
personality types (Suuyadi, 2000).
a.

Chorelis type
Children with chorelis type known as hard, firm and very demanding of idealistic. They
have big energy to do the hard things. They also have strong belief of their ability. They are
optimistic to face a variety of things, including never give up on challenges. Therefore, they
are happy to get big duty and holding full authority. They have big potention to be a leader.
They are also sensitive to errors. When they speaking, they tend directly to the core of the
problem. Children with chorelis type rarely cry therefore they will be less warmth to give
sympaty and emphaty to their friends especialy their sad friends.
Children with chorelis type have strong desire followed by commitment make the
children hard to beat. When they become leader, they will do the best for their job. They
always gathering strenght and setting strategy carefully. They optimistic that their task will be
complete well.
The weakness of children with chorelis type are they can get rid of their competitors
with a less honorable way. Children with chorelis type sometime look less wise. They give an
order impressed arbitrarily without regard to their friends feeling. When they get angry, they
can be rude but they also easy to forgive.
b.

Sanguine type
Children with sanguine type tend to like a lot of talk, communicative and full of
inspiration. Because of their good ability at speaking, they can be easy to influence others.
They are good at making an impression and love to be the central of attention. They have
need to be approved and appreciated. In terms of duty they are prefer to do spontaneous things
than routine and monotonous working condition. They have new idea to make their duty to be
more productive.

15

The biggest strenght of children with sanguine type is they can make friends with
anyone, including children were excluded by others. They seem always happy, that make
other people be sympatized. Their speaking ability are praised by others.
The weakness of children with sanguine type are their ability of speaking made them
easy to make forgotten promises. It make them known to be person that difficult to keep
promises. Beside of that they often cantt survive in a task that takes a long time. They also
unconsistently and undiscipline because they feel no burden. Children with sanguine type are
difficult to keep secret even their own secret. This makes them speak and act before thinking
carefully. Consequently they often make mistakes on their environment, although it did not
make them feel sorry.
c.

Phlegmatic type
Children with phlegmatic type are very fun to be friend. They are really shy and dont
like praise. They happy enough to having fun with their friends. They are polite children and
also obey the rule. They are afraid if their words atau behaviors hurt somebody else. Because
of that they dont like conflict and radical changes. They are happier giving approval to others
that giving different opinion. Children with phlegmatic type prefer to be a good listener and
can keep secrets. They have a need for order, constancy, status quo and they usually
sentimental.
Children with phlegmatic type tend to do their routine with standards that have proven
succes. They dont like the variation and changing demands. So it make them effective and
efficient in the work. They will do the task if it was carefully planned and could be know for
sure the success. They will be carefully to take decision. Children with phlegmatic type have
high patience and calmness to face of all the problems while their mind searching for a
solution.
The weakness of children with phlegmatic type will appear when overused their
strength so that deviate or easily manipulated by other children. They are more comfortable
when they appear to be polite children. Therefore they often become coward. Their love of
regularity makes them not like changes even the good changes.
d.

Melancholic type
Children with melancholic type are serious and closed, but really clever and critical
thinking. They are more diligent than children with other type. They understand step by step
and doing something always refers to the stage.Therefore children with melancholic type tend
to be tight, disciplined, consistent and critical. They can analyze better than others. They have
high accuracy so that they can see the details of the problem. In their minds the success
depend on planning.
The strenght of children with melancholic type is their ability to think. They are known
as idealistic person. They hope everything happen according to the rules that they understood.
They are known as the people who hold principle, hard at work, diligently in worship, willing
to sacrifice and never give up.
The weakness of children with melancholic type is that they are rigid, not flexible in
making friends. Their ability to analyze make them tend to giving reaction than response. If
they get challenge or problem, they immediately giving negative reaction. They tend to blame
others than themselves. Their nature to excessive caution can be dangerous, because it make
the afraid to be wrong and taking risk. So it can make them afraid to try the new things.

16

In daily life, rarely can be found child that has one type of personality. Usually every
person has combination of two or more type of peronalities. Because every person naturally
try to minimmalize their weakness and optimalize their strength. It can be understood that
almost every person has natural combination, 1) choleris with sanguine; 2) choleris with
melancholic; 3) sanguine with phlegmatic; 4) melancholic with choleris. The percentage of
combination can be different.

4. Methods of teaching character education for early children

The appropriate teaching method is Sistem Among (Sujiono, 2013). The core of
sistem among was presented by Ki Hadjar Dewantoro is 1) Ing Ngarso Asung Tulodo, which
means that teacher have to give exemplary to student. This position should be more given to
early childhood, which is teacher doesnt need to give many advices. 2) Ing Madyo Mbangun
Karso, which means that teacher should be raising childrens willingness so they have
opportunity to try by themselves. Early children can do this, but it is more appropriate to
elementary student. 3) Tut Wuri Handayani, which means that teacher have to providing
encouragement and monitoring so student can work by themselves.
Thera are some methods that can be used to teaching character education for early children
(Fadlillah and Khorida, 2013). This methods are complementary each other. This metholds
will produce a good learning process if they used together.
a. Exemplary method, is influitive method is the most successful method in preparing
spiritual, moral and social children. This is because teacher is the best model for children
to show the good behavior and attitude. Exemplary is the most important factor to change
behaviors. This method is one way to teach knowledge by giving direct example to
children. This method also indirectly lead to the teacher's own competence. By good
example, children will see, hear, feel and entered into memory then it will developed and
implemented by the children.
b. Habituation method, is a method to get children to think, behave, act, according to the
norms and also their beliefs. This method is practical for coaching and developing
character of early children. The core of habituation is repetition and practice good habits.
Essentially, habituation is a more profound implication dan saying and doing. According
to Ki Hadjar Dewantoro (Sujiono, 2013), one to seven years of age is seen as childhood,
so the suitable teaching of this period is giving an example dan habituation.
c. Playing method, is an activity that make children happy, comfortable, and excited.
Playing for early childhood is seen as a learning activity because playing was the basic
need that should be filled. Rasulullah Muhammad SAW advicing children to play
(Fadlillah, 2014). Every parent should play with their children. Beside the form of
affection, it also physical trainning to be strong and learning to be creative.
d. Singing method, is producing sound with lyrics that sung. Usually the lyrics was adapted
with the material that will be taught. Singing method make learning situation to be fun so
children development will be optimal stimulated especially language adn environment
interaction.
e. Story telling method, is one way to getting children attention. Delivery of material
through interesting stories can getting children attention. The funtion of the story were a
means of inner contact between teacher or parent and children; a medium to deliver moral
and values message; a method so children can doing self-identification and behavior
identification; as emotional education; as one way to teaching children to be creative; a
way to developing language ability; a way to improve childrens knowledge; one of

17

f.

therapy to children with psychological problem; and entertainment facilities and


prevention of boredom.
Field trip method, is teaching method that giving a chance to children to observe. By that
way every senses of children can be activated. Every senses can giving information that
forming a perception. This is helping children to develop knowledge to improving
children ability. This methodraising children interest and curiosity. The children were
trained to be discipline, recognize and appreciate the nature, respect their friends, raising
positive attitude to environment and cooperation.

5. The apllication of character education values


The implementation of character education values (Fadlillah and Khorida, 2013) as follow:
a. Religious is obidient attitude and behaviors in carrying out the teachings of their religion.
They also tolerant and live in harmony with other religions.
b. Honesty is behaviors based on an attempt to make themselve as people are always
trustworthy in word, act and work. Honest is abstract thing for children, so honest attitude
can only be introduced and cultivated through real actions. The effective way to teaching
about honesty by giving direct exemplary by teacher and parent.
c. Tolerance, is an act to appreciate different religion, race ethnicity, opinion and behaviors.
Appreciating each other is a reflection of the tolerance. The way that can be done is to
train children to love and care for others.
d. Discipline, is an act that demonstrate orderly behavior and obey to the rules. Rules were
made to be flexibel but firm. If somebody break the rule, he have to face the
consequences. Discipline shoud be shown by parent and teacher if the children wanted to
be discipline.
e. Hard working, is behavior that indicate an earnest effort to overcome learning barriers
and completing tasks as well as possible.
f. Creative, is thinking and doing something to produce new thing. Creativitiy can be
trainned by nature activity or activity with other people.
g. Independent, is attitude and behavior not easy to depends on other people to finish their
tasks. Independet for children is an important thing.
h. Democratic, is how to think, behave and act that judging the rights and obligations are
same for themselve to others.
i. Curiosity, is an attitude and behavior that always try to find out more in depth anything
they learned, seen and heard. Actually, children who asking a lot are clever clever and
have big curiosity.
j. Spirit of nationality, is how to think, act and have a conception that the sake of nation and
state is more important than their own sake. From the beginning, children have to
introduced of goverment program such as traffic rule.
k. Love of homeland, is how to think, act and do something that shows the nature of loyalty,
care and high appreciation of the language, the physical environment, social, cultural,
economic and political nation. Love of homeland can be teach by introduce Indonesian
culture especially their own culture.
l. Appreciating the achievement, is an attitude and act encourage them untuk produce
something that useful for other. They also acknowledge and respect the success of others.
By giving an appreciation for the childrens succes will improving their motivation to
always learning.
m. Communicative, is an act that love to speak, socialize dan cooperate with others. Children
who have a lot of friend will have strong bravery and willpower.

18

n.

o.
p.
q.

r.

Love peace, is an attitude, expression and act that cause other people happy and feel safe
on the presence of them. From the beginning this attitude should be implanted by
teaching children with expression of sorry, ask for permission and help.
Love to read, is a habit to spend time for reading. Early childhood was the best period for
children to learn a habit of reading so it wil improve their knowledge.
Environment caring, is the attitude and act that always try to prevent nature destruction
and improving efforts to fixing nature destruction that already happened.
Social caring, is attitude and act that want to giving help to others. The effective way to
teaching this character is by taking children to the orphanage to see the state as well as
learning to share to the environment that require.
Responsibility, is an attitude and act to do their duty and obligations that should be done
to themselve, other people, environment, country, and God.

6. Closing
Building Indonesioan generation by character education for early childhood is really
important to face their life later. The cornerstone of the implementation of character education
which is used as a reference should not deviate from the identity of the community and the
nation of Indonesia. By follow and adhere to the sistem among form the motto of the
education by Ki Hajar Dewantoro which reads: 1) Ing Ngarso Asung Tulodo, 2) Ing Madyo
Mbangun Karso; 3) Tut Wuri Handayani, parenting and educational activities aimed at
building character early childhood will be achieved. It also have to be supported by the
cooperation of parents, teacher, and community. Parents, teachers and communities are
expected to care for and educate children to achieve in order to prepare early childhood into
Indonesia generation who have character.

7. References
Fadlillah, M. (2014). Edutainment pendidikan anak usia dini. Yogyakarta: Prenada Media
Fadlillah, M & Khorida, L. (2013). Pendidikan karakter anak usia dini. Yogyakarta: ArRuzz- Media
Sujiono, Y. (2013). Konsep dasar pendidikan anak usia dini. Jakarta: PT Indeks
Pudjiastuti, E. (2011). Konseling psikologi dam bimbingan karir di institusi pendidikan.
Bandung: Jauhar Mandiri
Solehuddin. (2000). Konsep dasar pendidikan prasekolah. Bandung: FIP UPI
Suyadi. (2010). Psikologi belajar paud. Yogyakarta: Pedagogia

19

20

Curriculum and Assessment of


Early Childhood Education

22

CONTEXTUAL TEACHING LEARNING


IN ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION FOR KINDERGARTEN
Heny Djoehaeni
Prodi PGPAUD FIP UPI
henydjoe@yahoo.com
Abstract
This study is based on some problems, firstly, the existence of the phenomenon of
environmental degradation; second, the need for the development of environmental awareness
through environmental education from an early age; Third, the lack of environmental
education learning model that can be used as a reference. In general, this study aims to
develop a model of environmental education learning in early childhood education, more
specifically the purpose of this study is to find a learning model of environmenttal education
in early childhood and the implementation of environmental education learning in early
childhood education. The method used is the method of research and development (Research
and Development). In general, this research consists of the stages of preliminary studies,
planning, development of the initial model, the initial model design validation, and revision of
the initial model, a limited test, a wider test, revision and validation of the model. The The
results of limited and wider test shows that Contextual Teaching Learning Model
implemented in kindergarten can improve children's learning outcomes. Recommendations of
this study are teacher expected to explore more learning resources from the environment
around the child and create a meaningfull learning process in kindergarten.
Keywords: environmental education, kindergarten, contextual teaching learning
1.

Introduction
Environment is an integral part of human life. Changes in the environment will impact
directly on the quality of human life. Issues of the environment are global issue that demands
attention from various sectors including education. Sullivan in Bezzina (2006) stated that the
environmental crisis is a social issue and not merely a matter of natural issue.
Environmental education has an important role in addressing environmental problems that
arise at this time. As noted by Seefeldt (1989) that the current need for environmental
education is critical. The environment and dwindling natural resources, becoming one thought
that leads to the attention and concern for environmental education.
The development of environmental awareness is increasingly important to continue to
be disseminated to all elements of society who have the responsibility of maintaining and
preserving the environment. For that, guidance from the school about environmental
awareness is required. It is intended for school-age children to have awareness against the
importance of environmental aspects in maintaining life today and in the future. Moreover,
environmental education is the responsibility of the entire society, including government and
educational institutions.
The early introduction of environmental education is expected to develop positive
attitudes towards sustainability and the environment. It is relevant with the statement of
Sutrisno et al (2005) that the introduction of the surrounding nature through environmental
education to children from an early age is the first step in respecting the environment.
As regulated In the constitution of the Republic of Indonesia No. 23 of 1997 (Act No.
23 of 1997 ) on Environmental Management , stated that environmental education is an effort

23

to change behaviors and attitudes conducted by various parties or elements of society that
aims to improve the knowledge , skills and awareness of environmental values and the issue
of environmental problems, which is designed to mobilize communities to play an active role
in conservation and environmental safety for the benefit of present and future .
The government has a positive response related to the environmental education, with the
issuance of the policy on Environmental Awareness Development (PKLH) conducted in
various educational institutions. In the province of West Java, awareness training is conducted
in the school environment is regulated by the Governor of West Java on Local Content
Guidelines for Environmental Education curriculum. The implication of the Governors Rule
is that every school is expected to prepare the environmental education of local content.
Governors Rule was followed by the issuance of Bandung Mayor Regulation No. 031 of
2007 on Local Content Curriculum Environmental Education in Bandung.
Although the regulations towards the implementation of environmental education have
been published, but practically there is still no guidelines that can be used to guide teachers in
implementing environmental education in early childhood education. On the other hand, early
childhood education is seen as a great and meaningful place to start learning about the
environment.
Early childhood education is the foundation for the development of individual character
in their future life. Many experts claim that education at an early age is a fundamental stage
for the development and further education. Victorian Environmental Education Council
(1992) stated that the experience of learning that occurs at an early age will be the basis for
the next learning experience.
Some of the fundamental qualities of the importance of environmental education such
as creativity, teamwork, respect for environmental preservation reused materials, and the
understanding of linkages in the life on earth can be developed significantly in early age.
Several studies reveal the importance of environmental education, as stated in Chen and
Cheng (2008) that Environmental Education is a very important tool in providing knowledge,
positive attitudes towards the environment and to build skills to protect and improve
environmental quality. In connection with the limited financial resources and increasing
challenges related to environmental conditions, it is necessary to provide effective
environmental education programs..
It is necessary for the development of a research that produce a learning model which
can be served as guidelines for teachers in implementing the Environmental Education in
Early Childhood Education, especially in kindergarten. This article discusses the results of a
preliminary study as well as the stage of development as part of the research and development
of instructional models Environmental Education at the Early Childhood Education.
The problem in this study is: "How does the implementation of Environmental Education in
Early Childhood Education? More specifically, the proposed formulation of the problem is:
1. How does condition of the learning process of environmental education at the early
childhood education today?
2. How does environmental education learning model to improve the competence of
early childhood?
3. How does the implementation of environmental learning model?
Based on the problems, the objectives of this study are:
1. Knowing the objective conditions of the learning process of environmental education
at the early childhood education today

24

2. Developing environmental education learning model to improve the competence of


early childhood
3. Knowing the implementation of environmental learning model developed
Benefits of Research
The development of environmental education learning model in improving the competence of
early childhood has the following benefits:
a. Provide a valuable learning experience for children related to environmental education
oriented characteristics and needs of students.
b. As a reference for preparing the planning and implementation of learning programs for
Environmental Education in Early Childhood Education institutions in order to
introduce and raise awareness of the environment at an early age .
c. Provide input related to the implementation of the Environmental Education Program
implemented in early childhood education so as to enrich the existing regulations.
2. Literature Review
1 .Learning
Learning is a process of interaction between teachers and students in order to achieve
the goals set. According to Oemar Hamalik ( 1995:55 ) that " learning is a structured
combination includes human elements, materials, facilities, equipment, and procedures that
affect each other to achieve the learning objectives "
Meanwhile, Sanjaya (2009) states that the term learning was demonstrated in the
business of lessons students learn as a teachers treatment. While MKDP Curriculum
Development Team and Learning (2009) states that learning is an accumulation of the
concept of teaching and teaching concepts. The emphasis lies in the combination between the
two, which is the subject of the cultivation of students' activities.
Based on the opinion above , it can be concluded that the emphasis on teaching and
learning activities of students that have been designed by the teacher through a planned effort
by a particular procedure or method for a process of behavior change in a comprehensive
manner .
2 . Learning Theory
Learning theory used in developing this model of learning is constructivist learning
theory. Constructivism is a theory about the structure of knowledge. Kamii and DeVries as
quoted in Branscome ( 2003) states that constructivism is a theory of knowledge emphasizing
the role of each person in constructing their own knowledge rather than absorbing directly
from the environment. Constructivist itself based on research conducted by Piaget that
children basically are actively interpret their experiences in the physical and social world and
to build the knowledge , intelligence, and morality of their own . Children build their own
knowledge because they have so many ideas. In a constructivist perspective of maturity and
experience of the environment plays an important role in the learning process.
According to this view, Rogoff (1990) states that knowledge basically built by the
children through interactions with the environment. According to this understanding, children
are not passive individual, which only gain knowledge from others. Children are creatures of
active learning which can - create and construct their own knowledge. Based on the previous
assumptions, it appears that this approach emphasizes the importance of engaging children in
the learning process. Thus, teachers must be able to create a fun, meaningful, and warm

25

learning environment through playing and interacting with the environment so as to


encourage the active participation of children. This approach is also related to the variation of
individual elements of which are owned by the child.
In connection with the process of development, Piaget (Roopnaire & Johnson: 1993)
explains that a child's development occurs through a sequence of universal and every stage of
development marked by certain characteristics in ways of thinking and doing things. Basically
the process of development thinking shifted from concrete thinking toward abstract thinking.
Meanwhile, Lev Vigotsky views that social context is very important in the learning process
of a child. The experience of social interaction plays an important role in developing
children's thinking skills. The interaction between the child and the social environment will
create new forms of high mental activity. Rogoff (1990) stated that in Vygotskys view,
expertise in the use of cultural tools is the central role of social interaction, and interaction
with friends who have understood something will imitates the interactions with adults in
guiding the cognitive development of children at early age. Piaget and Vigotsky emphasize
the importance of play activities as a means for the education of children, especially the
development of thinking.
Creativity is important to be developed, especially in early childhood. Children seek and
explore new ideas so that they will be able to be ready when dealing with issues that must be
resolved. Interaction with the surrounding environment children performed both adults and
children as well, which can provide valuable enough stock for the child, because it can help
develop language skills, to communicate and socialize. And no less important is through the
interaction of the children will learn to understand the feelings of people, respect their
opinions, it is also train the children to express emotions indirectly.
Kids world is world that full of play. Playing for the children is also learning activities.
The opportunity to give the children to play, has indirectly opened up opportunities for them
to learn. Learning activities that are packed in the form of play will make them happy and
without them knowing that they have developed their potential before. Learning will be more
meaningful to the child if they have interests and needs are met . Children will feel more
happy to learn something of interest to him or according to their needs.
3 . Environmental Education
Environmental education is a process that aimed at developing a world population that
is aware of and concerned about the environment as a whole as well as issues related to the
environment, and possess the knowledge, attitude, motivation, commitment and skills to work
individually and together toward solutions of current problems and the prevention of the
occurrence of new problems (Stapp:1979)
In line with this, the Eco Schools Program (1998) stated that basically, environmental
education programs in schools aims to bring about a change in students' attitudes and values
as a human in interacting with all components of the environment. When schools establish
practical environmental sound program, students will be able to participate actively in
improving the quality of the school environment. In most of these cases, the best results will
be obtained if it is done with the support and cooperation of the community, including
government departments and non- governmental agencies.
When students see that they give a realistic contribution to the environment, they learn
with more understanding, increase their motivation, and raise self-esteem. Kinsella (2008 )
stated that in today's society we are becoming increasingly concerned about global warming ,
climate change and well-being of the planet and its habitat for future generations . As parents
and caregivers, we often worry about the future of our children , and many of us felt we could

26

do more in our daily lives to contribute to the solution not the cause of the environmental
problems posed. In other parts Kinsella (2008 ) also mention that our homes and communities
are places where we raise our children , so it makes sense to want to keep our homes safe and
healthy for them to grow and learn . We know that children learn from relationships with their
families , caregivers, and the environment. So, through what we do in our daily lives , we can
begin to engage children in learning about caring for the world around them .
3 . Research Methodology
This study is part of a research and development ( Research and Development ) , with
reference to the research procedures Brog and Gall ( 1983:772 ) , namely : ( 1 ) . Conduct
preliminary studies , ( 2 ) planning , ( 3 ) developing initial products , ( 4 ) the initial field test
, ( 5 ) revising the major product , ( 6 ) major field test , ( 7 ) revise operational products , ( 8 )
operational field test , ( 9 ) revise the final product and ( 10 ) perform dissemination .
Sukmadinata (2005 ) simplify the implementation steps of the development of research into
three steps , namely :
1 . Pilot study covering three activities, namely the study of literature / literature , field
surveys and preparation of product initial / draft models .
2 . Development stage , includes limited trial and more extensive trials
3 . Experiment stage , to test the goodness of the resulting product .
The results of this presented research are part of the research and development, the
preliminary study phase and the development phase. Phase pilot study was conducted with
survey techniques using a questionnaire distributed to 37 teachers from 20 kindergartens
located in District Sukasari Bandung . While the development stage include limited testing
conducted in Labschool kindergarten , as well as a wider trial conducted in Aisyiah 11
kindergarten , Puspa Mekar kindergarten and Al Inayah kindergarten.
4 . Discussion
The results of research related to environmental education today shows that in general
teachers know about Environmental Education , and believe that Environmental Education
will establish a child to become a person who has a concern for the environment . In general,
the teachers agree that Environment Education is very important and consider any learning
model can be used for learning Environment Education . Related to the learning situation that
is expected to increase environmental awareness in children , in general, teachers expect any
direct involvement with the childrens neighborhood . Associated with the constraints faced
by the Life Education learning environment , teachers generally expressed no learning model
that can be used as a reference by teachers , is a major obstacle .
The results of research related to the development of curriculum , teachers generally
have a reference in developing a learning device . In general, teachers use The Regulation of
Ministry of Education No. 58 of 2009 on the Early Childhood Education Standards as a
reference in determining the theme of learning , strategy , media and learning assessments
carried out in an environmental education . Related to planning development, all the teachers
develop the semester planning , weekly and daily . They consider a very important learning
plan and intends to develop the curriculum development program in the form of the semester ,
weekly and daily for the sake of learning Environment Education .
The results of research related to the implementation of environmental education
learning , in general guidelines as a reference in formulating goals and develop learning

27

materials is a basic competence , competency standards and indicators of learning outcomes


set out in the curriculum . However, in general, teachers develop a theme that suits the needs
and interests of children . Associated with the response of the students , teachers generally
stated that child actively deliver and answer any questions . The most frequent class
organization chosen is classical. The method most often chosen is a question and answer ,
chat and assignments . Learning resources most frequently used is the use of the environment
and story books , picture series as well as the tools of manipulative game . In general, teachers
reported the development of students as much as 1 times every semester, the technique used
in the report is written and spoken . In general, teachers are ready to accept new innovations
related to environmental education learning model .
Model learning for Environmental Education in Early Childhood Education is a
developed Contextual Teaching Learning ( CTL ) model which is focused on the process of
inquiry to help improve knowledge, attitudes and skills of kindergarten children associated
with the environment . This model was developed with the assumption that children learn
from the closest environment and through real experience. The application of this learning
model through the opening stages , whilst, break time and closing time . Each stage is a series
of activities that have relevance to one another . Each activity is directed to the process of
inquiry .
The model that has been developed is then tested on a limited basis and wider . In
limited testing and wider notice an increase in knowledge , attitudes and skills of the child
after the adoption of environmental education learning model by using the model of
Contextual Teaching Learning ( CTL )
Based on the presentation of research results , it appears that an environmental
education has been acknowledged even applied at their respective schools , only teachers
faced obstacles because of the lack of learning models that can be used as a reference .
The curriculum is used as a reference in the study of environmental education is
permendiknas No. 59 of 2009 . Teacher did not use the local curriculum on environmental
education as a supporting reference . So that children's learning outcomes were not related to
Environmental Education directly . Associated with the selection of strategies and classroom
organization , teachers still seem to feel comfortable using teacher centered strategies , the
students in the form of classical approach. This is of course irrelevant to the characteristics
and needs of children as well as perceptions of how children learn . As expressed by (
Masitoh : 2003) that children construct their own knowledge because they have so many ideas
that actually were never taught to them . In line with this Coughlin ( 2000) revealed that the
constructivists believe that learning occurs when children are trying to understand the world
around them . Learning is an interactive process that involves friends , adults and the
environment . In the constructivist view of the children is seen as an active learner , who built
his own understanding.
Associated with the selection of learning resources , teachers generally chose the
environment as a learning resource . This is appropriate, given the nature rich environment
and able to deliver meaningful learning experiences , especially if it is associated with
environmental education . As expressed by Sutrisno et al ( 2005) that the introduction of the
natural environment through environmental education to children from an early age for
children is the first step in respecting the environment .
Further more. Sutrisno (2005 ) revealed that concern for the environment can be
fostered in children from an early age . For the best way to bring results relatively quickly and
satisfactorily is to consciously raise our children to love the environment .
In another section , Sutrisno (2005 ) states that through direct interaction with the surrounding

28

natural environment will arise the new children's appreciation of the ecological relevance .
Appreciation of the ecological situation will be more profound and widespread educational
praxis when supported by well-planned and sustainable environment .
With regard to the scope of environmental education , Sutrisno (2005 ) revealed four key
principles that can be used as guidelines in guiding action in harmony with the environment ,
namely :
a. Reducing waste and saving the existing available goods
b. Reusing
c. Recycling
d. Replanting in order to preserve the natural
The fourth application of these principles in daily life requires support from the adults
around the child who will be facilitators for children in an effort to understand and love the
environment. The success of environmental education for young children should be
implemented through an integrated learning process; there is an element of exemplary
teachers and opportunities for children to take concrete actions related to environmental
education.
Meaningful learning for a child is learning to suit their interests and needs.
Environmental education is delivered to children would be meaningful if it is associated with
the context in which the child resides. This is in line with the opinion Adisenjaya (
file.upi.edu ) that environmental education can be taught to apply a contextual approach .
Thus the learning model developed in Environmental Education early childhood is a
Contextual Teaching Learning (CTL) Model -based inquiry process . This model is deemed
appropriately given that the early childhood learning will be more meaningful if carried
through close to the child's daily life , and implemented through direct experience .
CTL approach is a learning approach that facilitates students to search, and found the
experience of learning that are more concrete and related to real life. According to Susilana
(2009), the implementation of contextual teaching learning approach ( CTL ) in the classroom
steps are as follows :
1. Developing the idea that students will learn how to work more meaningful , chalenging ,
and construct their own knowledge and skills .
2. Conducting inquiry ( with the cycle of observation , asking questions, hypothesize ,
collecting data , and drawing conclusions ) .
3. Developing inquisitive students by raising questions
4. Creating learning communities such as through group activities , discussion questions and
answers and so on .
5. Presenting the model as an example of learning . Either through the illustrations , models
and even the actual media .
6. Allowing children to reflect on each learning activity that has been done .
7. Conduct an objective assessment that assesses the actual capabilities in students .
5 . Conclusion
Environmental education has a very important role in addressing environmental
problems that arise at this time . Environmental education is introduced from an early age will
hopefully develop a positive attitude towards environmental sustainability . The results of
research on the stage of preliminary studies indicate that the Environmental Education held in
kindergarten is still not optimal . Teachers still stuck on learning activities that are teacher
oriented . Children's participation is still limited . While environmental education would be
more meaningful if carried out with a more contextual approach to real and concrete , in

29

accordance with the characteristics of early childhood . Besides local curriculum on


Environmental Education has not yet become a reference for teachers in teaching learning
process. In terms of implementation , there are still many obstacles including the lack of an
Environmental Education learning model that can be used to guide teachers in implementing
learning environment better . A learning model for Environmental Education in Early
Childhood Education is contextual teaching learning model . This learning model
implemented in daily lives of children and oriented to hands on experience . The
implementation based on an assumption that children are individuals who actively construct
their own knowledge. So that a learning activities designed to child-centered activities .
Contextual learning model that is proven to increase childrens learning achievment..
References
Bezzina, C., Pace, Paul. (2006). School improvement, school effectiveness or scholl
development. London: Trentham Books Limited.
Branscome, A., Kathryn, Castle., Dorsey, Anne G., Surbeck, Elaine., Taylor, Janet B. (2003).
Early Childhood Curriculum. A constructivist perspective. Boston: Houghton Mifflin
Company.
Borg, W. R., and Gall, M.D. (1983). Educational Research. An Introduction (Second ed.).
New York: Longman.
Carol, S. (1989). Social Studies for the Preschool-Primary Children (Third Edition ed.).
Ohio: Merrill Publishing Company.
Chen, Judith., Cheng, Hsuan (2008). Children, Teachers and Nature: An Analysis of An
Environmental Education Program (Disertasi).
University of Florida.
Council, V. E. E. (1992). Learning to care for our environmental:Victoria's Environmental
Education Strategy. Melbourne: Victorian Educational Environmental Council
Coughlin, Pamela. (2000). Menciptakan Kelas yang Berpusat pada Anak. Terjemahan:
Kenny Dewi Juwita. Washington D.C. Childrens Resources International.
Hamalik, Oemar (1995) Kurikulum dan Pembelajaran. Jakarta: Bumi Aksara
Kurikulum Taman Kanak-Kanak. Pedoman Pengembangan Program Pembelajaran Di
Taman Kanak-Kanak (2010) Jakarta: Kementerian Pendidikan Nasional. Direktorat
Jenderal Manajemen Pendidikan Dasar dan Menengah. Direktorat Pembinaan TK dan SD.
Kurikulum Berbasis Kompetensi. Pelayanan Profesional (2004) Jakarta: Departemen
Pendidikan Nasional
Lang, J. (2007). Little Books of Big Ideas: How to Succeed with Education for Sustainability.
Carlton South Victoria: Curriculum Corporation.
Masitoh, Ocih, Heny, DJ. (2003) Pendekatan Belajar Aktif di Taman Kanak-Kanak,
Departemen Pendidikan Nasional, Direktorat Jenderal Pendidikan Tinggi Bagian Proyek
Peningkatan Tenaga Kependidikan
Rogoff, B. (1990). Apprenticeship in Thinking. Cognitive Development in Social Context.
New York: Oxford University Press.
Sanjaya, Wina (2009) Kurikulum dan Pembelajaran. Teori dan Praktek Pengembangan
Kurikulum Tingkat Satuan Pendidikan (KTSP). Jakarta: Kencana.
Shallcross, T., Robinson, John., Pace, Paul., Wals Arjen. (2006). Creating Sustainable
Environment in Our School. London: Trentham Book Limited.
Sugiyono (2008). Metode Penelitian Kuantitatif Kualitatif dan R &D. Bandung: Alfabeta.
Sukmadinata, Nana Syaodih (2005) Metode Penelitian Pendidikan. Bandung: Program
Pascasarjana Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia dan Remaja Rosdakarya.

30

Sutrisno., Harjono, Hary Soedarto (2005) Pengenalan Lingkungan Alam Sekitar Sebagai
Sumber Belajar Anak Usia Dini. Jakarta: Departemen Pendidikan Nasional. Direktorat
Jenderal Pendidikan Tinggi. Direktorat Pembinaan Pendidikan Tenaga Kependidikan dan
Ketenagaan Perguruan Tinggi.
Tim Pengembang MKDP Kurikulum dan Pembelajaran (2009) Kurikulum dan Pembelajaran.
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Wiiliam B. Stapp and dorothy A. Michigan 48018 .

31

SCHOOLING ORGANIZATION BASED ON SOCIO-CULTURAL IN RA Al-AMANAH


BUAH BATU KOTA BANDUNG

By
Djem Bangun Mulya, Drs., MP

ABSTRACT
The number of developing local values are determined by the Local Government (Mayor) and
the values that have been implemented in other schools, positive impact on the improvement
of the child's character. Therefore, it is necessary to find the results of the implementation of
the management of socio-cultural environment of the school-based character (PLSBSBK) in
RA Al-Amanah. The main problem studied in this research is the implementation strategy
PLSBSBK, efforts to prepare teachers, indicators of success PLSBSBK, program design,
implementation and evaluation strategies PLSBSBK. The results of this study, characterized
by a high school principal loyalty to the mayor's policy to apply social values and Sundanese
culture at school, and apply expert discovery and early childhood practitioners. The results
showed: (1) there is a lack of analysis of needs, ideas, abilities, goals, and values that will be
developed teacher; (2) the program is less systematic and less thorough and has not been
prepared based on the results of a needs analysis; (3) the lack of guidance given to the head
teacher of the school; (4) the lack of an increase in discipline, motivation, responsibility,
initiative and creative. This research has been conducted using a qualitative approach and case
study method in RA Al-Amanah Buah Batu Bandung. Subjects were principals and teachers.
The research data was collected using interviews, observation and documentation.
Keywords: socio-cultural and character
A. Background
Management of social and cultural environment of the school is not only integrated in the
learning process alone but in the entire socio-cultural environment management activities of
the school, school performance, teacher performance, education, and all learning activities.
Schools often the object of the main charges of character education community if the child
has not develop optimally. Therefore, the management of socio-cultural environment would
be right if grounded in character values, norms that exist in schools, according to the cultural
values and religious laws, leading to the noble values and local wisdom, creativity, and
independence of students. The atmosphere of the school environment as it will support the
realization of the formation of character through active learning, innovative, creative,
effective, and fun (PAIKEM).
The results of the initial survey research team, shows that the condition of RA AlAmanah Buah Batu Bandung has advantages, such as: having a vision and mission, the
existence of a high school principal loyalty to the mayor to implement a policy of social
values and Sundanese culture in schools, and applying the discoveries of early childhood
experts and practitioners. These conditions have a positive impact on the character of the
child. Thus, the researchers are interested in uncovering how the implementation of
environmental management social character-based school culture (PLSBSBK) in RA AlAmanah Buah Batu Bandung.

32

B. Problem Formulation
This research is centered on the implementation PLSBSBK, ie the overall management
of the school socio-cultural environment in the process of education in accordance with the
objectives and functions as well as educational purposes. The purpose of this PLSBSBK, to
improve the achievement of the demands of the national education goals. The problems of
this research is how the implementation of RA PLSBSBK in Al-Amanah Buah Batu
Bandung.
Reader Review
1. Definition of Socio-Cultural Environmental Management School (PLSBS)
Nana Fattah (2004: 9) argues that "the school is a place that is not just a gathering place for
students and teachers, but are in the order of the system is complicated and intertwined,
therefore, the school is seen as an organization that is in need of management. Thus the school
was in charge of managing human resources is expected to produce high quality graduates,
according to the school culture and the needs of society ".
School culture is the atmosphere of the school where the school community to
interact, which consists of patterns of interaction between culture, technology and social
organization. Tilaar (2002: 6) argues that "... .the organization must be dynamic, flexible, so it
can absorb the rapid changes, among others, due to the development of science and
technology, changes in society leads to an increasingly democratic society and respect for
human rights" . Thus, the teachers interact with the school community.
School culture and system interactions of individuals who are in school will give birth
to a social climate that will affect teachers in interacting with other teachers. Schools also
provide a considerable influence on the communities within and outside of social institutions.
Social and cultural environment of the school is the atmosphere of the ways individuals think,
act, and be creative in touch and interact with the environment that can result in norms, values
, beliefs, and behaviors are learned and possessed by every individual. In accordance with this
statement, Saphier and King (1983) suggests that:
... ..school Culture with norms and expectations that support change and improvement:
collegiality, experimentation, high expectations, trust and confidence, tangiblesupport,
reaching out to the knowledge base, appreciation and recognition, celebration and humor
caring, involvement indecision making, protection of what "s important, hones open
communication, traditions.
Based on the above opinion, the PLSBS characteristics are: (1) kesejawatan, (2)
experimentation, (3) expectations, (4) trust, (5) support, (6) the development of basic
capabilities, (7) awards and recognition, (8) caring, celebration, and humor, (9) involvement
in decision making, (10) protection, (11) traditions (12) honesty and open communication.
Handbook of Culture and Character Education (2010) from the Ministry of Education
states that the description of the basic character values are: religious, honest, tolerance,
discipline, hard work, creative, independent, democratic, curiosity, a sense of pride, love of
the homeland, appreciate the achievements, friends / communicative, fond of reading,
environmental care, and social care. Some conclusions about the characteristics of the above
opinion is kesejawatan PLSBS, creative, responsibility, honesty, curiosity, hard work, respect
for achievement, social care, democratic, and friendly/communicative.
2. Basic Concepts PLSBS
PLSBS include: planning, organizing, and monitoring implemented to achieve the
goals set by utilizing human resources and other resources. Planning serves to define what

33

should be accomplished, when, where, and how it should be accomplished, who is


responsible, and how the costs should be provided. Planning functions in PLSBS as
budgeting, goals, rules, guidelines for the implementation, execution order, costs and receipts,
predictions barriers and how to overcome them.
Organizing more priority to tasks or jobs, as proposed by Sagala (2007: 23) that: "The
organization focuses on the structure and process of allocation of tasks common goals that can
be achieved, while staffing concerns of people in the workforce". Organizing functions in the
management of socio-cultural environment of the school to facilitate the achievement of the
objectives of the school, by distributing and structuring all tasks into component units within
the school.
Mobilization functions in managing the socio-cultural environment, principals can
develop skills, improve and assure the performance of teachers through assessment in the
classroom, and become effective leaders.
The function of supervision in carrying PLSBS, the principal can make an assessment
and remedial teachers. Supervision in school can be done with clinical supervision to all
teachers in accordance with their respective duties and follow through.
3. Character
Character is the shape of an individual's understanding of the value of life arising from
culture, religion and nationality. Gunarto (2004: 22) argues that The characters are the values
of human behavior related to the Almighty God, ourselves, our fellow humans, the
environment, and nationality embodied in thoughts, attitudes, feelings, words, and actions
based on the norms of religious, cultural and national values are actualized in everyday life
become a habit that sticks.
The above opinion, explaining that the character is the value system that is difficult to
be eliminated, so that it becomes something that is believed to be true and not implemented
by force on any individual who would later become a habit in everyday life. While cultivation
perkerti is typical of what should be done by individuals, among others, work hard, be
disciplined, faithful, tender-hearted, responsible, considerate, thoughtful and so on.
Furthermore, the value is the variety of things that serve as a guide in the act and interact with
their environment by individuals in order to achieve what he wanted. Last virtue is justice that
is based on individual self-control and conviction that comes from a deep conscience.
The above description makes clear that the character has a very strong element of that
character, values and virtues that are applied in daily life so as to form a habituation form of
attitudes, personality, behavior, character and morals. Gunarto (2004: 118) suggests that the
function of education to develop educational values, morals and manners, among other things:
(1) personal development and personality formation; (2) cultural transmission; (3) social
integration; (4) innovation and (5) pre-selection and pre-allocation of labor ". Development of
values, morals and manners in the school will be effective if all the teachers involved
primarily in analyzing problems, needs, constraints and sources of moral values.
D. Socio-Cultural Environmental Management School-Based Character (PLSBSBK)
1. Definition PLSBSBK
Culberston (1982: 37) argues that:
Some characteristics of the management process of charakter education in an educational unit,
the which are: (1) integrate the values of the characters in the whole school management
ectivities; (2) integrating the values of the characters in the overall performance of school
activity; (3) Integrating the value-character value to the overall performance of personnel

34

activies; (4) integrate the value of the characters on the overall educational activies of servies;
and (5) integrating the values of the characters in the whole learning activies.
Characteristics of the education management process above, combining the values of
characters to managing the school environment, school performance, education and learning.
Value must be incorporated in PLSBS character, because that character education is a system
of planting character value to the teacher. Implementation of character education in schools
should involve all the teachers because it is a character study of people's behavior in the
school, including teachers, which at the time of carrying out education, teachers must be
characterized.
2. Implementation Strategy PLSBSBK
Strategies in the implementation of techniques and ways PLSBSBK is the principal
determining the long-term work plans, and devise ways to achieve the plan. PLSBSBK
implementation strategy starts from what can happen, and can be done through guidance and
supervision, PLSBS and additional activities.
The management function is described by the Department of Education in Handbook
of Culture and Character Education (2010), that:
As an educational system, then in character education also consists of elements that
further education will be managed through -bidang field of planning, implementation,
and control. The elements of character education will be planned, implemented and
controlled include, among others: (1) the values of character competence of graduates;
(2) curriculum character values; (3) the values of the characters in the learning; (4) the
values of character educators and education personnel, and (5) the values of the
character development of students
Character development for teachers should be drawn about the planning, execution,
and control. Its values are: kesejawatan, creative, responsibility, honesty, curiosity, hard work,
respect for achievement, social care, democratic, and friendly / communicative.
Implementation of character development requires appropriate management, adequate, and
earnest.
Character development can be carried out with additional activities. Additional
activities are activities outside the primary task to assist the development of the character of
the teacher in accordance with the needs, potential, talents, and interests through activities
carried out specifically in schools. The vision of this additional activity is to foster
independence, pleasure, confidence, discipline, honesty, respect, caring, mutual trust,
intimacy, kinship, solidarity, and tolerance. The mission of this additional activity is to
provide a number of activities that can be chosen by the teacher according to the needs,
potential, talents, interests, and hobbies they are.
The function of the additional activity is to improve the ability, creativity, sense of
social responsibility, relaxed atmosphere, excitement, pleasure, and career readiness. To carry
out the functions of these activities need to pay attention to the principle of additional
activities undertaken in accordance with the potential, talents, and interests, the desire and
willingness, engagement, fun atmosphere, encouraging, building on the spirit working for the
benefit of the school community.
Planning activities character education program refers to the types of activities, which
includes at least the following elements: purpose, target activity, substance activities,
operational and related parties, implementation mechanisms, organizational, time and place,
as well as support facilities.

35

To supervise the implementation of the program needs to monitor the development of


the characters, and to get an idea of the effectiveness of character development programs need
to be evaluated. The purpose of monitoring and evaluating the development of the character
described Soepardi (1988: 43) as follows:
(1) make observations and coaching direct enforceability of character education
programs in schools; (2) obtain a quality character education in public schools; (3) the
constraints that occur in the implementation of the program and identify the problems that
exist, and the subsequent search for a comprehensive solution that character education
program can be achieved, (4) collect and analyze the data found in the field to formulate
recommendations regarding the improvement of the educational program character to the
front; (5) provide feedback to those who need to increase the quality of coaching materials
and character-building program; and (6) assess the success of the implementation of the
guidance program of character education in schools.
Results of monitoring and evaluation can be used to improve character development
programs include: design, implementation mechanisms, support facilities, human resources,
PLSBS related to character education coaching program.
E. Research Methodology
Place this study in RA Al-Amanah Buah Batu Bandung. The approach used is
qualitative approach through case studies with the intention of digging the problems on
PLSBS, in order to determine whether a character based PLSBS teacher. Research carried out
through the preparation phase (orientation), implementation (exploration) and end (member
check). While the data collection technique using observation, interviews, and documentation
F. Results and Discussion
1. Results
The results showed that the implementation of RA PLSBSBK in Al-Amanah is negative,
among others: (1) there is a lack of analysis of needs, ideas, abilities, goals, and values that
will be developed teacher; (2) the program is less systematic and less thorough and has not
been prepared based on the results of a needs analysis; (3) is still lacking guidance provided
principals to teachers; (4) the lack of an increase in discipline, motivation, responsibility,
initiative and creative. While that is positive, among others: (1) decision-making is always
through consultation, (2) the relationship with the child's parents harmoniously intertwined,
(3) is always trying to preserve the Sundanese culture, (4) the provision of education using the
instructions of the IGRA, (5 ) division of tasks according to the ability of teachers, (6)
increasing expertise with seminars, training and upgrading, (7) a teacher familiar with the
child, (8) are loyal to the government, (9) supervision and the results are discussed with
teachers, (10 ) encourage the movement of garbage collected GPS).
To make improvements to the condition of RA Al-Amanah, then in this discussion, will
connect the above conditions with PLSBSBK model components, namely the implementation
of PLSBSBK, preparing teachers, indicators of success PLSBSBK, PLSBSBK design, and
program evaluation in RA PLSBSBK Al-Amanah City Bandung.
2. Discussion
a. Implementation Strategy PLSBSBK
PLSBSB implementation strategy, among others: (1) integrate all the ideas, opinions,
and actions of teachers to the need for the implementation of PLSBSBK; (2) utilize existing
resources in the school and outside of school; (3) strengthen teachers' commitment to the

36

implementation of the objectives PLSBSBK. Strategy process PLSBSBK to do, among other
things: (1) create a rule in the life of the school; (2) to instill the values of Sunda to teachers;
(3) mengintegritaskan Sundanese characters PLSBSBK activities; (4) The strategy process
should be result oriented and lead to impacts in accordance with the goals and objectives of
the school. Strategy on the implementation process of the objectives PLSBSBK should
support the school that is in accordance with the quality of the graduate school. Strategies for
quality assurance can be used to optimize the effectiveness and efficiency strategies, school
productivity, and relevance to the national education goals.
b. Efforts Preparing School Personnel
The school principal should have the professional capacity building to support the
implementation of PLSBSBK implementation and focuses on enhancing the effectiveness of
professional development and character. To enhance the basic capabilities required teacher
leadership of the principal characters. If the above-mentioned aspects, was conducted by the
principal in his duties will be creating a teacher character lead. To that end, the principal
should implement in order to create an atmosphere of social and cultural development of a
conducive school.
c. Indicators of Success
Indicators of successful implementation PLSBSBK implementation, namely: (1) input
means that all teachers have had PLSBSBK readiness for implementation, and the child's
parents to participate actively provide easiness for schools in implementing PLSBSBK
implementation; (2) means the process of the school's success in implementing the process
PLSBS support to education and teaching in schools by character dilandasai; (3) output means
PLSBS success is evidenced by the increasing number of management achievement in school
activities dilandasai character; (4) The outcome means success PLSBS teachers can develop
character.
d. Program Design
Design PLSBSBK program conducted by the school is not listed specifically in the
work program clearly. Nevertheless the principal may consider the elements, namely: (1)
characteristic of the thinking and acting teacher; (2) challenges teachers must develop
character through PLSBSBK; (3) the need to analyze what the needs and problems of teachers
in achieving the goals of the school. Having regard to the above three elements, then
PLSBSBK program design should be done by the principal, including: (1) component inputs,
processes, outputs, outcomes and goals; (2) indicators of success in implementing PLSBSBK
is input and process effectiveness, process efficiency to produce output, productivity and
output in accordance with the outcome of suitability outcomes with the goal to become a
teacher living habits.
Principals in implementing PLSBSBK need to consider the strength of the input
means why it is important PLSBSBK implementation, while the process is the strategy, then
the results or outcomes expressed in the formation of the character of the teacher everyday
life.
e. Evaluation Strategy
PLSBSBK evaluation strategy implementation, among others, are: (1) the target, the
evaluation includes: activities, programs, financial management, human resource
management, systems, structures, mechanisms, procedures, efficiency, effectiveness,

37

effectiveness and feasibility; (2) objectives, including evaluation for a particular purpose, and
to look for gaps that need to be fixed on something that has been set in advance; (3) focus,
including inputs, processes, outputs, and outcomes; (4) the approach, including the evaluation
of the quasi-formal, and decision-theoretically; (5) orientation, including proactive,
klarifikatif, interactive, monitoring and evaluation.
Objective evaluation of the implementation PLSBSBK, is: can make an assessment on
the implementation of PLSBSBK implementation, predict business benefits of implementing
PLSBSBK, increase activity and find a new approach in implementing PLSBSBK
implementation, develop, focus on the target and provide data on the implementation
PLSBSBK.
f. Analysis of Barriers
Results of research conducted by the research team, that barriers are often found by
the principal are some teachers: (1) can not detach from outside the school social culture that
does not fit with the culture of the school, (2) have not been able to carry out the
implementation as expected PLSBSBK head school; (3) can not be disciplined and
responsible in carrying out the implementation PLSBSBK; (4) have not been able to carry out
the implementation of self- PLSBSBK.
G. Bibliography
Culberston. (1982) Character Education: Teaching Values for Life. Chicago:Science
Research Associates. Inc.
Depdiknas. (2010). Buku Pedoman Pendidikan Budaya dan Karakter. Jakarta.
Fattah, Nanang. (2004). Konsep Manajemen Berbasis Sekolah (MBS) dan Dewan Sekolah. Bandung :
Pustaka Bani Quraisy.
Gunarto. (2004). Implementasi Pendidikan Budi Pekerti. Jakarta : Raja Grafindo Persada.

Hidayat, Asep Saepul, (2011) Manajemen Sekolah Berbasis Karakter. Bandung : UPI.
Saphier, Jon and King Matthew. (1985). Good Seeds Grow in Strong Cultures: Journal on
Educational
Leadership
in
School
Culture:E-Book.
[Online].
Tersedia:
http://www.seattleschools.org/schools/thecenterschool. [19 April 2009]

Soepardi. (1994). Dasar-Dasar Kepemimpinan Administrasi.Gajah University. Press.


Yogyakarta
Tilaar, H.A.R. (2002). Pengembangan Sumberdaya Manusia dalam Era Glob

38

IMPROVING CHILD INITIATED LEARNING WITHIN GAGASCERIA


CURRICULUM
Ami Aminah
GagasCeria Preschool, Bandung-Indonesia
(ami_blume@yahoo.com)
ABSTRACT
According to Eriksons theories, children at 3-5 years need to begin asserting control and
power over the environment. To support that opportunities, preschool teachers have to think
about their knowledge of child development and prepare the content for an intensely rich and
exciting environment that offers options for children. Effective teachers create opportunities
for children to find and initiate their own learning, so they can explore and construct their
own understanding. GagasCeria Curriculum support not only developmental aspect of
children but also develop concepts through involvement of high and complex play. In this
case study, the authors would like to describe how to improve (scaffold) the children's
learning by building this exploration for further understanding of the time or in the future at
GagasCeria preschool in Bandung Indonesia.
Key words: Preschool, preschool teacher, child initiate learning.
Childhood is a critical period in the growth process of physical, emotional and
intellectual development of a person. This period was a golden period, where all the
foundations are built so that later he can develop all of their potential. In order to optimize the
process of growth and development can take place, the proper stimulation and
developmentally appropriate is required.
Initiative versus guilt is the third stage of Erik Eriksons theory of psychosocial
development. This stage occurs during the preschool years, between the ages of three and
five. During the initiative versus guilt stage, children begin to assert their power and control
over the world through directing play and other social interaction. Children need to begin
asserting control and power over the environment by taking initiative by planning activities,
accomplishing tasks and facing challenges. During this stage, it is important for teacher to
encourage exploration and to help children make appropriate choices. Children have their
sense of initiative reinforced by being given the freedom and encouragement to play. Success
in this stage leads to a sense of purpose, while failure results in a sense of guilt.
However, the child is an individual with individual uniqueness. It takes foresight
teachers to be able to make learning with a variety of approaches to accommodate all the
needs of the child. This can be done by making the arrangement of a good environment,
provide opportunities for children to play, and gives precise instructions so that they can
practice what they learn.
What Preschool Teacher can do
As children grow and develop, they engage in different and incresingly complex types
or stages to play. The ability to understand and identify the various stages of play is a valuable
tool in teachers work with children of all ages (Feeney, Stephanie. et.al, 2010).
In the classroom, preschool teacher can put together knowlegde of childrens
development with the content they want to teach (Diana, 2001). While the student are playing,
teacher can observe children for skills and interests. They can note the children learning
styles, kinds of activities they enjoy and activities they avoid. Knowing students interests,

39

abilities and skills on the developmental continuum will help preschool teacher to
differentiate for individuals and groups.
Vygotsky uses the term, Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD), to describe the range of
a childs learning in given situation. The lower limit of the Zone represent what child can
learn when workingindependently. The upper limit of the Zone represent what chidren can
learn by watching and talking to peers and teachers. With the support of others, the child
organizes new information to fit with what he already knows. As a result, he can perform
skills at a higher level than he could working on his own. This prosess of building knowledge
and understanding iss called scaffolding. A scaffold is a cognitive structure on which children
climb from one ZPD to the next. (Feeney, Stephanie. et.al, 2010).
Practitioners may introduce children to a particular material, skill or idea. Then, over
time, direct adult help will be needed less, because children become adept at this skill or area
of knowledge and can operate independently. Lindon, Jennie (2010). Children work at their
own developmental level. They learn new ways to use the materials by watching others.
When the children play, they observe each other and share ideas and problem solving
strategies. Skills relate to multiple objectives are addressed during the activity: patterning,
one-to-one correspondence, counting, classifying, and problem solving.
When introduce a new concept, preschool teacher can help children learn new skills or
practice skills. First, teacher introduce new materials to the children, then, scaffold their
learning to the next level. Example: At the beginning of learning teacher can make short
discussion to give brief introduction. Teacher models for children and observes how children
imitates and using the materials. Teacher follows childrens lead, comments, supports and
encourages childrens efforts. After that, teacher observes how the children use the materials
and extend their learning with open ended questions (why, how, I wonder what will happen
if).
GagasCeria Curriculum
We believe that education should be a process that puts the child as a whole person. We
also believe that every child is unique. Every child has the intelligence, learning styles and
different behaviors. Therefore, treatment and educational methods should also be tailored to
each child individually and all parties must place the child as a subject of study.
Child as a subject of study should be able to enjoy the process he went through in
school. This period should be a wonderful time. The period in which he found a lot of new
things, a time when he had the opportunity to freely express and explore, a time when each
work and appreciated his opinion, a time when he can come in and figure out its role in this
beautiful world. This period is very important for children to realize that learning is fun and
he can learn from the things he encountered, even he can learn from the mistakes he did.
GagasCeria Integrated Experiences (GIE) based on the principle of the child as a
learner, which all activities integrating literacy and numeracy skills are presented through
fun and meaningful play. We guide children to read the world through in-depth and
widely explorative experiences and to write ideas and new knowledge gained through
expressing themselves. Six themes are introduces to children within a year. Each theme is
based on the triangular dialogues principles: science-imagination-sensitivity. We hope the
learning content that represent by the themes that children learn will broaden their knowledge
of this vast and beautiful world created by God. Children will also get a variation topic of
discussion so he could see the wider environment in various aspects (self, natural, social, and
technological).
Our Themes :

40

Exploring Ourselves
Managing Ourselves
Expressing Ourselves
Identifiying Place & Time
Exploring Science & Technologi
Concern for the Environment
The six major themes are the foundation of learning for some predefined sub-themes
that will be developed in the classroom. Each theme that created must performed in
integrated, meaningful, insightful, help children learn how to learn and become a spiral
curriculum.
In each year, the children will have six sub-themes that will be discussed to develop
insights into the child. The selection of six sub-themes relating with content that close to the
children's world. At the end of the school year, these sub-theme will be thoroughly evaluated,
such as activities, tools materials, targets and objectives and achievements of the child
development.
Child-Initiated Learning
Child-initiated learning is a situation in which children explore and build his own
understanding. The method to do that is to invite children to choose activities and the
activities they will do. They are free to use the toys / materials with a variety of ways either
play alone or with friends in a group, they are free to use the toys / materials in various ways.
In this activity children develop concepts through involvement of high and complex
play. Teachers make decisions about how to improve (scaffold) to build a child's learning
exploration for further understanding at the time or in the future.
Using a scaffolding technique creates positive and meaningful interactions between the
child and the teacher as they work together to stretch the childs capacities. Scaffolding also
allows teachers to build on childrens interests to develop their skills. Children learn most
effectively when competent adults scaffold instruction in ways that allow them to move from
other-regulated to self-regulated activities as their attention, cognitive, language, and
motor skills mature. Effective scaffolding also requires fewer restrictions and more choices
for the child as the teacher monitors behavioral and skills progress. (Landry, 2005.)
Teacher-Direct Learning
Teachers have an important role to develop child's thinking process. When children
learn while playing, sometimes it doesnt give a meaningful experience. Some learning
requires clear teaching. Here, the role of teachers is to provide information on the child as an
initial insight to develop their thinking. Teacher-direct learning is usually done when the
teacher teaches on matters relating to security, introducing the tool material, the concept of
letters and numbers and things that happen outside of learning, like a learning moment that
needs to be explained to the child at that moment. For example, when a child is doing
exploration on parts of the tree, a child finds a tree that has been cut. This is where the role of
teachers to link the concept with things found in the learning.
Child-initiated learning and teacher-direct learning involves some kind of interaction
between teacher and child. In fact, life in the classroom always require some level of teacher
involvement. Child-initiated learning occurs when teachers think about the child's
development and their knowledge of the content to intensely prepare a rich and exciting
environment that offers options for children. Children will learn best when the motivation
comes from themselves. When teachers talk to children about what they are doing, or ask

41

questions that challenge their thinking, children lead their learning. Examples of questions
that can be asked is the kind of question that can make a child think through a word, make
observations, make predictions, looking at the differences and similarities, solve problems,
expand thinking, aware of the consequences, evaluate and get to know the feeling.
Teachers who are keen will know when she has to provide the scaffold in children. She
will invite the child to continue to deepen thinking. When learning is meaningful to them,
then the children themselves who will find out what they want to learn. Here awakened
conscious learning ability which is important for their provision. When this happens, an
effective teacher will continue to seek ways and create opportunities for children to find and
initiate their own learning. The teacher can choose a learning settings based on the needs of
children and the concept or skill to be taught through individual, small group or a large group.
Group Time
Usually held at the beginning of the activity. Children are in a large group and get specific
information such as: listening to stories, participate in music and movement activities and
instructions about the activity of choice.
Small-Group Time
Activities undertaken in small group instruction is usually of short duration. Teachers use the
material and become a model for the child. All children have the materials to be used.
Children work appropriate level of development. Teachers observe how children use the
material and expand their learning with open and closed questions or comments. Children
observe each other and exchange ideas and problem solving strategies. Skill depends on the
development of the objectives during the activity.
Choice Time
Sometimes the teacher should let the children play alone or with their friends without much
interference. When children are finished working or playing in one area, they free to choose
another area to play next. Teacher had prepared the area with materials that related to the
theme or topic being taught. Children can choose the area that they like, such as discovery
area, toys area or library area. They should completed the task that have been given by teacher
before. When the children are working or playing in the chosen area, teacher can choose 3-4
children for observation. Teacher following the children and look a little longer until they had
completion their activities. In this activities teacher can learn to find the difference of how
the children are play, how the children explore, the style of play,or comment that comes out
when they were playing.
Meet Bintang Class at GagasCeria Preschool
Bintang class were studying about the concept of time and place. To make it more interesting,
teacher choose dinosaurs as the representation of ancient time. At the opening session teacher
ask children to move and sound like dinosaurs. Then teacher turned on the music, the
dinosaurs began to walk to find food. Children plays the role seriously. They walk according
with the type of dinosaurs that they chose.
Teacher had set the areas where children can choose activities to play with the settings
and tool materials that previously had been designed to support the children activities. There
are two areas that are provided to children: small group and choice time. Teacher ask children
to complete dinosaurs park and free to add the object in it. Previously, the teachers have been
setting up the area into Jurassic Park with dinosaurs miniature and some plastic plants. The

42

purpose of setting up is to open up insight of dinosaurs park. A series of pictures of dinosaurs


park are taped to the wall so the children can easily seen it whenever they want.
At small group activities, children were invited to work making dinosaurs by using
block of wood. Teacher had divide children into smaller group. It was design based on the
characteristics of the child. This time teacher expected that these groups will synergize and
learn from each other, especially in terms of mutual respect and sharing with others.
The groups start to discuss their work. The group have a task make a dinosaurs that eat
leaves from the tree. Trevan took the initiative looking for books to find out the types of dino.
"Maybe we should draw a stegosaurus," Trevan commented when opening the book.
Suddenly Aldric commented, "Stegosaurus eat grass", with a picture showing it. Teacher then
showed pictures about dinosaurs based on the type of food, they finally chose to make
Brontosurus. The teacher scaffold the children to find out more about their initial thoughts.
At choice area, children seems confuse about the task they should do. At this situation,
prologue is important to help children understand about the rules at choice area. Teacher
invite them to make play area at dinosaurs park with the constructive toys that have been set
for children activities. Lets create something!" teacher said.
Children then make some object to put in dinosaurs park. Some children built
brontosaurs and velociraptor. Others make trees and grass. Rin approached box of construtive
play and start making. Teacher asked about her work. Rin said that shes going to make grass
so dinosaurs can eat. After finishing it, Rin made brontosaurs. Teacher than said, "Wow, you
have made large brontosaurs. And it can move also. How can brontosaurs gets to the park?"
Mika said, "The gate is here." She pointed to one of the main side dinosaurs park. "The gate
should also be big so the brontosaurs can get to the museum." At this moment, teacher tries to
scaffold children to notice about size. Children initiate their learning and teacher try to make
children have learn.
Findings
Children are exciting because they free to choose the activities, setting, materials and tools.
They initiate the learning. Teacher doesnt need to involved much. Their role in this area is to
make the areas interesting and provocating children to learn. With several options that offer,
children can enjoy and engage without many confirmation needed. They know what to do. At
this moment, teachers learn to appreciate children and learn how to respond while they
learning. Theres a little bit difference to observed and improving childrens learning. At the
small group: see after the child's responses stimulated then scaffold. On choice time: see how
children respond when being independent. Look a little longer until the completion of the
activities. Then study the difference: how the three children play, style of play, how to
explore, drawing style, and comment from children. Note the important fact.
Conclusion and Suggestion :
When accompanying children, theres a lot of things we can do to develop the skills of the
children by describing what the children are doing, engage in conversation to encourage them
to express actions and ideas that they have and give questions to the children to provide
insight into the development of children in the process learning.
Teacher should preapare the learning environment with rich and exiting area which
children can have option to lead their learning. With the passage of the planning process,
mentoring and observation while children play and learn, then teachers will have enough
facts to be analyzed and evaluated. It is useful to obtain information about the child's
developmental level and follow-up plan that is more specific and appropriate to the needs of

43

children. It is expected that the child will develop optimally where he/she can freely express
their ideas, feelings and needs in dealing with situations and problems he had to solve next.
To make the learning related between school and home, teacher are encaurage to inform what
children learns at school. Then, make a note to parents how to improve childrens learning.
This can inspire and grow a challenge that children find at home.
REFERENCES:
Dodge, Diane Trister., Colker, Laura J., Heroman, Cate. (2000). The Creative Curriculum
For Preschool Fourth Edition. Washington DC: Teaching Strategies.
Feeney, Stephanie., et.al. (2006). Who Am I In The Lives Of Children. Canada, USA:
Pearson.
Landry, Susan H (2005). Effective Early Childhood Programs: Turning Knowledge Into
Action. Texas, USA: Texas Program for Society and Health The James A. Baker III
Institute for Public Policy.
Lindon, Jennie., (2010). Child-Initiated Learning. London: MA Education.
Whitebread, David., (2001). Teaching and Learning in the Early Years. London and New
York: Routledge Falmer.
lationships in the Early Years

44

THE DEVELOPMENT OF DEVELOPMENTAL AND PSYCHOEDUCATIONAL


ASSESMENT FOR PRESCHOOL
Fitri Ariyanti Abidin, Fitriani Yustikasari Lubis
Faculty of Psychology, Padjadjaran University
The need of preschool education providers to evaluate aspects of child development aged
preschool demand a kind of measuring instrument child development that administratively
more efficient compared with administration test existing today. The aim of this research is to
develop a measuring instrument that aims to give a description of child development aged
preschool as well as detect the presence of the tendency learning disability on child.
Measuring instrument is based on 53 basic learnings from Valett, R.E. Based on 10 stages of
developing measuring instrument by Crocker L & Algina J, the development of the measuring
instrument has been up to the phase preliminary try outs. The measuring instrument tested on
39 preschool students (17 boys and 22 girls), range from 4 years 1 month to 5 years 8 months
(average on 4 years 8 month). The result showed that the test was realiable (cronbachs alpha
= 0,963). 81 of the 100 items was valid, 19 items should be revised. The rough confirmation
of the result with the teacher showed that DPAP had meet it purposes. The training to the
instructor and completeness of the manual espescially for the gross motor area and sensory
motor integration area are still needed.
Keywords: Preschool, assessment, development
Introduction
A trend in the world of education is a necessity of preschool program provider to
conduct a series of measurement for figuring out the potential of their students. There are
several reasons to this; the most important is to help school optimize the students potential.
Other reason that developing in the world of education is to be able to detect learning
disability in their students. With the increasing of cases in learning disability, the stakeholders
in education field began to feel the need for the measurement that able to evaluate aspects of
child development aged preschool and to detect early learning disability.
Measurements that has grown and generally used by to preschool program provider
still focused in measuring child development aged preschool related with school readiness.
Sometimes this developmental measurement is using long procedure and several checkrecheck assignments. While an early detection of learning disability measurement is still less
developed. If there is any detection of learning disability measurement is for clinical
importance. Therefore, this developing research aim is to answer both needs of preschool
education providers to give a description of child development aged preschool that
administratively more efficient compared with administration test existing today as well as
detect the presence of the tendency learning disability on preschool child.
The Developmental and Psychoeducational Assessment for Preschool (DPAP)
constructed upon Valett (1966) ) who argued that single test scores obtained from individual
measures of general intellectual abilities not enough to detect presence of the tendency
learning disability on children. In order to understand childrens potential, it needed to
diagnose the learner basic learning abilities, covering their specific strengths and weaknesses
and their educational implications. Valett (1966) developing his Psychoeducational Profile of
Basic Learning Abilities. According to him:

45

The purpose of the Psychoeducational Profile of Basic Learning Abilities is to


provide the psychologist with a developmental summary form whereby he can
integrate available normative data and clinical impressions for
psychoeducational programming. The Profile can be of value as a direct report in
itself, in counseling with parents, and especially as a basis for consulting with
teachers and other educators in educational planning and curriculum
development. Although the Profile may find its greatest use in work with
exceptional pupils and programs, it also has relevance to the evaluation of
normal children Valett (1966)
DPAP measuring instrument is based on 53 basic learning abilities categorized in
areas Gross Motor, Sensory Motor Integration, Auditory Perceptual Skill, Visual Perceptual
Skill, Conceptual Skill, Language and Social Skill (Vallet, 1969). Valett (1969) explained
further the first area Gross motor development defined as the development and awareness of
large muscle activity. Due to large muscle activity, it included rolling, sitting, crawling,
walking, running, throwing, jumping, skipping, dancing, self-identification, body localization,
body abstraction, muscular strength, and general physical health. Second area, sensory-motor
integration defined as the psychophysical integration of fine and gross motor activities. It
included activity related with coordination between fine and gross motor such as balance and
rhythm, body-spatial organization, reaction speed-dexterity, tactile discrimination,
directionally, laterality, and time orientation. Third area, perceptual-motor skills defined as
functional utilization of primary auditory, visual and visual-motor skills. The skills included
auditory acuity, auditory decoding, auditory-vocal association, auditory memory, auditory
sequencing, visual acuity, visual coordination and pursuit, visual-form discrimination, visual
figure-ground differentiation, visual memory, visual-motor memory, visual-motor fine muscle
coordination, visual-motor spatial-form manipulation, visual-motor speed of learning, and
visual-motor integration. The next areas are higher area abilities start with the fourth area
language development, defined as the current functional stage of total psycholinguistic
development. The fourth area including vocabulary, fluency and encoding, articulation, word
attack skills, reading comprehension, writing, and spelling. The fifth area conceptual skills
defined as the functional level of concept attainment and general reasoning ability included
number concepts, arithmetic processes, arithmetic reasoning, general information,
classification, and comprehension. Last area is social skills defined as the skills involved in
social problem solving. Social acceptance, anticipatory response, value judgment, and social
maturity are included in this area.
In Developing the DPAP, researcher followed 10 stages of developing measuring
instrument by Crocker L & Algina J (2008), steps in test construction for subject-centered
measurement as follows:
1) Identify the primary purpose(s) for which the test scores will be used
2) Identify behaviors that represent the construct or define the domain
3) Prepare a set of test specifications, delineating the proportion of item that should focus on
each type of behavior identified in step 2
4) Construct an initial pool of items
5) Have items reviewed (and revise as necessary)
6) Hold preliminary item tryouts (and revise as necessary)
7) Field-test the item on a large sample representative of the examinee population for whom
the test intended
8) Determine statistical properties of item scores and when appropriate, eliminate items that
do not meet pre-established criteria

46

9) Design and conduct reliability and validity studies for the final form of the test scores
10) Develop guidelined for administration, scoring, and interpretation of the test scores (e.g.,
prepare norm tables; suggest recommended cutting scores or standards for performance,
etc.)
Thus, the developing of DPAP measurement is expected to be credential and
beneficial for the development of preschool recruiting program and also to help detect
tendency of learning disability from early childhood.
Methods
Following ten stages of developing measuring instrument by Crocker L & Algina J
(2008), the process of developing the DPAP already reached the sixth stage, preliminary
tryouts. The description on each stage are as follow: in the first stage, researcher identify the
primary purposes of DPAP is to get a description of child development aged preschool as
well as detect the presence of the tendency learning disability on child. Based on those
purposes, researcher identify behaviors that represent the construct or define the domain. The
behaviors in DPAP consist of skills demonstrated by the children and the children responds to
the assignments. For the gross motor and the sensory motor integration area, the children
should demonstrated particular action. Auditory perceptual skills and visual perceptual skills
require the children to follow some instructions, some of the instruction involved paper and
pencil activities. Conceptual skill, language skill and social skill are measured by the answer
of the childrens questions. A set of test specifications then formulated, followed by
constructing an initial pool of items. The items have reviewed by two child psychologist.
There are 100 items to be used to measure 53 basic learning abilities categorized in areas
Gross Motor, Sensory Motor Integration, Auditory Perceptual Skill, Visual Perceptual Skill,
Conceptual Skill, Language and Social Skill (Vallet, 1969).
The objectives of preliminary item tryout are (1) testing the procedure and the setting
of examination by observing the childrens reaction and behavior during testing; (2) measure
the reliability of the test and reliability of each area; and (3) measure the item discriminality.
Preliminary tryout was conducted to the 39 preschool students (17 boys and 22 girls ) with
age range from four years one month to five years eight months (average on 4 years eight
month). The procedures held by trained instructor, they are magister students of child clinical
psychology. The setting of examination are informal and classical, one instructor examine two
children at the same time. The test held on the childrens own school, so the children has
greater oppotunity to show their natural behaviour as well as their optimal potential. The data
was recorded not only quantitativively, but the instructor also recorded the process of students
responses to the test.
Statistical analysis to measure internal consistency reliability is using Cronbachs
alpha, item discriminality analyzed by item-total correlation using pearson correlation.
Results and Discussion
The reliability of the DPAP is 0,963. Using criteria from Guilford (1956), the
correlation showed the very high correlation or very dependable relationship. It means DPAP
is highly reliable. Item discriminality using item-total correlation found 19 items should be
revised because its correlational value is below 0,3. According to Friedenberg (1995), items
that has item-total correlation below 0,3 should be eliminated and revised. It means, 81% of
the DPAPs items are valid. Because each area has different concept, the reliability of each
area also measured. All of the areas on DPAP has realiability value ranged from 0,678
0,960, as shown in table 1.

47

Observation to the childrens behavior toward the instructions procedure showed that
the total time of the test was 1,5 hour 2 hour. The informal prosedur meet its purpose, that
the children show their behaviour naturally, and perform their ability optimally. A brief
confirmation about the test result with teacher showed there are consistencies between test
result and teacher evaluation of the children behavior in the class for each areas. The childrens
reported has academic problems also measured to be has a low performance on DPAP.
Training to the instructor preliminary given before the DPAP process is already
suitable, although it is still needed to be evaluated and developed. The completeness of the
manual is also essential for the finishing of DPAP developing process. The training and
manual espescially needed for the gross motor and sensory motor integration areas. The
observation guide for these area still need to be specified, so each instructor will do objective
evaluation.
Conclusion
The process of develeopment the Developmental and Psychoeducational Assesment
for Preschool (DPAP) at the sixth stage showed that the test was realiable. The result showed
that DPAP had meet it purposes; give a description of child development aged preschool as
well as detect the presence of the tendency learning disability on child. Some revises still
needed to the items (19 items) as well as the training to the instructor and completeness of the
manual espescially for the gross motor area and sensory motor integration area, so researcher
could continue the process of developing DPAP to the next step, field-test the item on a large
sample representative of the examinee population for whom the test intended
References
1. Standard books
Friedenberg, L.(1995), Psychological Testing, Allyn and Bacon, Singapore
J. P, Guilford, (1956). Fundamental Statistics in Psychology and Education(3rd
Edition). Tokyo, Japan: Asian Students Edition, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc.
Valett, R. E. (1969). Programming Learning Disabilities. California: Fearon Publisher.
2. Periodical journals
Valett, R. (1966). A Psychoeducational Profile Of Basic Learning Abilities. Journal of
School Psychology, Volume 4, Issue 2, Winter 1966, Pages 9-24
Table 1. Reliability based on Cronbachs and number of items shoud be revised on each
areas of DPAP
AREAS
Number of items
Cronbachs
Number of items

should be revised
Gross Motor
26
0,850
5
Sensory Motor Integration
9
0,678
3
Auditory Perceptual Skills
9
0,817
2
Visual Perceptual Skills
16
0,678
5
Conceptual Skills
26
0,960
1
Language
7
0,757
1
Social Skills
7
0,727
2
DPAP (All Areas)
100
0,963
19

48

Quality and Human Investment


in Early Childhood Education

50

INSIDE THE CHILDCARE CENTER:


HOW TO ENSURE QUALITY CHILDCARE PRACTICES
Zahyah Hanafi, Ph.D
Siti Noor Ismail, Ph.D
College of Arts and Sciences
Universiti Utara Malaysia
Abstract
Ensuring staff display best practices when handling children at childcare center is a task that
requires the management to consistently instil knowledge and skills on child development.
This paper will unfold the initiative of a childcare manager who believes that in order to
ensure the center provides best practices to the children, a research into the level of
knowledge and skill of the staff is necessary. Thus, a case study was conducted to identify the
key areas of a quality childcare centre: staff relationships with children and peers,
partnerships with families, programming and evaluation, childrens experiences and learning,
protective care and safety, health, nutrition and wellbeing, and managing to support quality. A
questionnaire which was adapted from the Quality Improvement Accreditation System (QIAS)
model was administered to all staff at the center. The results revealed that there are areas that
reflect staff ability to implement what was taught. However, there are areas that need further
training and guidance and there are also areas that urgently require consistent training and
monitoring. The paper ends with discussion between the researcher and the manager on ways
to enhance staff development.
Keywords: Quality Improvement Accreditation System (QIAS), childcare center management,
quality childcare
INTRODUCTION
Research into quality of childcare center is seen as a requisite demand if practitioners and
policy makers intend to ensure children are provided with a healthy environment to develop
their potentials, well-being and learning. It is also accepted as a means to improve early
childhood provision for the future (Sylva, Siraj-Blatchford, Taggart, Sammons, Melhuish,
Elliot & Totsika, 2006). These believes were supported by arguments that when childcare
providers implement quality practices in their center, it is likely to enhance childrens
cognitive, social (Burchinal & Cryer, 2003) and academic development (Ishimine, 2010),
increases their emotional and social skills (Landry et al, 2013), and helps children to be more
social and positively engaged with their peers (Vandell, 2004). It also helps to provide a
foundation for their school success (Shonkoff & Phillips, 2000), establish a basis for skill
acquisition later in their life (Heckman, 2006), decreases childrens anxiety, and they are less
likely to be placed in special education classes (Committee for Economic Development, 2006).
Generally, these positive outcomes were linked to better quality programs (Love et al, 2003;
Peisner-Feinberg et al, 2001; Sims, Guilfoyle, & Parry, 2005), quality teacher-child
interactions (Kontos & Wilcox-Herzog, 1997); qualified early childhood teachers (Victorian
Childrens Services Regulations, DEECD, 2009) and teacher leadership (Sammors et al., 2002;
Sylva et al., 2003). Thus, it can be argued that when childcare centers provide quality services
to the children this will lead to less negative behaviour and even eliminate social
incompetency (Howes, Phillipis, & Whitebook, 1992).

51

OBJECTIVE
The objective of this study was to identify the level of quality childcare practices in the
childcare centre under investigation. Thus, identifying which of the quality areas are high,
average or low is the key concern of this study.
SIGNIFICANT OF THE STUDY
The findings of this study will be:
a guideline to define and measure quality childcare practices by childcare providers in the center,
an indicator to the strength and weakness prevalent in the childcare program that is current
being used, and
a source of reference to create in-house training and professional development
Quality Childcare Center
Quality in childcare is generally accepted as having two dimensions structural quality
(e.g. childcare providers level of education, experience and specialised training/qualifications,
number of children in the group, number of childcare providers in the group) and process
quality (e.g. staff child interaction, language stimulation and the extent to which
relationships between adults and children are warm and supportive) (NICHD ECCRN, 2000).
These dimensions were found to be significant aspects in childcare quality that strength in one
dimension is regarded as insufficient to foster childrens overall development. However, for
the purpose of this study, the process quality will be the area of concern as it will help to
answer the objective of this study.
Effective management is needed in every childcare center to attain the desired goals with
the least expenditure of time, energy and money. Whether the operation is an agency, school,
business, or family, whether it is operated for profit or as a nonprofit basis, management is
needed. One approach to assess quality management of early childcare centre that has gained
increasing popularity in Australia is The Quality Improvement and Accreditation System
(QIAS). This instrument is used to assess the quality process of childrens experiences during
their stay at the centre. The items cover the following quality areas:
staff relationships with children and peers
partnerships with families
programming and evaluation
childrens experiences and learning
protective care and safety
health
nutrition and well-being, and
managing to support quality
METHODOLOGY
This is a case study of a childcare center. This study combines both quantitative and
qualitative methods. Analysis quantitative data using Statistical Package for the Social
Science (SPSS) version 16 was used to obtain the mean descriptive for the level of quality
management practices in the childcare center under study. Interview further supported the
findings of the quantitative data. We adopted the mixed methods approach as we believed that
investigating into the quality of the childcare practices using both methods would provide a
clearer picture of what the management has implemented and how much has been internalised
and practiced by the childcare providers. Thus, the findings from both methods rather than

52

one alone, offer a stronger platform to inform the management on the strength and weakness
of the current practices at the center. The childcare providers responded to the questionnaire
while the manager was interviewed on her management practices.
QIAS is used to gauge childcare centres in Australia and it has been reported that the
Australia Quality Improvement and Accreditation System (QIAS) has a higher standard of
quality in formal childcare services than those reported for US and UK (Harrison, 2008).
Instrument: The Quality Improvement and Accreditation System (QIAS). This instrument
was used to assess the quality process of the childrens experiences during their stay at the
centre. The QIAS items were adapted to fit into the Malaysian context. The items covered the
following quality areas:
Quality Area 1: staff relationships with children and peers (10 items)
Quality Area 2: partnerships with families (4 items)
Quality Area 3: programming and evaluation (4 items)
Quality Area 4: childrens experiences and learning (10 items)
Quality Area 5: protective care and safety (6 items)
Quality Area 6: health, nutrition and well-being (8 items) and
Quality Area 7: managing to support quality (5 items)
QIAS ratings for each quality area ranged from a score of 1= unsatisfactory, 2 =
satisfactory, 3 = good quality, 4 = high quality. However, for this study the scale was adjusted
to: 1 = unsatisfactory, 2 = least satisfactory, 3 = satisfactory, 4 = highly satisfactory, to enable
the childcare providers a more comprehensible understanding of the scale. Quality area scores
were combined to form an average QIAS score for each quality area. The overall quality area
ranged from average to high: 1.00-2.50 = low, 2.51-3.50 = average and 3.51-4.00 = high. The
instrument reliability was high, ranging from 0.84 0.94.
The childcare center is situated in an urban area, run by a manager, seven childcare
providers and a cook. The minimum qualification of the childcare providers is high school
certificate. Their qualification varies from high school to degree holders. On the whole the
center provides childcare services to 41 children, aged 2 months to 4.5 years old.
FINDINGS
Table 1 presents ranking of the quality areas according to the mean for each quality area.
Based on the analysis it was reported that the overall level of quality practices for the center
was high (mean=3.68). Quality Area 6, 5, 7, 4, 2 and 1 were rated high except for Quality
Area 3 which was rated average (mean=3.46).
Table 1: Ranking of Quality Areas
Quality Area
No. of Item
Quality Area 6 : Health, Nutrition and Wellbeing
8
Quality Area 5 : Protective Care and Safety
6
Quality Area 7 : Managing to Support Quality
5
Quality Area 4 : Childrens Experiences and Learning
10
Quality Area 2 : Partnerships with Families
4
Quality Area 1 : Staff Relationships with Children
7
Staff Relationships with Peers
3
Quality Area 3 : Programming and Evaluation
4
Level of quality practices
Ranking scale: 1.00-2.50 = low, 2.51-3.50 = average, 3.51-4.00 = high

53

Mean Value
3.79
3.76
3.74
3.71
3.68
3.67
3.43
3.46
3.68

DISCUSSION ON THE FINDINGS


Quality Area 1: Staff Relationships with Children and Peers
The staff relationships with children and peers were combined but for this study we
decided to separate it into two sub-areas: Staff relationships with children and Staff
relationships with peers so that we can gauge the level of specific relationships (Table 1).
The overall mean for Quality Area 1 in terms of the staff relationships with children and
peers was high (Table 1). However, when the relationship was split between children and
peers, the ratings were different. Staff Relationships with Children was high (mean=3.67)
while Staff Relationships with Peers was just average (mean= 3.43). The high rating for staff
relationships with children reflects that the childcare providers believed that they have close
relationship with the children at the center.
During the interview with the Manager, this was her response to the question on staff
relationships with children:
in order for children to learn, they need to be able to have really good they need
to build that bond...that positive attachment with their carersbecause if they dont
then they dont feel safe, they dont have that good relationship they wont be able
to explore furtherthere wont be bonding Bowblys theory of attachment
(Manager)
How do you build your staff relationship with children? (Researcher)
... we encourage bonding between carers and children not just through the
activities its actually operational you need to have that special time with the
children For example, when children first start theres the settling periodone
practitioner will be assigned to the child with the parents around, slowly they get to
know each other, use to each other and so on (Manager)
Relationships will only develop when there are interactions between childcare providers and
the children. This interaction may take the form of consistent inter-personal communication
between the childcare providers and the children in the center and this in turn will develop
mutual understanding between them (Liu-Yan, 2008). During this interaction childcare
providers may offer emotional support, reciprocal communication, and cognitive stimulation
which may act as scaffolding to enhance the childs learning (Ainsworth, et al., 1978; Olson,
Bates & Bayles, 1984).
Staff Relationships with Peers: The mean for the relationship between staff and peers was
3.43 (Table 1), reflecting that the childcare providers believed that their relationship with their
peers was just average. The reasons could be that the childcare providers did not communicate
effectively among themselves to promote respect and they did not create a healthy working
environment to promote understanding among themselves. However, when interviewed, the
Manager has this to say on the issue:
I encouraged them to be open I be their psychologist
we always have briefingI want the staff to know whats happening parents
saying thisasking their opinion, how can we make it happenyes its important
they have close relationships with each other so they can work together, help each
other (Manager)
The manager believed staff relationships with peers is important and she has initiated several
ways to ensure the relationship between the childcare providers is good. However, this was
not what the childcare providers perceived. They felt their relationship was just average.
Therefore, this is the aspect that the manager needs to deal with.

54

Quality Area 2: Partnerships with Families


Based on the findings, the overall mean for Quality Area 2 was high (Table 1), reflecting that
the childcare providers created very good partnership with families. This strong partnership
with families could have been achieved through efforts made by the Manager. The interview
revealed:
That relationship is important especially when theyre settling in children are
actually observing how we are interacting with their parents and if they see parents
are trusting us they will have that trust in us too that is why that is a sensitive period
during the settling inif this does not happen then the children will take a longer time
to settle in
And also information from the parents is important so that we can give the right care
for their children and also if there are little issues at allits so important to handle it
right
Having the relationship is where I can call them and talk heart to heart on what Im
doing and from there Ill find out whether theyre happy and so on and also
supporting the parents for example in terms of information support or anything that
we can do (Manager)
The findings revealed that both the manager and the childcare providers had done well in
ensuring that strong partnership exists between them and the parents.
Generally, staff and parents have similar goals and outcomes for the children. Thus,
creating a strong partnership will benefit both parties. This partnership developed through
active communication and consultation between childcare providers and parents. Studies have
reported that when mothers and childcare provider consistently communicate this may
increase interactions between childcare provider and the child, as well as between mother and
child (Owen, Ware, & Barfoot, 2000). Others have stressed that such partnerships are vital to
the childs well-being, development and progress (QIAS Quality Practices Guide, 2005),
linked to the childs developing more positive socialization skills (Rentzou, 2011) and this
communication was found to be the single factor that helps to increase parent and community
involvement in childrens education (Magelky, 1990).
Quality Area 3: Programming and Evaluation
Based on the findings, the overall mean for Quality Area 3 was average (Table 1). This
could be due to the childcare providers believed that the program did not reflect much of the
centers vision and mission and it did not really nurture each child into a successful learner. In
addition, there was not much emphasis on documenting the childs learning. However, the
Manager has this to say about her centers program and evaluation:
Yes. We do. Basically, our program is learning through play. However, the day to day
we teach will basically be set activities will be based on six area of learningthe
personal social emotional, the cognitive, knowledgeable understanding development
and so on.
we have planning meeting so the teachers will give their opinion in terms of what
activities that we think is suitable. once the topic is finished, we will have another
meeting and... will... to evaluate how well it went. But our evaluation I think is quite
week
so we evaluate how well it went, what can be improved and so on and is all written
there by the practitioner and then after that is when we sit down and actually discuss
about it together.

55

The findings revealed that the childcare providers did not receive well the tasks performed by
the manager on this aspect. Therefore, this is an area that the manager needs to focus on to
ensure whatever she does is being comprehend correctly.
The childcare curriculum plays an important role in childrens development. High-quality
programs leaves positive effects on childrens brain development especially in language skills
and also provide the basis for future school success (Shonkoff & Phillips, 2000) and this in
turn instill in children sense of perseverance and motivation in their life (Heckman, 2006).
Similarly, assessment is a tool necessary to gauge the progress of the child. Through
assessment childcare providers and parents will be informed of the childs progress at the
center (Korjenevitch, 2010) and this is where improvements can be made.
Quality Area 4: Childrens Experiences and Learning
Based on the findings, the overall mean for Quality Area 4 was high (Table 1). Both the
childcare providers and the manager agreed that children need lots of experiences in order to
learn. This was reflected in the interview:
Good practice is about allowing the children to choose activities and encouraging
them to join the activities. If they cannot, or dont want to join the activities, its ok they
can choose another one, right. Because its basically maybe that activity is very
boring for them
.For them to understand the concept of sharing effect on their relationship
whether
they can play together or not. We have lots of ready steady go games, turn takings and
things like thatSometimes we talk about who is your best friend, why do you like to
be
your friend
well be having like the jungle walk and hide-and-seek. Its actually quite physically
active but I dont think its enough
The childcare center should be a place filled with rich resources such as educational
materials and equipment so as to allow children the opportunity to explore and discover while
handling them. In addition, they should be allowed to play, interact with peers as well as
adults in the center so as to enable them to learn social skills, increase their language
proficiency, share ideas and relationships (QIAS Report, 2008, p. 37). Therefore, childcare
centers should create programs that will enrich childrens experiences and learning while
being at the center.
Liu-Yan and Pan (2008) also stressed the role of physical environment in the childcare
center. Thus, it is a necessity to create learning corners and play materials to allow children to
have the opportunity to be involved in active play and learning. Such an environment will
tend to develop childrens cognitive competency (Vandell, 2004), create positive engagement
with peers and less likely to have negative peer interactions (Holloway & Reichart-Erickson,
1989; Wishard, Shivers, Howes, & Ritchie, 2003).
Quality Area 5: Protective Care and Safety
The results showed that the overall mean for Quality Area 5 was high (Table 1),
reflecting the level of perception of the childcare providers towards protective care and safety
at the center was high. This area was rated second highest among the 7 quality areas. During
the interview with the manager, this was what she said:

56

or theyre climbing stairs making sure that there need to be somebody there.
Not to actually like helping them because they need to have that independence, they
need to be able to do it themselves, but making sure that they are safe and if there is
anything that they need to that they can act quickly
and also that when anybody is coming to pick up the children and so on....if its a
stranger they dont allow that and they normally would call the parents because we
have a set procedure for that
we had activities where we allow the children to cut vegetables but we are there
holding their hands and so on I know there are lots of people that will not agree
with that... but this is the real world and they need that opportunity
Basically every morning they will do the floor checks the toilets checks and things
like that we do that regularly, as a matter of fact we do have that toilet check
timetable
Protective care and safety of the children should always be the interest of the manager,
childcare providers and families (QIAS, 2008). Therefore, it is important that childcare
providers believed that it is their responsibility to ensure the children under their care be
protected against injuries and accidents (Lewis, DiLillo, & Peterson, 2004; Morrongiello,
Corbett, & Bellissimo, 2008). However, most childcare centers tend to overlook the
occupational health and safety issues of their childcare providers. Even though there are few
studies that looked into the health and safety of childcare providers but that does not mean it is
less important compared to the health and safety of children. If childcare providers
experienced health and safety hazards in the childcare center this will have serious health
effects on the children under their care.
Quality Area 6: Health, Nutrition and Wellbeing
Based on the findings, the overall mean for Quality Area 6 was high (Table 1). In fact,
this area was rated the highest among the 7 quality areas. During the interview, the manager
stressed:
well, we actually have a very good food menu here. And you know, at one point, I
even serve and yogurt to the children. We dont even serve the children fish cake, fish
balls or whatever. If we want to make fish cakes, we make the fish cakes using real
fish and fish balls and things like that
so when the children arrive in the morning, first we check their body temperature,
we do the body check and lets say their temperature is high, they are not allowed to
be in the centre
Well through our activities through the practitioners, good practitioners will
make
the children happy
Im actually looking at our first aid training as well at the moment, and although
food preparation as well so that they are aware about hygiene and transmitted
diseases and things like that
Managers as well as childcare providers knowledge and beliefs on heath, nutrition and
well-being plays a vital role in ensuring children stay healthy and happy at the center. There
are providers who believed that inculcating healthy eating habits and instilling positive and

57

healthy behavior at mealtimes are among their responsibilities (Moore et al., 2005; Pagnini,
Wilkenfeld, Ling, Booth, & Booth, 2007. Such beliefs will have positif impact on childrens
well-being.
Children will spend hours at the center, from the time the parents drop them on the way to
work and fetch them on the way home from work. Lack of knowledge on the effects of
overeating and consuming unhealth food may have negative impact on childhood dietary
habits (Mikkelsen & Chehimi, 2007).
Quality Area 7: Managing To Support Quality
Based on the findings, the overall mean for Quality Area 7 was rated high (Table 1).
According to the manager:
yes, we have our policies, on even managing childrens behavior we have that.
Policies on
admission, policies on sickness, polices on administration of medication, polices on
our
curriculum, yes we do have that
When asked on whether she provided the staff with written management procedures of this
taska [childcare center] (Researcher), the manager responded:
Yes we do. Its actually written in their contract as well. Its attached in their
contract. But Im actually reviewing it at the moment because theres a few things that
needs to be taken out and put in.
When asked whether parents were informed of how the taska [childcare center] is managed
(Researcher)
this was the managers respond:
yes, they are actually made aware of our policies when they are given hand book
when they actually register. Not just that, on the first day of their settling in normally I
will spend time with them, talking to them to make them understand about our policies
and so on. As a matter of fact, our admission form even it says that here are our
policies, and parents has to sign saying that they acknowledge that but its probably
something that needs to be reminded to them from now and then.
Thus, it is clear that efforts were made by the manager to ensure the childcare providers and
the parents are aware and understand the policies and regulations set by the center. This is to
ensure all stakeholders can play a role in supporting quality practices at the center.
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
The study was done to gauge the levels of 7 quality areas that were proposed by QIAS as
the indicators of a quality childcare center. The QIAS was used as the tool to conduct the
study as it is used by the Australian National Childcare Accreditation Council Inc. (2005) to
accreditate childcare centers in Australia.
The finding reported that the center has high quality overall practices (mean 3.68).
However, when examined individual quality area it was found that 6 quality areas were rated
high and 1 area, Quality Area 3: Programming and Evaluation was rated average (mean 3.46)
by the childcare providers. Even though 6 areas were rated high but that does not mean this

58

center is above average in terms of quality. For a center to be accreditated as quality it


should have high quality practices in all the identified quality areas. Therefore, the
management should examine carefully each quality area by referring to the mean of each item
in each quality area. This would clearly reflect the specific practice of the childcare providers
that needed attention so that planning can be done to ensure the center can sustain or seek to
achieve higher ratings so as to hit the 4.00 mean mark. The following are the areas that were
ranked average and the manager and the researcher discussed ways to improve these areas.
Below are the summary of the suggestions made.
Quality Area 1: Staff Relationships with Children and Peers: the following are the
specific areas that need to be improved.
Quality Area 1 comprised 7 items for Staff Relationships with Children. Six of the items
were rated high except for item 7 which was rated average. This relationship Staff treat all
children equally was perceived by the childcare providers as being average. Thus, the
manager realized there is a need to instill awareness in the staff of the positive effects of
ensuring that staff should treat all children equally irrespective of their parents socioeconomic status, the childs physic, and development. Some of the suggested positive
outcomes would be: when the childcare provider responds immediately to a childs need this
will build trusts and promotes cooperation between the child and the care provider (Ainsworth
et al., 1978), responsive care providers helps children to foster closer relationship with their
care giver and this in turn may reduce behavioral and emotional problems (Landry, 2013).
Quality Area 1 on Staff Relationships with Peers was rated average. There were 3 items
with one item being rated high and the other two was rated average. The two items were:
Staff communicate effectively among themselves to promote respect and Staff create a
healthy working environment to promote understanding among themselves, the manager
decides to increase activities in the center that will require teamwork and joint decision
making. In addition, there should be a more open and transparent discussion on particular
classroom challenges as this may promote collaborative behavior among the childcare
providers and leads to improving the quality of their practices.
The next area that was rated average was Quality Area 3: Programming and Evaluation.
There were four items but only one was rated high and the other three were average. The
items were: The early childcare program reflects a clear statement of the centres vision and
mission, Each childs learning is documented and The program nurtures each child to be a
successful learner. During the discussion, the manager explain that the center has its own
vision and mission however, it was not displayed nor disseminate to the staff. As such, the
manager will ensure every staff and parent be given a copy of the centers vision and mission.
In addition, a copy will be framed on the wall in the childcare center that will be easily viewed.
As for documenting each childs learning, this exercise needs to be fully implemented at the
center. Currently the center does have templates on documenting each childs progress but it
was not done on a regular basis. Therefore, there is a need to conduct in-house training on the
process of documenting childrens learning. There is also a need to examine the program
again and ensure the centers mission and vision is clearly spelt clearly in the program. Finally,
the program must have elements to nurture each child to be a successful learner.
The study managed to identify the level of the seven quality areas in the center. In
addition, it also highlighted the exact area that needs further improvement so as to be rated
high. The discussion with the manager has further helped to identify how to enhance the
childcare providers quality practices.

59

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Shonkoff, J., & Phillips, D.A. (Eds.). (2000). From neurons to neighborhoods: The science of
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61

USING THE MANAGEMENT OF QUALITY ASSURANCE TO IMPROVE EARLY


CHILDHOOD EDUCATION: STUDY OF QUALITY ASSURANCE PRACTICES IN
CENTRAL JAVA AND WEST NUSA TENGGARA, INDONESIA
by. YayanTrisakti
Abstract
The study explores what beneficial of Educational Quality Assurance Mangement (EQAM)
for improvement in Early Childhood Education. The literature review highlights the
connection between EQAM and standard improvement at school. Since the meaning of school
improvement is broad, then the study focuses to process improvement covered framework,
plan, implementation and evaluation, and then make it linked to Educational Quality
Assurance Management. The method employed questionnaire on Development of Early
Childhood Application. Since the aim of the study is to examine perspective and attitude of
teachers and headteachers towards Quality Assurance policy application in practice in
Indonesia, then the research used qualitative data.
Finally the study shows Educational Quality Assurance Management is believed providing
beneficial for Standard improvement in Early Childhood Education, however there are some
aspects should be improve from Educational Quality Assurance Management itself such as
technical support. From the findings, the study suggests that developing system for fostering
school to follow up action and controlling their sustainability is expected to minimized the
issues in Early Childhood Standard in Indonesia.
Introduction
Education in Indonesia is undergoing significant change. Finding solutions and
developing management functions is necessary, however, exactly how to do it and how to
prepare it is problematic. I care very much about these problems, so I will consider the
important vehicle of positive change in how to manage Quality Assurance, and how to use it
in order to improve the quality in education. That is why I chose Management of Quality
Assurance as the medium for development.
One of the most important components in education is Quality Assurance (QA), which
is becoming the main educational priority in Indonesia. This is because that quality can create
an environment where educators, parents, government officials, the community, and business
leaders work together to provide students with the resources (Arcaro, 1995). Quality
Assurance is seen as a central element in strategies to raise standards in education. One reason
is to establish specific standards and ensure these are met consistently (Ellis, 1993). QA is
supported by operating organisations. The Educational Quality Assurance Centre (EQAC),
Ministry of Education and Culture (MOEC) in Republic of Indonesia is mandated to support
QA by legal decrees.
However, what is lacking is systematic management of QA, fulfilling the expectations
of the quality in education, and sufficient and appropriate resources to implement its
programmes. The root of all the issues and constraints within the QA sub-sector is the
relatively weak institutional capability. Although the EQAC is mandated to conduct quality
assurance programmes for Early Childhood Educationin Indonesia, it does not yet have either
the trained officers and inspectors nor adequate resources, or a co-ordinating structure that
functions. Its weaknesses are exacerbated by the other education institutional constraints, such
as weak institutional capability of direct responsibility to schools and the shortage of qualified
staff. As a result of these constraints upon institutional capability, other problems arise such

62

as a severely limited impact to raise standards in education. There are inefficiency and
behavioural constraints.
Meanwhile, the education level in Indonesia was relatively low. This was indicated by
World Human Development Indext, Indonesia is on 108th position from 187 countries
(UNDP, 2014). This achievement can not be separated from the portrait of early childhood
education in Indonesia as the most important and decisive part of Indonesian people. Early
childhood (infant-5 years) are the most critical age or the most decisive in the formation of
character and personality of a person. Including the development of intelligence is almost
entirely under the age of five years. The importance of golden age that determine 80 %
capacity development is supposed to be achieved in early childhood (0-6 years old) has not
implemented appropriately. Parents and teachers are prefer to teach reading and numerical
than to build playing as core activity for early childhood learning(Latief et all, 2013). It can
not take a part from qualification and competencies of teachers and education staff in Early
Childhood Education (ECE) have not met standard yet. Continuous Professional
Development (CPD) of early childhood education has just achieved 118 teachers (23 %) from
402.493 teachers. Bachelor degree (S1-D4) has just achieved by 15, 72% early childhood
education teachers (Directorate of Early Childhood Education Development, 2013).
While it is possible to consider quality improvement in order to overcome poor
conditions, several crucial aspects are likely to stimulate the change through using the
management of QA. The simultaneous development of these aspects will include management
of QA, an analytical approach to a QA model, review of standards in education, school selfevaluation, inspection, supervision, and improvement. This would provide a firm basis upon
which to determine what strategy should be adopted, and then be reflected in implementation
practice. This planning, in turn, will be matched with standards needs and outcomes.
However, this process does not just simply happen. It requires incremental progress through
internal and external analysis in support of improvement and viable change. It might,
therefore, be argued that an understanding of the Management of QA can be used as a
framework for analysis and this, in turn, will meet value added with quality improvement
(Harris, et. al., 1997; OFSTED, 1995). It might be because raising standards in education
through QA is in line with the educational goal in Indonesia. It seems, therefore, that it is
important to transform management of QA to become much more of a process of QA. Based
on the statements above, managing QA is interested to study.
This study explored, highlighted and interpreted the central principles of Quality
Assurance and how they are applied in Central Java and West Nusa Tenggara provinces. The
main purpose of this study then is to examine how Quality Assurance can be applied in
practice in Indonesia. A further aim is to examine the sustainability of a Quality Assurance
system in Indonesia. This study also focuses on the application of a QA model appropriate
with Indonesian condition. It, in turn, will make a positive contribution to raise standards in
education. The scope of this study is the management of QA which is under the co-ordination
of the Local Education Authority (Dinas Pendidikan Kabupaten/Kota) in Indonesia. This
includes its organisation, the QA model adopted, management, application, school self
evaluation, inspection, and supervision.It focuses on the quality assurance process
(framework, plan, implementation, evaluation) that consists of the main components of
quality assurance. The study can be used: (1) as a guide supported by a handbook for
improving Early Childhood Education; (2) as a reference for the development of management
of quality assurance approach appropriate to needs, so that schools can be required to be more
dynamic and innovative in the development of the teaching and learning process; (3) as a
basis for schools development plans in Central Java and West Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia; (4)
as a format for the future development of QA to ensure school improvement.
The study covered some Districts Kindergarten Association (IGTKI) in Central Java
and West Nusa Tenggara provinces because the associations are closely working where policy

63

documents, reference materials, books, data and information are available. The study
persistented on kindergarten schools as a great model. The study focuses on answering
questions 1) What benefits does the MQA offer?; (2) To what extent is the MQA improve the
Early Childhood Education?.
Methods
What is Quality Assurance?
Oakland (1993, p.13) describes that quality assurance is broadly the preventing of
quality problems through planned and systematic activities (including documentation). These
will include the establishment of a good quality management system and the assessment of its
adequacy, the audit of the operation of the system, and the review of the system itself. This
implies that it is the set of activities that an educational institution undertakes to ensure
standards are specified and reached consistently for an education service (Robinson, 1994).
This involves setting attainable standards, organising work so that they are achieved,
documenting the procedures required, communicating them to all concerned, and monitoring
and reviewing the attainment of standards.
However, Lawton (2004) argues that quality assurance is a means of ensuring that
effective structures and procedures are in place to monitor and improve standards in
education. This point seems to suggest that quality assurance may be carried out
systematically through regular independent inspection which would raise standards of
achievement and the quality of education. It also would have an important role to play in
making education more accountable to its stakeholders. This point is suggested by Perry
(1995) regularity of inspection is an inescapable ingredient of using inspection as real tool to
raise performance. Perry (1995) believes that the Local Education Authority inspectors were
neither independent nor impartial because of their closeness to the schools they inspected and
the fact that they were part of the same organisation that provided the funding the inspection
process. The Framework for the Inspection of Schools and Handbook requires inspectors to
evaluate four aspects of the work of schools employing the Office for Standards in Education
(OFSTED) model (OFSTED, 1995), as follows: (1) the quality of the education provided by
the school; (2) the educational standards achieved; (3) the efficiency of financial
management; and (4) the spiritual, moral, social, and cultural development of the pupils. In
addition, QA procedures need to cover aspects of provision that include assessment and
management, and quality of training (Teacher Training Agency, 2002). In the United
Kingdom, for example, during the 1970s, observing and monitoring standards was
commonly used, especially in connection with the work of the Assessment of Performance
Unit (as claimed by Lawton and Gordon, 1993).
In addition, the Government of Indonesia mandated that there should be systemic and
integrated activities by the education unit, education institutions, local government,
government, and society to improve the level of intelligence of the nation through education
(Ministerial Decree No. 63 of Y. 2009), hereinafter referred to as the Education Quality
Assurance, has a strong legal foundation, stated in Government Regulation No. 19 of Y. 2005
on National Education Standards, chapter XV, Quality Assurance, article 91. Then, the
Educational Quality Assurance programme is also equipped by the Indonesian Government
Regulation No. 32 of Y. 2013 on Amendment to Government Regulation No. 19 of Y. 2005
on National Education Standards. Based on these regulations, quality assurance of education,
particularly early childhood, has a central role in the improvement on an ongoing basis, aimed
at: (1) developing a culture of quality early childhood care and maintenance; (2) dividing the
duties and responsibilities in quality assurance proportionally among the organizers of early

64

childhood education unit, District, Provincial Government and the Government; (3) setting
the mold in national early childhood care and quality assurance; (4) mapping the quality of
early childhood (province, district, and education unit); (5) the early childhood quality
development information system that is reliable, compact, and connected between the
education unit, district, provincial government, and the government.
In mapping the condition of the education unit, specifically early childhood, has to meet
four Standard of Education, consisting of: a standard level of performance development;
standard teachers and education staff; standard content, process, and evaluation;
infrastructure, management, and financing(the Regulation No. 58th of Y. 2009).
Furthermore, the strategy of Quality Improvement is led to achieve World-Class
Education, the vision of "Awakening Cultural Quality Education Unit in implementing
National Standard Education International Competitiveness Towards Y. 2020", in the end
how the quality of education in Indonesia on part with world-class quality education. To
achieve it, it should be done through the 5 stages of strategy towards improving the quality of
world-class education, namely: (1) quality policy, (2) total quality development system, (3)
competition conducted in multiple stages, (4) accreditation done glazed frames, (5) quality
assurance system in total.
Development and implementation of Education Quality Assurance System is the embodiment
of the adoption of the concept of Quality in Education, as shown in the picture.

In line with, the conceptual process of "keeping" quality has evolved. To begin with, the
process of maintaining quality control is done through a process of quality (quality control),
which is a post-production process is carried out by the quality controllers to detect or reject
defective products.
Then, quality assurance performed both before and after the production process. This
process aims to prevent the error from the beginning, so that the production process can then
be designed that can produce products according to specifications or standards. In education,

65

it is very possible to happen to be done through the control system, which is tight at every
stage of education achievement.
In addition, total quality management, quality improvement, called an extension and
development of quality assurance. Integrated quality management is an attempt to create a
quality culture, which encourages all stakeholders in the organisation to consistently satisfy
customers. Consistency satisfaction of the customers is done by all related components at the
central level, regional, and education unit in accordance with the duties, functions, and
capacity respectively.
What is School Improvement ?
Fullan (1991) argued that school improvement is indicated by dynamic changes and
dynamic educational changes is depend on teachers think and changes towards their practice
including their beliefs and attitude. Hargreaves and Fullan (1998) support the view, that the
impetus for significant change often comes from external sources. On the other hand, Stoll
and Fink (1995), as cited in Prosser (1999, p.47) argued that real improvement cannot come
from anywhere other than within educational institutions themselves. However, I believe that
stressing from external support forces the internal support works in line to improvement. As
Fullan says that putting new policy in place is a part of the innovation process. Then I argued
that Management of Quality Assurance as the policy from external support will emerge
internal support from school, then together build quality. As figured out:

Figure 1.
Figure 1 shows strategies in cyle. First cycle focuses on (1) Strategy and Policy on QA for
early childhood education; (2) Capacity Building for Human Resource Development (HRD);
(3) Fact Finding (technical assistance) in local area; (4) Program Disseminated; (5) Clinical

66

Supervision and Evaluation; (6) White Paper Report of Quality Mapping; (7) Successfull
Practice Disseminated of Early Childhood Educational Quality Assurance (ECEQA); (8)
Information and Communication Sytem Development of ECEQA.
The meeting point in the second cycle are: (3) Fact Finding (technical assistance) in
local area; (4) Program Disseminated; (5) Clinical Supervision and Evaluation on ECEQA;
(6) White Paper Report of Quality Mapping on ECEQA. Both cycles are expected to be
persisted and continued improvement so the QA system for earlychildhood education can be
invented. Each step on the cycle is explained as follows:
1.
ECEQAS Strategy and Policy
EEQAs Strategy and Policy purpose for setting norm, standard, procedure and criteria in
early childhood education quality assurance. To accomplish this activity, it needs to involve
many parties, such as, Institution for Developing Educational Human Resource, Cultural and
Educational Quality Assurance; Acreditation Board for Early Childhood, Non-Formal and
Informals Education; Directorate General of Early Childhood, Non Formal and Informal
Education;Research and Development Centre; Educational Quality Assurance Institution,
Development and Capacity Building Centre for Early Childhoods Teachers and Education
staff, and Universities. This activity carries on intensively once a month.
2.
Capacity Building for Human Resource Development
This activity purposes to enhance the ability of Quality Improvement Officer team. The team
consists of Educational Quality Assurance Centre, Educational Quality Assurance Institution,
Acreditation Board for Early Childhood, Non-Formal and Informals Education, Directorate
General for Early Childhood, Non Formal and Informal Education, Research and
Development Centre, Educational Quality Assurance Institution, Development and Capacity
Building Centre for early Childhoods Teachers and Education staff and Universities. The
team is supposed to be enriched by knowledges and skills. The team are expected not only to
be professional in educational problem diagnostic, but also to be able to give constructive
suggetions and technical supports for implementing Quality Assurance in Early Childhood
Education. This activity is supposed to be conducted in 2 steps. Each step carries on for 7
days by 40 participants.
3.
Fact Finding
The Quality Improvement Officer Team are expected to visit targeted Kindegarten. The
targeted kindergartens are expected to be a central meeting for local kindergartens (10-20
schools). The team consist of 2 officers to conduct their taskforces in the targeted school.
While the fact finding activity are undertaken, the team should ensure that the targeted
schools are able to perform School Self Evaluation (SSE) and its feedback.
4.
Program Dessiminated
Kindegartens representative in Finding Fact activities are expected to accomplish and
disseminate to other local kindegartens more less 5 schools for 45 days. They are also
expected to construct networking among kindegartens, so they are able to actively
communicate each other and share information and best practice continously and sustainly.
5.
Clinical Supervision and Evaluation
Quality Improvement Officer Team are also supposed to visit targeted Kindegartens in Fact
Finding activity. They not only observe targeted kindegardens progress, but also collect the

67

data from disseminated kindergartens. When the program is disseminated well, the data from
100 kindegartens will be successfully collected from each targeted school. Clinical
Supervision and Evaluation will be conducted in 5 days.
6.
WhitePaper Report for National Standard Achivement
The analized data of the whole activities will be constructed to be kindegartens profile in
each school, local area, districts, province and national level. White papper report needs 3
session, each for 5 days.
7.
Successfull Practice
This action focuses on dissemination, sharing experience and benchmarking. Dissemination
intended to the result of White Paper Report for National Standard Achivement will be
presented to stakeholders. Sharing experince is expected to be conducted among kindegartens
for extending targeted kindegartens. Benchmarking focuses on improving the ability and skill
of earlychildhoods teachers and education staff cooperated by national and international
quality assurance institutions.
8.
Information and Communication System Development
The whole activities on the cycle are supported by developing information and
communication system for early chilhood educational quality assurance.
The Research Methodology
The methodological approaches in this study is influenced by the work of Kumar (2005),
Patton (2002), Bryman (2001), Richardson (1996), Denzin and Lincoln (2000), Cohen and
Manion (1994), Robson (2002), and Yin (1994). This qualitative study is evaluation research,
using a survey model on the basis of the respondents answers to questionnaires. The
questionnaires are related to the measurement of standards in education. Then, this study
carried out interviews with respondents to gain depth in data and information that is supported
by classroom observation. Moreover, this study will be supported by sample documentations
(e.g. pupils development, attainment, continuous professional development, and list of
pupils attendance).
The Population
The population in this study are headteahers, teachers, and students at kindegarten in Central
Java and West Nusa Tenggara. The schools have common characteristics, such as, public
schools, civil servant status for headteachers and teachers. The MQA programmes have been
run for 8 months from February to September 2014.
The Collecting Data
Collecting data carried out during the school year. This aims to obtain data and information
concerning schools performance as a starting point. Data are collected through Development
Instrument of ECE Application distributed to headteachers and teachers. The application
distributed to headteachers and teachers who are contributing to the teaching and learning
process. Headteachers and teachers are expected to fill in application by clicking () at
statements that have been provided. The result of the application, then, collected, processed,
and analysed. The results would be subjected in triangulation through the study of
documentation and professional judgement.

68

Result and Discussion

note:
SPTK : Standard for Teacher and Education Staff
SIPP : Standard for Content, Process and Assessment
Sarpras
: Standard for Equipment and Facilities
STTP : Standard for Student Achievement
TP1 : Inadequate
TP2 : Need Improvement
TP3 : Good
TP4 : Outstanding

The study has shown that Management of Quality Assurance indirectly has provided
guidelines of reference for school improvement. Experiences from headteachers and teachers
indicates positively of MQA implementation as well as its impact into school improvement.
The data begins from Central Java that have population 1520 kindegarten. It started from the
Standard for Teacher and Education Staff in Central Java. 44 % of population has been
outstanding of NES, 33% has met the NES and 22% population still need improvement.
Standard for Content, Process and Assessment (SIIP) was achieved by 40% population for
outstanding, 30% for good, 20% for need improvement and the rest 10% for inadequate.
Similary, 40% population are outstanding, 30% are good, 20%are need improvement and
10% are inadequate for Facilities Standard. The three standard gave implication for student
achivement standard, 40 % from population have been over National Education
Standard(outstanding), 30 % met the NES and the rest 20 % and 10 % have been Need
Improvement and Inadequate.
The data of West Nusa Tenggara is not too much different form Central Java. The
population of West Nusa Tenggara is 39 kindegarten. To begin with, teachers and education

69

staff, 44 % of population has been outstanding of NES, 33% has met the NES and 22%
population still need improvement. The same achievement for Standard of Content, Process
and Assessment (SIIP) and facilities standard (Sarpras), 44% for outstanding, 33 % for
meeting the NES (good) and 23% for need improvement. The theree standards gave impact
for students achievement standard 40 % for outstanding, 30% for good, 20% for need
improvement and 10% for inadequate.
In regard to SIIP and SARPRAS, the data report from government (MOEC Report,
2013) stated that the government facilities aids for infrastructure and teaching learning is
limited. In contrast, the data showed that Standard for Content, Process and Assessment
(SIPP) and Standard for Equipment and Facilities(Sarpras) can be achieved by each 40% in
Java for outstanding. In similar, SIIP and Sarpras in West Nusa Tenggara can be achieved by
each 44% for outstanding.The pie data also showed that there was the same patern from the
result in 2 provinces. The result from standard of teachers and education staff (SPTK) was
almost the same the result of SIIIP, SARPRAS and STTP. When SPTK was achieved by 44
% for outstanding, the result in SIIP, SARPRAS and STTP is not too much different, 40 % for
outstanding. However, when 20% population reached need improvement in SPTK, the
unexpected result happened in SIIP, SARPRAS and STTP. The Both data implicitly
confirmed that Standard for Teachers and Education Staff (SPTK) is key for others standard.
The result of SIIP, SRAPRAS and SPTK is depend on how the teacher and headteacher could
achieve in SPTK. Performing a program that enhance teachers and education staff will give
positive impact for others standard.Then, I conclude that conducting MQA is valuable to rise
standard of teacher and education staff,so thatit boosts rising the others standard.
The data reflected that conducting MQA into school program persuade teachers and
headtechers to take their self evaluation and reflect it into some feedback recommendation in
teaching learning practice and school managing. As Fullan (2001) says that educational
change depends on how teachers and headteachers think and involves changes in practices.
The MQA drived teachers and headteachers as catalyst of change, initiate to adequate of their
own knowledge, skills, understanding, performance, beliefs, attitudes and values for the
purpose of changes. It conclude that MQA made teachers and headteachers as a target as
expected to lead personal and group practice and recognizes that the main reasons for
producing students who can compete in national and international level derive from teacher's
teaching and leadership' practices of what it means to be a teacher and a headteacher. In other
words, MQA is like to cover or minimize the gap in Early Childhood Education concerning
the sustainability issue.
However, the data found that there is 22 % of population in Central Java and West Nusa
Tenggara thattheir SPTK is on need improvement zone. It presented destructive waves for
others standard.The datasignified thatthere are some aspects that should be improved in the
MQA itself such as feedback, support in continuing professional development and monitoring
of evaluation. From the findings, the study suggests that developing a system for fostering
teachers, headteachers and others education staff to take follow up action and assisting their
sustainability is expected to minimize the issues in educational quality in Indonesia,
especially early childhood education.
Conclusion
If What You Do, Does Not Bring About Improvement for Teacher. Please, Do Not Do
It(Wright, 2007).The study has shown that MQA circuitously has delivered guidelines of
reference for school' improvement. Experiences from teachers and headteacherssigned
positively MQA implementation as well as its impact into school improvement.Eventhough,

70

there was a little sign that there should be strengthening of MQA program in some schools.
However, MQA has provided impacts for school development in Indonesia.
The positive aspect of MQA has guided to enforce teacher and education staff
standards. Indirectly, it also promoted improvement for teachers and education staff; leading
teachers and headteachersto usedto feedback and educational solution recommendation in
MQA as self evaluation. The impact of self evaluation has encouraged motivation and spirit
for teachers and headteachers to engage into continuing professional development and
changing of practice. They retain into some innovation of their profession practice, including
how to maximize facilities and infrastructure to be engange into teaching learning practice.
However, the weaknesses of MQA system indicates a resist for improvement itself. No
further framework in MQA results lead to no direction for the next step the teachers and
headteachers should do. It did not give a framework of reference for school to optimize their
potential.
Finally, school improvement is not the responsibility of the teacher and headteacher
only, but also of professional community, for example, other members of school, educational
authorities, supervisors, colleagues, and, in some cases, researchers also need to be involved.
Reflecting from the study, there are some areas for further that I would like to recommend:
1. Promote for evidence-based and culturally relevant frameworks, standards and practices
for quality assurance.
The principal of quality assurance framework, urged by a research base are suppose to be
reflected into such an evidence-based framework that requires attention to cultural context
that would reflect local factors. Without this, culture and needs may put to risk the
achievement of desired outcomes in MQA.
2. Develop more appropriate supports that would ensure that quality assurance is not the
responsibility of the teacher and headteacher only, but also of boarder professional
community.
The establishment of MQA is only one of the initial steps toward improving quality.
There must also be an effort to ensure that tools and resources that contribute to quality
are readily available to all providers and practitioners of early care and education services.
This quality support may include, but are not limited totraining and education programs
for MQA target (teacher and headteacher) but also for other provider such as Local
Education Authority. School position in District Autonomy is under coordination of LEA.
In line of this, involving supervisor and other education staff in MQA targets will be
aligned into improvement contribution.
3. Strengthen and improve the cooperative between central government and other
stakeholders of early childhood education.
Promote continuing dialogues between all relevant government departments concerned
with early childhood education, and the community stakeholders to develop frameworks
for quality assurance and other initiatives meant to improve quality of earlychildhood,
such as central government, local government, school and community that initiates the
existing of Building Learning Community.
References:
Agung, I.G.N., (1992) Social Research Method: Theory and Practise. Jakarta: Gramedia.
Arcaro, J.S. (1995) Quality in Education: An Implementation Handbook. Florida: Lucie Press.
Bryman, A. (2001) Social Research Methods. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Cohen, L., and Manion, L., (1994) Research Methods in Education (the4edn). London:
Croom Helm.

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Denzin, N.K. and Lincoln, Y.S. (edr) (2000) Handbook of Qualitative Research (the2edn).
London: SAGE.
Directorate of Early Childhood Education Development, (2013) Early Childhood Education
Development Report. Jakarta: MOEC.
Ellis, R. (1993) Quality Assurance for University Teaching. Buckingham: Open University.
Education Office in District of Jakarta (2005) National Examination Results in
Jakarta.http://www.sinarharapan.co.id/berita/0507/01/jab01.html 23 Aug. 05
Fullan, M., (1997) The Challenge of School Change; The Complexity of the Change
Process.Illionis: Skylight Training and Publishing.
Fullan, M., (2001) The Meaning of Educational Change (3rd ed). London: Routledge Falmer.
Fullan, M., (2003) Change Forces with a Vengeance. London: Routledge Falmer
Harris, A., Bennett, N., and Preedy, M. (eds.) (1997) Organisational Effectiveness and
Improvement in Education. Buckingham: Open University Press.
Kumar, R., (2005) Research Methodology: A Step by Step Guide for Beginners (the2edn).
London: Sage.
Latief, Afandi, Zubaidah, and Rita, (2013) DimensiPendidikanAnakUsiaDini. Jakarta: MOEC
Lawton, D. (2004) Raising Standards in Education. Paper presented at The Workshop of
Management of Quality Assurance for Raising Standards in Education. At The
Institute of Education, University of London, September 2004.
Lawton, D., and Gordon. P. (1993) Dictionary of Education. London: Hodder and Stoughton.
MONE (2005) National Education Data. Jakarta: MONE.
Oakland, J.S. (1993) Total Quality Management: The Route to Improving Performance
(the2edn). Oxford: Bufferworth-Heinemann.
OFSTED (1995) The OFSTED Handbook. London: HMSO.
Patton, M.Q. (2002) Qualitative Research and Evaluation Methodology(the3edn). London:
SAGE
Perry, P. (1995) School Inspection: The Information of OFSTED in Brighouse. London:
Pitman Publishing.
Robinson, B. (1994) Ensuring Quality in the Planning and Development of Distance Learning
Courses. Paper Presented at the 20th Anniversary International Conference on
Distance Learning, 20-22 September 1994. Colombia.
Richardson, J.T.E. (edr) (1996) Handbook of Qualitative Research for Psychology and
Methods the Social Sciences. Oxford: Blackwell.
Robson, C., (2002) Real World Research (the 2edn). Oxford: Blackwell.
Teacher Training Agency (2002) Qualifying to Teach Handbook of Guidance. London:
Teacher Training Agency.
UNDP, (2014) Human development Report 2014. New York: UNDP.
Wright, C., (2007) Raising Standards of Education. London: SAGE.
Yin, K.R. (1994) Case Study Research (the2 edn) London: SAGE.

72

MANAGEMENT OF NONFORMAL-EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION


THROUGH FORUM FOR FAMILY EMPOWERMENT IN CINTARASA VILLAGE
Iip Saripah
Department of Out-of-School Education, Faculty of Education, Indonesia University of
Education, Jl. Dr Setiabudhi 229 Bandung, Indonesia, Email: iipsaripah@ymail.com
Abstract
Individual or group activities conducted within a community, an organisation and or an
agency with the intention to achieve a certain goal are implemented under a given
management system. Managemengt of widespread nonformal-early childhood education in
our communities can serve a good purpose, only if, the services provided are inline with the
public demands. In an effort to provide guidance to early childhood education units, there is
need for good management. Client or consumer satisfaction (in regard to the education
services provided by a given organisation) can be categorised into five dimensions:
tanggible, empathy, renponsiveness, reliabile, and assurance. This paper is based on the
results from a students internship programme on family empowerment conducted in Cintarasa
village in Garut District which has revealed that there is need for continuous empowerment,
such a programme should atleast be conducted once in three years; and that this can only be
realised if universities such as the Indonesia University of Education are to work in
collaboration with local governments.
Keywords:
community

nonformal-early childhood education, management,

empowerment

and

A. Background
National development is basically an attempt to build a fully developed human-being
and the nation at large. In other words, development does not look at human beings as mere
objects, but it positions them as active subjects who are able to determine the direction and
objectives of their development. Though this is the ideal situation, one of the obstacles to
development is the lack of young people who are able to direct change and influence
technological advances. This is not a simple matter, especially at a time; the country is
entering a take-off stage. However, this should not be a reason to forget the inequalities
between the poor and the rich, where the rich have become more rich, whereas the poor have
become more poor.
It is true that in today's society, which is massively involved in development, there are
many challenges which also continue to lead to imbalances and gaps among people. Although
several of the social problems have been successfully addressed, there are those which are
consistent and they cannot be easily eliminated. For instance, unemployment and school
dropout are some of the problems which continuously affect young people's ability and also
greatily determine their future. In reference to this, students from Indonesia University of
Education conducted a thematic service learning on family empowerment with a focus on
education, health, environment and economy. They foundout that thematic topics were
appropriate for community empowerment through the eradication of poverty and ignorance at
the grassroot of the society.
At the district level, the implementation of community empowerment is carried out by
different departments; however, their functions are less coordinated. Such a situation has led

73

to programme duplication and overlap since in most cases the goals are similar. The target of
thematic student internship programme is to develop and strengthen the new and already
existing community organisations which focus on family and community empowerment.
Garut is among the recent districts that have signed a memorandum of understanding with the
Indonesia University of Education in regard to community services. However, the cooperation
between the university and the district ranges far back, before the early 1990's. In 2013 the
village of Cintarasa in the regency of Samarang in Garut district was chosen as a location for
students thematic internship programme. Since then, the activities carried out so far, have led
to the formation of strong community organisation and among them is the forum for family
empowerment (POSDAYA), which has been chosen as a topic for this paper. The institutional
potential of the district and sub-districts (or regencies) in support for programme
implementation, for example: education, health, environmental and economic have their own
limitations, among such limitation is the available human resource which should be
strengthened through volunterism.
B. Management and Quality of Nonformal-early Childhood Education Services
A good management will lead to improved quality of the nonformal early childhood
education programme. Educational services comprise of basically public services. Today, a
point of discussion is the issue of quality. The concept of quality has become a measure of
success in most organisations and services, including education services. This implies that
quality is a cross-cutting issue and no longer an issue of only commercial service providers,
but also an important point when it comes to government service delivery. The concept in real
situation helps to enhance customer satisfaction.
According to the International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO), quality is
defined as the overall quality and distinctive features of a good or service offered in regard to
public demand. In most cases, the needs and expectations differ. Zeithaml, et al. (1990) are of
the opinion that a customer's decision to consume or not to consume a good or service are
affected by the quality of that service. The indicators used to measure customer satisfaction
are divided into five dimensions, which are: "tangible, empathy, responsiveness, reliability,
and assurance".
In accordance with the above opinion, good management of nonformal-early
childhood education will either be able to enhance the quality of the services for the users or
will lead to consumer satisfaction after the service has been provided. To establish whether
the customer's expectation have been met can be obtained through surveys conducted by
organisations or individual service providers. The results of the survey are used to assess the
customer's perceptions on the services. This is called customer satisfaction rating. Besides, to
approve a service's quality, is also conducted in two dimensions, which are assessment by the
client and assessment of the services offered.
Today, society faces five bottle-necks regard to service quality. These bottle-necks
have been named gaps, they include: first, the gap between customer expectations and
management perceptions. This gap arises due to misinterpretation in customer expectations.
Second, the gap between management perception on customer expectations and the conditions
for service quality.
This gap occurs as a result of an error to interpret management perception
appropriately in relation to public expectation as a benchmark to service quality. Third, the
gap between specific service quality and the services provide. This gap is caused by the
inability of the existing human resource to meet the set service quality standards. The main
cause for this is over working or working beyond capacity. Fourth, the gap between service
providers with the external informants; this gap arises because of the failure by the

74

organisation to fulfill earlier communicated promises through various external activities.


Fifth, the gap between public expectations and the real quality of the services the public
receives. This is challenge shows that public expectations have not been fulfilled.
The most important factor is the improvement services by first understanding the
above five gaps or the existing gaps in service delivery. Understanding the five gaps can help
to determine the level of satisfaction and customer expectations. In addition, there is need to
improve the quality of communications. By improving communication, leadership qualities
will automatically improve something that can enhance quality and also will show
commitment to service quality by the provider. The third gap reveals that division of labour is
close to treating the public as part of the organisation because it acts a centre for checks and
balances. While the fourth gap, can facilitate the flow of inter-unit communication between
the public and the organisation. In other words, the organisation is encouraged to of course
provide services that meet the needs of the community without exceeding the organisation
capacity.
The meaning of service quality can also be examined from the perspective of the
customer. One of the basic concepts on customer satisfaction refers to: (1) Privileges held by
a number of products, either directly or attractive privileges that are able to meet customer
satisfaction when a product is used; (2) quality consists of everything that is free of flaws or
damages. The benchmark for quality is described above; this shows that quality has always
focused on the benefit or customer satisfaction. In other words, products are designed,
manufactured, and services are provided to meet customer desires. Therefore, quality refers to
everything that determines customer satisfaction; a newly produced product will be described
as good, if it meets the customer's wishes. In line with the above, the Minister for
Administration and Beauraucratic Reforms released a decree on the quality of services. This
decree is comprised of the following:
Simplicity, this refers to the simplification of the procedures/ or the process and steps
involved in service delivery.
Clarity and certainty, this is concerned with the procedure/ or the manner in which
government services are provided to the public. It is applicable to both technical and
administrative services.
Secure, this means that the process and procedures for public services should ensure
safety and legality.
Transparency, in regard to this point, the procedures /or approaches involved should
ensure transparency in services offerred.
Efficience, there should be efficience in all public services, because this will either
directly or indirectly influences the results.
Economical, all services offerred must be economical to the public, the service provider
must take account: the value of the goods or services offerred to the public; the conditions
and ability of the customers; and consider legality of the service.
Equal Justice, the scope and the area of jurisdiction must consider government policies on
operation.
Time frame, in terms of implementation, public services should be offerred based on
schedule.
C. Rural Community Empowerment
Empowerment is defined differently to the different people or groups. The term
depends on the perspective under which it is being examined. However, the most easily
understood is the word empowerment which originates from the word "power", refering to

75

being able or or having the ability to access education, live a better economic life and
participate in politics, and of course, the ability to live an independent life. There are
similarities between rural and urban empowerment. Some of the common concepts on
empowerment by the government are on universal values rooted in the different cultures of a
nation. The goal for such empowerment is to change the attitudes and behavior of society. In
practice, the empowerment process involves awareness creation and community participation.
The most effective and quickest approach for rural community empowerment is that
which brings together the grassroot community and the government. Many attempts have
been made by the government in the empowerment of rural communities in order to empower
the people by improving their economy. The efforts taken, include: the Social Safety Net
(SSN), PDM-DKE, P2MD, p3DT,and the fishers' housing restoration. However, such
activities have not been able to build selfreliants communities.
The approach to community empowerment can be looked at from both the deficit and
strength based perspectives. The deficit-centered approach is based on a variety of problems
and ways to handle such problems. Its success depends on clear identification and proper
problem diagnosis to establish a solution.
D. Conclusion
The various changes taking place, have led to the demand for broad-based education.
These demands aim to influence change and require that strategies are developed in regard to
the environment, education needs, and the community's demands. This means that education
should be able to guide strategies and policies which are aimed at overcoming changes. In
other words, each of the activity requires proper management, if the set objectives are to be
achieved.
References
Atmodiwirio, Soebagio. 2002. Manajemen Pelatihan. Jakarta : PT. Ardadizya.
Direktorat pembinaan pendidik dan tenaga kependidikan paud, nonformal dan informal. 2012.
Bahan Ajar Diklat Berjenjang Tingkat Dasar. Jakarta: Direktorat Jenderal Pendidikan
anak usia dini, non formal dan informal
Direktorat Pembinaan Pendidik Dan Tenaga Kependidikan Paud, Nonformal Dan Informal.
2012. Bahan Ajar Penilaian Dalam Pembelajaran Anak Usia Dini. Jakarta: Direktorat
Jenderal Pendidikan anak usia dini, non formal dan informal.
Direktorat Pembinaan Pendidik Dan Tenaga Kependidikan Paud, Nonformal Dan Informal.
2012. Bahan Ajar Penilaian Dalam Pembelajaran Anak Usia Dini Etika dan
Karakter. Jakarta: Direktorat Jenderal Pendidikan anak usia dini, non formal dan
informal.
Ida.2012. Pengaruh Metode Pembelajaran terhadap Peningkatan Kompetensi Pada Diklat
Perencanaan Partisipasi,Bogor
Mudjiono dan Dimyati. 2002. Belajar dan Pembelajaran. Jakarta : PT. Rineka Cipta.
Notoatmodjo, S. 1998. Pengembangan Sumber Daya Manusia, Edisi Revisi. Jakarta : PT.
Rineka Cipta.
Sardin, 2012, Pengaruh Persepsi Orang Tua Tentang Anak, Status Sosial Ekonomi Keluarga,
Keterlibatan dalam Program Taman Kanak-Kanak, dan Pola Asuh Mendidik
Terhadap Kesiapan Bersekolah Anak Taman Kanak-Kanak (Studi Kausal Pada
Keluarga Yang Memiliki Anak TK Di Kabupaten Bandung), Disertasi, Universitas
Negeri Jakarta.

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Setyawan,D. 2005. Peranan Pendidikan dan Pelatihan Dalam Meningkatkan Kompetensi Dan
Kualitas Sumder Daya Manusia Aparatur. [Online]. Tersedia: www. makasar.lan.go.id
[2012, April 12].
Veithzal Rivai, (2004). Manajemen Sumber Daya Manusia Untuk Perusahaan, Jakarta,
PT.Raja Grafindo Persada.

77

THE EFFECT OF PRE-SCHOOL EDUCATION ON ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT


IN INDONESIA

Mohamad Fahmi and Putri Grace Ninibeth Jewelery S.


Department of Economics, Universitas Padjadjaran
ABSTRACT
This study analyzes the effect of early childhood education on academic performance
in Indonesia. We use ordinary least square method to estimate the effect of kindergarten
education (TK) on Indonesian language and mathematics score in primary and secondary
school. We use the Indonesian Family Life Survey (IFLS) in 2007 to obtain a sample data of
1,013 individuals to estimate the effect of kindergarten education. We found that the
kindergarten education has a weak effect on students performance. We also found that
gender, location, and school type have stronger effect than kindergarten education.
Keywords : Early Childhood Education, Kindergarten, Academic Achievement, Indonesia,
IFLS
JEL:
Introduction
Legislation of Indonesia Number 20 Year 2003 on National Education System defines
Early Childhood Education/Pendidikan Anak Usia Dini (PAUD) as an effort to provide
guidance to children from birth to age six years are done through educational stimulation to
help the growth and development of the physical and spiritual so that children are ready to
enter the education further. Early Childhood Education is a profitable investment for the
children. Cost-Benefit Ratio for early childhood policy indicates gains of 4 to 5 times, even
higher even than the amount invested for the development of early childhood (Pirozzi, 2013).
However, the benefitsthat need to be considered not only gains greater than the costs, but also
early childhood education programs are able to be a better program to improve children's
success than other programs (Currie, 2001). Early childhood education can be an attractive
option to avoid poverty for the child's future life (Currie, 2001). Early childhood education
program also aims to support disadvantaged children have equal opportunities to start a school
with other children (Ou and Reynolds, 2006). Berlinskis study (2006) showed the that
attendance of pre primary school affect positively to grades result of Spanish Language and
Mathematics. Precompulsory and preschool education also affect the grades / scores for
Mathematics and Reading (Goodman and Sianesi, 2005).
One article in the website of the World Bank (World Bank, 2013) explained that the
Indonesian government, the Dutch government, and the World Bank cooperated to conduct
programs that expand early childhood services in 2008. The World Bank conducted a study to
evaluate the impact of the program on children early age. World Bank study shows that early
childhood services program provides promising benefits for children. The results of the study
also showed that the group of children who attend the Education and Early Childhood
Development/Pendidikan dan Pengembangan Anak Usia Dini (PPAUD) made progress in
thinking and language abilities, which are two important things to be ready for school. The
girls also got great benefit from this PPAUD program.
Based on research in developing countries, early childhood development to give an
increase in school enrollment and educational performance, as well as the impact on the
possibility of future get to work (Pirozzi, 2011). Early Childhood Education/PAUD should be
a fun place for the kids to keep them interested in learning and playing (Kartika, 2013). The
78

participation of parents is also important in the development of the power of the socialization
of children (Ou and Reynolds, 2006). However, an expensive early childhood may be the
cause there are many children who can not attend early childhood education programs. This is
due to their parents' income is low. Under the 2003 Education Law Article 28, ECD can be
done anywhere, such as in a family and environment (Nazarah, 2009).
Early Childhood Education has a positive impact on children's success in the future. Children
are taught as early as possible so that development is not too late. If the children are ready to
learn from a very young age, then it is likely to succeed in school and their future becomes
larger (UNICEF Indonesia, 2012). This study will analyze the influence of Early Childhood
Education (ECD) against the National Test Score in Indonesia. The author makes
kindergarten education (formal early childhood) and Indonesian Language and Mathematicss
score as the main subject of this study as the research Goodman & Sianesi (2005). This
research is expected to provide a boost for the government to further support the expansion of
ECD services in Indonesia, so that children of all walks of life can enjoy the benefits.
Early Childhood Education has a positive impact on children's success in the future. Children
are taught as early as possible so that development is not too late. If the children are ready to
learn from a very young age, then it is likely to succeed in school and their future becomes
larger (UNICEF Indonesia, 2012). This study will analyze the influence of Early Childhood
Education (ECD) against the National Test Score in Indonesia. The author makes
kindergarten education (formal early childhood) and Indonesian Language and Mathematicss
score as the main subject of this study as the research Goodman & Sianesi (2005). This
research is expected to provide a boost for the government to further support the expansion of
ECD services in Indonesia, so that children of all walks of life can enjoy the benefits.
Literature Review
Report of the National Research Council (2000) about intervention and early
childhood education divided development of children's ability to divide into three, namely
cognitive ability, school readiness, and social and feelings development (Currie, 2001).
Cognitive ability can be measured by the individuals ability to read and count. These two
things are an important part of the teaching-learning process. A survey conducted by the
Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching (1991) to teachers kindergarten
found that only 65 percent of the students are ready to learn (Currie, 2001). One of the things
that caused this, which is only 10 percent of kindergarten teachers who think that children
need to know the alphabet (Lewit & Baker, 1995 in Currie, 2001). Cognitive development can
also be measured by academic achievement, education participation, and school attendance of
individuals (Burger, 2010). Several studies have shown a positive effect of early childhood
education to these three points. One of these studies Garces, Thomas, and Currie (2000)
showed that Head Start programs can significantly increase the likelihood of high school
completion rate and the possibility of going to college (Currie, 2001). Early childhood
education can also reduce behavior problems and improve the quality of individual education.
Temple et al. (2000) observed children at the end of high school and found that the
intervention program the Chicago Child-Parent Center is able to reduce the 24 percent
dropout rate (Currie, 2001).
Early childhood is a period of 0 to 8 years of age, which is a time of remarkable brain
growth and a foundation for further learning and development (Mott, nd). According to
UNICEF (Pirozzi, 2011), cognitive development, language and feelings of a child can be
developed through real stimulation, like being hugged, courted, and other interactive activities
as a baby. Every child should be given a good basis from an early age, because their future
will determine the future of their community, nation, and world (LeMoyne, nd).

79

Parent education can be used as a measure for parents to assess the appropriate level of
education for their children (Goodman & Sianesi, 2005). Marital status of parents can
describe how parents divide their time and income to the growth and development of their
children (Goodman & Sianesi, 2005). Martinez-Alba (2013) has reviewed a book Promising
Practices for Fathers' Involvement in Children's Education (Ho & Hiatt, 2013) which this
book discussed the role of the father in child development. This book showed the father and
son relationship has positive influence on children's educational outcomes. The father
considers necessary to meet the financial needs of their children. If there is no role of fathers
in the children's lives, then the possibility of children living in poverty is greater. They also
have their own expectations on their children, such as school attendance, good grades, and
profession or employment in the future. If the father can spend time with their children, it can
prevent crime in adolescence.
The role of a mother in a child's life is not in doubt. However, today more and more
career women who are also mothers. They often have difficulty in managing time between
caring for children and working. The women aged 25 to 54 years has been a labor in most
OECD countries and the number is increasing (OECD, 2011d in Burger, 2013). In countries
Europian Union members, only one out of ten couples who have young children, who still
assumes that man has role to work for a living while a woman for caring for a family member
(Jaumotte, 2003, in Burger, 2013).
Family socioeconomic status has an influence on children's development. Research
Carlson and Corcoran (2001) says that higher family income had a positive effect on children
which can encourage achievement and social behavior of children. Conversely, families who
live in poverty lead role of parents becomes less effective and affect negatively on children's
development (Conger et al., 1992; Dodge, Petit, & Bates, 1994). The level of family poverty
is associated with low educational attainment and increased levels of negative intellect among
children up to adults (Leone et al., 2003 in Burger, 2013). Low socioeconomic status will
result children who are not ready to formal education, because of inadequate learning
environment at home (Leseman, 2002 in Burger, 2013). Children who grow up in poor
neighborhoods are difficult for getting adequate education institutions, so this will be a source
of low academic progress (Pong & Hao, 2007 in Burger, 2013).
Several previous studies have analyzed the influence of early childhood education
participation on school grades and future earnings. One of the studies is Goodman and
Sianesi research (2005) which analyze the effect of precompulsory and preschool education
on cognitive abilities and socialization of children, as well as the acquisition of wages in
adulthood. Research of Goodman and Sianesi (2005) used data from the National Child
Development Survey (NCDS) 1958 Research and Sianesi Goodman found that education
precompulsory affect significantly on the child's ability in reading and mathematics at age 7
years. This influence remained significant until the age of 16 years despite declining. The
study also found a significant effect of preschool education on children's cognitive abilities at
the age of 7 years, despite this is weak. This influence continued to survive until the age of 16
years.
Subsequent research by Berlinski, Galiani, and Manacorda (2008) analyze how
preschool education may affect the number of years of education achieved. This study utilizes
the uniqueness of the data Uruguayan Encuesta de Hogares Continua (ECH) from 2001 to
2005, this study found a significant effect of preschool participation on educational years
completed since age is still very early. The study also found that individuals who did not
follow the preschool often exposed dropout. In particular, children who had mothers with
lower levels of education receive greater benefits from preschool education.
The next studies explains that early childhood education is also affect positively on
children who come from economically disadvantaged families. One of these studies
80

conducted by Ou and Reynolds (2006). This study aims to estimate the relationship between
preschool program participation Chicago Child-Parent Center (CPC) with educational
attainment at age 22 years. The results of this study are CPC preschool participation effect on
school completion rates are higher significantly, and the possibility of going to college is
higher. Then, another research of Ou (2005) found that the cognitive benefits alone can not
last long, if it does not receive strong support from environmental factors. The findings in this
study stated that environmental factors, such as family and school, have an important role in
shaping the development of the children. Research by Campbell, et al. (2002) presented the
results of their research on early childhood education in the Abecedarian project. This study
found a significant effect of preschool services to the academic and intellectual levels. These
studies explain that education or intervention from an early age affects the future of children.
Method
This study uses Ordinary Least Square (OLS) regression that simple to
calculate the magnitude of the effect of Early Childhood Education (ECD) against the
National Test Score/Ujian Nasional (UN) school when the individual obtained at
elementary and junior high level. The author divides the model based on the National
Examination, the Indonesian language and Mathematicss national test score, as well
as based on the level of individual schools, namely elementary and junior high level.
Econometric model that is compiled in the study is as follows:
UN(SD)_bhsi = 0 + 1 TKi + 2 laki_lakii + 3 negerii + 4 tinggal_kelasi + 5
bekerjai + 6 urbani + 7 menikahi + 8 ibu_SDi + 9 ibu_SMPi +
10 ibu_SMAi + 11 ibu_univi + 12 ayah_SDi + 13 ayah_SMPi +
14 ayah_SMAi + 15 ayah_univi + i

(1)

UN(SD)_mtki = 0 + 1 TKi + 2 laki_lakii + 3 negerii + 4 tinggal_kelasi + 5


bekerjai + 6 urbani + 7 menikahi + 8 ibu_SDi + 9 ibu_SMPi +
10 ibu_SMAi + 11 ibu_univi + 12 ayah_SDi + 13 ayah_SMPi +
14 ayah_SMAi + 15 ayah_univi + ui

(2)

UN(SMP)_bhsj = 0 + 1 TKj + 2 laki_lakij + 3 negerij + 4 tinggal_kelasj + 5


bekerjaj + 6 urbanj + 7 menikahj + 8 ibu_SDj + 9 ibu_SMPj +
10 ibu_SMAj + 11 ibu_univj + 12 ayah_SDj + 13 ayah_SMPj +
14 ayah_SMAj + 15 ayah_univj + 16 UN(SD)_bhsj + j

(3)

UN(SMP)_mtkj = 0 + 1 TKj + 2 laki_lakij + 3 negerij + 4 tinggal_kelasj + 5


bekerjaj + 6 urbanj + 7 menikahj + 8 ibu_SDj + 9 ibu_SMPj +
10 ibu_SMAj + 11 ibu_univj + 12 ayah_SDj + 13 ayah_SMPj +
14 ayah_SMAj + 15 ayah_univj + 16 UN(SD)_mtkj + j

(4)

This study only used kindergarten education as a form of formal early childhood
services so that the estimation can be demonstrated clearly form early childhood services that
may affect the National Test Score, so that a given policy implications are also right on target.
The author chose Indonesian Language and Mathematicss score because these two subjects
can describe the cognitive abilities of the individual. In addition to the variable UN (SD) _bhs
and UN (SD) _mtk, there are as many as 15 independent variables dummy is used, where the
value is 0 or 1.

81

Table 1 Criterion Variables


Karakteristik
Anak
TK
Jenis Kelamin
Bekerja
Karakteristik

Kriteria
ikut TK=1; tidak ikut TK=0
laki-laki=1; perempuan=0
sambil bekerja=1; tidak sambil bekerja=0
Kriteria

Keluarga
Pendidikan Ibu

Pendidikan Ayah

Status pernikahan
Letak Geografis

tingkat SD=1; tidak sekolah/sekolah


khusus=0
tingkat SMP=1
tingkat SMA=1
tingkat Universitas=1
tingkat SD=1; tidak sekolah/sekolah
khusus=0
tingkat SMP=1
tingkat SMA=1
tingkat Universitas=1
menikah=1; tidak menikah=0
perkotaan (urban)=1; pedesaan (rural)=0

Pendidikan
Tipe Sekolah
Pengulangan Kelas
Nilai Ujian Nasional (UN)

negeri=1; lainnya=0
tinggal kelas=1; tidak tinggal kelas=0
Nilai UN Bahasa Indonesia dan Matematika

This study uses the F-statistical significance test and t-statistics to determine determine
the effect of early childhood education and other factors on the score of UN. This study also
uses robust standard errors to address possible problems heteroskedastis in the econometric
model. The author obtained the necessary information from the Indonesian Family Life
Survey (IFLS) 2007/IFLS4. This study used it because it provides information like
participation kindergarten education in 2007 and the score of EBTANAS / UAN / UN. This
study only took two subjects from EBTANAS / UAN / UN because the total subjects are
different for each respondent. IFLS4 also provide information, such as gender, education and
type of school that followed by the individual, as well as the geographic location of residence.
IFLS4 also provides information about the highest completed educational level and marital
status of individual parents. The author takes individuals aged 11 to 16 years for the study.
Result and Analysis
This study has a sample size of 1,013 individuals for elementary level and 373
individuals for junior high level before regression. The author obtained the data necessary
information from the Indonesian Family Life Survey (IFLS) in 2007 Here are the results of a
statistical description of the independent variables used in this study,

82

Table 2 Statistics Description (Elementary Level)


Variabel
TK
laki_laki
negeri
tinggal_kelas
bekerja
urban
menikah
ayah_SD
ayah_SMP
ayah_SMA
ayah_univ
ibu_SD
ibu_SMP
ibu_SMA
ibu_univ

Rata-rata
0.4689
0.4857
0.8973
0.1136
0.6515
0.5143
0.8392
0.2521
0.1419
0.2485
0.0832
0.2989
0.1372
0.2016
0.0528

Std. Deviasi
0.4993
0.5000
0.3037
0.3175
0.4767
0.5000
0.3675
0.4344
0.3491
0.4324
0.2764
0.4581
0.3442
0.4015
0.2237

Minimum
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

Maksimum
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

The author uses OLS to estimate the effect of kindergarten education participation on
Indonesian Language and Mathematicss score in primary and secondary education. The
results of the statistical description in Table 2 and Table 3 shows, in addition to the variable
UN (SD) _bhs and UN (SD) _mtk, there are as many as 15 dummy variables were used. The
average value of the dummy variable indicates the percentage owned. For example, at the
primary level, the average value of man variable is 0.4857, it means the percentage of
individuals that male sex was 48.57% and the remaining 51.43% are women. Another
example for the junior high level, the average value of urban variable is 0.5550, it means
the percentage of individuals who live in urban areas it was 55.5% and the remaining 44.5%
live in rural areas. The average value for the UN(SD) _lang and UN(SD) _math variables is
the average value of the Indonesian Language and Mathematicss score. The maximum score
of UN(SD)_lang is 9.85 the highest of all the samples, while the minimum score is 4.01.
Mathematicss highest score at 10, while the lowest score is 2.87.
Table 3 Statistics Description (Junior High Level)
Variabel
TK
laki_laki
negeri
tinggal_kelas
bekerja
urban
menikah
ayah_SD
ayah_SMP
ayah_SMA
ayah_univ
ibu_SD

Rata-rata
0.4960
0.5121
0.7399
0.0054
0.1019
0.5550
0.8383
0.3016
0.1175
0.2921
0.0762
0.3460

Std. Deviasi
0.5007
0.5005
0.4393
0.0731
0.3029
0.4976
0.3687
0.4597
0.3225
0.4554
0.2657
0.4765
83

Minimum
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

Maksimum
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

ibu_SMP
ibu_SMA
ibu_univ
UN(SD)_bhs
UN(SD)_mtk

0.1619
0.1873
0.0476
7.094989
6.57962

0.3689
0.3908
0.2133
1.180295
1.447868

0
0
0
4.01
2.87

1
1
1
9.85
10

The author divides the estimation results in three equations. The first equation just
make kindergarten education as the only independent variable. The second equation adds
other factors as control variables but do not include the characteristics of the parents, while
the third equation consists of all control variables including parental characteristics.
The estimation results indicate that in the elementary level all independent variables
significantly affect the score of the UN jointly, unless the Mathematics in equation (1). This is
evidenced by the probability of regression value (Prob> F) that less than the significance level
(). While partially, not all independent variables significantly affect the score of the UN.
Kindergarten education affect the score of Indonesian Language significantly in
equation (1) and (2). Kindergarten education is able to increase the score of the Indonesian
Language by 33.78% in equation (1) and 24.37% in the second equation. Coefficient of
kindergarten education decreases as the other factors being added besides education
kindergarten.
Gender has no significant effect on the acquisition score of the Indonesian Language
and Mathematics for elementary level. These results differ from those estimates junior high
level estimation. It also illustrates that there is no difference between the ability of elementary
school students men and women.
Type of public schools affect the value of the UN Indonesian pad equations (2) and the
UN Mathematics in equation (2) and (3) significantly. Individuals who enroll in public
schools received grades Indonesian UN was 23.97% higher than individuals who attend
nonpublic school. Then, individuals who enroll in public schools UN Mathematics scored at
46.24% higher in equation (2) and 37.23% higher in equation (3) than individuals who attend
nonpublic school.
Then, the individual who ever repeated classes scored significantly lower for both
subjects in equation (2) and (3). Individuals who have ever repeated class get Indonesian
Languages score 33.95% lower in equation (2) and 34.12% lower in equation (3) than
individuals who did not repeat class. As for the Mathematics, individuals who ever repeated
class gained 38.02% lower score in equation (2) and 43.65% lower in equation (3) rather than
individuals who did not repeat class.
Geographical location of residence of individuals also affect significantly the
acquisition score of the Indonesian Language. Individuals who live in urban areas obtain
Indonesian Languages score higher than individuals who live in rural areas. Individu who
live in rural areas still use the language of a particular area, so rarely use Indonesian.
Some level of parental education on the equation (3) also significantly affect the score
of the UN. Mother's highest education level that reached elementary school, high school, and
college can improve individual grades mathematics examination. This mother's education
level can increase the acquisition Mathematicss score by of 28.16%, 47.13%, and 91.05%
respectively. The effect of maternal education coefficient also increases as higher levels of
education. Fathers highest educational level that reached college also significantly increase
the score of Indonesian Language by 49.85%.

84

Table 4 Estimation Output (Elementary Level)


Variabel
Konstanta
TK
laki_laki
negeri
tinggal_kelas
bekerja
urban
menikah
ibu_SD
ibu_SMP
ibu_SMA
ibu_univ
ayah_SD
ayah_SMP
ayah_SMA
ayah_univ
N
R2
Prob > F

UN Bahasa Indonesia
(1)
(2)
(3)
6.9522*** 6.7823*** 7.1105***
(0.0555)
(0.1685)
(0.2948)
0.3378*** 0.2437**
0.0690
(0.0795)
(0.0815)
(0.0946)
-0.0890
-0.1060*
(0.0803)
(0.0902)
0.2397*
0.2022
(0.1431)
(0.1674)
-0.3395** -0.3412**
(0.1307)
(0.1440)
-0.1410
-0.1347
(0.0869)
(0.0999)
0.3557*** 0.3217**
(0.0823)
(0.1002)
-0.3409
(0.2172)
-0.0414
(0.1237)
0.0000
(0.1534)
-0.0003
(0.1555)
0.1976
(0.2809)
0.1464
(0.1299)
0.0345
(0.1533)
0.2604
(0.1639)
0.4985**
(0.2297)
747
746
624
0.0236
0.0684
0.0842
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000

UN Matematika
(1)
(2)
(3)
6.5165*** 6.1396*** 6.2829***
(0.0609)
(0.1992)
(0.3683)
0.1437
0.1387
-0.0684
(0.0978)
(0.0993)
(0.1139)
0.0599
0.0768
(0.0974)
(0.1073)
0.4624**
0.3723*
(0.1729)
(0.2020)
-0.3802*
-0.4365**
(0.1482)
(0.1668)
-0.1003
-0.0601
(0.1023)
(0.1152)
0.0986
-0.0295
(0.1000)
(0.1162)
-0.2563
(0.2759)
0.2816**
(0.1421)
0.2418
(0.2201)
0.4713**
(0.2091)
0.9105**
(0.3161)
0.0270
(0.1505)
-0.0194
(0.1950)
0.1347
(0.2108)
0.2252
(0.2760)
744
743
625
0.0030
0.0250
0.0597
0.1420
0.0100
0.0002

Note : - * p<0.05, ** p<0.01, *** p<0.001


- () robust standard error
The next result is from junior high level estimation. The results of the regression
estimation show all independent variables in the regression significantly affect the score of the
UN together both Indonesian Language and Mathematics subjects. Probability value of the
regression results (Prob> F) junior high schools is smaller than the significance level ().
The estimation results indicate that the kindergarten education significantly affect the
score of the Indonesian Language in equation (1) and (2) alone, and significantly affect the
score of Mathematics in equation (1). Kindergarten Education increases 39.24% Indonesian
Languages score in equation (1) and 31.92% in equation (2). Kindergarten Education also
increases the score of Mathematics 41.84% in equation (1). Coefficients of kindergarten
education variable that affect the score of the UN also decreased from equation (1) to equation
(3) in junior high level estimation.

85

Gender of the individual was also a significant influence on Indonesian Languages


score in equation (2) and (3). Individual males scored Indonesian Language 32.83% lower in
equation (2) and 37.4% lower in equation (3) rather than individual women.
Individuals who enroll in public schools scored significantly Indonesian Language
higher than those who enroll in nonpublic school in equation (2) and (3). Type of public
schools providing score of Indonesian Language 37.08% higher in equation (2) and 36.12%
higher in equation (3) than other types of schools.
At the junior high level estimation results, parental marital status showed a significant
effect on the score of Indonesian Language. Complete parents and married affect positively
on individuals by increasing the score of the Indonesian Language by 79.51%. The highest
educational level of mothers who reach college are also significantly increases the Indonesian
Languages score of 60.3%.
It turns out that the score of the UN at the elementary level also affects the score of the
UN in the junior high level. Indonesian Languages score in elementary level can significantly
increase the score of the Indonesian Languages score junior high level of 10.74% in equation
(2). Mathematicss score in elementary level affect the score of Mathematics junior high level
for 42.95% and 43.8% in equation (2) and (3) respectively. This is because Mathematics is
one subject that is difficult to master, so the ability to master this subject may not differ much
while still in elementary school and junior high.
Table 5 Estimation Output (Junior High Level)
UN Bahasa Indonesia
Variabel
Konstanta
TK
laki_laki
negeri
bekerja
urban
menikah
ibu_SD
ibu_SMP
ibu_SMA
ibu_univ
ayah_SD
ayah_SMP
ayah_SMA

UN Matematika

(1)

(2)

(3)

(1)

(2)

(3)

7.4298***
(0.0817)
0.3924***
(0.1148)

6.5838***
(0.4196)
0.3192**
(0.1342)
-0.3283**
(0.1322)
0.3708**
(0.1443)
0.1129
(0.2350)
0.0639
(0.1341)

5.7034***
(0.4855)
0.2159
(0.1461)
-0.3740**
(0.1456)
0.3612**
(0.1536)
0.2279
(0.2591)
0.0280
(0.1461)
0.7951***
(0.1634)
0.3059
(0.1854)
0.2771
(0.2200)
0.2552
(0.2344)
0.6030*
(0.3356)
0.0545
(0.2017)
0.0601
(0.2767)
-0.0162
(0.2259)

7.1600***
(0.1033)
0.4184**
(0.1663)

4.5241***
(0.4602)
0.1906
(0.1987)
-0.0849
(0.1777)
0.0646
(0.2088)
-0.1656
(0.3072)
-0.1421
(0.1848)

5.1040***
(1.1258)
0.1308
(0.2140)
-0.0963
(0.2026)
0.0457
(0.2165)
-0.2546
(0.3443)
-0.2062
(0.1935)
-0.7847
(1.0933)
0.2671
(0.2775)
-0.0499
(0.3464)
0.0039
(0.3377)
0.3147
(0.4486)
0.1048
(0.2841)
0.1866
(0.3649)
0.3565
(0.3127)

86

ayah_univ
UN(SD)_bhs

0.1074*
(0.0583)

0.3283
(0.3313)
0.0929
(0.0679)

0.2436
(0.4582)

UN(SD)_mtk
N
R2
Prob > F

324
0.0350
0.0007

259
0.1121
0.0001

222
0.1602
0.0000

327
0.0191
0.0123

0.4295***
(0.0676)
263
0.1738
0.0000

0.4380***
(0.0733)
226
0.1990
0.0000

Note : - * p<0.05, ** p<0.01, *** p<0.001


- () robust standard error
At the elementary level, the independent married variable and working variable
have not a significant influence on the score of the Indonesian Language and Mathematics. As
for the junior high level, the working and urban variable do not affect the score of
Indonesian Language and Mathematics significantly. At the junior level, repetition variable
not included in the regression because the individual who ever repeated classes only two
people, so it is less valid to be included in the regression.
Kindergarten education affect the score of the Indonesian Language and Mathematics
if all other factors that may be influence too was not added in the regression. This causes the
effect of preschool education on the score of the Indonesian Language and Mathematics in
equation (1) and (2) for primary and secondary education to be invalid or biased. The low
value of R2 for each equation for the both level schools also suggests that the effect of
kindergarten education will not be valid if the other factors are not added in the regression.
Kindergarten education variable coefficients also decreased from equation (1) to equation (3)
for the both level schools.
Conclusion
Based on the research that has been presented in previous chapters, the author can take
a few conclusions. The results of this study indicate that kindergarten education (TK) affect
on the score of Indonesian Language and Mathematics National Test Score significantly when
all other factors are not added in the regression. Kindergarten education is no longer
significant when other factors added to the regression, especially the factors derived from the
characteristics of the parents. This causes the effect of kindergarten education to be invalid or
biased. The results of the study authors also showed that the mother's education has a
significant effect on the acquisition score of the Mathematics at elementary level. It means the
mother has an important role in children's academic grades since elementary school,
especially for subjects that are difficult to master. Not only the mother's education, the results
of this study also shows the influence of higher education owned by a father against the score
of Indonesian Language in elementary level. Marital status of parents affects the acquisition
score of the UN only in junior high level. This may be caused by psychological factors have a
child who has a more mature knowledge of the condition of the parents during old teenager.
Several other factors also significantly affect the score of the Indonesian Language and
Mathematics elementary and junior high levels. Neighborhood individuals residing in urban
areas significantly influence the score of the UN elementary level. Types of schools followed
a significant effect on the score of Mathematics in elementary level and Indonesian Language
in junior high level. The problem repetition class is also associated with a significant effect on
the score of Indonesian Language and Mathematics.
Early Childhood Education issues that expensive or lack of qualified educators and
interactive with children can be a cause of early childhood influences on achievement in
school becomes less than the maximum for the children. It can be used as the subject of
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further research on early childhood education. Early Childhood Education can be a means for
children to train the ability to think and read as a self preparation before entering into formal
education. Early Childhood Education requires that funds must be spent by the parents. This
needs to be considered for the government to issue a policy, such as grants or tax reductions
for early childhood services (Burger, 2010b), to support the expansion of early childhood
programs. The government can co-founded institutions of early childhood education with a
low cost or free, but has quality educators so that more children get the opportunity to acquire
education praformal, learn while playing, which is a positive impact on their future academic
achievement.
The study also found that in addition to preschool education, other factors influence
the individual academic grades. The government needs to encourage outreach to the parents
that the parents need to spend time with their children, especially when learning.
Collaboration between teachers in the school and parents is important to monitor the academic
progress of children and control their behavior so as to reduce problems such as repeat classes
or dropout. The government also needs to pay attention to the quality of education in rural
areas. Schools in rural areas requires a qualified teaching staff and better facilities in order to
bring out children that can be competent with children who attend school in urban areas.
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development? An international review of the effects of early interventions for chil dren
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Information, Communication and Technology


(ICT) in Early Childhood Education

92

ROBOTICS IN EARLY CHILDHOOD DEVELOPMENT


Yudianto Sujana
Program Studi PG-PAUD, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Surakarta
Email: yudianto.sujana@gmail.com
Abstract: This article presents the robotics technology and the benefits on early childhood
development. Robotics technology can help children to think creatively and systematically,
learn to work together, problem solving and improve fine motor skills. The use of robotics in
early childhood development is also very suitable to constructivism theory which states that
learning is to build knowledge of the self. The robot that used is Huna robotic education kit
that is suitable for children because it can be assembled into a variety of shapes and are
made of materials that are safe for children. This article also describes the steps in
introducing robotics technology to early childhood.
Keywords: robotics, early childhood development, educational robotics kit

Introduction
Robotic technology is one of the very rapid development of technology, including in
Indonesia. For common people the robot is sensed as a machine that is made up of metals and
shaped like a human or animal that can move and do activities such as living creatures. This
is reasonable due to the lack of education about robots in Indonesia, the robot knows only
through robot-themed films in the form of humans or animals. The robot itself has long been
used in industry to increase productivity of work. Many jobs are less suitable if done by
humans as a job that needs a high level of accuracy and high risk jobs can be replaced by
robots.
The word "robot" comes from the Czech language "robota" meaning workers. The
word robot was first used in a play called Rossum's Universal Robots in 1921 to refer to a
machine that can do the work of humans automatically. While the definition of a robot
according to the International Organization for Standardization is "an automatically
controlled, reprogrammable, multipurpose, manipulator programmable in three or more axes,
the which may be either fixed in place or mobile foruse in industrial automation
applications." (ISO, 2012).
The use of robots today not only limited to the needs of work, but the robot can also be
used as a medium of learning, which is called the educational robot. As the name implies,
educational robot is a robot which is used as a medium of learning, because through
educational robots we can learn a variety of disciplines such as mathematics, science, ICT
and others. Educational robot can be assembled into a variety of shapes and can be
programmed to perform a variety of movements and work, so that it can increase creativity.
Various types of educational robots can be met in the market such as Roborobo, NXT, Lego,
Fishertecnik, i-Robo, Robo Kai, Polulu, and Huna Robo.
The use of educational robot as a learning medium can be initiated at an early age. In
early childhood, educational robot utilized as a means to improve aspects of child
development such as cognitive, fine motor, social, emotional and art. One type of robot that is
suitable for use in early childhood is Huna Robo. Huna Robo parts have bright colors so it is
appealing to children and are made of materials that are safe for children. Moreover Huna
Robo also has CE certification (European) and KC (Korea) so the safety is assured.

93

Robotics Benefits In Early Childhood Development


Learning using educational robot in early childhood are in accordance to the theory of
constructivism. The theory of constructivism is learning to build knowledge itself, once
digested and then be understood within the individual, and an act of the person (Semiawan,
2002). Introducing robot to early childhood clasroom is well suited since the basic four tenets
of constructionism are already present in early education: learning by design, manipulating
(computational) objects to think with, the exploration of powerful ideas, and the importance
of self-reflection (Bers, Ponte, Juelich, Viera, & Schenker, 2002). With educational robot
children can make the robot according to their imagination and make it move or perform
certain tasks, so the the child can build his own knowledge.
The educational robot also has many benefits to early childhood development,
especially in the field of cognitive, fine motor, social, emotional and art.
Cognitive
Cognitive development is a child's intelligence in the form of the ability to know,
remember and understand the various objects. Cognitive ability can be understood as the
ability of the child to think and the ability to perform more complex reasoning and problem
solving (Desmita, 2009). Paiget states that cognitive development occurs when children are
constructing knowledge through active exploration and investigation of the physical and
social environment in the neighborhood (Catron & Allen, 1999).
Educational robot Huna Robo consists of various parts that can be assembled into a
robot form and each part are grouped into different colors. It can enhance children's cognitive
such as the introduction of color, geometric shape recognition, number recognition, patterns,
classifying objects and recognize differences in size, small-big, long-short.

Figure 1. Huna Robo part list

Fine Motor
Fine motor skills is an ability to coordinate the movement of the small muscles of the
limbs such as fingers and eyes. Sujiono (2009) argues that the fine motor skills are
movements that involve only certain parts of the body and performed by small muscles, such
as the skill to use finger hand and wrist movement.
Parts of the Huna Robo are able to combined and formed into other shapes. In melding
between parts need concentration and thoroughness in order part is installed properly, it will
train the fine motor skills so the children can thrive.

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Figure 2. Assemble Parts Example

Figure 3. Turtle Robot

Social Emotional
Social development is the ability of learning and behavior related to the individual to
live as part of the group. Hurlock (1992) argues that social development as the acquisition of
the ability to behave in accordance with social demands which include: 1) learn to behave in
a socially acceptable 2) plays the role of socially acceptable, and 3) demonstrate appropriate
social attitudes.
Emotion is a complex situation, there may be feelings / thoughts are characterized by
biological changes that arise from a person's behavior. Emotion refers to a feeling or thoughts
Typically, a biological and psychological state as well as a series of tendencies to act
(Goleman, 1995).
The use of educational robot Robo Huna conducted in groups, each group was given a
set of parts. In the process the children will learn to socialize with friends with a group, learn
to work together, learn to respect each other, not fighting over the parts (each caving) and
train patience and perseverance in making a robot.

Figure 4. Children in group


95

Art
Learning art is an attempt to explore the potential of children outside of cognitive
abilities. Art can be used as a medium of self-expression and foster the creativity of children.
The benefits of art according to Pekerti (2008) is as a medium of self-expression,
communication media, playing media and to channel the interests and talents of the child..
Robo Huna ability to be assembled in a variety of forms can be a medium of expression for
children, children can form a robot according to the imagination and creativity, and can foster
a sense of confidence and pride of the robot their makes.

Figure 5 Robots

The steps of Learning Robotics


Robotics learning in early childhood should be done gradually and adapted to the
child's developmental level. Learning robotics in early childhood can be divided into four
stages as follows:
1. The parts introduction phase. At this stage the child is introduced to the parts of Huna
Robo and how to unify among parts. Asked children to assemble static robot that have not
moved and adjusted to the stories that have been prepared, such as Three Little Pigs story.
When finished making the robot, teachers or parents tell a story and invite children to
play a robot that has been made to fit the story.

Figure 6. Three Little Pigs and wolf

2. The motors introduction phase. At this stage children begin to introduced to the motor
and also a source of energy such as batteries. Asked children to make a robot that can
move like crocodile robot, dog robot, rabbit robot and frog robot. After successfully
making the robot, children are invited to talk and discuss how the motor and energy
sources works.
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Figure 7. Bunny robot

3. The sensor introduction phase. At this stage the children are introduced to an infrared
sensor that can be used to move the robot dynamically. Asked children to create the robot
that utilizes a sensor, such a train robot that can move to follow a black line (line
follower), the duck robot that follows the white paper, skiing robot that can recognize the
edge of the table and a the car robot that can recognize the wall. After successfully create
the robot, children are invited to talk and discuss about how the infrared sensors works.

Figure 8 Duck robot

4. The remote control introduction phase. At this stage the children are introduced with a
remote control that functions to move the robot from a distance. Asked children to make a
robot that can be driven using the remote control like racing car robot, tank robot and
insect robot. After successfully create robot, children are invited to talk and discuss about
how the remote control works.

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Figure 9. Racing car robot

Conclusions
The introduction of robot technology can be done at an early age, but only as a medium of
learning to improve aspects of child development, not to introduce robotic technology itself.
Aspects of child development can be enhanced through robotic technology are cognitive, fine
motor, social, emotional and art. Robotics learning in early childhood should be done
gradually and adapted to the child's developmental level.
Based on this study it should be carried out further research to measure the effectiveness of
the application of robotic technology to the development of children.

References
Bers, M. U., Ponte, I., Juelich, K., Viera, A., & Schenker, J. (2002). Teachers as Designers:
Integrating Robotics in Early Childhood Education. Information Technology in
Childhood Education, 123-145.
Bers, M. U., Seddighin, S., & Sullivan, A. (2013). Ready for Robotics: Bringing Together the
T and E of STEM in Early Childhood Teacher Education. Jl. of Technology and
Teacher Education, 355-377.
Catron, C. E., & Allen, J. (1999). Early Childhood Curriculum: A Creative Play Model , 2nd
Edition. New Jersey: Merill Publ.
Desmita. (2009). Psikologi Perkembangan Peserta Didik.
Goleman, D. (1995). Emotional Intelligence. Michigan: Bantam Books.
Hurlock, E. B. (1992). Perkembangan Anak jilid 1. Jakarta: Erlangga.
ISO. (2012, March 1). ISO 8373:2012 Robots and robotic devices. Retrieved September 2,
2014, from International Organization for Standardization:
https://www.iso.org/obp/ui/#iso:std:iso:8373:ed-2:v1:en
Joao-Monteiro, M., Cristovao-Morgado, R., Cruz, M. G., & Morgado, L. (2007). A Robot in
Kindergarten. HAL, 382-387.
Pekerti. (2008). Metode Pengembangan Seni. Jakarta: Universitas Terbuka.
Santrock, J. W. (2002). Life-Span Development: Perkembangan Masa Hidup, Edisi 5, Jilid 1.
Jakarta: Erlangga.
Semiawan, C. (2002). Belajar dan pembelajaran dalam taraf pendidikan usia dini:
Pendidikan prasekolah dan sekolah dasar. Jakarta: Prenhallindo.
Sujiono, N. Y. (2009). Konsep Dasar Pendidikan Anak Usia Dini. Jakarta: Indeks.

98

IMPLEMENTING INSTRUCTIONAL SYSTEM DESIGN


BETWEEN TAIWAN AND INDONESIA VIA ONLINE TEACHING
Yeni Rachmawati
(Ph.D. Student at National Dong Hwa University,Taiwan;
Instructor of Indonesia University of Education, Indonesia)
Cheng-Hsiung Lu
(University of Hawaii at Manoa, USA)
Hui-Hua Chen
( National Dong Hwa University, Taiwan )
Ocih Setiasih
(Indonesia University of Education, Indonesia)
Leli Kurniawati
(Indonesia University of Education, Indonesia)
Abstract
The purpose of this study is to share information about the necessity of multicultural education in Indonesia
through online teaching, that held at National Dong Hwa University, Taiwan, and Indonesia University of
Education, Indonesia. As multicultural education will help students to create equal educational opportunities
from diverse racial, ethnic, social-class, and cultural groups, one of its important goals is to help all students to
acquire the knowledge, attitudes, and skills needed to function effectively in a pluralistic democratic society
and to interact, negotiate, and communicate with people from diverse groups in order to create a civic and
moral community that works for the common good. This study has implemented Dick and Carey model by
online teaching approach. The subjects on this research are the fourth semester of undergraduate students who
are majored in Early Childhood Teacher Education at Indonesia University of Education. They are composed
of one male and fourteen female students. The results may not be generalized to other teaching institutions due
to the limited numbers of the participants. This research was conducted in two public Universities in two
countries. The first location is held in the Department of Curriculum Design and Human Potentials, National
Dong Hwa University, Taiwan; the second location is held in Department of Early Childhood Teacher
Education, Faculty of Education, Indonesia University of Education, Indonesia. It was interesting that using
online teaching still could achieve good improvement, similar to traditional teaching that using face-to-face
situation. The distance between Taiwan and Indonesia is not influenced and being distraction for the learning
process; neither the limitation of media, tools and Internet connection affected as long as the teacher prepared
well all of needed materials. By using Dick and Carey's instructional system design, students were able to
enhance their understanding about this theme of learning. This condition showed the increase of students'
performance mean scores from 5.142 to 8.928 with four students able to get posttest scores 100% correct,
seven students 90% correct, two students 80% correct, and only one student 60% correct. According to the
percentage of the average score of posttest, the teaching activity by using this approach has succeeded to
improve students' understanding about multicultural education. In addition, the percentage of each item has
increased as well. The comparison between pre and post test has shown that the lowest score on pretest is 2.0
and the highest one is 7.0. It dramatically increased on the posttest scores with the lowest score 6.0 and the
highest score 10. The rising scores ranged between 2-6 scores with an average of 3.785 point. Consequently,
the online teaching by adopting Dick and Carey's ISD model has been proved to be effective for improving
student's learning peformance.
Keywords : Multicultural education, online teaching, traditional teaching, instructional system design

A.

Preface
Multicultural issue is something important in Indonesia due to the uniqueness and
cultural diversity in Indonesia. Indonesia is the largest archipelago in the world. It is a
South East Asian country located on the equator, between the continents of Asia and
Australia, and between the Pacific Ocean and the India Ocean (Kementrian Sekretariat
Negara RI, 2013; Albert, Trommsdorff, Mayer, & Schwarz, 2005). Indonesia has huge
population is around 222 million people in 2006 (kementrian sekretariat negara RI; ; 2013).
Therefore, Indonesia becomes the worlds fourth most populous nation after China, India
99

and the US (Kementrian Sekretarian Negara RI, 2013; Population Reference Bureau, 2003).
Furthermore, Indonesia consists of 17,508 Islands (kementrian sekretariat negara RI; 2013)
with around 370 ethnic groups and languages (Amaleeet al; 2007). According to
Kementrian Kebudayaan dan Pariwisata (Maskur, n.d.) Indonesia has 125 faiths with six
religions are acknowledged and approved by state, namely Islam (88%), Catholic and
Protestant (8%), Hindus (2%), Budha (1%) and konhuchu (1%) (CIA cites in Albert, et all;
2005). For these reasons, it is relevant to conclude that Indonesia is very diverse in nature
(Miksicet al; 2002; Kosasih, n.d.). From this information, the author intended to conclude a
whole picture which protrayed the demographic reality, as below:

Picture. 1 Diversity of Indonesia


Indonesia is a diversity country, but the issue of multicultural education is still new in
society. However, recently, several studies and researchers have discussed about these issues
is conducted around 2000s (Amirin, 2012; Suparlan, 2002; Lubis, 2006; Syaifuddin, 2006;
Amirin, 2012). So this topic is very interesting to discuss in a class.
B.Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study is sharing of information about the necessity of
multicultural education in Indonesia through teaching online, that held in National Dong
hwa University, Taiwan and Indonesia University of Education, Indonesia. Multicultural
education will help student to create equal educational opportunities from diverse racial,
ethnic, social-class, and cultural groups. One of the important goals is to help all students to
acquire the knowledge, attitudes, and skills that needed to function effectively in apluralistic
democratic society and to interact, negotiate, and communicate with peoples from diverse
groups in order to create a civic and moral community that works for the common good.
Moreover, from this study, students would make reflection in their own country, and
emphasize about their national identity.
C. Literature Review
1. Instructional System Design Models
a. Definition
Instructional Systems Design (ISD) Models are the systematic guidelines instructional
designers follow in order to create a workshop, a course, a curriculum, an instructional
100

program, a training session, or the instructional materials and products for educational
programs. ISD is a process to ensure learning does not occur in a haphazard manner, but is
developed using a process with specific measurable outcomes. The responsibility of the
instructional designer is to create instructional experiences, which ensure that the learners
will achieve the goals of instruction (Rao; 2013, P7).
b. Componen of the sistems approach model
The componen of instructional system design of Dick and Carey (2005) including;
a.Identify instructional; b. Conduct insructional analysis; c. Analyze learners and contexts;
d.Write performance objectives; e.Develop assessment instruments; f.Develop instructional
strategy; g.Develop and select instructional materials; h.Design and conduct formative
evaluation of instruction ; i. Revisi instruction; j.Design and conduct summative evaluation

Figure 2.1. Dick and Carrey Instructional System Design Model

2. Online Learning
Online learning is inherently related to ICT. This have three categories ; the ubiquitous
workstation (usualy means a multimedia PC equipped with a web browser), the
communication technologies that enable widespread learner networking and access to the
web, and the software tools that enable educationalists to author and deliver online learning
(mcpherson, et all ;2004). At the beginning of the 1990s only a handful of educators and
educational researchers were seriously involved with creating and teaching Alnetwork
courses, yet a decade later millions of student are online, not only in the United States but
also around the world (Hiltz & Goldman; 2005). The use of computers was verified in the
US Departements of Labor and Educaions report entitled what Work Requires of school: A
SCANS Report for America 2000,whih includes the following as one of the five
competencies needed by todays workforce (SCAN cited in Morrison & Lowther, 2005).
Work with a vaiety of technology
Select technology-chooses procedures, tools, or equipment, including computers and
related technologies
Applies technology to task understands intent and proper procedures for set up and
operation of equipment
Maintains and troubleshoots equipment-prevents, identifies, or solves problems with
equipments, including computers and other technologies
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Online education is a growing field with over 30% of college students taking at least one
online course last year (Allen & Seaman, 2014). Many colleges and universities are
exploring ways to expand or extend their programs to students online. Some programs are
offering courses completely online, while others are using a blended approach, incorporating
online components into their existing courses.
Researchers have argued that online courses can be as effective as traditional
instruction when the method and technologies used are appropriate to the instructional tasks,
there is student-to-student interaction and timely teacher-to-student feedback (Hamzaee,
2005, p. 216).
Changinging circumstance within the world at large and the increasing accessibility of
technological solution are driving those of us who work in further education and higher
education institution to develop innovative learning strategies and solution. In order to
respond to escalating demands from both society and industry, through the adoption of
flexible online learning environment. Within the online learning environment, educationalist
are now able to reach increasing number of student in traditional higher education, further
education, distance education and continuing professional development (Berge and Collin,
cited in mcpherson, et all ;2004)
Will and Alexander (Mcpherson, et all ;2004) explain that technology in itself does not
change or improve teaching and learning. Attention to management processes, strategy,
structure, and most importantly roles and skills, are the key to successfully introducing
technology in university teaching and learning.
Ausserhofer described this technology as the most recent educational panacea being
used to try and provide student with transferable skills, namely online communication,
online discussion and negotiation of meanings (Mcpherson, et all ;2004).
Khakhar and Quirchmayr defend the idea that such a framework should focus on how
technology can efficiently support tutors and educationalists in their capacity to provide
learners with high quality learning environments, support materials and learning and
teaching strategies, withn the institutional and social environment in which they are
embedded (Mcpherson, et all ;2004).
Goodyear (Mcpherson, et all ;2004) proposes that this framework should aim at:
Improving the quality of the organisational environment in which online learning
takes place
Developing pedagogical frameworks appropriate to the environment in which
learning is taking place
Enhancing the skills of teachers, trainers and managers in the use of innovative
methods and techniques
Ensuring the quality and user friendlines of learning materials and online services
Encouraging the recognition of qualifications obtained through online learning
a. Online Tutoring Strategies and Skill
McPherson, et all (2004) said that tutoring online is definitely different with
traditional instruction. Sometime its more difficult and need some supporting to make it
more efficiency. He then described the four main online tutor roles as Berge identifying:
Pedagogical and intellectual roles are some of the most importan for the online
learning process (Paulsen, 1995). The online tutor uses questions and probes for
learners responses that focus discussion on critical concepts, principle and skills
(Zafeiriou, 2000). These roles may involve opening discussions, focusing on relevant
content and issues, intervening to promote interest and productive conversation,
maintaining student to involve in discussion, and summarising debate
Social roles involve the creation of friendly and comfortable social environments in
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which learner feel that knowledge is possible.


Managerial or organisational roles involve setting learning objectives; establishing
agendas for the learning activities; timetabling learning activities and tasks; and
clarifying procedural rules and decision-making norm (Mason; 1991; Paulsen; 1995)
Technical roles, possibly the most daunting for academics, involve becoming familiar,
comfortable and competent with the ICT system and software that compose the online
learning environment.

Figure 2. 1. Online tutoring roles


Numerous authors, such as Gerrard (2002) and McPerson et all (2004) assess the
online environment as follow:
Place greater emphasis on written skills

Produces a more formal tone

Does not follow a linear conversation but instead promotes multiple conversations

Does not confine tutoring to specific time

Places greater emphasis on student-student learning

Requires tutors to develop new ways of encouraging participation

Requires tutors to assess the worth of online contributions


b. Time for Change
Change to the educational system are often met with marked resistance, regardless of the
recommended alternations that are proposed or the advanced technologies that offer new
opportunities (Hiltz & Goldman; 2005).
D. Method
This teaching and learning activity has implemented Dick and Carey model (2005)
by teaching online approach. This model as well known is innovative in constructed
curriculum and teaching method to design, analyze, develop, implement and evaluate
instruction.
Dick and Careys theory offer a linear method which fulfills the empirical and
replicable process for the purpose of the study. The auxiliary explanations of the research
subjects and instruments are respectively designated at below.
1. Research subject and characteristic
The subjects on this research are the fourth semester of undergraduate student who
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are majoring in Early Childhood Teacher Education, at Indonesia University of Education.


They are consisting of one male and fourteen female students who have age approximately
20 years old. Multicultural education is one topic of the Social science for early childhood
education course.
As instructor, I would encourage student to knowing the issue of multicultural
education in the world and the connection to Indonesia. We discuss it from the beginning of
Indonesia independent, our cultural diversity condition, and the challenging in the future.
As a young generation they should concern toward the cultural issues, they have a
big responsibility to protect the cultural diversity from extinction. The students supposed to
have positive attitude in this topic.
2. Obtain the Research Subjects
The class will implement teaching online approach. I as a teacher will lecture in
NDHU, Taiwan and my student will be study at Indonesia University of education. I will use
the PPT. To raise motivation and give some attraction in my way of teaching, I arrange the
PPT with variation of color, graph and a lot of picture. Then I put some activities for
students to sing medley songs of nusantara. This song is related to national identity of
Indonesia that mention in my content. Toward this activity, student will active, enjoy and
feel excited. So to make it more meaningful,optimum and enjoyable activity, I made
collaboration with my colleague that she was a musical instructor in my department. The
last activity, we will discussion some issues and interactive communication.
3. Place and Location the research
This research will conduct in two public Universities in two countries. The first
location is held in Departemen of Curriculum Design and Human Potential, National Dong
Hwa University in Hualien City- Taiwan. The second location is held in Departement of
Early Childhood Teacher Education, Faculty of Education, Indonesia University of
Education in Bandung- Indonesia.
National Dong Hwa University is the biggest campus in Taiwan. Its founded in 1994.
Similarly, with Indonesia University of education, either is one of the biggest campus and
the oldest Educational University in Indonesia. It founded in1954.
4.Design Models
In these study, I would implement ISD with teaching online as a part of Instructional
System Design model. At the time of applying teaching-learning activities, I would give a
pre test first. Afterwards, student will watch the video, then. They would be given the post
test.

Figure 1-2 . Design teaching-learning model


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5. Research Instrument
On this research will use instrument to evaluate academic achievement of the student,
and teacher performance. For students achievement, I use pretest and posttest. For the
teacher performance, it will be used the student feedback and peer review feedback.
6. Research Limitation
These study will be held in National Dong Hwa University connected to Indonesia
University Education. The teaching online will present about the necessity of multicultural
education in Indonesia at social studies courses. In this Class, there are 14 students of EarlyChildhood Teacher Education Departement. The duration of the teaching is around 60
minutes; 10 minutes pre test; 40 minutes lecturing; then 10 minutes post test. The results
may not generalized to other teaching Due to the limitation number of the participants .
E. Discussion
Teaching Online is implemented on 4th June 2014 at the seminar room C317
Departement of Curriculum Design and Human Potential Departement, National Dong Hwa
University. It connected to Indonesia in the Room 306 at Early Childhood Teacher
Education Departement, Faculty of Education, Indonesia University of Education. The Class
in Taiwan was presented by 11 student and in Indonesia presented by 14 students.
The teaching online start on 10.30 AM until 12.00 PM. The class begin with introduction
the group member in NDHU and UPI. Furthermore, the teacher offering pretest around 5
minutes, then lecturing, singing together and discussion. At the last, class is closing with
posttest.
1. Analysis of Pretest, Posttest Scores
It was extremely interesting that using teaching online still can achieve good
improvement, similar to traditional teaching that using face to face situation. The distance
between Taiwan and Indonesia is not influenced and distraction the learning process.
Neither the limitation of media, tools and Internet connection is not a big deal, as long as the
teacher prepared well all of stuff material.
After implemented teaching online that presenting about the necessity of multicultural
education in Indonesia, using Dick and Carey's instructional system design, the student be
able to enhance their understanding about this phenomenon. This condition was revealed by
table 8.1 that showed the increase of students' performance score mean from 5.142 become
8.928. Four students able to get posttest score 100% correct, seven students got 90% and
two students got 80%, and only one student got 60%.
According to percentage of the average score of posttest the teaching activity by using
this approach has succeeded to improve student understanding about multicultual education.
In addition, the percentage of each item has increase as well.

Figure 8.1. Comparation Pretest and Posttest Score

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The comparison chart above, has shown that the lowest score on pretest is 2.0 and
the highest is 7.0. It dramatically increasing on the posttest score, the weakest score is 6.0,
and the tallest is 10. The rising score between 2-6 score, in average the rising point is 3.785
point. So, the teaching online using ISD Dick and Carey model has improve the student
peformance.
2. Analysis of Peer Review Form
The chart below are the respond of peer review when the teaching online is
implemented. The number of respondent is seven people. The peer review form used the
form of Chang et all. (2005) which was composed of five dimensions : mastery of course
knowledge (three items), presenting the teaching contents clearly (eight items), flexible
usage of teaching strategies (eights items), masteri of effective classroom management skills
(five items), and make good use of communication skills (six items).
Item 1. Mastery of course knowledge
The graph has shown that 71% respondent feel excellence and 29 % satisfactory
for the items of mastery of course knowledge. This part of the item mentioned that the
instructor be able to grasp the teaching material completely. Then the instructor be capable
of link the old and new knowledge of students effectively. Furthermore, the instructor be
able to link the life experience of students.
Figure 8.2. Mastery of Content

Item 2: Presenting the teaching content clearly


The graph clearly seen that 73% of respondent feeling excelence toward the skill of
instruction to present the teaching clearly, 25% feeling satisfy, and O% of respondent feeling
it presenting in below average. While 2% peer review respond for the item number2.8. that
mention about summarize the learning point, the instructor not applicable or not performed
that point.

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Figure 8.3. Abilty to present teaching content clearly


Item no.3. Flexible usage of teaching strategies
The pie char below, has shown us that 58% of respondent consider that it was
excelence in flexibility usage of teaching strategies, 32% assest it satisfactory. While 1 %
consider below average, especially on item 3.1. initative and maintain student motivation. In
addition, 9% respondent consider that the instructor not performed on item number 6.7 that
mention about the ability to implement remedial instruction according to student individual.

Figure 8.4. Flexible usage of teaching streategies


Item 4. Mastery Of Effective Classroom Management Skills
This grap has shown that 63% respondent admit that the instructor is excelence and
mastery of effective classroom management skills, and 11% think satisfactory. While 0%
consider below average and 26% recognize that the instructor not applicabe or not
performed on item 41. That mention about ability to keep classroom regulation, point 4.2.
proper use of rewards and punishments and the item 4.5. that mention ability to handle
student misbehavior properly.

107

Figure 8.5. Mastery of effective classroom management skills

Item 5. Make good use of communication skills


The char below, it clearly seen that 46% respondent acknowledge that the instructor
excellence using the communication skills, and 23% feeling stisfactory. While 10% admit
that the instructor using communication skill below average, particularly on item 5.5. that
mention about correct, neat and orderly hand write. In addition, 21% respondent consider
that it is not applicable or not performed on item 5.2. that mention about take care of
majority students and walking around the class .
F. Conclusion
Teahing online is quite fun, and good experience for teacher and student. We
engaged with high technology and contemporary issues in teaching. Beside that the most
importan thing is teaching online could be succeed and reach the instructional goal. The
student achievement and knowledge showed in good performance.
In general, the praxis of instructional system design using teaching online be able to
enhance student understanding of multicultural education.Refer to the result of pretest and
posttest that revealed student understanding about the topic has improved from 5.142 mean
of pretest to 8.928 mean of posttest.
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In addition, feedback questionnaire students illustrated most of the students feel


satisfy, and interested in the topic. Something that I have to improve on this teaching online
is maintain two languages, bahasa and English in my PPT, because this teaching at two
country it should be use two languages, although my focus is my students in Indonesia.
Another is preparation in technical neednest. I need to print out my PPT, so I did not face
difficulties technically to see my PPT.
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110

EFFECT OF UTILIZATION CD INTERACTIVE MEDIA IN SCIENCE LEARNING


MOTIVATION FOR THIRD GRADES ELEMENTARY SCHOOL
(Experimental study in Palmerah 15 state primary school, West Jakarta Academic Year
2010/2011)
By
Mohamad Syarif Sumantri dan Rina Kristanti
Faculty of Educational Jakarta State University
Email : syarifsumantri@yahoo.com
This study aims to to get empirical data on the effects media utilization Interactive CD on
motivation to learn science third class Elementary School. Research with an experimental
method through the design of post-test only control group. The population in this study were
all students of third class Elementary School in West Jakarta. Samples were third-grade
students in 15 public elementary school Palmerah, West Jakarta numbering 70 students,
which is 35 students as the experimental class and 35 students as the control class. Samples
were taken by using a cluster sampling technique. The data was collected using a
questionnaire enclosed motivation to learn science in elementary school third grade. Data
analysis techniques using t-test, at significance level = 0.05. The test results showed t = 3.48
> t table = 1.66; means H0 is rejected and H1 is accepted. With the conclusion of the study is
the use of interactive CD of media positive effect on the level of motivation to learn science
elementary school third-grade students. The implication of this study is that teachers and
parents need to know that the student's motivation to learn science need to be considered
because it helps the students have learned the task of accepting full responsibility, students
can complete the task well, they are persistent have difficulty and optimistic attitude in
learning science . In addition, teachers can utilize interactive CD of media as a source of
helpful learning increases learning motivation science. Through Interactive CD of media,
motivation to learn science students will be increased and learning to be effective, so the
enjoyable will support the learning process in the classroom.
Keywords: CD of media, learning motivation, science, elementary school
Introduction
In general science lessons in primary schools carried out by means of the approach
through a text book. Math and science is often presented in a way classical or technical
lectures by teachers at school. With classical style actually makes students easily bored and is
difficult to understand the lesson presented by the teacher, the teacher's role in science lessons
should consider and serious in trying to improve the motivation of their students so that
students can understand the subject matter with better science.
In general, elementary school teachers have not been optimized to manage the
classroom effectively subjects such as science teachers should emphasize the competence of
science process skills through observation and practice. But most teachers will prioritize a
lecture approach and students are encouraged to memorize all the material rapidly and
accurately. Though the subjects of science requires the skills and knowledge that is more than
just recall it. Primary school teachers have only put on the achievement of the learning
outcome goals and only pay attention to the completion of a structured learning program
teachers without regard to the need of students, how students learn, enthusiastic about
learning or mastery learning.

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Continuous learning process using lectures, reading materials, and do the problem is
how to teach the less appropriate (Sri Esti Wuryani D, 2006). This makes students depressed
and learning are boring and tend to be less meaningful than students are encouraged to
conduct individual or group practice. In general, elementary school teachers who less
maximize of media and learning resources are available in the school. For example, the use of
interactive science CD of media to motivate students to learn concepts more a real.
Utilization instructional media according to Yudhi Munadi (2008) is one alternative
that can be used to increase students' motivation to learn science. Instructional media is a tool
in conveying the material that students are enthusiastic and obtain better learning results.
Based on the results of early observation that the information obtained by researchers
studying media use by teachers is not serious. Appropriate learning media is suspected of an
interactive CD. Interactive science CD media available in many primary schools.
Wibowo, Thomas (2005) explains that this interactive CD media play a role in
facilitating student learning significantly. Media interactive CD to help students understand
the material science in accordance with the daily lives of students. For example, material
changes in energy. This illustrates that the teacher must always be active, creative and
initiative in tackling the problem of learning. This condition is more teacher encourages active
and creative role, recall position of teachers as advisors, mentors, and an incentive for the
students' activities. One of the active role of the teacher is using the media in accordance with
the times in the learning process.
Learning by using interactive CD media is done by looking at the problem is the lack
of motivation of third-grade students Palmerah 15th State Primary School This action is a
preventive measure to prevent saturation of learning science. Based on the above problems,
the researchers are interested to see the effect of instructional media interactive CD on
motivation to learn science third grade elementary school students.
Research Methods
The purpose of this study was to get empirical data on the effects of media use
Interactive CD on motivation to learn science 3rd grade elementary school students and the
study was conducted in 15 public elementary schools Palmerah, West Jakarta. The study was
conducted in February - March 2010.
The research method is a method of experiment, because researchers rely on
independent variables directly is research that intentionally manipulates the independent
variable to see the effect that occurs in the dependent variable.
Posttest study design using the design-only control group, and there are two groups
chosen at random (R). Experimental group and the group given no treatment is called the
control group. To perform tests on independent variable group performed two static design.
These two groups are assumed to have the same characteristics, namely class, age, and
teaching materials, and the only difference in treatment alone. The results of measurements of
the dependent variable of the two groups were compared to see the effect of the treatment.
Tabel 1
Two Design Group

R
R

group
E
K

Treatment
X1
-

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Posttest
Y1
Y2

Based on the design of the study, the treatment given to the experimental group. The
treatments were given in this study is to learn science by using interactive CD media and
purpose of the treatment is expected to encourage higher student motivation to learn science.
Treatment of 12 times with a duration of 30 minutes for the sessions. The material in each
treatment according to the science of learning materials.
To get data on the differences in learning motivation science experimental group and
the control group, the researchers conducted an evaluation performed by instrument
questionnaires given after treatment (post-test). Post-test results of comparison studies
measure differences in learning motivation science experimental group and control group.
The target population is the entire third grade elementary school students in West
Jakarta. The sample in this study is a third grade student of Palmerah public elementary
school in West Jakarta. Sampling technique uses cluster sampling technique. Cluster sampling
is a sampling performed not based on class or strata, but is based on a group or cluster.
Sampling was conducted by: (1) Collect and take random public schools in 8 districts
of West Jakarta is obtained as the first stage. (2) Take the 29 Kelurahan randomly from 1
districts of Palmerah obtained as the second stage. (3) Selecting Palmerah in 3 schools in the
district which has a computer laboratory at random. (4) Based on the randomly selected 2
schools. Finally, based on the design of the study, the selected schools with third grade
parallel, the class 3A as the control group and the experimental group 3B class numbering 70
students were randomly acquired of Palmerah state elementary School 15th as a sample.
Data was collected using a non-test instrument used to measure students' motivation.
Score to measure the learning motivation is the Likert scale. In this study, the measured
variable is in the form of enthusiastic, caring, and student motivation. All of these variables
cannot be measured with certainty, thus enthusiasm, attention and motivation are arranged in
a statement to the respondents and the results assessed in the form of a numeric value range in
accordance with the criteria established researchers. From the above statement it can be
described that learning motivation is a mental stimulation one to do something so that
learning motivation, including the attitudes of students in learning.
Validity testing showed that the results of research by using research instruments
should be accounted for accuracy. Criterion is valid if the count r > r table at the confidence
level = 0.05. Because the data type is a continuum of data then the formula used is the
correlation (r) product moment person.
Number of respondents test this instrument is 29 students, then the table is used as a
criterion r is 0.36. Requirement that the item is said to be valid if the count r > r table. But if
the count r < r table the item drop or otherwise invalid. Invalid item or drop, will not be
included into the instrument. Reliability of the instrument with a Likert scale so that the
calculation using the Cronbach alpha.
Data analysis techniques to the analysis with descriptive and inferential statistics.
Descriptive statistics were used to determine the centralization tendency the data (mean,
median, mode), tendency the spread of the data (range and standard deviation) as well as
making of frequency tables and histograms. Inferential statistics are used to test hypotheses
and make generalizations. The requirements to be fulfilled is to test the normality of the data
using Liliefors test. Test of homogeneity of variance is done by using the formula Barlett test
at significance level = 0.05, to test the hypothesis by using t test with significance level =
0.05 the n1 = n2 and 1 2.

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Results and Discussion


Calculation results of students' motivation to learn science which treated of media using CD
Interactive (experimental group)
The results obtained from the study for the experimental group respondents
Elementary third grade students who were treated using Interactive CD for learning science
has a total score of 2893 with a highest score of 96, the lowest score of 66, and an average
score of 82.66. Median value of 83, the value of mode 80 and 82, the value of the variance
and standard deviation 35.23 (standard deviation) was 5.94.
Table 2 Frequency Distribution of Learning science Motivation in III grades by
treatment CD Interactive of media
Class Interval
66-70
71-75
76-80
81-85
86-90
91-95
96-100
Total

Frequency Absolute
1
2
10
12
7
2
1
35

Frequency Relative
2,86%
5,71%
28,57%
34,29%
20%
5,71%
2,86%
100%

Based on table above can be acquired the value of the frequency and interval value of
each class interval. The number of respondents were below the average of the 13 respondents,
or 37.14%, which means that as many as 13 students in a class have a value below the
average, while those in the class average of the 12 respondents, or 34.29%, which means that
as many as 12 students have corresponding average value, and which is above the average
grade of about 10 respondents or 28.57%, which means that as many as 10 students have
grades above average.
The results of the calculation of learning motivation science without using an interactive CD
of media (Control Group)
The results obtained from the study for the control group respondents untreated
students in the form of an interactive CD media use has a total score of 2820 with a highest
score of 97, the lowest score of 59, and an average score of 80.57. The median value of 82
and a value of mode variance 83. Value 48.43, and standard deviation (standard deviation)
was 6.96.
Table 3: Frequency distribution of motivation science third class without assistance CD media
interactive (Control Group)
Class Interval
59-64
65-70
71-76
77-82
83-88
89-94
95-100
total

Frequency Absolute
1
1
7
11
12
2
1
35

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Frequency Relative
2,86%
2,86%
20%
31,43%
34,28%
5,71%
2,86%
100%

Based on the table above can be acquired the value of the frequency and interval value
of each class interval. The number of respondents who are under the average the 9
respondents or 25.72%, which means that as many as 9 students have scores below average,
while those in the class average of the 11 respondents, or 31.43%, which means that as many
as 11 students have corresponding average value, and which is above the average grade total
15 respondents or 42.85%, which means that as many as 15 students have grades above
average.
Hypothesis Testing
Testing this hypothesis using a t-test the tests the average difference in the two. T-test
to test the two groups, the experimental and control (one-shot case study) with the criteria if t
count > t table, then H1 is accepted and if t < t-table then H1 is rejected.
Based on the results of hypothesis testing using t-test, the obtained value t = 3.488 and
t- table value = 1.66, df = 68 value at significance level = 0.05. From these results it is
known that t count > t-table, so it can be concluded that there are differences in students'
learning motivation science interactive CD treated with learning motivation science untreated
interactive CD, where the average student motivation by using interactive CD is higher
(82.66) compared to the average student motivation without the use of an interactive CD
(80.57). Thus using an interactive CD of media have a positive influence on motivation to
learn science. Summary results of hypothesis testing using t-test can be seen in the table, as
follows:
Table 4: Results of t-test
Specification

dk (n1+n2-2)

t- count

t-table

Calculation results
of t-test

68

3,48

1,66

Significance
= 0,05
Significant

Discussion of Results
Through hypothesis testing, the test results are known t-count 3.48 and t-table at 1.66.
With conditions t-count > t-table, prove that Ho (null hypothesis) which states that there is a
significant positive effect on the using interactive CD of media to motivate elementary
students to learn science is rejected, whereas H1 (alternative hypothesis) which states that
there is positive significantly from using interactive CD of media to motivate elementary
students learn accepted science.
From the research, describes the differences learning motivation in the experimental
group with the control group. Motivation to learn science group given assistance interactive
CD of media (experimental group) is better than the learning motivation the group who did
not receive assistance interactive CD of media (control group). It is evident that the
enthusiastic students in participating in science lessons, they are spirit, accepted a task with
full responsibility, able to complete the task properly, resilient and optimistic in the face of
difficulties in learning, so as to make the students are motivated to learn science. This is
consistent with an interactive CD of media functions expressed by Heinich, Robert, et.al.
(2005). that interactive CD is of media that utilizes a computer to create and combine text,
graphics, audio, video and image animations to make learning fun and does not make the
students easily bored. Based on the purpose of education Science teachers are required to be
able to stimulate students to think reflectively, meaning how teachers design teaching so that

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students are active, creative and responsive to a wide range of existing problems (Kurrikulum
IPA SD 2006).
Media interactive CD prioritizing elements of interactivity. This media can provide
immediate feedback on answers or responses given by the students. In addition, the CD
interactive media can individually control their own pace of learning students personally. In
addition, students can choose their own topic you want to study. Display interactive CD of
media that can motivate students draw students to learn. This is in accordance with the
statement Slavin (2009) motivation is an internal process that activates, guides, and maintains
behavior over time or something that causes one to do something and to do something to
survive it. When using CD media students will listen, view, and consider and interact with the
subject matter is a practice and a game, then the student can understand very well and
understand every new word that is contained in the interactive CD. In accordance with the
opinion Hannafian (1988). The use of interactive CD of media can clarify the presentation of
the message so it does not occur lesson learning activities verbalistis. Sardiman. (1999)
confirms that the learning system is delivered in a single package consists of animated films,
motivation, challenge, adventure, attractive graphic design, music and song, as well as an
interactive system to make your students' learning experience to be so enjoyable and
memorable.
According to analysis above research, the provision of treatment with an interactive
CD of media proved to have a positive influence on students' motivation. In addition, an
interactive CD of media is more effective and does not require expensive, allows teachers to
explain the particular subject matter science. so that the material presented is easy to
understand the students. This is in accordance with the opinion of Greenberg (1998)
motivation can encourage the process of generating, directing, and establish behavior toward
a goal.
Learning science in primary schools can be understood as an activity practiced in
order to get an understanding. Media the interactive CD learning behavior consists of psychic
and physical activity in an integrated and comprehensive proceed. Implementation of natural
learning daily life according to Santrock, John (2008) is an activity of individuals who obtain
the knowledge, attitudes, and skills learned by processing materials.
Elementary science learning generally according Darmodjo, Hendro. (1993) tend to
emphasize rote classical or material. This resulted in motivating students in science subjects.
Proper use of media can help the learning process more enjoyable. Another thing that can be
observed from the changes in students' learning motivation science is influenced by the
interactive CD media. In case this happens the of media influence media use interactive CD
on motivation to learn science third class is a positive effect.
Conclusion
Based on the calculation results of testing research hypothesis, acquired t-test = 3.48 and ttable = 1.66 at significance level = 0.05 with n = 70, the t-test is greater than t-table so that
H0 (null hypothesis) which states that there is a significant positive effect on the using
interactive CD of media on motivation to learn science students of third class rejected,
whereas H1 (alternative hypothesis) which states that there is a significant positive effect on
the using interactive CD of media on motivation to learn science elementary third grade
students received.
Based on these results, it can be concluded that there is a significant positive effect on
the utilization of interactive CD of media on motivation to learn science elementary school
third-grade students. It is evident that the students were given an interactive CD of media-

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assisted activity more highly motivated students in learning science, with indicators that
students can receive job with full responsibility, students can complete the task properly, the
students being persistent have difficulty and optimism in the study compared with students
who were not given assistance use interactive CD media.
Implications
The results of this study provide a theoretical description of the effect of using an interactive
CD media on motivation to learn science Elementary School third-grade students. In
maximizing the utilization of interactive CD of media as an effort to increase students'
learning motivation science third grade elementary school, in practice need to consider the
following matters: schools need to provide enough computers for each student, teachers need
to understand technology as a facilitator of students to be competent in running interactive CD
application, science teachers need to master the material in accordance with an interactive
CD, using interactive CD used should be appropriate to the learning objectives, and
interactive CD tailored to the characteristics of the students. Thus using an interactive CD can
assist teachers in implementing science learning becomes more active, effective, creative, and
enjoyable.
REFERENCES
Darmodjo, Hendro. (1993). Pendidikan IPA. Depdikbud.
Heinich, Robert, et.al. (2005). Instructional Technology and Media for Learning. New
Jersey:Prentice hall.
Hurlock, Elizabeth. (1991). Perkembangan Siswa, Jilid 2. Jakarta Erlangga.
J. Hannafin, Michael, et l.(1988). The Design, development, and Evaluation Of Instructional
Software. New York : Macmillan Publishing Company. (1988).
Jerald, Greenberg. (1996). Managing Behaviors in Organizations. New York:Prentice Hall.
Kurikulum 2006. (2006). Peraturan Menteri Pendidikan Nasional. Jakarta: BP Dharma
Bhakti.
Munadi,Yudhi. (2008). Media Pembelajaran. Jakarta : Gaung Persada Press.
Santrock, John W. (2008). Educational Psychology,Third Edition. New York: Mc Graw Hill.
Sardiman. (1999). Motivasi dan Belajar. Jakarta: Ghalia Indonesia.
Sarlito Wirawan S. (1989). Pengantar Umum Psikologi. Jakarta : Bulan Bintang.
Slavin, Robert E. (2009). Psikologi Pendidikan Teori dan Praktek, Edisi Kedelapan., Jakarta:
PT. Indeks.
Wuryani D, Sri Esti. (2006). Psikologi Pendidikan. Jakarta: PT Grasindo.

117

URGENCY COMPUTER GAMES


FOR STIMULATION THE EARLY CHILDHOOD DEVELOPMENT
Syahrul Ismet
Department of Early Childhood Education
Faculty of Science and Education
Padang State University
E-mail: syahrul_unp@yahoo.com
C.P. 085319107976
abstract
The rapid development of communication technology of the 21st century have made the
children as a digital generation. Information and communication technologies are becoming
an important part integral in the lives of children, as well as participate in every stage of their
development. The position of computer technology is not just a means of regular play, but it
has become a medium for learning children. The availability of a variety of alternative
applications of computer games specifically for children at this time, provide an opportunity
for children to play and develop rapidly and the maximum. Computer games that are
interesting, challenging, and provide new experiences, according to the characteristics of early
childhood development. During this time, parents and teachers do not use computer games
maximize and effective in stimulating the growth and development of children. The findings
of the experts indicate that stimulation by utilizing a computer game can develop the potential
of early childhood optimal quickly, context and integration.
Keywords: computer games, child development, stimulation.

Preliminary
Early childhood this time, has become the digital generation, the generation that
interact directly with a variety of media technologies. Various media technology, especially
computers have been used by children in their play activities. So it can be said that computer
technology and children's media, at the present can not be separated.
There are three major groups of generation, in conjunction with the technology,
namely: 1) addict digital community, namely the generation of high-tech addiction.
Generations close and hanging with digital technology; 2) digital immigrant cummunity, the
generation that adapting high technology, but trying to control the use of technology for the
benefit of daily; 3) digital permisive community, namely the generation of high-tech abstain.
Computer technology provides much convenience to implement the learning process.
The use of computers has become increasingly familiar as a medium that can assist teachers
in implementing the learning. However, not many early childhood education institutions make
the computer as a medium for the stimulation of early childhood development.
Use of Computers for Early Childhood
George S. Morison in Santrock (2009: 52) asserts, the use of computer technology at
home and at school is very good for early childhood development. Kids now a generation of
technology (digital age / digital citizen). Children grow and develop through interaction with
technology. Various applications fun games for children. In fact, only nine months old baby

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has been interacting with the computer, while sitting on the lap of her parents. This is an
important fact that the children had learned directly from the computer.
It is understood that the development of computers has affected the lives of young
children. The interaction of children with computers into their daily activities. Through a
variety of fun computer games, computer into a media option that interests the child. So it can
not be denied, that the child essentially has learned directly through the use of a computer.
Based on the fact that children use computer technology in everyday life, then
Morrison (2004: 374) suggested that all classes of early childhood education has a technology
center that includes a computer, internet access, printers, digital cameras, and educational
programs (software) fit in the computer. These tools can be utilized to the maximum to make
the learning process in the classroom, and a variety of activity centers. The same thing is
explained by Ajen Dianawati (2009: 1) that the computer functions can assist student learning
activities, so that the development has been utilized as a tool for learning in schools or
institutions of learning guidance.
The use of computers in early childhood institutions will positively impact child
development. Children will have an opportunity equal access to technology, regardless of
economic status. Children can develop their skills through interaction with the computer.
Children can improve the performance through the use of the internet and a variety of learning
software.
Utilization of computers in the education of children, according to Davidson and
Wright as quoted by Brewer (2007: 124-125) are based on several assumptions, namely: the
use of computers becomes a social activity, the use of computer based initiation of children
and direct experience, computer software to support children to explore, experiment and solve
problems, offer computer learning new things, and the computer as a form of child
development in the classroom.
Understood from these assumptions, the use of computers in early childhood
education is not just to give the child the opportunity to interact with technology. However,
the computer becomes a media that is able to develop a lot of things in the child.
Consequently, teachers are not only required to have a computer technical computer skills,
but also able to develop the potential of children through a variety of computer learning. In
accordance with the opinion of Diana Trister Dodge and Laura J Colker was quoted Parwoto
(2008: 55), that the computer can provide high completeness effective learning for children.
While the development of a child with a computer match depending on how they use it.
In terms of age, the introduction of telematics and applications suggested by Rusman,
Dedi Kurniawan and CEPI Riyana (2011: 96) begins in children and given to all levels of
education. According to Catherine and Glenn de Padua (2012: 45), many researchers suggest
the age of 3-4 years as the best age to start computer classes for children. When this age,
children have mastered basic life skills, such as walking and talking. The basic skills of a
child into capital and active in exploring computer directly.
Expert opinion that the use of the computer education should start at an early age,
giving confirmation that the computer system useful for the development of the child in his
golden period. If the child has had basic life skills, such as walking and speaking, then these
skills can already be used to interact with the computer. Computers provide many advantages
in developing the potential of early childhood.
Based on the description of computers and early childhood can be concluded that the
development of today's computers took place rapidly. Early childhood and parents are
encouraged to use the computers in the children's learning. Age 3-4 years to the dawn of time
learning the computer is good for children, because children already have the basic skills to

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explore. The use of computers will be valuable for the development of effective and
completeness of children's learning, if tailored to the needs and interest.
Computer games Stimulation Benefits for Child Development
The use of computers can help the social development of children. Morrison (2008:
116) detailing the many social values of children that can be developed through learning
computers, among others, self-control, self-reliance, self-confidence, positive friendships, and
self-reliance activities without always being watched.
During this time, the reasons for rejection of computer learning for children, because
they do not develop the social aspect. When children interact with computers, children are
busy with their own activities without social interaction with others. This can be overcome by
teachers to design learning computer-based social development. Teachers can freely develop
such social values in the design of computer-based social learning. For example, a joint
project activities, provide a few chairs in the computer, working in pairs or small groups
collaboration. Teachers can also provide opportunities for children to explore and then discuss
their project. Next, children were asked to explain things that are found during the project
activities.
The use of computers can enhance a child's intelligence. According to Conny R
Semiawan (2008: 55), an increase in the development of the child intelligensi, due to
encouragement the child's curiosity is high (curiosity is typical of human nature). In addition,
the speed, accuracy, currency of the information can be obtained through the computer. Thus
the enrichment occurs in brain function, which in turn increases the production of neuroglial
cells are specialized cells that surround the neurons, so it will increase the number of neuronal
cells. Senanda with Conny Semiawan, Bambang Warsita (2008: 140), confirms the use of
computers can enhance the achievement of learning outcomes with the use of time and cost is
relatively small.
Children have a tremendous potential of the brain. The potential that will thrive when
given the stimulation penguhubung make synapses between nerve cells more. Through
computer activities that challenge the child will try to answer the curiosity, as well as a
careful and fast growing practice. At the end of stimulation through the use of computers to
create increasingly better intelligence and increased child.
The use of computers can develop children's creativity. This was said by Anna Craft
as quoted Parwoto (2008: 55) as follows:
"A lot of games (games) computer matching with different learning activities.
Children can see their own level of success, especially in basic skills, such as reading,
using the keyboard, and various types of open-ended investigations. All the activities
of the child is the development of children's creativity through a computer. "
The use of computers to train children with a wide range of technical skills. Skills
such as turn on the computer, run up and close it. In carrying out the program, the child will
be involved more with the technical skills. During play, children stimulate to read, understand
and are trained to use various keys on the keyboard and mouse. This makes the process of
training the child's creativity flourish.
According to experts, the use of computers in early childhood learning, cultivate a
critical attitude in the child. By the time the child interacts with the computer, children will
observe, play and develop the ability to indefinitely. Berekplorasi child as he wishes to try out
new experiences. According to Blanchard (2010: 1) research Critcher (2008), Drotner and
Livingston (2008), Hasebrink, Livingston, Haddon and Olafsosson (2008, Linebarger and
Piotrowski (2009) concluded that children aged 3-5 years, is now able to develop various their

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potential by learning through the media. Children can directly observe, explore, play and learn
through digital media they like.
Computer learning in kindergarten can develop physical motor abilities, such as:
developing eye coordination, small muscles of the fingers of children, and increase their
motivation to play. Parwoto (2008: 55) suggested that the computer learning, teachers have a
lot to understand the use of computers for their students, because they have to guide and
resolve when the child has an error in the use of computers.
Motor activity is the highest activity in the child's life. Through a child's motor activity
was able to rain physical and neurological coordination. Motor activity is also easy to
determine, since the visible of the activities of children. When using a computer children
develop physical coordination by playing a mouse, keyboard or touchscreen.
According to The David and Lucie Packard (2000: 45) in addition to the development
of parenting skills that are technical, computer study also establish a communication link
between a child with someone else. Through various social networks on the Internet, allowing
for children to connect with their friends mapun family. Not only in the form of verbal
communication, even a child can also communicate through sharing his work with others.
Catherine and Glenn de Padua in The David and Lucie Packard (2000: 45) also
describes some of the benefits children with learning computers, namely:
"1) improve children's learning skills, it is pointed out various studies that children
who use computers have better academic performance 2) stimulate children's
creativity and imagination, because even a simple computer program will be felt
challenging for children, because children learn to identify problems, analyze option,
and choose the best solution, 3) promote the development of personality, because the
computer program allows the children make mistakes, correct, and try again without
fear of being scolded. the child becomes accustomed to risk-taking, possess a more
independent and more confident ".
From the description of the benefits of computer games to stimulate early childhood
development, it can be concluded that computer games provide many benefits for children
and can be tailored to the needs of development. These benefits include the social value of
emotional intelligence, motor skills, creativity, real experience, critical thinking, academic
ability, personality, communication and so on. The use of computers in early childhood
learning can help the development of children quickly and effectively.
Principles of Computer Games stimulation for young children
Based on the Needs Children
Early childhood is unique in its development. Between one child with other children
can not be equated. Thus, the needs of each child is different. Learning computer must
understand the development of children with different requirements. For that, according to
Morrison (2004: 389-393) before carrying out the computer study early childhood educators
need to understand a few important things.
"First, the teacher should be informed about the different needs of each child to
technology. Such information is useful for teachers to plan lessons and assistance
aktvitas different for each child. Second, the use of computer technology is designed
to develop a child's social skills. This is related to the criticism that the learning
computer is not able to develop a child's social. Third, teachers implement meaningful
learning for children, such as discovery learning, problem solving and computer skills
".

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Understanding the different needs of children can help teachers plan effective
computer learning. Since early childhood learning should address the needs of each individual
child's development. Differences in individual needs, will mempengerahuhi teacher assistance
to each child during learning.
Play
Implemented through the stimulation of a child's learning the game. Playing for children is a
means to develop a variety of skills. For that developed computer-based learning game.
Henniger as quoted by Morrison (2004: 468) explains the principle of the development of the
game through a computer, namely:
"1) shows the activity of children's play, which can stimulate children's physical
activity, 2) the child can choose their own type of game he likes, 3) children can play
directly, minimize teacher intervention on the child, 4) process-oriented game, instead
of the resulting work children, 5) game stimulates imagination and kreatiftas child, 6)
games with minimal risk. "
Principles of learning computer-based game shows the liveliness of children and
benefits for development. Child during the play shown to be active, self-reliance, direct play
and fun. During play children develop imagination and creativity.
Development of social value
The development of social values is an important part of a child's learning. Because
the child will enter real life in society. The emergence of criticism of computer learning
minimal social value, because as long as the computer is learning emphasizes individual
activities. In fact, many of the techniques that teachers can do in developing a social value
through a learning computer.
According to Clement and Sarama, as quoted by Morrison (2004: 468) suggests the
use of a computer can develop a child's social. For example, teachers deal with computer
learning laboratory with putting a few chairs in a variety of computers and software in the
computer. This will make the children interact with each other and share their experiences in
working.
Mentoring Children
Although computer-based learning to the child, but the mentoring teachers or parents
while studying computer is still needed. Because every child has the ability of the different
interactions with the computer. Mentoring serves to facilitate the children's curiosity, as well
as preventing the negative of computer use.
According Henniger (2013: 471), there are three forms of mentoring parents and
teachers when interacting with the child in learning computers, namely as an instructor,
mentor and model. As instructors, teachers and parents membelajarkan how to use
technology. As counselors, teachers and parents to guide the child can adapt, so skillfully use
computers. As a model, teachers and parents will always be considered about how to use a
good computer.
Integration of Learning
Children learning computer, not just the technical skills to use the technology. But
utilized integrated with learning programs that follow the child. Thus, a computer learning
materials can be prepared based on the needs of the school. So that learning becomes a source
of learning computer that is connected to the other child's learning experience. This is

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supported by Henniger in Morrison (2004: 379) that pengeaturan computer centers in allows
child labor mengkasesnya on any learning and development activities of children use the
computers as a core part of the school.
Selection Software
Computer programs for early childhood learning is growing by leaps and bounds.
Various types of software can be selected according to need. To be optimally useful as a
source of children's learning, teachers need to pay attention to the principles in the use of the
software.
According to Brewer (2007: 124-15) kids computer software selection refers to the
technical aspects, aspects of learning, aspects of content and developmental aspects.
Technical aspects, such as operating the buttons that are used, how to run programs, save and
print work. Aspects of learning, such as voice and image support, equal parts of the display,
the ability to give feedback. Aspects of the content, in the form of the material to be studied
children like the information, processes, capabilities, and level of difficulty of each level.
Aspects of development, such as a game program according to the child's age. In line with
Brewer, D Brown Phylis Morrison (2004: 387) describes some of the considerations when
choosing software teachers:
"1) The application matches the specifications of the computer, because it is associated
with the operating system, memory, speed and color, 2) the application in accordance
with the standard curriculum taught objectives, 3) applications adapt to the
development of age, 4) application of fun to play."
NAEYC (National Association of Early Young Children) in Morrison (466-467) have
established the principles of computer learning for young children is the reference in the
development of children's computer learning. Principles are:
"1) teachers' use of computers to adjust for age, the differences of each child, as well
as cultural differences, 2) computer learning stimulates cognitive and social
development, 3) the computer must be integrated into the child's learning environment
so easy to use a child any other learning, 4) all children have access to computers in
the class, 5) software used should depict reality in the community and used as a
problem-solving strategies, 6) early childhood professionals and parents work together
to realize the hardware and software that is suitable for children, 7) early childhood
educators need training to be a professional, so that learning becomes the better
computer ".
It is understood that the principles of software selection is very important in learning
computer. Since the control over the software into computer-based learning activities. In
general, the software used should be appropriate to the needs of early childhood, children
develop a range of skills, and is easy when operated.
Conclusion
Computer games can be used to stimulate the development of early childhood, from
the age of 3 years. Media use of computer games can be included in learning activities at
school (early childhood / kindergarten). Many benefits accrue to children through the game
due to a computer, such as motor skills, academic intelligence, social values, to solve
problems, and so on. To implement an effective stimulation computer games for children's
development, the teacher refers to the principles of stimulation computer games for children.

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Brewer, Jo Ann. Introduction to Early Childhood Education Preschool Through Primary
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Pendidikan Anak Usia Dini oleh Suci Romadhona dan April Widiastuti. Jakarta:
Indeks, 2008.
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CONTENTS OF ADVERTISING IN CHILDREN TELEVISION SHOWS


Nurist Surayya Ulfa
Department of Communication, Diponegoro University
nurist.surayya@undip.ac.id
This study is a content analysis of advertisings aired at several television children programs
in Indonesia. Based on the analysis of 1.442 ads, it is found that the duration of ads are
generally about 4-5 minutes, with 10-15 advertisings aired. While in prime time show, the
duration is increasing to 7-8 minutes and aired 24-27 ads. The proportion of ads is 50%
children products. Meanwhile, 83% ads is emotional advertising that contains only 1-2
informations and only 3% ads is informative of which contains 4-5 informations.
Keyword: information contents, advertising, children television programs
1. Background of The Study
Advertisings targeted to children are nowdays increasing compared to those in the past
decades. In Amerika, most children watched nearly 20.000 ads a year in the 1970s (Adler et
al, 1970), became 30.000 ads per year in the early 1980s (Condry, Bence & Scheibe,1988)
and then roughly 40.000 ads per year in the beginning of 1990s (Kunkel & Gantz, 1992). In
1999, Comstock and Scherer estimated children were exposed to about 60.000 ads in a year.
While in UK, each children exposed to 18.000 television ads (carvel, 2000) and in China was
16.000 ads per year (Chan & McNeal, 2004). For the meantime, there were only limited data
about children exposure to advertising in Indonesia that can be collected. Previous research
showed children spent 1-5 hours a day to watch tv in the weekdays. Even some 23% children
watched at a longer time (Ulfa, 2013). Other research found that during tv viewing, some 5-8
years old childrens kept staring at the TV when the advertising put on air between the show,
however children above 8 years old had shifted theirs attention when the ads aired. (Calvert,
2008: 217). Nevertheless, study in Indonesia found 30,5% children age 6-12 years old were
remain watching tv during ads show and 9,5% were doing some other activities when ads
aired (Ulfa, 2013). Of course the kids (and adults) do not always pay attention to the
television screen when the ad aired, but in practice, the audience had the opportunity to see
the ads on all the events they watch.
The high exposure of tv ads to children bring about some concerns from many parties,
especially since the ads were assessed exploit children. The exploitation is often referred with
emotional language seducers (referring to the marketer) and innocents (referring to
children). In this context, they are viewed negatively by the criticism that the ads could
persuade children to buy products they do not need and spend money they may not have
(Young, 1990). Advertising are also put a lot of emphasis on ownership or inspire a certain
lifestyle (Hahlo, 1999). In addition, many studies have found negative effects of advertising
on children include; childrens health and obesity, images of the ideal body, stereotypes,
images of race and ethnicity, and the vision of materialism and happiness (MccDermott,
hastings, Stead, Carrian & harris, 2008).
Children are considered vulnerable to advertising because they do not really
understand about the intentions of the ads and the process of making an ads. At younger age,
childrens consumption capabilities and persuasive information processing are still
underdeveloped that resulted in the childrens meaning making regarding what is shown in
the advertisings (Bilmolt Tammo, H.A & Claassen Wilma, 1998). Those limited capabilities
often caused them, at a certain age, easy to accept, persuaded, and perceived wrong

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interpretation of advertising messages (Oates, Blades, Gunter, &. Don, 2003). Moreover,
advertising commonly uses techniques to create magnitude and exaggerate images that offer
wrong impressions of the product. As follows, children are ever more difficult to consider the
size, image, taste or shape of the actual products (Gunter, Barrie, Oades, Caroline & Blades,
Mark. 2005). The findings of a previous study showed that 83.5% of children aged 6-12 years
have been able to distinguish ads from other content of tv shows; and 74% could mention
what products are advertised. However, 60.5% of children couldnt mention the purpose of
advertising, 62.5% couldnt rule out peripheral messages of ads, and 67% did not understand
the intention behind the advertising (Ulfa, 2013).
Children need explanations and sufficient information to have a good comprehension
of advertising and become less vulnerable from potential negative effects of ads. Hence, this
paper intends to describe the advertising profile and information contents of Indonesian
television advertisements that aired on the child tv program.
2.

Theoretical Framework
Information in advertisements is fundamental in marketing because of its role in
affecting the behavior of consumers. Consumers rely on information about the products and
services to arrive at rational purchase decisions. Information about price, quality and other
product attributes enables buyers to utilize their income or wealth by finding the product
whose mix of price and quality they most prefer (Beasles et al.,1981). Inevitably, marketers
have to utilize marketing tools (e.g., television advertisements) to disseminate information
about their products to influence their respective consumers decision processes. In another
light, product categories influence consumers need for information. It is widely accepted that
purchase decisions vary when faced with different products categorized into different
dimensions and consequently affecting the informational need of consumers (Peter & Olson,
1999;Kotler & Armstrong, 1998).
Researches examine the information cues present in the advertisements employing the
Resnik-Stern content classification (Resnik & Stern, 1977; Stern & Resnik, 1991; Weinberger
& Spotts, 1989; Mueller, 1991). Determining the level of information content of
advertisements involved identifying the type and amount of information cues that is present in
each commercial. According to Resnik and Stern (1977), every commercial transmits some
information by transmitting visual and audio stimuli that provide meaningful cues. For a
commercial to be considered informative, it must permit a viewer to make a more intelligent
buying decision after seeing the commercial than before seeing it. A commercial needed only
to communicate one of the fourteen informational cues to be considered informative. The
content classification developed by the pioneering work of Resnik and Stern (1977) presents a
list of information cues. These include price, packaging or shape, quality, guarantees or
warrantees, performance, safety, components or contents, nutrition, availability, independent
research, special offers, company-sponsored research, taste and new ideas.

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Resnik and Sterns List of Information Cues


Information
Cues
1

Price

Quality

Performance

Descriptions
cost of the product, value retention capability
objective evaluation of workmanship, engineering, durability,
excellence of materials, structure superiority, superiority of
personnel, attention to details, or special services
function of the product, how well does it do function of the
product, how well does it do

Components/
contents
Availability

Special offer

limited time non-price details

Taste

superiority of taste in test by a sample of potential customers

Nutrition

specific data of nutritional content

Packaging

package more desirable than alternatives

10

Guarantees/
warranties

post purchase assurance post purchase assurance

11

Safety

safety features

12
13
14

Independent
research
Company
research
New ideas

ingredients, composition, ancilliary items


place of purchase, available period, contact phone number

research done by independent research firm


research done by advertiser
new product percepts

Source : Resnik and Stern (1977).

Lin (1993) and Lin and Salwen (1995) reclassified the information cues into rational
appeal (price, quality, performance, safety and guarantees and warranties) and emotional
appeal (taste, packaging and new ideas). An advertisement categorized informative if it
contains some information, whereas emotional ad contains less information about the product
and just display the performance or quality of the product claims than informative advertising.
Methods
Using quantitative content analysis, this research collected data from several popular
tv programs targeted to children. The tv shows selected purposively based on pre-research
survey to 80 elementary students in Semarang to identify most watched tv shows among
children respondents. The programs are: (1) Spongebob SquarePants- (2) Si Bolang (3) Teddy
Boy, (4) Tukang Bubur Naik Haji. The shows were recorded via video home system (VHS)
during a week (2-8 June 2014). After coded the frequency of ads in the show, we merely
analyzed the ads and advertisements that were repeatedly shown were considered as one
sample point only. Four people coded the data. Inter-coder reliability was measured using
Scotts Pi Coefficient and the result ranges from 0.62 to 0.91 of which interpreted as having
adequate reliability.

3.

4.

Results and Discussion


The total sample of this research is 1442 advertisings which consists of 283 different
advertisings. Hereabout the description of the findings.
Ads Duration and Frequency

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Regarding duration and frequency of advertising, including the number of commercial


breakbreak between the show displaying ads), duration of each commercial break, number
of ads broadcasted in the commercial break, total duration of ads in the show and percentage
of ads in the show are describe in the table below:
Tabel 1: Ads Frequency and Duration
number of ads
per
Total duration Percentage of
commercial
of ads
ads in the show
break

Total duration
of the show

times of
commercial
break

Spongebob
Squarepant

60 min

3-6 min

8-14 ads

21-27 min

40%

Si Bolang

30 min

4-5 min

10-14 ads

8-12 min

29%

Teddy Boy

30 min

4-7 min

13-16 ads

8-12 min

30%

Tukang Bubur
Naik Haji

60 min

6-10 min

21-28 ads

21-25 min

38%

The commercial break duration vary from 3 to 10 minutes within the shows. In prime
time TV shows, the duration of commercial break can be longer, that is up to 7-8 minutes.
Differences in the duration determines the difference in the number of ads that aired once a
commercial break. On average, 10-15 ads played in each breaks, excluding the prime time
commercial breaks that televised 21-28 ads appearing in 6-10 minutes.
Product Category Advertised in Children Programs
The product category on childrens programs in this research classifies into three main
categories: children products targeting children as the primary target market;; product family
of products consumed by the family members, primarily targeting the mother or parents as the
Purchaser and to make children as influencers to consume; and adult product-targeting adults
and influencing children as their future market. The finding as described in the diagram 3.
50% ads advertised in children programs are children products primarily targeting children as
their market. While the rest 26% are family product and 24% are adult products.
Table 5. Produt Category Targeted to
Children in Children TV Shows
Jenis

Snack

12%

M ilk

15%

Instant Food

7%

Soft Drinks

5%

Candies

5%

Children TV Shows

4%

Ice Cream

4%

Fastfood Restaurant

1%

Toys

1%

Stationery

0%
54%

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Children products advertised on children programs found on this research is shown on


the left table 5. Only 54% ads advertised products that can be consumed by children. The
most advertised children products are snacksvarious light foods consumed directly by
children; instant foodsnoodles, cereal and others; instant drinksjuice, milk, fruits based
drinks and various packaged drinks; and candies. This finding shows products targeting
children that advertised in children tv shows are still dominated by food--drinks and snacks.
While the rest (only 5 %) is other product categoriestv show, toys and stationary.
Regarding products ranking on the most advertised products on children programs,
research findings showed adult and family products; ie. adult body care products. Display
frequency for this product category is the highest. Adult body care products; such as
cosmetics, deodorant and hair treatment and household products, e.g. home care and cooking
seasonings are advertised quite intensively during children programs. The overall products
ranking advertised on children programs are shown on the right table 4. While in the table we
also notice there is 1% political advertising in children tv programs. This due to the timing of
data collection came along with political campaign period.

Table 4. Overall Product Categories Advertised in


Children TV Shows
No

Product Category

Adult body treatment

187

16%

Children Milk

173

15%

Snack

136

12%

Instant Food

82

7%

Groceries

80

7%

Children Body Treatment

61

5%

Soft Drink

60

5%

Candies

52

5%

Drugs

51

4%

10 Other Children TV Shows

48

4%

11 Ice Cream

42

4%

12 Teenage/Adult TV Show

41

4%

13 Provider Cellular

35

3%

14 Others

20

2%

15 Fastfood Restaurants

14

1%

16 Children Drugs

13

1%

17 Politics

13

1%

18 Seasonings

12

1%

19 Adult Milk

10

1%

20 Toys

1%

21 Stationary

0%

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Information Contents on Advertising


Resnik and Stern (1977) described that information on an advertising consists of:
price, quality, performance/capability, components or ingredients, usage manuals, special
offering, taste, nutrition, packaging information and product guarantee, product safety,
independent research findings related to products, research on product and new ideas.
Reseach on advertising of 283 various products shown on children programs found
that the advertising contain some information components as shown on the left table. Based
on the left table, the most displayed information on advertising is product quality: 48%. Even,
14% of the advertising shows merely product qualityone type of information. Products
which shows merely quality information are: Berry Good, Big Babol, Big Cola, Choki-choki,
Pop mie and etc. Besides quality, information on product performance is shown intensively:
43%. Even, 12% of the advertising shows merely one type of information on product
performance: Close up, Dove Facial Foam, Head & Shoulders and other body care products.
Based on samples gathered during research, there are not any advertising showing information
about guarantee and product safety, even though those information are highly significant to
product consumption. Similar to information on internal or external research findings on
certain product consumption, only 2% of the advertising shows.
Advertising is a paid communication format to direct its viewers attention and
concentration toward a certain proportion (Lurry, 2008:23). The left table shows that majority
of advertising on children emphasize on product abstract quality and performancebased on
subjective claimcompared to providing guarantee, security and factual data based on
research findings.

Advertising has the ability to sell abstract ideas, start practical concept of a product
and certain cultural values. An advertising delivers more than just a persuasion to buy a
product, moreover it manages to direct formation of values on what should be grasped on
social or political life. Both in the sense of directing viewers to consume the product. The
research findings show that ideal values on what is good in our society shifts more on the
judgment of product quality and performance, even though not clearly showing product safety
information.
Related to advertising quantity of information, the research findings as displayed on
next table 6 show that most advertising (83%) contains only 1-2 information. Advertising
with less information is categorized as emotional advertising. Merely 3% of the advertising
contain more information.

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Tabel 6. Percentage of Information


Content in Ads
Information

Quality
Performance
Nutrition
Taste/Varian
Place/Period of Buying
Price
Components/ contents
Special Offer
Packaging
Company research
Independent research
New Ideas
Guarantee
Safety

48%
43%
19%
17%
15%
8%
8%
4%
4%
2%
2%
1%
0%
0%

This finding fits to research by Crask and Laskey (1990). Almost all advertising in this
research, especially those belong to categories of personal need, households, and foods are
informative. For example, milk product shows up to five types of information on its
advertising. The information is used more to anchor the benefits and advances among
competitors than provide specific personality on the product.
Some previous research finding indicated that information quantity of advertising
depends on media characteristics and product category. Resnik finds that advertising
displayed on afternoon is more informative compared to advertising on morning or noon.
(Resnik & Stern, 1991)
While this research shows that advertising during non prime time is more informative
compared to prime time. This is due to number of advertising and its duration managed to be
displayed.
Recommendation
This study found that the duration of the ad that aired in childrens programs
comparatively high. Based on Undang Undang Penyiaran No. 32 thn. 2002, article 46 about
advertising broadcasting, paragraph 8, it is mentioned: the highest proportion of commercial
advertisements for private broadcast institution is 20%, while for public broadcast institution
is 15% at most compared to total duration. This finding indicates the percentage of ads
duration is ranging from 29% to 40% of total duration of the show. This figure far exceeds the
standards set by Indonesian Broadcasting Commission (KPI) that is 20% maximum.
In Undang Undang Penyiaran is also states that broadcasting commercial
advertisements aired on the broadcast programs for children must adhere to the broadcast
standard for children. While the study showed 24% of the ads that aired in the childrens show
is in the form of adult products category. Such data could be a consideration for KPI to curb
the commercial broadcasting so its not only feasible, but also safe for children.

131

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Journal of Advertising Research, 22(2), 61-70.
Anderson, Simon et al. 2011.Information Content of Advertising; Theory and Empirical
Evidence. Journal of Marketing.. p. 1-25
Bilmolt Tammo, H.A & Claassen Wilma. 1998. Childrens Understanding of TV Advertising
: Effects of Age, Gender and Parental Influence. Journal of Consumer Policy 21: Hal.
171-194
Calvert, Sandra & Wilson, Barbara J. 2008. The Handbook, Media and Development. USA:
Blackwell Publishing
Dowling, G. 1980. Information content in U.S. and Australian television advertising. Journal
of Marketing, 44(3), 34-37.
Frazer, C. (1983). Creative strategy: A management perspective. Journal of Advertising,
12(4), 36-41.
Gunn, Jeanne Brooks & Donahue, Elisabeth Hirschhorn. 2008. Introducing the Isuue. Journal
of The future of Children Vol.18/No.1/Spring 2008. P.3-10
Kirkorian, Heather L Et Al. 2008. Media and Young Childrens learning. Journal of The
Future of Children. Vol.18/No.1/Spring 2008. P.39-60
MccDermott et al. 2008. A Review of The Effects, Uses and Interpretations of Commercial
Messages and Activities by Children. Final Report: Univeristy of Stirling
Palmer, Edward L, Young, Brian M. 2003. The faces of Televisual Media; Teaching,
Violence, Selling to Children, 2nd Ed. London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publisher.
Resnik, A. J. & B.L. Stern. 1977. An Analysis of Information Content in Television
Advertising. Journal of Marketing. 41. p. 50-53
Sliburyte, Laimona. 2009. Children and Advertising: issues in Consumer Socialization
Process. World Academy of Science, Enginering and Technology Proceeding. P.
1618-1622
Ulfa, Nurist Surayya. 2013. Mengidentifikasi Pemrosesan Informasi Komersial di Televisi
Pada Anak-anak. Unpublished research.
Vina D. Myra & Valmoria, Agatep. 2007. Product Categories And Information Content
Of Television Advertisements In The Philippines. Philippine Management Review:
2007, Vol. 14, 145-165.
Wright Peter, Friedstad Marian, & Boush, David M. 2008. The Development of Marketplace
Persuasion Knowledge in Children, Adolescents and Young Adults. Journal of
American Marketing Association Vo.24 (2) Fall (2005) P. 222-233

132

GADGET : WHAT AND HOW ?


INDONESIAN CHILDRENS PERSPECTIVES ON GADGETS
Endah Silawati, Hj. Setyaningsih Rachmania,
Prodi PGPAUD Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia, Kampus Cibiru
endah.silawati@gmail.com
niarachmania2768@gmail.com
ABSTRACT
This article descibes the childrens perspectives of gadgets hardware and program. This
description is a part of the results from the study based on the fact that digital era has been
mushroomed around the world and also in Indonesia. The uses of the gadgets are not just for
teens and adults but also for children. Unfortunatelly, not all gadgets are suitable with the
eastern characters. Most of them have program that shows pornography and violence. The
childrens perspectives will be used as the basis in developing gadgets as learning media and
development especially for cognitive ability. The qualitative approaches is used in this study.
Interview and questionaire are used as data collection techniques. Data of the study is
analysed based on the process of data reduction and also coding.So it can be concluded in the
same category and theme. Laboratory kindergarten of UPI Cibiru was the place to conduct the
study decause it is related with the implemented curriculum. The result of study showed that
100% children knew computer, laptop, mobile phones, camera, TV, tablet/ipad, 34% children
knew handycam, and 17% children knew MP3 and printer. Then, 100% watched TV, 85%
often played computer, Mobile phones dan tablet, , and 50% played laptop and camera.
Among many programs in gadgets, all of the children like competitive and ranked games. For
boys tend to like games which have good and bad characters shown in battle like program
such as subway surfer and temple run, while the girls tend to participate in games which have
micro role playing such as making pizza, sushi, bakery, beauty parlor and so on. All of the
children knew the function of the gadgets by looking at how the adult used them and they can
also used them appropriately. It is suggested to creator of the gadget program to develop
program which have educative and eastern characters but still interesting and chalenging to be
played.
Key words : gadget, childrens perspectives, hard ware, program .

INTRODUCTION
From birth, children are immersed in a media rich world (Rideout et al. 2003; Knobel
2005; Marsh 2005, 2006 in in Hayes, Taylor & Wheway: 2006)). In addition, media with high
technology has developed rapidly around the world. This can also be felt in Indonesia. In less
than 2 decades, Indonesia had the impact of the development of the technology. In the
globalization era, not just the experts in technology who are influenced but also by the
society. Technology is not considered to be a luxurious applications anymore and the access
to get it can be done by the people everywhere. Gadget users are not limited for adults who
are able to buy or use them anymore but teenagers and even children are who are still in the
early ages are interested in using the gadgets. The sophistication of using gadget do not
limit them to follow the trend.
In some aspects, technology is benefit to be used as learning media, but in other ways,
they have linitation also. According to Hayes et all (2006) gadget can help children in

133

developing their conceptual skills (cognitive). In addition it is also playing media which is
very fun and develop creativity. By playing gadget, children also can explore some
comunicative expression, develop some skills, such as: language, mathematics, solving
problem and scientific mind that are usefull for them in the future. Besides that, the positive
side of gadget as learning media are:
1) Children can control their own learning
2) Giving variety of learning activities
3) Develop individual thinking skills to be logical and systematic.
While the limitation of gadgets as learning media are:
1) Just effective to be used in developing cognitive and intellectual skills.
2) Individual using makes children to be less interaction in society
3) Gadget only provid virtual interacton
4) Can have radiation effect
5) regular useof gadget can give negative effect for childrens eyes
The growth of a child is an amazing thing. The development of the brain of the early
childhood can reach up to 80% so that this period is the most important phase in the growing
process of a child. This is also known as the golden age period where the growing process of a
child must reach its maximum level and positive stimulant must be given. It can be said that if
a child does not have enough attention and education, the child will not have enough
preparation to enter the next stage of the education and life.
In consequence, children should be educated based on their learning style. According to
Suyanto (2005) the learning process for the young learners must be done through playing.
P lay has a key role in promoting exploration and mastery, exercising muscles and the mind,
and relating to other people (Schaefer et all, 2001). Gadgets, as one of the technological
product can facilitate this proces of learning. For instance, by providing varieties of games or
play. Hurlock (Abidin, 2009) called it as a passive play. Children, these days, grow and
develop in a very fast development. They can communicate and acess to various information
from the small gadgets they have.
The aim of the process of learning gadgets for the young learners is only limited to give
comprehension and prepare them to accept the advancement of technology. Be prepared to
adapt with various technological changes will influence the future life. The correct age for the
young learners to learn gadgets is between 3-4 years old (Hayes, et all ,2006).
At the moment, many people doubted the effectiveness of gadgets in the process of
learning for the young learners when they play gadgets. They tend to passive in motoric. This
is contrary with the the characteristics of the children who should be active and creative as
learners. But as the era of technology, children are forced to know gadgets and technology.
Therefore, as teachers for the young learners, we should be creative and we have to think hard
on how to use the technology so that it will usefull for the development of the young learners.
The time management of using gadgets for the young learners, is most suggested 1-2
hours per day. Playing with classmates must also be concerned because as social being,
human needs other people.
In maximizing the positive effect of gadget as learning media, the first step that we
should do is to investigate their perspective of gadget. Therefore this study is focused on
getting the perspectives views from the children, especially the Indonesia children about the
use of gadgets. This study can also be hoped to be the basic development of gadget as
learning media.

134

METHODS
This study uses mix method in order to apply positive side of qualitative and quantitative
method (Creswell, 2009). Qualitative approach with descriptive method is used to identify
childrens perspectives on gadgets (hardware and program). While quantitative approach by
experiment method with one group pre-test and post-test design is used in identifying the uses
of gadget as learning media to enhance vocabulary skills. In this article, the data presented are
only focus on the perspectives of the children with qualitative approach. In addition, it is
analyzed by Miles and Huberman data analisis technique (Arikunto, 2002).
In gathering the data, some techniques were used such as interview and quesionare. In the
interview, the children were asked some open ended questions about kinds of gadgets. The
questions covered some points, which are: 1) the functions of gadgets, 2) games that they
usually play, 3) intensity of playing gadgets, 4) person who accompanied them in playing
gadget, 5) the gadgets program that they like, 6) the place where they usually play gadget, 7)
the way they play gadget. While the quesionares was fullfiled by the parents with the same
questions.
The subjects were students of TK Laboratorium UPI Kampus Cibiru and the sample were
using 10 students randomly. It is assumed that all the sample have the same characteristics of
age and language skills.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
In collecting the data of childrens perspectives on gadget, 7 questions have been asked,
which were: 1) the function of gadgets, 2) games that they usually played, 3) intensity of
playing gadgets, 4) person who accompanied them in playing gadget, 5) the gadgets program
that they liked, 6) the place where they usually played gadget, and 7) the way they played
gadget. The interview was taped and transcribed in order to analize the data.
First question that was asked to the children was about their knowledge of the kinds of
gadgets. They were asked whether they know 12 kinds of gadgets, which are: computer,
laptop, mobile phones, camera, TV, tablet/ipad, MP, printer, handycam, netbook, X-box, ereader. The result of study showed that 100% children knew computer, laptop, mobile phones,
camera, TV, 34% children knew handycam tablet/ipad, and 17% children knew MP3 and
printer. None of them knew netbook, X-box and e-reader. They said that they do not know the
netbook because in Indonesia, it is also usually called as laptop. They are unfamiliar with Xbox and e-reader, because in Indonesia that kinds of gadgets is rarely used. The data is
described in the figure below:

Figure 1. Childrens knowledge on kinds of gadgets. Column 1: computer, laptop, mobile


phones, camera, TV, tablet/ipad, column 2: handycam, column 3: children knew MP3 and
printer and column 4: netbook, X-box, e-reader

135

The second question was about the gadget that they usually played. From the data
gathered, it can be concluded that100% watch TV, 85% of the children tend to play computer,
mobile phones dan tablet that other gadget, and 50% play laptop and camera. It can be
assumed in this findings, that most of the family in Indonesia have TV and computer in their
home, and almost all the family members have mobile phones. While not all the children
often play laptop because their parents usually left them to work since it is personal tools and
related to parents jobs. They are worried if the children will damage it. The children also
rarely use camera because not all family have this gadget, since its function can be replaced
by mobile phones.
The next question was about the intensity of playing gadget. Because the children are still
in the process of comprehending the time concept, the interviewer helped them in giving the
answer by describing the time based on their perspectives. The result showed that most of the
children usually played gadget between 1-2 hours a day.
Fourth question was about person/people that played gadget with the children. From their
answers, all of them usually played it with their parents, other family members or alone and
rarely with their friends. Because gadget is a personal tool, they tend to love to play it alone.
Fifth question was about gadgets programs. Among many programs in gadget, all of the
children like competitive and ranked games. Boys tend to like games which have good and
bad characters shown in battle like program such as subway surfer and temple run, while the
girls tend to participate in games which have micro role playing such as making pizza, sushi,
bakery, beauty parlor and so on.
Sixth and last question was about the place where the children play gadget and the function
of gadget. From the interview it was found that they usually played it at home. While about
the function, all of the children knew the functions of the gadgets by looking at how the adult
used them. In addition they can also used them appropriately.
From the results of study above, it can be concluded that all of the children have been
engaged in gadget and many were already competent with a range of technologies. This
findings is suitable with statement proposed by Marsh (2005 in Hayes et all: 2006) that
preschool children are engaged in a range of complex practices in accessing websites, using
interactive games on digital and satellite television, playing with mobile phones and using
games consoles, such as PlayStation.
Most of the children perceived gadget from its shapes. For example, when they were asked
what is computer?, most of them stated it as a box with some images in it. Their perspective
is still in concrete point of view based on what they see and hear, not in the function,
eventhough they know it. This finding related to the cognitive development of the children
stated by Peaget (Yusuf, 2002) that children in this age (5 years old) still in the phase of pre
operational with one of its characteristic is that their intelligence is still limited by their
perspective of what they have seen in one dimension and at the same time.
The tendency to choose the program is influenced by the social culture context, gender and
playing development. All of the children like competitive and ranked games. They are
unintrested and feel bored when played uncompetitive game. This finding is related to
microgenesis playing development which assumed that children change their playing period
from one game to another in the short time (Abidin, 2009). In addition, Vygotsky also stated
that scafolding should be suitable with their Zone Proximal Development. Therefore, the
games should be chalenging but not difficult. Ranked/leveled games are suitable with that
assumtions, because they can play challenging games appropriately with their ability.
In Indonesia, most families are muslims. In their values, gender awareness are done in
early years. In addition, Indonesian culture also has perspective that boys should be strong,

136

active and play phisical or war game, while girls should be play more passive. Those values
and perspectives affect the tendention of game selection. Boys tend to like games which have
good and bad characters shown in battle like program such as subway surfer and temple
run), while the girls tend to participate in games which have micro role such as pizza
frenzy.
CONCLUTION
Nowdays, from birth, children are immersed in a media rich world (Rideout et al. 2003;
Knobel 2005; Marsh 2005, 2006 in Hayes et all, 2006). They also connected to technology
media and have their own perspectives on it. Their perspectives is important in order to make
those tools give positive effect for their development. The result of study showed that 100%
children knew computer, laptop, mobile phones, camera, TV, tablet/ipad, 17% children knew
MP3 and printer, and 34% children knew handycam. Then, 85% often played computer,
Mobile phones dan tablet, 100% watched TV, and 50% played laptop and camera. Among
many programs in gadget, all of the children like competitive and ranked games. For boys
tend to like games which have good and bad characters shown in battle like program such as
subway surfer and temple run, while the girls tend to participate in games which have micro
role playing such as making pizza, sushi, bakery, beauty parlor and so on. All of the children
knew the fuction of the gadget by looking at how the adult used them and they can also used
them appropriately. It is suggested to creator of the gadget program to develop program which
have educative and eastern characters but still interesting and chalenging to be played.
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Schaefer, Charles. Reid, Steven. Archer, Jill. Bay-Hinizh, April. et all (2001). Game Play.
Canada: John Wiley & Sons Inc
Suyanto, Slamet (2005). Dasar-Dasar Pendidikan Anak Usia Dini. Yogyakarta: Hikayat

137

APPLICATION SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT STATISTICS PROCESSING WITH


VBA AND INSTRUCTIONAL MEDIA BRANCHING LINEAR
Researcher:
Rita Mariyana, M.Pd (Chairman)1
ritamariyana@upi.edu
Asep Deni Gustiana, M.Pd (Member)2
Asden84@gmail.com
This study aims to develop to improve the quality of learning by making statistical data
processing tools are easy to understand, easy to use by following the flow and statistical
methods so that students can quickly perform data processing in both subjects for task
completion and the completion of an essay, a thesis or a dissertation. To describe the results
of a study to improve the quality of learning with this statistical tool research uses descriptive
method, the purposive sampling technique to students taking statistics courses in early
childhood teacher education study program Indonesia University of Education. Data from the
study, questionnaires, interviews, observation and documentary studies analyzed by
quantitative and qualitative techniques. The final product of this study is to improve the
quality of products tools of statistical data processing and statistical learning media courses
are quickly understood and easily used not only for Early Childhood Education students but
for students taking a statistics course.
Keywords: Tools, Learning Media, Linear Branching, Data Processing, Statistics
Background
The development and progress of education is strongly influenced by the development of
science and technology. The emergence of a wide range of technology product can be
harnessed and used in the field of education, as well as providing opportunities to the teachers
and to improve the quality of education through improved teaching and learning process. The
computer as a medium for learning with software that is programmed properly in accordance
with the principles of learning is an appropriate means to assist teachers in teaching-learning
process. As noted by Nana Sudjana and Ahmad Riva'i: "The subject matter, feedback,
illustrations, summaries, and questions packed into a package of learning programs, so as to
create educational interaction between students and the learning package individually"3
Learning is a complex process that occurs in everyone and lasts a lifetime. The
change of behavior in the self-learner is a sign someone has done a study on the process
itself, both changes that are knowledge (cognitive) and skills (psychomotor) or related to
values and attitudes (affective). Effective learning process must start from direct
experience/concrete and then leads to a more abstract experience. Verbal information tends to
be boring. With the media, the messages that are abstract subjects can be visualized, so that
students are interested in what they learn. The taste of this interest will impact the growth of
motivation that will directly improve student learning outcomes. Computer-based learning
programs offer a dynamic learning program that is assumed to be better. With computerbased learning package models are packed with a good tutorial is expected to result in the
learning process better with indicators of improved student learning outcomes.
1
2

Rita Mariyana, Lecturer Indonesia University of Education.


Asep Deni Gustiana, Lecturer Indonesia University of Education.

Nana Sudjana, Ahmad Rivai. Teknologi Pengajaran. Sinar Baru dan Lembaga Penelitian IKIP
Bandung : 1989. Hal 137.
3

138

Limitation and Problem Formulation


In this study the use of instructional media in the form of a computer application used
to explain the statistics lecture material is packaged in an application tool VBA-based
statistical data processing and learning tool tutorial type branching models (linear branching).
Related to the above, it is a common problem in this study is formulated as follows: "What is
the effect of the application of statistical data processing tools and media-based learning
VBA computer-based tutorial-type branching models (linear branching) to improve learning
outcomes statistics course".
To measure differences in the effect of instructional media application processing aids
VBA-based statistical data and computer-based learning programs tutorial-type branching
linear models is to compare the scores of students learning outcomes using the application
program aids VBA-based statistical data processing and computer-based models of learning
media tutorials type of branching (branching linear), between before treated with post-treated.
Based on the identification by the researchers, to better guide the present study, there
is a restriction problem on the following matters:
1. The student as the research object. More specifically, the study was limited in early
childhood teacher education students who took a statistics course.
2. The application program aids VBA-based statistical data processing and computer-based
instructional media to be tested is the model of tutorial-type branching (branching) and
the type of straight (linear) which is a product of the researcher.
3. The results of the study measured the cognitive aspects of learning outcomes C1 level
(knowledge), C2 (understanding) and C3 (application)
4. Motivation to learn is measured is how much attention and interest of students to
computer-based learning programs to help their understanding of the course material
More specifically, the research problem is formulated as follows:
How does the application program aids VBA-based statistical data processing and computerbased instructional media type of branching (branching) and the type of straight (linear) to
increase student learning outcomes in the cognitive aspects of C1 (knowledge), C2
(understanding), and C3 (application) ?
In general, this study aims to determine the effect of application of statistical tools and
models of computer-based instructional media tutorial type branching (branching) and the
type of straight (linear) to the improvement of learning outcomes and learning motivation of
students in the eye Statistics courses in early childhood teacher education program of study.
Method
The method used in this study was a quasi-experimental method, which is one of the
main characteristics of this method is not performed random assignment, but rather use an
existing group of subjects.4

Mohammad Ali. Strategi Penelitian Pendidikan. 1993. Angkasa : Bandung. Hal 145.

139

Figure 1. Road Map Research


The study was conducted on the student, the experimental group using statistical tools
and application media computer-based learning programs (branching) and the type of straight
(linear).
TABLE 1.
TREATMENT OF EACH VARIABLE IN RESEARCH

Defendant Variable (y)


learning outcomes (Y1)

Independent Variable (x)


Computer-Based Learning Program, application program
tools of statistical data processing based VBA
X1

The design used in this research is the design of pre-test post-test using the experimental
groups without random assignment. The research design can be seen in Table 2.
TABLE 2
RESEARCH DESIGN
GROUP
A

PRE-TEST TREATMENT
Y1
X1

POS-TEST
Y2

Remarks:
A : The experimental group
Y1: pretest experimental group
Y2: Posttest experimental group
X1: The treatment for the experimental group
In the design of this study, subjects were taken in the form of a class without random
assignment. Do not do this due to the random assignment is not possible to change the class
researchers who have been there before, to determine the subject of research into
140

experimental groups. Then on the consideration that the groups in a class are usually already
established, then if researchers form new groups feared would cause damage to the nature of
the atmosphere of the class. On the basis of this consideration a group of researchers using
existing classes and to experiment with these groups with quasi-experimental methods.
The steps undertaken in the use of quasi-experimental design in this study are as follows:
1. Determine the experimental group (A)
2. To the experimental group was given a pre-test (Y1)
3. Providing treatment in the form of the use of statistical tools application modifications
and types of computer-based learning program branching (branching) (X1)
4. To the experimental group was given a post-test (Y3) to determine the ability of the end
or the result of learning
5. Testing equality of pre-test results and the experimental group post-test results of the
experimental group.
6. After conducting experiments and post-test questionnaire given to the experimental group
to determine differences in the influence of the program on student learning
7. scoring against any motivation questionnaire answers according to answer key
8. Cultivate questionnaire results for the experimental group.
Benefits Research
1. Benefits for Education Technology Disciplines
This study is expected to be material and aids learning media especially statistics course.
Application of this statistical tool can be the solution, especially for statistical data
processing technology field of education, especially in maximizing the use of computer
facilities in early childhood teacher education laboratory computer.
2. Benefits and Workforce Education Lecturer
As a matter of information for educators as well as those who pay attention to the
implementation and development of learning programs that use computers to assist in the
teaching-learning process at all levels of educational institutions.
3. Benefits for Students
The results of research into the use and application of statistical tools of computer-based
instructional media program branching and linear model of this tutorial is expected to be
used to solve problems in education and helping statistical data processing for thesis.
4. Benefits for Other Researchers
For other researchers who are interested to study about the use of statistical tools and the
application of instructional media. The results of this study can be used as input and
preliminary studies to understand the use of computers in the manufacture of media with
different variables and more problems.
5. Product Benefits for general research
The products produced in the form of statistical data processing tools can be used for
wider society not only to help data processing statistics for education alone but can be
used for other fields wider.

Subjects Research
Subjects in this study were students who took a statistics course in Early Childhood
Teacher Education Indonesia University of Education Bandung. The study population was
students taking statistics courses in Teacher Education of Early Childhood Program Indonesia
University of Education Bandung. Random sampling is a sampling technique that is done by
giving opportunities or opportunities to all members of the population to be sampled. Thus
obtained samples are expected a representative sample.
141

System Design and Application Flowchart


Here is a diagram of the system design VBA Excel statistical tools that have been developed:
Main Menu

Instrument Test
Validity
Reliability
Level of Difficulty
Distinguishing

Normality Homogeneity Test


Kolmogorov Smirnov Test
Skewness Kurtosis Test
Chi Squared Test
F-Max Homogeneity Test
Leveane Test

Correlation and Regression


Test
Pearson Correlation
Rank Spearman Correlation
Single Regression
Multiple Regression
One-Way Anova
Two Way Anova

Non Parametric Test


Wilcoxon Test
Mann Whitney Test
Friedman Test

Parametric Test
T-Paired Sample Test
T-Independent Sample Test
Z test

The image above displays a flowchart workflow application tool of statistical data
processing based Excel VBA. Beginning of test instruments, normality test, correlation, and
regression test the average difference both for parametric and non-parametric.
Evaluation, Implementation and Application Overview
Evaluation
1. Subject Test
As an instructional media development research activities, products must go through a
testing phase beforehand. The test is intended to obtain data that can be used to determine
the quality of the resulting product. The process of testing is done through two processes,
namely the expert test, and the test group.
2. Testing Expert
The test performed by a qualified expert data processing research. This stage is useful for
the evaluation of the data processing is different whether it is appropriate or the outcome
should be. Applications tested whether the presence or absence of irregularities logic.
3. Trials Group
Experiments conducted on a group of students who took the early childhood teacher
education courses Statistics. This procedure is useful for the assessment of whether the
application of statistical tools based on Excel VBA built to run well to calculate the results
of research.
4. Testing Instrument
142

Testing instrument in the development of research-based statistical tools data processing


excel VBA using a Likert Scale questionnaire instrument with four options. The review
conducted by the expert testing instruments of research.
5. Analysis of Test Results
Data analysis of the results obtained aims to determine the response to the development of
statistical tools based data processing Excel VBA that has been made. Questionnaires were
then analyzed using analysis approach Summated item scales of Likert Scale (Kothari,
2004: 83), in which the final score is obtained by using the formula:
From the scores of each of the questions, and then converted into the following
categories (Suharsimi, 2010: 192; Kothari, 2004: 85): 76% - 100% = very good, 51%
- 75% = good, 26% - 50% = not good , 0% - 25% = not good
Implementation
1. Software
OS Windows XP SP3 / Windows 7
Visual Basic Application of Excel MS Office 2010
2. Installation
To install this application program steps must be taken:
a. Copy the application program to the hard drive
b. Open the master file, it will display the password confirmation request. Select the menu
is read only.
c. Once the application program is open, save as and name with a user name that is the
subject, grade, and school name will be the subject of analysis of multiple-choice
items. This step is the last step in the installation.
Application overview
Main form
The main form in the application is a spreadsheet application where there is a title,
and the main menu of statistics, ranging from test instruments, test for normality,
correlation, regression and parametric tests and non-parametric tests.

Pictures of the main application form

143

Sub Main Form


Sub main form is a worksheet that displays menus that are more specific
calculations which we will choose what we will use to process statistical data.

Pictures Sub Form Test Instruments

Pictures Sub Form normality and homogeneity test

Sub Form Image Correlation and Regression

CLOSING
Application software development tools of statistical data processing with VBA and
linear branching instructional media created to assist teaching and learning statistics by
considering the ease and simplicity of the process so that learners can quickly implement.
Making an application designed to accept a variety of input and ideas to help students,
especially students of early childhood education to be easier to understand statistics.

144

This application was developed several objectives such as learning effectiveness and
efficiency of learning, innovative learning, motivate learners and independent learning to do.
To be able to be optimized, teaching materials can be tailored to the ability of learners.
REFERENCES
Jhon, Walkenbach, (2007). Excel VBA for Dummies. Indiana : Wiley Publishing
Rivai, Ahmad, Sudjana, Nana, (1989). Teknologi Pengajaran. Bandung: Sinar Baru dan
Lembaga Penelitian IKIP Bandung.
Santoso, Singgih (2002). Mengolah Data Statistik Secara Proposional. Jakarta : Elekmedia
Komputindo
Sudjana, (2005). Metode Statistika. Bandung : Tarsito
Suharsimi (1998). Prosedur Penelitian Suatu Pendekatan Praktek. Jakarta : Rineka Cipta

145

146

Parenting

148

PARENTING PERCEPTION ON EMPING MELINJOS WORKERS


TO THE 2-TO-3-YEAR-OLD CHILDREN IN BATANG REGENCY
Yubaedi Siron1, Nurul Shofiatin Zuhro2
Postgraduate Studies of State University of Jakarta
1
sironyubaedi91@gmail.com, 2nurulzuhro@gmail.com
ABSTRACT: The objective of this study is to describe and explain the parenting perception
on emping melinjos workers in the Batang Regency, Central Java. This study used
qualitative methods. Data were collected through observation, interviews, and documentation.
The data were analyzed by data reduction, data display, and research data verification. The
results showed that the perception of parents in looked after their children on 2-to-3 year olds
have many different types of parenting. Permissive parenting is the most often and dominant
which applied by emping Melinjos workers. Parents tend to let the children develops and
playing by itself. There are some parents have treated their children well and use authoritative
parenting but it rarely applied by emping Melinjos workers. Some parents more often use
authoritarian parenting when the price of emping melinjo is raising on the market. Parents will
asked their children to do other activities they like, in other word the parents would have a
longer time to focused on their work.
Keywords: Parenting perception, parenting, emping Melinjo workers, children 2-3-year-olds.
INTRODUCTION
Children development at age 2-3 depend on their parents role. The good parenting on
this step will affected in the next life steps. Children at age 2-3 should get appropriate
parenting from their parent during that period of age. Conditions and development of 2-to-3year-olds children has an important role as foundation of development for the next life
stages.
The policy of the Republic of Indonesia No. 4 of 1979 on Child Welfare chapter 9
states that the parents takes responsibility to create the welfare of children spiritually,
physically and socially.
Hill, Waldfogel, Brooks, Gunn, & Hann on Papalia and Feldman (2014: 218-219) cites
the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) research to 6144 children whom the
mother worked full-time in the early birth of infant are more likely to showed negative
results on cognitive ability and behavior at age 3 to 8 years than children whom the mother
worked part-time or not working at all during the early birth. In that conditions, children
which had bad circumtances family showed less negative impact on cognitive rather than the
child with the good one. The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development
(NICHD) had 900 longitudinal children studies that stated when a mother works at early birth
of infant, it would have negative impacts on children's cognitive development from age 15
months to 3 years old if the mother works for 30 hours or more per week.
The problem is that the several society have not been giving their best attention to their
child in aged 2-3 years yet. Though that age is a very critical period in child development,
physical, motor, cognitive, language, social, emotional, and moral values.
Emping Melinjos worker cases in Batang on emping Melinjo cluster centers is also
worrying. The majority of parents of children aged 2-3 years prefer to do fulltime job as
emping melinjo worker. In fact, age of 2-3 years is vulnerable period that need intensive care
to support child development.

149

Emping Melinjo (Melinjo chips) snack is the kind of traditional chips made from
Melinjo seed (Gnetum gnemon). There are several type of emping melinjos product. Emping
Melinjo is traditional home industry. The worker processed the seed into chips in their home
with traditional tools or kits (e.g. pethik (hammer) and tatakan (made from stone)).
In the regencyof Batang, there are few numbers of early childhood cere centers that
serve 2-to-3-year-old children needs. In the regency there are 19 ECE services for 2-to-3year-old are still centralized in the city (9 ECE services for 2-to-3-year-old in the district of
Batang, 2 in the district of Limpung, 2 in the district of Bawang, 1 ECE services for 2-to-3year-old in District of Gringsing, Subah, Reban, and Warung Asem).
In fact, most of the emping Melinjos workers scattered in some citysides, far from the
center of town/district which has ECE care centers. The ECEs service for 2-to-3-year-old
also spend a large costs that the emping melinjos workers can not sustain. It becomes
interesting studies to examined about parenting perceptions to emping melinjos workers,
and how emping melinjos workers would raise their 2-to-3-year-old children with limited
costs to access appropriate educations. The implication is it can be used as a reference for
local government to creat educational policy for the children of emping melinjos workers.
Parenting Perception
Stenberg (2009: 81) stated perception occurs as environmental objects impart the
structure of the informational medium that ultimately impinges on sensory receptors, leading
to internal object identification.
Perception is a cognitive process to give meaning to the stimulus of the environment
that can be captured through the senses (Sigit, 2003: 17).
Perception is one of the psychological factors that contribute substantially to the
participation of parents in early childhood education. In looking at the same event object,
which is obtained by a person's understanding may be different from others because they
have a different perception.
Perceptions of parents of early childhood education is no direct connection through the
senses of sight and hearing, and no interference interpretations and thoughts. Parents perceive
early childhood education with a sedentary position, so it is always the same and stable in its
position.
Hangestiningsih (2008: 334) stated that the way parents develops their perception of
early childhood education is determined by the condition of internal or personal
characteristics. This condition can be categorized as internal needs, attitudes, motivations,
expectations, past experiences, personality, and education. Parental perceptions of early
childhood education has certain characteristics. The most prominent characteristics of the
parents are usually the most decisive perception formed. The current situation also affects the
perception of the parents' perceptions about early childhood education was formed.
Parenting on Early Childhood
Harvard Family Research Project (2006: 2) stated that parenting was the family
involvement process that includes the attitudes, values, and practices of parents in raising
young children. Nurturing, warm, and responsive parentchild relationships and parental
participation in child-centered activities relate to positive learning outcomes in early
childhood.
Family is an informal education that is essential for children. The integrity of a
family, especially parent were needed by the children. Parent role strove to help the

150

children to internalize the moral values, to be recognized and understood, precipitated, and
personalized in children. ( Fahrudin, 2011: 135).
Children at 2-3-year-olds
Jacobsen, H., Moe, V., Ivarson, T., Wentzel-Larsen, T. Smith, L. (2013: 666) stated
that research has underscored the importance of early years development, nurturing
caregiving environments on brain development, and the importance of positive brainenvironment inter-action during the first 2 years of life also been documented by research
on foster care and adoption.
Children are active learner for each aspect of their development. They need constant
experiences to help them refine emerging social, cognitive, physical and language
competencies. Improved large and fine motor control allows them to become more
independent. They need indoor and outdoor play activities that will encourage practice and
enjoyment of their motor skills. (Wortham, 2006: 94).
METHODS
Subject on this study is 35 people whose children are at 2-to-3-year-old. Subject
recruited in snowball sampling technique.
Data gathering will be stopped if the data were saturated. The technique of collecting
data through observation, interview and documentation. The interviews were audio-recorded
with the permission of the interviewees. The participants were encouraged to follow issues
and angles of particular interest to them.
The examination technique used is triangulation of data sources. Data were taken for 5
months. December 2013-February 2014 and June-July 2014 Analysis of the data used in this
study using data reduction, data presentation, and drawing conclusions and verification.
The interviews were transcribed verbatim in Javanesse language and translated into
English so that the authors could discuss the interview data together to examine and compare
the data within and across the categories to finalize themes. The transcriptions and the
translations of interviews were then returned to the interviewees to ensure that the original
and translated transcripts accurately expressed their views.
The study focused on several villages in the district Limpung. Limpung district serve as
a focus because of the biggest centers in the district of Batang emping melinjo, so the icon is
in the district town dubbed as "Limpung as a Emping's City" with the Emping melinjo
worker as a mascot sculpture at the city central.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Based on observastion, rating scale, and interviews about parenting perception on
emping melinjos worker to their 2-to-3-year-old children, found that perceptions of
parenting in the emping melinjo workers are varied. Permissive parenting is most frequently
applied by emping Melinjo workers. Parents not taking care about children activitiesa, what
they do, what they will, how they behave, to whom they socialized, why they choose
somethind and where their children were playing, and when the children got appropriate time
to do their certain activities. For the emping Melinjos worker as parents, their work
productivity will increased if there were no any disturbance from family members, especially
their children. So they would let their children do anything with less parents control.
Children were left to play alone or in pairs of group, as a play on the ground, playing
with their parents working kits, learned to eat by themselves with less control and grew on
thier own. Children experimented himself with his surroundings e.g playing in sanitary line,

151

dusty yard, etc. As performed by NGS-one of respondent- to her daughter, she left her
daughter play with no time limitation and left her exploring the garden near his home by
herself. Even if she did not want to have shower when she had her shower time in the
morning, NGS would let her daughter and not persuaded her to have shower.
NGS said: Nyong arep ngedusi nek awan bae sekalian kotore. Palingan, si bocah
angel nek dikon adus.
...I will have shower her in afternoon as she got her body dirty after play whole day.
Guess she would not want to shower when she has her playing time in the morning...
On the other hand, in terms of snacking time, parents were become more authoritarian
and not allow the child to got their will. As performed by MK-the other respondent- to her
son in buying snack peddlers. MK would not buy her son snack he want due her familys bad
economic circumtances.
MK said:..Tak jaraken ben nangis nek njaluk jajan pas nang umah ora ana duwit.
... I left him crying when he asked for snacks because I have no money...
BKB team on BKKBN (2013) stated that parents do not set boundaries of behavior and
let the child do things according to his own desires. Children who have permissive parenting
type will grow as unconfindent children, likes to hurt others, selfish, not self-sufficient and
less responsible.
Parents with authoritarian parenting type were too force their will or rules. Started from
shower time, eating, and napping time. Toilet training treatment from them was also force the
children. Children will be bathed in certain time regardless of the children mood or wants.
Others were crying hysterically when they had their shower time and the parents still kept on
going, as same as meal time. Some parents forced their children to eat without considering
the child's appetite and pleasure. Parents would forced to feed their children though the child
cried or ran away to avoid eating.
BKB team on BKKBN (2013) stated that authoritarian parents force children to follow
what the parents want. Parents would make a variety of rules that must be obeyed by their
children without care about their childrens feeling or oppinion. If the child did not follow the
rules, the parents would tend to give harsh physical punishment.
Authoritarian parents are not comnforts the child and have a poor relationship with
them. This parenting style shows parents domination that the children should have to obey
the rules correctly, and doing whatever they said or advised. Children would feel depressed,
withdrawn and does not believe in parents.
In addition, children who experienced authoritarian parenting type would grow into a
less confident, aggressive and have difficulties in learning process at school and makes their
friends away.
Georgiou, Fousiani, Michaeli-des, Stavrinides (2013:69) found that authoritarian
parenting type was also positively associated with bullying and victimization at school. The
main contribution of the present study is the finding that vertical individualism significantly
mediates the relationship between authoritarian parental style and bullying propensity.
Some emping Melinjos workers also apply authoritative parenting. Children are given
the freedom to do a play activity. As with choosing toys, playground references, and
playmates. But the authoritative attitude of parents in this case is almost tangent to the
permissive attitude, which tends to make the omission in facilitating their children.
BKB team on BKKBN (2013) stated that authoritative parenting appreciate the interest
of the child, but also emphasizes the ability to follow social rules.
Parents appreciate the child's ability to make decisions, children's interests, opinions
and personality of the child. Parents which were authoritative, being warm in affection to the

152

child and the child but did not hesitate to expect good behavior, assertive in setting the rules
at home, and limit restrictions. They explain why the child should not do a thing.
However, with this style of parenting as parents can trapped in excessive compromise
with the child so that it can be manipulated by children.
Moreover, Gul and Noor (2010:69) found a positive correlation between authoritative
parenting style and self-esteem among stammering individuals. The result indicates a
negative correlation between authoritarian and permissive parenting styles and self-esteem
among stammering individuals.
Gullan, LeRoy, Boxer, and Mahoney (2014:303) said that positive parent-child
activities directly related to childrens internalizing and externalizing problems, and modified
the nature of the association between the parenting alliance and internalizing problems in
families. Interestingly, in families where parents engaged in fewer positive activities with
their children, a strong parenting alliance actually related to greater child internalizing
problems.
CONCLUSION
Based on the results and the discussion about parenting perception of the emping melinjos
worker, It can be conclude that the parenting perception were high variatively. Permissive
strategy were dominant in the emping melinjo worker.
In the other hand some parents also apply authoritative behavior to the children.
Furthermore, there are some parents also were being authoritarian in educating their 2-to-3year-old children.
REFERENCES
Fahruddin. (2011). Peran Keluarga Dalam Pendidikan Anak Usia Dini. Jurnal Pendidikan
Usia Dini. Volume 5 Nomor 1 April 2011. Halaman 135-156. ISSN 1693-1602
Georgiou, S. N., Fousiani, K., Michaelides, M., Stavrinides, P. (2013). Cultural value
orientation and authoritarian parenting as parameters of bullying and victimization at
school. International Journal of Psychology. Vol. 48 Issue 1, p69-78. 10p.
Gul, S., Noor, R. (2010). The Effect of Parenting Styles on Self-Esteem of Individuals
Suffering from Stammering. Journal of Social Sciences. Vol. 4 Issue 2, p69-78.
Gullan, R.L., LeRoy, M., Boxer, P., Mahoney, A. (2014). Interaction Between the Parenting
Alliance and ParentChild Activities in a Clinic-Referred Sample of 2 to 18-year-olds.
Journal Child and Family Studies 23:303311.
Hangestiningsih, Endang. (2008). Mengoptimalkan Partisipasi Orang Tua dalam Pendidikan
Anak Usia Dini. Wacana Akademika. Vol. 3 No. 4 Juli, 305-392.
Harvard Family Research Project. (2006). Family Involvement Makes a Difference. Evidence
that Family Involvement Promotes School Succes for Every Child of Every Age. No 1 in
A series. Spring.
Jacobsen, H., Moe, V., Ivarson, T., Wentzel-Larsen, T. Smith, L. (2013). Cognitive
Development and Social Emotional Functioning in Young Foster Children: A Followup Study from 2 to 3 Years of Age. Child Psychiatry Human Development. 44:666-677.
Papalia, Diane E. Dan Feldman, Rith Duskin. (2014). Menyelami Perkembangan Manusia.
Edisi 12 Buku 1. Translated by Fitriana Wuri Herarti. Jakarta: Salemba Humanika.
Sigit, Suhardi. (2003). Esensi Perilaku Organisasional. Yogyakarta: BPFE.
Stenberg, Robert J. (2009). Cognitive Psychology. Fifth Edition. International Student
Edition. USA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
The policy of the Republic of Indonesia No. 4 of 1979 on Child Welfare.

153

Tim BKKBN. 2013. Menjadi Orang Tua Hebat dalam Mengasuh Anak. Jakarta: Bina
Keluarga Balita, Badan Koordinasi Keluarga Berencana Nasional.
Wortham, Sue C. (2006). Early Childhood Curriculum. Developmental Childhood
Curriculum. Fourth Edition. New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc.

154

PARENTAL MEDIATION ON TELEVISIONS VIEWING BEHAVIOR


Sri Widowati Herieningsih.
Department of Communication, Diponegoro University, Semarang
PREFACE
In spite to the fact that children have recently exposed and experienced to various
updated media, television remains a dominant medium to children. Watching television is
attracting to children, as to other segments of audience due to its practical simplicity and
affordability. Studies indicated that children watch a lot of television program, as a sole
activity as well as a companion to other activities such as eating or playing with their toys
(Gunter, 2007:18). Parents, in many cases, also consider television sets as baby sitters to their
children. They believe that television is an effective tool to keep their children occupied while
they are doing their things. Research also pointed out that many parents prefer to see their
children watching television at home than wandering around the neighborhood. In many
occasions when children moans, loosing appetites, or reluctant to do their homeworks,
parents put their children in front of the television sets to cope with it, nonetheless a bigger
issue should emerge because television is not a good baby sitter.
Concerns on the childrens high exposure to television programs leads to its poor
impact onto children. Leaving alone children to grow along with television is putting danger
into their development. Researches on the negative effect of television on children that have
long been conducted since 1960s stated that television had influence childrens cognition,
affection, and behavior. The information-processing approach of research tradition explained
that young children are prone to television content because of their limited cognitive ability to
process television contents and narratives. Children are also lack of comprehension in
discerning facts from fantasies, that make them get the wrong idea about realities that come
from television, and could lead to imitating improper behaviors. Bandura (Littlejohn, 2009:
298) in his social learning theory assumed that a person learn by observing her/his
environment. A child understand certain behavior by imitates attracting models in her/his
surroundings. Bandura further argued that people collect information from their environment
and use it as guidance to behave and do things. Among those of the environment is surely the
mass media.
In spite of the abundant critics to television content, particularly those related to
children program and children audience, nothing much had been done to change the
Indonesian television system. There are powerful political forces and huge economical
interests at play. The existing regulation (Broadcasting Regulation article 32 of year 2002) is
not sufficiently regulate the television content, especially regarding its relation to the
protection of children audience. The Indonesia Broadcasting Commission (KPI) also enforces
a content rating system based on proper age classification. Still, it is not adhered by all
television content.
Dan Blake (Porter, 2001:35) explained the significance of media literacy in 5 points.
First, we need media literacy because we are living in a media environment. Second, media
literacy stress on critical perspective. Third, being media literate is part of the citizenship.
Fourth, media literacy encourage an active participation of audience. And fifth, media literacy
helps us understand communication technology better. One of the many activities of media
literacy that focuses on children is Parental Mediation. Parental mediation is considered as the
most effective method of eliminating the negative effect on children (Buijzen et al, 2007). In
parental mediation, parents accompanying their children to watch television, implementing

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rules of watching television, or helping their children to interpret and discuss the television
content. Parental attitudes to television were important. Children who were heavy users, or
who watched proportionately more of commercial stations, had parents who were less likely
to express concern over the negative side effects of watching television. Such children also
tended to have parents who perceived less need to control their childs use of the medium
(Gunter, 1990: 184).
The ideal parental mediation requires parents to always critical to television content,
and they should be able to discern the proper content from television. Parents understanding
of television contents rating is also the significant aspect to parental mediation. Yet, not all
parents conducting parental mediation, and it leads to questions of parents consumptions of
television program, parents understanding of television ratings, and the parental mediation
that they conducted. This study used survey method for a total number of 205 sampling units,
drawn purposively in Jakarta and Semarang area.
FINDINGS
1. TELEVISION CONSUMPTION.
Childrens television viewing behavior are somehow related to their familys pattern
of television viewing. In such case, mothers usually have the most significant role in shaping
their childrens viewing habit.
The number of television sets owned in a household varies from 1 to 6 sets. More than
half of the respondents had only one television set (58%), fewer had 2 units (26%), and the
least had 3-6 television sets (16%). This figure implies advantages as well as threat to parental
mediation. Having only one television set in the house will make children to share it with the
other family members. This lead to the second benefit, that is control over children viewing
behavior by other members of the family. On the other hand, there are potential risk for
children when they exposed to adult television contents when they were watched by the older
family members.
Related to the number of television sets owned, was how the family placed it in the
house. Family that had only one television set, almost all placed it in the living room (92,7%).
But family with two or more television sets faced a crucial placement point of their television
sets. Installing a television set to a childrens room was a direct threat to the children that
exposed them to improper television contents, unlimited duration of television viewing, and
without any supervision from their parents. Placing television set in the childs room is a risky
decision because its huge impact to children, psychologically, socially, physically, and
spiritually.
Who watch the most television programs at home? Actually children are the main
audience of television (86,6 percent), then followed by their mothers (55,6%). For most cases
in the family, their television sets were turned on for an average of 9 hours each and everyday
(52,2%), some between 5-8 hours (30,7%), and only a few (17,1%) between 1-4 hours. The
conditions will certainly provide unintended exposure to children around the television sets
whatever the programs are. So, a mixture of the quantity of television sets, careless placement
of television sets, a limited choice of pro-child television contents, and boundless access to
the always-on-television-sets, is indeed a minefield to our children on the subject of
negative television effects. Moreover, children are undeniably the main audience of television
at home.
The average amount of time spent to watch television programs was quite enormous.
About half of the sample (50,7%) stated that their children spent 4-7 hours daily to watch
television programs, few even more than 7 hours (8,3%). Only 41 percent of the children

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spent 1-3 hours daily watching television. The figure shows how excessive children spent
their times to watch television, compare to any other activities children of 12 and under
supposed to do, including school. It is worrisome indeed.
Then again, mothers television viewing habit is another significant factor to be
scrutinized. The amount of time spent by mothers on television in week days usually
correspond to their childrens school and homework routines. The majority of mothers
(52,7%), watch television for 3 hours or less daily, 33,7 percent spent 4-7 hours, and the rest
spent more than 7 hours on television. On week ends, they spent more hours than week days.
2. PARENT UNDERSTANDING OF TV RATING
A strategy of choice to relieve the negative exposure of television content on children
is to improve the responsible parties understanding and capability for the need of childrens
development, especially on how to choose the proper television content for their children
(Collins in Carvert, 2008: 496). Thus, parents should have critical perspectives onto the media
(Potter,1988), and the capacity to distinguish the proper television contents for their children.
Potter explained that understanding media is a multidimensional concept consisting of
cognitive, emotional, aesthetic, and moral aspects. The cognitive dimension is the ability to
understand how media contents were produced and how social structures affect the production
processes. The emotional dimension is the ability to understand how people interested,
understood, and attached to media contents. The aesthetical dimension is the ability to
perceive how people enjoy media contents. And the moral dimension stresses on the ability to
understand values and moral themes from media messages. All of those dimensions require a
comprehension of the formal features of the media (Calvert, 2008: 556), one of which is
television ratings.
To help the audience understand the designation of television content, the Indonesia
Broadcasting Commission developed a rating system based on age categories. They are A for
anak/children, R for remaja/adolescence, D for dewasa/adult, SU for semua umur/all ages,
and BO for bimbingan orang tua/parental guidance (PG). Most of the respondent (71%) paid
attention to the rating label on the television screen. Some of the respondent who pay no
attention to the label believe that watching television is unlike watching movie in the theater
and since television programs were intended to family audience members, they did not see
any reason to consider the rating labels.
Most of the respondent (81%) correctly understood the meaning of PG. It was a pretty
good gesture despite the fact that it was not automatically led those mothers to do the assign
meaning of PG. Mothers were not easily understand a combination of rating label. For
instance, only 50,2 percent understood well the meaning of A-BO (Children-Parental
Guidance).
3. PARENTAL MEDIATION
Literally, mediation has not been consistently defined. Therefore, there are various
definitions of the term. The most excepted definition is that of Schement (2002: 701).
According to Schement the researchers agree that mediation leads to television related
interactions between parents and children. Parental Mediation Theory explains how parents
use various interpersonal communication strategies in order to mediate and limit the negative
effects of mass media, particularly the effects of television on their children. According to
Nathanson (in Schement, 2002: 701) there are three types of parental mediation: 1) restrictive
mediation, the parents make certain rules in relation to the types of programs their children
allowed to watch, how long they should watch, and when they watch, 2) active mediation,

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includes talking about and discussing the television programs and its messages, 3) coviewing, parents accompany their children watching television.
3.1.

Restrictive Mediation.
Restrictive mediation often understood as the presence or absence of rules or
restrictions relates to the childrens consumption of television. Mediation is measured by
whether the parents set certain rules that consist of: watching duration, timing or when
children watch TV, as well as the rules associated with certain television programs which are
children prohibited to watch (Calvert & Wilson, 2008: 554). Each family has different norms
related to television. Some families have strict rules about television consumption, while other
families may have little concern about children's viewing rules.
Duration or amount time spent daily on watching TV has grasp attention of many
scholars who are concerned with the negative effects of television. The research finding
indicates that the majority of respondents (67%) always/often limit the times their children
spent on watching TV (duration). Such finding suggests that many mothers have alert the
importance of giving restrictions on watching TV with an expectation of reducing the
negative effects of television. However, not all mothers limit their childrens duration on
watching TV, about a third of the respondents rarely or even never limit their childrens
duration on watching TV. Various reasons put forward by the mother for not having duration
limitation including; their children do not like watching TV, the children already set their own
schedule so they know when to study and when to watch TV, and there are some mothers who
said that they never thought about the restriction.
The restriction related to the duration of children watching TV which is set by mothers
for their children is varied. The research finding is quite alarming, the majority of women
(about 60%) set very loose rules on the duration of watching TV: between 3-4 hours per day
(35.5%), 5-6 hours (18.5%), even 2 percent of respondents allow their children to watch TV
for more than 6 hours. Children who watch TV more than 3 hours a day is categorized as
heavy viewer. Two hours a day is recommended hours spent by children on watching TV. The
research finding indicates that the majority of mothers are aware of the importance setting
time limit for their children on watching TV, but they set the rule for more than two hours
time limit.
Besides setting the rules, another important factor that mothers should aware of is
supervising their children when they are watching TV. The findings show that the majority of
women are always/often supervise their children when they are watching TV (69.7%). They
ask their children to stop watching TV, to take a break from watching TV, to go to sleep, or to
perform other activities. There are some mothers (30.3%) who are rarely or never conduct
supervision, their children have freedom to watch TV all the times. The reasons for giving
such freedom are the assumption that the children are better watching TV than playing out of
the house, TV is presumed as an entertainment to calm down the children, to increase eating
appetites, and TV as a companion in doing school works. Some mothers say that they cannot
supervise the children due to the number of TVs (more than one) and one of the TV is in
childrens bedrooms. The other reasons for the mother not supervising the childrens habit of
watching TV are they are busy working, tired, or the mothers themselves love to watch TV.
This condition indicates that some mothers are lack of control on their children television
habit.
Rules that are made for the children in watching TV is not just limited to the duration,
but also the rules that are applied while they are time watching TV. The majority of mothers
are claimed that they always set a limitation in watching TV such as remind their children to

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stop watching TV for doing homework, studying, praying, or going to bed. However, not all
mother set such limitations, about 26 percent of respondents state that they rarely or never do
so. It is also related to watching TV supervision conducted by the mothers, about 30 percent
of mothers said that they rarely or even never supervise when their children watch TV. These
findings suggest the lack of control, restriction and supervision, the mothers tend to allow
their children to study or do homework while watching TV. They said that their children
prefer to study while watching TV.
TV shows are not entirely safe for children to watch. The rules set by the mothers and
mothers supervision on watching TV are indicators of restrictive mediation. In relations to
TV shows watched by children, 76 percent said they provide restrictions, and about 24
percent of do not set any restriction at all. This condition needs a serious attention due to
many inappropriate TV shows that potentially have negative effects on children. Moreover,
the research indicates that 21 percent of mothers rarely or even never conduct watching TV
supervision to their children.
Sinetron (drama TV Series) is the most restricted TV show to watch, about half of the
respondents say that sinetron is prohibited to their children. Sinetron is considered by some
mothers contain both verbal and non-verbal violence, bullying, fighting, gangster, insulting
poor people or people with physical disability, and consumptive behaviors. In other words,
the contents of sinetron are not appropriate for the children. One example given by the
respondents is a TV series titled Ayah Mengapa Aku Berbeda"(Dad, Why Am I Different),
one of the characters is a girl with speech disability is subjected to mockery and abuse. TV
show for mature audiences is prohibited for children by many respondents. The respondents
do not mention the name of the TV shows which considered for mature audiences.
Variety show is a TV program that is watched by most of the respondents. Almost all
mothers do not prohibit their children to watch variety show. YKS, a very popular variety
show which is now banned for airing, contain a lot of violence, either verbal or non-verbal.
Most of respondents do not consider reality show as dangerous for children to watch.
Animated (cartoon) film is a TV program that is closest to the children. Animated film is a
program that almost all respondents not forbid their children to watch it. Most mothers
assume that cartoons is a TV show for children, without further consideration of violence
contained in the film. In many animated films extreme violence are dominated its scenes
including; the use of sharp weapons, blood spilled, and scary expressions. Sexually reference
scenes are commodity that are often used for developing story lines, for example; opposite sex
attractions, and a story of love triangle. Some of animated film also contains a very strong
mystical content. Some of films show spirits, demons, and the devils that are scary for young
viewers.
3.2

Active Mediation.
Active mediation or could be categorized as evaluative guidance is established by
developing interaction between mother and children during watching TV. In other words,
parents watch TV with the children and actively convey a conversation. According Chakroff
& Nathanson (in Calvert & Wilson, 2008: 554), the form of mediation is often measured by
how often parents encourage children to think critically about the show, and some research
only measured communication between adults and children about TV. Mediation, particularly
active mediation is effective in reducing the TVs consumption and the impact of TV on
children. Parents are comments or providing feedbacks on the content of television programs.
According to Nathanson active mediation is categorize into three types; active-positive,
active-negative and neutral-active. Positive active mediation refers to how parents encourage

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and give positive comments about television programs watched by their children. Negative
active mediation refers to parents who tend to be negative toward television programs.
Active-neutral Mediation is a type of active mediation that involves additional information or
instructions about TV for the children.
Discussion of TV programs contents between mother and children aims to help
children evaluate the meaning developed in the program including the notion of morality
(explain the bad behaviors conducted by the characters). In assisting children to watch TV,
there are three things that can be done by the mother. First, an explanation of "why" (motive
underlying action), some TV programs need an adequate explanation due to different cultural
and social values. Second, mothers provide confirmation in the notion of value judgments
(good vs. bad, right vs. wrong, appropriate vs. inappropriate). Third, mother give
reinforcement for the children to implement the right values, for example, by
complimenting characters who perform the right actions, and emphasizing that certain acts are
wrong/bad so that the children do not imitate such actions.
Discussions between mother and children in relation to scenes, stories and characters
in the TV shows are important due to various TVs contents that are not suitable for children.
Moreover, the rapid changes of digital technology as well as the improvement in the
cinematography techniques saturate the computerize scenes that look like real. Children who
do not understand such technologies will regard those kind of scenes as real. Therefore,
mothers need to talk to their children about TVs contents so that their children will be able to
understand the notion of computer generalize scenes.
The findings of this research indicate that the 55 percent of the respondents are
always/frequently discuss the TVs contents with their children. On the other hands, almost
similar percentage around 45 percent of mothers rarely engage conversation about TVs
contents with their children. The fact that some mother rarely talk about TVs content is quite
alarming due to negative impacts of television to children behaviors.
Story lines in various TVs programs are sometimes do not make any senses, and
many of them are too complex. The role of the mother is important to explain the story to the
children, so that the mother can explain how to differentiate reality and fantasy. The research
shows that 52.5 percent of the respondents always/often discuss their children. The percentage
of the respondents who rarely or never talk about story lines is 47.5 percent. Discussion of the
character in TVs programs is important for children to understand good and bad behaviors.
The research indicates that the percentage of respondents who are always/often conduct
discussions with their children about TVs character is 52 percent and those who rarely/do not
engage in discussions is 48 percent.
Some respondent realize the negative effects of TV ads including initiating childrens
consumptive behaviors. However, the majority of mothers admit that they are rarely or do not
engage in discussions with the child about content of TVs commercial (about 70 percent).
The main reason why mothers do not engage in such discussion is the fact that TVs ads only
appear briefly, placed in between TVs programs, so that no one deliberately watch
commercials. Advertising is considered not a real TV show, only a brief distraction. Mothers
are expected to help children "reading" and criticizing the ads.
According to Nathanson (in Mendoza, 2009: 31), active mediation is the most
promising mediation among other forms of mediation. Active mediation has a great influence
on encouraging childrens pro-social behaviors, children ideal news consumption, as well as
reducing aggressive behavior in children. A study conducted by Austin indicates that active
mediation is a type of mediation that suitable for creating: better understanding of TVs

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contents, more skeptical toward the contents of television news, and suspicious in what is
seen on television (Mendoza, 2009: 35).
3.3.

Coviewing.
Coviewing refers to "the simple act of watching TV with the children" without any
discussion of the contents. This activity is only limited to accompany children in watching
television without conducting discussion or conversation. While Mother and children
watching television together, they usually conduct other activities; mother (cooking, sewing,
embroidery) and children (doing homework, playing games).
Watching TV together has two sides, on one side watching together is good especially
if they watch childrens programs, but on the other hand, if they watch TV together
sometimes children are exposed to a variety of programs choose by mother that are not
suitable for children under 12 years old. Programs that may not suitable for children that are
coviewing by mother and children including: variety shows (44%), reality shows, (about
35%), soap opera (about 33%), and infotainment (23%). As for the animated film, the
majority of respondents claimed that they always/often watch together with their children
(about 58.5%). This condition is quite encouraging, because even though most cartoons are
aimed to children but many of them are not safe for children to watch
CONCLUSIONS
1. The research shows that the pattern of TVs consumption in the family is not in ideal
condition. That condition is triggered by the placement of TV set in the children bedroom
so that the parents cannot set limitation and give an adequate supervision. The majority of
mothers and children is a "heavy viewer". They watch TV more than 3 hours per day, both
on weekdays and holidays.
2. One of the guides that can be used by parents to choose the program for children that is
TV programs categorization labels/TVs rating (BO, A-BO, R-BO, SU, D). Those labels
are shown in the top left or bottom right of TVs screen. There are many respondents who
do not pay attention to the label. Half of the respondents did not understand the meaning
of the A-BO (Children-Parental Guidance).
3. The finding shows that some mothers do not applied restrictive mediation which are
measured through the following indicators: the rules that limit the duration of watching
TV, the kinds of TVs program watched by children, and mothers supervision. Almost
similar condition shows in active mediation or usually interpreted as evaluative guidance
which has not been done by all respondents. Coviewing is another form of mediation,
which refers to the simple act of watching television with the children. The research
indicates that not many respondents conduct coviewing regularly.
RECOMMENDATIONS
1. In relation to familys pattern of watching TV, it is important not to place a TV set in the
childrens bedroom and to turn the TV off when no one is watching.
2. The research finding indicates that a lot of mothers do not have a sufficient understanding
related to the categorization of television program. Many of TVs programs do not put the
categorization label throughout the show. Such conditions need an attention from TV
stations, Indonesian Broadcasting Commission (KPI), NGOs and academicians so that
they will conduct education and socialization in order to increase understanding about the
importance of TVs program categorization labels.

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3. Mothers are expected to conduct restrictive mediation, active mediation and co-viewing.
They should make watching TV together and discussing TVs content with their children
as a part of daily routine. Mothers should explain the rules of watching TV and
conducting active discussions related the story lines, scenes and characters in the
television programs.
REFERENCES
Chen, Milton, 1996. Anak-anak dan Televisi: Buku Panduan Orang Tua Mendampingi Anakanak Menonton Televisi, Jakarta: Gramedia.
Calvert, Sandra & Barbara J. Wilson, 2008. The Handbook of Media, Children and
Development, Malden: Blackwell Publishing.
Gunter, Barrie, Jill McAleer. 1997. Children and television 2nd ed. London: Routledge.
Littlejohn, Stephen W & Karen A. Foss, 2009, Encyclopedia of Communication Theory I,
Thousand Oaks: Sage Publication Inc.
Mendoza, Kelly, 2009, Journal of Media Literacy Education: Surveying Parental Mediation:
Connections, Challenges, and Questions for Media Literacy. Vol. 1, Iss. 1, Article 3
Potter, W. James, 2001, Media Literacy, Second Edition. New Delhi: Sage Publication.
Schement, Jorge Reina, 2002, Encyclopedia of Communication and Information, volume 1,
New York: Macmillan Reference.
Schement, Jorge Reina, 2002, Encyclopedia of Communication and Information, volume 2,
New York: Macmillan Reference.

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THE PSYCHOLOGICAL DYNAMICS OF PARENTS OF CHILDREN


WITH SPECIAL NEEDS
Putu Rahayu Ujianti
Ganesha University of Education
ayujianti@gmail.com
Abstract
This paper analyses the process of acceptance on parents who have children with
disability. This paper argues that parents sufficient knowledge and understanding of their
childrens special condition and the forming of support group give a significant contribution
to the acceleration of parents acceptance. To have children with special needs is a challenge
for parents. Acceptance on the children condition is the main key in determining attitudes and
taking steps needed for optimizing the childrens growth and development. Unfortunately,
many parents experience obstructions in accepting the condition of their children. This results
in conflict within the parents themselves, with their spouses, or with other members of the
family. This acceptance process itself has to go through several stages, namely denial,
bargaining, anger, depression and acceptance. Many parents live in denial and anger before
they can accept their childrens condition. Parents knowledge and understanding about their
childrens special needs is one of the supporting factors which lead to acceptance. Yet the fact
is many parents, especially from the middle and lower classes lack of information and believe
more in superstitions in society. This fact surely hinders the steps needed to accept their
childrens special condition and take proper care of them. The presence of support group
which consist of parents of children with special needs and those concerned in the
development of special needs children is a place for comfort, emotional release and
information exchange for the parents.
Key words: parents, children with special needs, psychological dynamics

Introduction
The birth of a child with a disability can affect the family in profound ways.
Bernal (2006) observed that parents feel deep sadness, frustration and excruciating
pain, which occur simultaneously with the experience of giving birth and raising
children with special needs. The rejection showed by parents toward the presence of
their child will affect their further growth and development. Studies have shown that
early intervention will provide opportunity for optimum growth and development in
children with special needs. Therefore, if parents of children with special needs still
show non-acceptance of their existence, the steps toward intervention will be unlikely to
take place. The research conducted by Xu & Filler (2008) and Stalker, Brunner, Maguire
and Mitchell (2011) found that in addition to teachers, parents collaboration is one of the
determining factors in child education. Having said this, parental involvement will be unlikely
to obtain if parents are still in denial and refuse to accept their childrens special condition.
Parents have been found to react differently when they discovered their childs
special needs. Seligman and Darling (1989) mentioned that the psychological and social
economic factors had an influence on reactions displayed by parents. The emotional states
parents are under vary, from shock, denial, distress or anger, guilt, as well as fear and anxiety,

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before they finally come to accept and adapt to the reality (Dukes and Smith, 2007). In
particular, mothers are the figures who are exceptionally vulnerable to adaptation issues due
to their direct role in child birth.
Having a child with disability, a child whose dependency on the mother goes beyond
what is normally expected, forces the mother to extend her affective links indefinitely
(Kingston, 2007). It is only when parents reach the acceptance level that they can take the
necessary steps for their childs growth and development.
Often, parents who are still unable to accept their childs condition send their child to
a special school or even to an inclusive one. They also join therapy in the hope that their child
will gradually grow normal.
I hope that he could be like his older sibling who developed fast in literacy and was
an achiever at school. He was already a very good reader when he was just in first
grade
(mother of Dion, 8 years old)
Actually, his kindergarten teacher warned me that my son was special. He would
fit more in a special school. I enrolled him in this (special) school, but I hope he could
have a place at a main stream school once he is in third grade
(mother of Rafi, 7 years old)
Raising a child with special needs together with their siblings presents its own
challenges for the family. It is quite common for parents who are still in denial to compare
their special child to their other children and demand that their child have the same ability as
that of their normal siblings. In several cases, spouses put the blame on each other as the
cause of their childs disability or refuse any involvement in their childs growth and
development process. If a couple is unable to go through this phase, then their marriage may
be susceptible to divorce.
The Stages of Adjustment
The state theory approach states that parents undergo a few stages after learning about
their childs special needs. Several of these stages are similar to the stages of mourning and
grief experienced by families over the death of their loved ones. The mentioned phases are
shock and disturbance, denial, sadness, anxiety and fear, anger and finally acceptance. The
stages of parental reaction adapted from Kubler-Rose (Seligman, 1989 and Dukes and Smith,
2007) are as follows:
1. The first reaction that parents display to learning of their childs special needs or
disability is to deny the reality of the situation.
.After my meeting with her preschool teacher, I studied Erika and tried to remember
anything she might have done that was different, that was not within the norm. She
had always been a perfect baby. She rarely cried. She slept well. She ate well. Erika
had reached all the developmental milestones on time. She was even doing some
things ahead of schedule, such as knowing her ABCs by the age of one and half. How
could anything be wrong with a child who could be so bright and so adorable? Look at
her. Shes talking. She cant be autistic
(Mother of Erika, 6 years old)

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At this denial phase parents experience shock and disbelief. Denial occurs
subconsciously to rationalize overwhelming emotions (Mangunsong, 2011). Parents
are in denial to protect them from the pain that the mind or heart cant handle (Morrel
and Palmer, 2006). They are in fear of what might happen to their child, confused as
to how they are supposed to react in this situation, and visualize negative images of
their childs future. At this stage parents begin to develop over protective attitudes and
behavior to their child, family and themselves.
In a number of cases parents have been found unable to accept their childs diagnosis.
They would then connect their childs special needs with superstitions or mystics. A
father whose daughter was diagnosed with ADHD insisted that she was fine. When his
daughter displayed impulsive behavior that put herself in danger, he called it part of
the mystical ability that she possessed.
since she was born, my daughter has had this special ability. She can see and hear
sounds which most people cannot. That is why she is behaving this way
( father of Ratih , aged 7 )
It is parents superstitious and mystical beliefs used as an explanation for their childs
condition that often obstruct necessary intervention measures.
2. Bargaining: at this phase, parents try to bargain or negotiate a compromise. Their
reasoning is that if they put enough effort, then their child will somehow get better.
Any improvement the child experiences will be considered a compensation of the
parents hard attempt.
Even after we were given a real diagnosis of Down Syndrome, my quest for the
cure didnt let up. I read everything I could find about Down Syndrome, the various
medications, and the current research. I believed that if I knew enough, I could
somehow fix the situation. I equated my frenetic activity with hope and caring. If I
tried hard enough, all would be well
(mother of Lisa, 5 years old)
During this stage, parents will join any activities that can give them benefits. In
addition, they will turn to spirituality and hope for a miracle. This is the period where
parents try to find any sort of answer or explanation of their childs condition.
3. Anger: when parents realize that there is no significant improvement in their child,
they may express anger. Parents start to blame themselves, God and their spouse for
their childs condition. Their anger may be directed at the lack of help from the society
or professionals, even to the point of feeling isolated. The continuous questioning
from others and the staring from people who have no understanding of special needs
children may trigger more anger in parents and become harmful if taken out on their
child. Thus, at this phase children are in a vulnerable position. Parents over protective
attitude toward their child may also increase if the societys reaction tends to be
negative.
4. Depression: occurs when parents have come to realize that their anger is unable to
change their childs condition, and eventually reluctantly accept the situation which
causes depression. In depression, they only see hopelessness, with no end in sight.

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there was also a feeling of everything being out of control. This thing had invaded
our lives and taken over. I couldnt make it go away. I couldnt even understand it. My
life and my familys life had changed and I had no control over it. I wanted to be able
to control my emotions and stop crying, but I couldnt even do it
(Mother of Erika, 6 years old)
This hopelessness may result in parents unwillingness and inability to think of and
take the required steps for they feel that there is no point in doing anything. Further,
they also experience loss of self-esteem and confidence in their ability as parents.
5. Parents who have reached the stage of acceptance are able to discuss their childs
condition more readily. They manage to balance love and intention to encourage
independence. Their only concern for wanting their child to acquire certain social
skills is their childs independence and not part of their ego as parents (that they have
tried hard enough as shown at the bargaining phase). As presently they have the ability
to discuss their childs condition openly, parents at this phase voluntarily collaborate
with professionals to set a realistic plan for their child.
I thought this sadness and hopelessness would last forever, but it did not. I
do not know how long I felt sad, angry and in grief every day. All I can
remember one day I decided to stop the tears and start to move on. I was able
to open up again to the people who cared about me and to allow them to help
me. I stopped crying and started learning how to help my child.
(mother of Erika, 6 years old)
When they have reached the acceptance phase, parents are able to get a wider
perspective on life; one example is by pursuing personal interests which do not
concern their child. This stage includes parental ability to discipline without feeling
guilty because they can balance love and discipline to their children. It is also for the
childs sake that parents can disregard their over protective behavior in realization that
they will not be there for their child forever; therefore, they need to be prepared for
independence. Further, parental acceptance presents itself in their ability to identify
their childs positive qualities.
my daughter was born and grew up normal. But, when she turned four she had a
high fever and suddenly passed out before being in a coma. When she regained
consciousness she lost all her abilities. It was like she turned into a baby again. Even
now she is still practicing her speech. I went into shock and disbelief, especially when
I learned that she might never be like other normal children again. However, over time
I became grateful. It was fortunate that she only lost her abilities, not her life.
Everytime I look into my daughters face I am reminded that we can die anytime
(mother of Sheila, aged 6)
Quite similar to the stages above, according to Healey (1996) the first point of
providing support for parents should be during a period of uncertain diagnosis, which can
engender confusion or bewilderment. Following the rendering of a specific diagnosis, such as
autism or a less definitive determination like pervasive developmental disorder, the parents'
typical stages of adjustment are as follows:
1. Stage one
The parent may be shocked, and he or she may cry or become dejected. Sometimes
parents may express their feelings through physical outbursts or, occasionally,

166

inappropriate laughter.
2. Stage two
This is an extension of stage one, and some parents may deny their child's disability or try
to avoid that reality in some other way. Some parents will search for or try to propose
various actions in an attempt to change the reality. Some may "shop for a cure" or try to
bargain for a different reality.
3. Stage three
At this stage, parents may feel anger. They may demonstrate their anger outwardly, in the
form of rage, or become withdrawn and passive from intense feelings of guilt. Verbally
attacking anyone who might be blamed for their unfortunate circumstance, including
displacement of responsibility onto the original diagnostician or any supportive
professionals, is common. If the parents are feeling angry, guilty, or both, professionals
must understand this stage is a very positive point to reach in the process of adjustment
and not become defensive if attacked.
4. Stage four
Parents become resigned to the fact that their child has a disability. In some situations,
one or more of the family may slip into depression. Feelings of shame, guilt,
hopelessness, and anxiety stemming from a new overwhelming burden of responsibility
can become intense. For a few parents, retreating, accompanied by an attempt to hide the
child, especially from friends and persons during organized or routine social encounters
may be the first sign that they have begun to accept the fact their child has a disability.
However, any inclination toward or demonstration of behavior that results in abnormal
isolation of one or any family members must be prevented or eliminated.
5. Stage five
This is the stage of acceptance, meaning the parents have achieved an unconditional
positive regard for the child. Specialists debate whether or not this stage of adjustment
includes parents who show only acceptance of their child's condition, commonly called
neutrality, or a very important new stage of cognition when parents not only begin to
understand and appreciate their child but strengthen their skills in coping with life's trials
as well as being able to help their child, themselves, and others. Reaching this stage is
highly correlated with the school inviting parents to become team members in a program
with caring professionals, and often paraprofessionals, that is designed to meet all of the
child's needs.
6. Stage six
Parents are able to put their lives back together and enjoy living, imagine a future, and
talk of their child free of undue emotion. They can discuss and participate in designing or
providing instruction objectively.
Every parent goes through the above stages differently. Some parents may experience
only a few or all the phases at one point. One of the common reactions reported is guilt.
Winter (2006) even observed that for some parents grieving can turn into an unending episode
since they have to deal with the delay in their childs development on an ongoing basis.
Nevertheless, it is of importance to admit that they are still in grief in avoidance of continuous
emotional tension and depression. Discussing their childs condition openly can help parents
to move out of the denial phase (Winter, 2006).
If parents are unable to come out of the stage of denial and anger, they are unlikely to
accept their child as part of the family. That is why some children with special needs are
looked after by other members of the family such as their grandmother, uncle or aunt because

167

their parents do not feel capable or embarrassed to raise children who are considered
abnormal. Some children live with their nucleus family, but are not schooled or given
adequate stimulation because it is considered unworthy of doing; the children will not
understand anything let alone improve.
This refusal is not experienced merely on the subconscious level, but also occurs in
behavior. Known (2010) notices that there is a correlation between the way fathers and
mothers bring up their special needs children (hyperactive) and the performance level of
children at school (preschool). In his study, Known (2010) found that preschool boys with
hyperactivity experienced more over reactive responses from parents compared with their
normal peers. In addition, their parents were less warm in their interactions with these
children and they showed less interest in their childrens hobbies. Consequently, these boys
with hyperactivity displayed lower performances in comparison with their normal peers.
Fathers of hyperactive boys have the tendency to overreact to their childrens behavior
that is considered exaggerating. They tend to be quick to respond with anger, and hard to
display warmth and calmness to their childrens hyperactive and impulsive behavior.
Similarly, mothers also tend to easily lose their patience, respond to their children with
irritation, anger, or harsh discipline. Knowns (2010) research also revealed that mothers of
boys with hyperactivity displayed less warmth and responsive behavior toward their
childrens interests. These parents also felt unsatisfactory with their own way of child
nurturing.
Sullivan (in Whiteman and Yager, 2007) noted that as parents pass through the early
stages of grief and shock, most begin to accept their childs situation and adjust to it. He also
notes, however, that this initial level of acceptance is of acceptance is often relatively fragile
and can be fraught with its own challenge.
Parental Knowledge, Understanding and Acceptance of Child Condition
Winter (2006) believes that part of the acceptance process of child condition begins
with the understanding that every child is valuable. Thus, they deserve time, effort, patience,
respect and love from their parents regardless of their condition.
Unfortunately, societys inadequate understanding of the condition of children with
special needs contributes to the low acceptance of their existence inclusively. There are
various stigmas which are myths and superstitions attributed to these children. Children with
special needs are considered to be a birth defect due to certain sins they carry, or one or both
of their parents past sins. These children are also considered incapable of functioning
independently and performing the simplest tasks; thus, the purpose of their existence is
simply for the sake of living. They are often taken for granted, bullied and underestimated.
Even the parents of children with special needs become the target of societys ridicule and
gossip. Parents may feel isolated and hopeless due to their status as parents of children with
special needs (Bernal, 2006). For this reason a number of parents of children with special
needs make a decision to place their children in the care of other people.
Another view on children with special needs is that they are considered to have the
sixth sense (different from indigo), supernatural abilities; thus, any special treatment for them
is not required. In fact, it is the therapy or other types of stimulation are believed to revoke
their supernatural abilities. When they display certain kinds of behavior like being impulsive,
hyperactive and inattentive, they are thought to demonstrate their abilities. (Ujianti, 2012).
Seligman and Darling (1989) stated that differences in parents reaction were
influenced by their psychological, material and social economic conditions. The knowledge
and understanding of childs condition gives a contribution to parents acceptance process. In

168

some cases, parents who are also the carers of their special needs children are blocked by their
limited knowledge of their childrens condition, aspects of child development which require
special attention, and their poor understanding of the thresholds for their childrens ability or
inability and needs. As a result, they tend to build hopes beyond or even lower than their
childrens capacity. Some parents nurture their children based on mere compassion and fail to
realize that children are actually able to be trained to perform certain social skills according to
their ability. Therefore, it can be concluded that one form of support needed by parents of
special needs children is assistance for parents in playing their nurturing roles and sufficient
information about the condition of special needs children (Warner, 2006).
While most parents want and have a need for professionals to be truthful as a
prerequisite to being recognized as trustworthy persons with credibility, they do not need
information that is bleak and replete with dismal prognosis. The majority of parents will come
to understand the realities and implications regarding their child's achievement as the various
stages of development are reached and passed (Healey, 1996).
The Role of Support Group in Parental Acceptance
Stalker, Brunner, Maguire, and Mitchell (2006) mentioned that the key element in
overcoming obstacles occurring in the process of acceptance that parents go through is
adequate, consistent and informal communication with parents. Parents need information
about their childrens special needs from teachers as well as child development professionals,
yet prefer direct communication (face to face) or over the phone instead of written
information which sometimes can be difficult to understand.
Winter (2006) explained that building a network of parents of special needs children
who have similar challenges can help parents to accept their childrens conditions. This
support group can serve as a forum for parents to exchange information about activities,
professionals and education programs which can be helpful for their children in addition to
sharing their experiences of raising their children. It is of utmost importance though that
support group encourages affirmative interactions; therefore, parents can experience positive
emotions when being in it instead of anger and self-pity having shared the same struggles
(Kingston, 2007). The participants of this support group other than parents of special needs
children are experts, relevant professionals, and anyone who are concerned with special needs
education regardless of whether they have family members with special needs.
During a meeting session in support group, parents can learn about how other parents
deal with the challenges and obstacles they face (Winter, 2006). Parents of newly diagnosed
children, who are in the middle of that overwhelming time of adjustment need to hear from
other more experienced parents that it will get better (Morrell and Palmer, 2006). Hearing
other parents share their experiences does not necessarily mean the reality they face is going
to change, yet at least parents may feel better for positive attitudes can make a difference
when facing the demands of raising children with special needs. Dealing with the really
difficult times gets easier not necessarily because the situations are easier, but because with
time parents become stronger.
Moreover, listening to other parents sharing their stories will help grow the
understanding and awareness inside the other parents of special needs children that they are
not alone in this situation as they thought they were at the bargaining phase. They need the
support and help of other people if they would like their children to obtain adequate services
and education.
Meeting and sharing with other parents of special needs children can also become a
catharsis or emotional release, particularly if there are volunteer professionals involved such

169

as psychologists. These professionals can assist with the process of emotional release in a
constructive way so not to make parents feel trapped in the negative and destructive nurturing
role (Winter, 2006). The parents in support group can learn to recognize and acknowledge
their mixed emotions or feelings since according to Whiteman and Yogers (2007) research,
parents who are least accepting of their range of feelings often seem to struggle more with
their overall adjustment.
Support group can also function as a forum for information exchange about activities
that their children can join.
I received information from another mother in this group about a drawing teacher
who took on students with special needs. Then, I asked a few other mothers who were
interested to invite this teacher to our house and share the fees. Not long after that, we
started to organize swimming sessions for our children, so now they have a variety of
positive activities and exercise their motor skills at the same time. If a mum is
unavailable, we will take turns looking after her child
(a mother and member of a support group of mothers of special needs children ather
sons school)
Further, it is capable of accomplishing greater things, e.g., raising publics and other parents
awareness of special needs education.
we proposed to school committee to hold a seminar about children with special
needs by inviting speakers with related expertise in this area such as doctors,
psychologists and practitioners. We also proposed that the school invite the general
public and all parents regardless of their childrens conditions. It was an event where
we as parents of special needs children could empathize with one another, as well as
have an open dialog and discussion with the society about our feelings and what our
children were facing. We were also sending an indirect message out there in order that
people could have a better acceptance of our childrens condition. The overall
response was positive since the information was presented by the experts. The
distance that separated our world and that of parents of normal children felt somewhat
closer
(mother of Amel, aged 6, goes to inclusive school)

Conclusion
Parents of children with special needs undergo a number of phases and emotional
sates, such as guilt, anger and denial before they can finally reach the acceptance stage.
Parental acceptance plays an important role in the intervention process to help the child. One
of the hindrances for parents to reach the level of acceptance is insufficient knowledge and
understanding of their childs condition.
Support group serves as a forum where parents can exchange information about
services and education for children with special needs, share their experience of raising
children with special needs and a place for emotional release. Support group provides
encouragement and assistance for parents in playing their roles given that the nature of
interaction among members is affirmative and positive.

170

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Parent Roles in Education Through the Experience ofWorking-Class Families of
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Bernal, C. (2006). Challenging the tragedy Meeting the Needs of Children with
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Warner (Ed). Meeting The Needs of Special Children. London: Routledge.
Dukes, C., Smith, M. (2007). Working with Parents of Children with Special Education
Needs. London: Sage Publication
Healey, W. (1996). Helping Parents Deal with the Fact Their Child has a Disability.
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Keown, L. (2010). Fathering and Mothering of Preschool Boys with Hyperactivity.
International Journal of Behavioral Development. 35(2), 161-168
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Philadelphia: Jessica Kingsley Publisher.
Mangunsong, F. (2011). Psikologi dan Pendidikan Anak Berkebutuhan Khusus Jilid
Kedua (Psycholoyi and Special Need Education 2nd Volume) . Jakarta: LPSP3
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Seligman, M., Darling, R.B. (1989). Ordinary Families, Special Children: A System
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Stalker, K.O., Brunner, R., Maguire, R., Mitchell, J. (2011). Tackling the Barriers to
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Report). Tidak Diterbitkan (unpublished).
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Meeting The Needs of Special Children. London: Routledge.
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Bar of Expectations. San Fransisco: A Wiley Imprint
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Special Needs. Philadelphia: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.
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171

PARENTAL INVOLVEMENT FOR EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION IN


KINDERGARTEN
Mukti Amini
email: muktiamini@gmail.com, muktiamini@ut.ac.id
Abstract
Early childhood education in kindergarten requires good cooperation between the
parents with teachers in kindergarten. However, sometimes occurs that is not as expected.
There are many problems in the pattern of interaction between teachers - childdren - parent. In
a preliminary study to one of kindergarten in Tangerang, found that 3 of 53 parents who urged
teachers to give literacy or math homework for their children. Another problem is according
the teacher, 12 of 67 parents are less attempt about good habits that have been taught in
school to continue to be maintained and monitored at home.The problems, based on
interviews with kindergarten teachers in South Tangerang, also occurs in other kindergartens.
Therefore, it is necessary to study the parental involvement in the nurturing of children in
kindergarten, to be the basis data for preparing a parenting program that is appropriate for
them.
This study used a survey method in 10 kindergartens located in South Tangerang,
Banten, Indonesia, which is held in mid-2013. Based on the survey, most children (62%)
delivered by their mothers, the most parents activity in kindergarten is communicating with
teachers or kindergarten head about their child, and the lowest activity is participating in
parenting class. The most parental involvement form particaped by the parents is the theme
assembly, and the lowest is teacher volunteer. These data indicates that need efforts to be
more intensive parental involvement program for child education.
Keywords :Parental Involvement , Early Childhood Education, Kindergarten
INTRODUCTION
Formal education children in INdonesia consist of Pos PAUD, Play Group (KB),
daycare (TPA) and kindergarten (TK). However, besides formal education, early childhood
education can also run informally by the children's parents. Informal education should be
implemented inline with formal education. However, some cases shows that sometimes there
is problems come from discrepancies of informal education between formal education.
Before teaching, kindergarten teacher usually get enough knowledge about early
childhood education, including development activities which are appropriate and
inappropriate for children. With this practical knowledge, so children feel comfortable
learning by playing in their class. However, sometimes the constraint comes from the parents.
Parents often have a specific target on his kids, for example should be able to read or write.
The expectation is imposed on the teacher, that parents often ask writing or reading
homework to their children. Sometimes, parents ask directly the teacher to be held in the
classical reading exercise on the learning activities. The problems also occurred in one of the
kindergarten in South Tangerang. Teachers in group B complained, there are 2 of 30 parents
were frequently asked reading-writing-math homework, while in group A there was 1 of 23
parents of children who often ask the same thing. Kindergarten teachers who already
understand the stages of child development feel dilemma, because in theory their knew,
teaching reading or writing to young children can not be forced like that. But they was afraid
if it does not accommodate the parents' request, many parents will be protesting.

172

Another problem is, sometimes the parents often do not proceed good habituations
that already started in kindergarten. For example, in kindergarten children are taught to
always pray before and after meals or washing hands, but in home this habit is not do
anymore. Also in demonstrating for the waiting their turn, talk polite, and so on, sometimes it
is not a concern of parents when children are at home.
Complaints from the kindergarten teacher of habituation that is not in line between
home and school is much more than about calistung exercise. In group A there are 3 (of 23
parents), and in group B there are 7 parents (of 30 parents), and at Play Group there are 2 (of
14 parents). Based on interviews with kindergarten teachers in South Tangerang, similar
problems often occurs in their kindergarten. That is, there are to be improve in the parental
involvement and relationship between parents and teachers in kindergarten.
Children are usually drop off by her mother to kindergarten. Of the 67 children who
learn in kindergarten, 47 children (or 70%) were commonly dropped off by their mother, not
by a shuttle vehicle. Because of a child's learning in kindergarten is not too long (just two and
a half or three hours) a lot of mothers prefer to stay at kindergarten untill child's learning end
of that day. Especially if the mothers do not have to work elsewhere. The time for waiting is
usually filled with chatting each other or sometimes selling merchandise among them. This
waiting time can be used to provide additional knowledge to parents in terms of the caring of
children, so that gradually there is a synergy between the care of children at home with
school.
Based on this background, it's needed to study the parental involvement in child
education both at home and kindergarten. So the purpose of this paper is to get a
comprehensive description of the parental involvement in child education at home or
kindergarten was located in the region of South Tangerang. This paper is expected to benefit:
the parents in the kindergarten, as input on how to care and educate children according to the
task of development; and for kindergarten teachers, as an effort to increase insight into the
collaborative activities with parents.
Role of Parents in Children's Education. Parents have a very important role in
children's education. The role of parents for children's education, among others, are: (1) the
first and main teacher of the child, (2) children learn life and learn to develop all aspects of
development, (3) the main protector for the child, (4) the source of life for children, and (5)
the source of happiness child. (http://paudust.blogspot.com). Based on these opinions, parents
especially mothers, are much more time with the child as a baby, so they become the central
figures in the development of children's interests and talents. Furthermore, Arya (2008)
explains that the role of parents in motivating their talents and interest can be done by: (1)
teaching children to expect success, (2) adjusting the interest of children with the learning
styles, (3) the child must learn that it takes perseverance to achieve success, and (4) the child
must learn to be responsive and to deal with failure.
In addition, according to Iskaradah (2009), parents also play a role in the development
of the child, includes: (1) maintain physical and mental health of the child, (2) give the
foundation a good personality, (3) guide and motivate children to develop themselves, (4)
provide adequate facilities for the development of the child, and (5) create an safe and
comfortable environtment to the development of the child. Based on the opinion of Iskaradah
is seen that the role of parents is fundamental, not only in education but also the growth and
development of children.
Practically, Hayati (2011) divides the attitude of parents who support or inhibit the
development potential of children. The parents attitudes what support the potential of children
are: can be seen from: (1) respect the child's opinion and encourage him to express it, (2) give

173

the child time to think, reflect, and imagine, (3) allow children to make their own decisions,
(4) encourage children to ask many questions, (5) assure to children that the parents
appreciate what their want tested, performed and produced (6) support and encourage
children's activities, (7) enjoy being with children, (8) give reinforcement and praise to
children, (9) encourages the child's independence in their activities and (10) build a good
relationship with the children.
Meanwhile, parent attitudes that inhibit children's potential are: (1) tell the child that
he is punished if done wrong, (2) prohibit children to angry or protest to their parents (3)
prohibit children ask about parents decision, (4) prohibit children to play with other children
have different views and values of the child's family, (5) the child should not be noisy, (6)
strict parents supervise children's activities, (7) parents do not give specific advice on the
completion of the children asignments, (8) a critical parent against children and reject the idea
from children, (9) impatient parents in children (10) parents and children are fighting power,
and (11) parents press and force the child to complete the asignment.
Parental Involvement in Children's Education. The results of the study Henderson
and Mapp (2002) proved the involvement of parents in the education of children associated
with childrens academic performance, behavioral, cultural, age, and school quality. In terms
of achievement for early childhood, the influence of parental involvement can be seen from
some of the following studies: (1) when parents are involved- regardless of socioeconomic
status, ethnicity/ race back ground or education level of parents, children will show higher
achievement, (2) when parents are involved in their children's education, the child will be
more likely to help with the housework, and higher in school presence, (3) in a program
designed to involve parents in full partnerships, children's achievement from disadvantaged
families are not only increasing but also able to achieve the standard level as required for
children of middle socioeconomic status families, (4) the child will most likely have setback
if parents do not participate in schools activities, or do not build awin-win relationships with
teachers, or do not monitor what is happening in their child's kindergarten.
Whereas, in terms of the behavior of early childhood , the influence of parental
involvement in children's education can be seen from the following studies: (1) when the child
reported that she felt the support of the school and the home, the child will have a higher
confidence, consider the school more important, and tend to do things better, (2) violence and
antisocial behavior of children showed a decrease with increasing parental involvement, and
(3) children's attitudes and behavior shows that more positive when parents are actively
involved. Based on the exposure, there are seen that through intensive parental involvement
on child development, there are many positive effects gained by children. Conversely, the
lack of parental involvement will lead to a variety of bad effects such as decreased
performance, increased antisocial behavior, and poor relationships with teachers and parents.
Thinking Framework. Parents have a very important role in taking care and
educating children, since the child was born to school. Parental involvement in children's
education and development will greatly affect children's achievement and behavior later in
life. When the children have started learning in early childhood institutions such as
kindergartens, parents involvement is also still required. However, not all parents know
about how to educate and take care of children in accordance with the age and development of
the child, so that on the one hand many cases of omission of children, and on the other side of
violence or coercion of a child learning in children who are not suitable at all. On the other
hand, kindergarten also has various problems dealing with working with parents. There are
some parents who are not in line with the kindergarten in imparting various good habituation
that already started in school. There are also parents who impose reading-writing-counting

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(Calistung) learning in children, but the child is not ready in terms of 'school readiness'. In a
case like this, early childhood kindergarten as an institution can act as a bridge to provide
insight for parents in order that parents involvement in parenting run optimally.
METHODS
Data Collection Methods. This paper was the result of research on kindergartens in
South Tangerang, with consideration that in this area there were many new kindergartens
adapt with the growth of new estates on the outskirts of Jakarta, which is generally inhabited
by a young family. The time of study was 2013/2014 school year. The goal of this research
was the parents (mothers) of kindergarten children in South Tangerang. The variables in this
study were: mother's education level, mother's willingness, and the child's age group.
The study was conducted in 10 kindergartens located in South Tangerang, which was
selected based on purposive sampling technique. Distributions of questionnaires were given
to 300 parents in 10 kindergartens in South Tangerang. So every kindergarten get 30
questionnaires for elderly and 10 questionnaires for The Principal and the teachers.
Questionnaires were returned and filled were 238 of the parents. The instrument used in this
study was a questionnaire given to parents kindergarten to determine the pattern of
involvement of parents of children both at home and in kindergarten.
Data Analysis Methods. The data obtained in the field were presented descriptively
in forms of tables, graphs and qualitative analysis.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Parents profile. Through the profil of the child's parent will usually be seen in
relation to parenting. When we view from the parent job status, it can be described as follows.
Table 1. Parents Employment Status
No
1.
2.
3.

Percentage (%)
Father Mother
96,64
44,54
2,521
55,04
0,84
0,42

Level
Work
Not work
No answer

It is seen that almost all fathers work with percentages above 95%, whereas mothers
who worked nearly 45%. This means that the number of mothers who do not work are
enough, so that it can be assumed that mothers who do not work have a greater opportunity to
take care of their children to kindergarten than working mothers.
Parental Involvement in Kindergarten. The parents meeting in kindergarten
necessarily involve mothers. Therefore, be aware about who drop off or pick children up
every day. Aspect of engagement that views of who picks the children up to kindergarten can
be seen in the following chart.
Figure 1. Person who Drop off the Children into Kindergarten

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Who Pick up the Child into Kindergarten?


6%

2%

3%
8%

10%
9%

62%

Not answer
Mother
Father
Family (aunt/uncle)
Housekeeper
Not picked up
Shuttle car

Figure 1 shows that the majority of children were picked up by their mother, and only
6% were picked up by housekeeper. It is in line with initial presumption that the medium to
pilot kindergarten picked up by a lot more by the mother than the housekeeper or maid.
Being middle to upper kindergarten usually the majority of working mothers so that children
are picked up by other parts such as father, Sisters, aides, or schools pickup. The dominance
of the mother as a person who pick the children up to skindergarten facilitate communication
patterns between parents and teachers.
Table 2. Parents Activities in Kindergarten
No
1.
2.
3.
4.

Aspect
Communicating with teachers or kindergarten head about their
child
Familiar with the other parents in kindergarten
Involved in various activities in kindergarten
Participate in parenting class in kindergarten

Average
3,32
3,30
2,55
2,18

Table 2 shows that the highest rates are in direct communication with the child's class
teacher. While parental involvement in parent meetings it was ranked lowest, only 2.18. It
means parent participation in this meeting is still room for improvement through activities
that make parents interested in coming. The shape of the activity in parental involvement in
kindergarten is already implemented and followed by parents can be seen in the following
tabel.
Table 3 Parental Involvement Form in Kindergarten
No
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Aspect
Performance at assembly theme
Forum meeting parents
Day parental consultation
Education Seminar
Childcare Simulation
Home visit
Teachers volunteer
Other (swimming, the rituals of Hajj, helps the committee,
social gathering, the race for the elderly)

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Percentage
(%)
60,1
35,7
12,6
12,2
5,0
2,5
0,4
0,4

It was found that assembly theme form usually attended by parents, followed by a
meeting forum of the parents, but the percentage is almost half. It means, parent meetings and
other parental involvement forms need to be repackaged so that parental involvement in these
activities is quite high. Teahers partner activity (teacher volunteer) includes activities that are
less desirable with a percentage of less than 1%.
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Conclusion. In terms of communication, there are 34% who do not provide
kindergarten communication books, and activities at the highest communication book is still a
write impression / message for the teacher. However, parents are diligent enough in
communicating directly with her class teacher,is that when the mother picks up her child .
Most children (62%) picked up by his/her own mother, and the events of the most visited by
the parents is the peak theme in kindergarten.
Recommendation. The results of this study should be continued with efforts to
increase parental involvement in children's education, especially parental involvement in
kindergarten.
REFERENCES
Arya, P.K. 2008. Rahasia Mengasah Talenta Anak. Jogjakarta: Think
Anonym (2008).
Peran Orang Tua dalam PAUD. Download from
http://paudust.blogspot.com/2008/11/peran-orang-tua-dalam-paud.html
Dit PAUD (2012). Pedoman Penyelenggaraan Pendidikan Anak Usia Dini Berbasis
Keluarga. Jakarta.
Epstein, J. (1995). School, Family and Community Partnership: Caring for The Children We
Share. Phi Delta Kappa, 76 (9), 701-712
Fardana, NA & Tairas MMW (2012). Pengembangan Model Parental Involvement Sebagai
Strategi Stimulasi Kemampuan Literasi pada Anak Usia 4-6 Tahun di Wilayah
Pedesaan Kabupaten Gresik. INSAN Unair Journal, Vol. 14 No. 03, Desember 2012
Iskaradah (2009). Peran Orang Tua Bagi Pengembangan Anak Usia Dini. Download from
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Henderson & Mapp (2002), National Standards for Parent/Family Involvement Programs.
Hayati, N. (2011). Peran Orang Tua dalam Pendidikan Anak Usia Dini. Yogyakarta: UNY.
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Irsyadi, A.Y (2012). Pengaruh Bimbingan karir dan Pola Asuh Orang Tua Terhadap
Kemandirian dalam Memilih Karis Siswa Kelas XI Jurusan Teknik Instalasi Tenaga
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Palupi, DR. & Wrastari, ATW. (2013). Hubungan Antara Motivasi Berprestasi dan Persepsi
Terhadap Pola Asuh Orang tua dengan Prestasi Belajar Mahasiswa Psikologi
Angkatan 2010 Universitas Airlangga Surabaya. Psikologi Pendidikan dan
Perkembangan Unair Journal, Vol 2 No 01, Februari 2013. Download from
http://journal.unair.ac.id/filerPDF/dyah%20retno-110810224_Ringkasan.pdf

177

ROLE OF PARENTS INVOLVEMENT IN EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION


PROGRAM OVERVIEW FROM REGGIO EMILLIA APPROACH AT
YOGYAKARTA
Avanti Vera Risti P., M.Pd
Early Childhood Education Program, Faculty of Teacher Training And Education
Ahmad Dahlan University
Email: veraristi@gmail,com
ABSTRACT
Parents involvement is one of the most part for developing early childhood education
program. This study is aiming to see the parents involvement in early childhood education
program on learning process through Reggio Emilia Approach. The readiness and the level of
parents involvement will be the indicate that early childhood education program are high
quality program. This study involved 10 early childhood school in Yogyakarta on
kindergarten program. The Data of this study were drawn of observation, documentation, and
interview. The result show that the participation of parents involved in lower level with
passive activities that parents being on learning system. It shows that parents, teacher and
children do not use the three protagonist of education in learning program. The activities that
shows in learning program only involve parents as pasif person, the came to school when the
child having problem, any meeting, or counter part when field trip. With parents involvement
in early childhood education program, the benefit that can be get not only but children, and
program too.
Key words: early childhood, reggio emilia approach, parents involvement.
INTRODUCTION
Early childhood education is the basic education program that aims to develop the
potential of every child. In accordance with the concept of the National Association for the
Education of Young children (NAEYC) who believe the quality of early childhood programs
have high quality security and maintenance will provide an environment that will enhance the
development of cognitive, language, physical, social, emotional, and spiritual. Early
childhood programs that have a high quality can be seen from various aspects, but the most
important is that the program can be used for all children and their families (Anita Yus, 2011:
49).
A program that can be used by children and families in the education of early childhood
eeducation is parental involvement activities. Early childhood programs that are capable of
designing learning activities involving children and parents will make the activity more
meaningful to the lives of children. Parent involvement in early childhood programs in full
will have a positive impact for children. Gains will also be obtained indirectly educational
institutions. In accordance with the opinion Konstelnik (1999: 321) about the meaning parents
involvement is a process of helping parents Reviews their abilities to use benefits
Themselves, Reviews their children, and the early childhood program.
Parents involved can be divided into different level or process and the teacher must
provide opportunities for involvement at all these levels from a low to a high level. Level 1,
the lowest level of parents involvement. It consists primarily of involving parents as
providers of service. Level 2, this level is where parents are involved as resources. Level 3,
at this level parents are involved as teachers and aides. Level 4, this level parents as decision
makers. And level 5, at this level parents act as advocates and lobbyists. (Morrison, 1988:

178

326).
Parent involvement in early childhood learning process has miraculous reason as
follows; 1) Parents Want to Be Involved, wishes of parents who want to engage in full has
increased; 2) Increased Achievement and Social Skills, when parents are Involved children's
self-images and increase of achievements; 3) Support Parents, parents are more supportive of
the program in the which they have direct contact and meaningful involvement; 3) Parents
Rights, early childhood educators Recognize that parents have a right to be Involved in
programs that Affect Them; 4) Parents Duty, every parents has to be Involved in some way
for at least the time Reviews their children are in the program (Morrison, 1988: 320). Parent
involvement programs can be applied to various models of early childhood learning, it is
because the principles developed in early childhood programs are not biased in spite of the
intervention of the parents as individuals closest to the child.
Various models of early childhood education offered by many educational institutions to
cater for the needs of children. One model is an effective approach to early childhood learning
is the Reggio Emilia approach is widely adopted by educational institutions in Indonesia. The
key point early childhood learning models that emphasize the relationship between children,
parents and educators in the learning process as the key.
With the cooperation of the three aspects of child development will maximize the
golden age. This is in accordance with the principles of early childhood learning with the
Reggio Emilia Approach proposed by Konstelnik (1999: 34), with the concept of the three
protagonists of education between children, teacher and parents. Each of the protagonists is
endowed with rights and it is the goal of school to support Reviews those rights. Through this
approach the parents have the right to participate actively. In the implementation of the
Reggio Emilia Approach implement The Role of Families and Community. Families are
welcome and extremely active of participants in the schools, collaborating with teachers
Regarding both curriculum and administrative decisions. By developing the concept of
Reggio Emilia Approach to early childhood learning log indirectly schools should involve
parents as active in designing activities. Activities designed to involve parents, the child's
needs in the future development and growth will be met.
Based on parents involvement from Reggio Emilia Approach extremely active
participant can be show in decision on learning activities at class. For example, held the
celebrating birthday of child parents can make rules about the event. Accepted and respect
each other about the diversity of culture or religion at class, the parents have duty to explain
every child the information about that. Parents also have comprehension about development
every child are difference each other. That simple activities, if parents can implemented it can
be said extremely active participant of parents involvement. The commitment of parents and
teacher about involved program can help the child to grow up maximal.
During the early childhood development, the environment will be the most influential
factor. Family as the smallest environment for children provide considerable influence for
development. The family as the individuals closest to the child will be the first role model for
children. The treatment of parents of children who will shape the child's personality will be
seen later today. When a child enters the wider environment that schools, educators become
role models next. Cooperation between parents and educators in early childhood learning
process will maximize the child's ability in all aspects of development.
In the implementation process of early childhood learning parent involvement has been
done in the activities that are administrative. When early childhood program get parents
involvement, the first step of school is getting to know about the readiness. Of school
readiness held in involving parents in the learning process have varying degrees Level 1, the

179

first level involves care givers attitudes and skills. Level 2, a second level of readiness
related to the center or program. In this level there is two kind of readiness for parents are
passive readiness and active readiness. Passive readiness is also characterized by involving
parents mostly in passive ways. The activities of this readiness such are face to face
communication, short or infrequent phone calls, and having open house only once a years.
On the other hand active readiness is characterized by planning and providing a variety of
ways for parents to be involved. The activities are regularly schedule parent conferences,
parent seminar and courses, and home visits. Level 3, a third level relates to the involvement
readiness of parents. (Morrisson, 1988: 324).
Without parents involvement and school readiness in providing services to early
childhood will be a lot of things that are passed by the elderly in particular. Cases like sexual
abuse or abduction is not a fault of school completely, parents should be actively involved in
the learning process so that they can monitor the progress of children during school. Based on
this background, researchers want to know how to parent involvement in developing the
quality of early childhood education programs viewed from the Reggio Emilia approach,
especially in the city of Yogyakarta.
METHODOLOGY
This qualitative study focus on explaining the level of parents involved and the school
readiness in early childhood education. Ten school of early childhood education program
became the participants of the research. They are asked about the form of parents involved
program and how the school ready for this program. To find out how the parents involved
program has been held, class observation was also conducted. Descriptive data from the result
of documentation, observation, interview and analyzed qualitatively.
RESULTS AND DICSCUSSION
From the analysis obtained some form of activities involving parents in early childhood
learning are:
a. a. Acceptance of progress report
Receipt of the progress report of activities involving parents conducted by the school
each semester. In this activity, parents will receive a six-monthly report will be the
development of children. The activities carried out in the classical and the teacher
explains child development class in general. Personal consultation done some parents
who require detailed reports of child development.
a. b. Activities assistance outside school
In the mentoring activities outside of school, parents are involved as a child companion.
Activities conducted as competitions, field trips, and out bonds. Parents only served to
accompany the child during the activities with the aim of facilitating teachers to
accommodate the activities outside of school.
a. c. Parenting
Parenting hosted by the school once a year once by inviting all parents. For schools that
have high financial capability of these activities will be conducted by invited speakers
were quite varied. However, the participation rate of the elderly is not maximized.
a. d. Participation in school activities
For activities carried out within the school other than the school classroom learning
activities is held performance in stage activities. Forms participation parents is to provide
a means shopped child appeared in the stage.
From the activities, we can said that parents involvement get involved at administration.

180

They can be the decision in importing part in early childhood learning process. Parents have a
right to get involved extremely at class to develop the child or the program. As we know
Reggio Emilia Approach make parents as well as child or program. They can be separated
each other if we havent information about parents involved that can be do at early program
education.
When this study analyzed using the Reggio Emilia approach advanced by Konstelnik
(1999: 34) the concept of the three protagonists of education. Each of the protagonists is
endowed with rights and it is the goal of the school to support Reviews those rights.
Explained in more detail that the parents have the rights to participate freely and actively in
the elaboration of the founding principles and Reviews their children's experiences of growth,
care and learning. It is said that parent involvement in early childhood learning program is a
right that must be granted by the school fully in providing an educational experience for
children to grow, care, and learning. So the involvement of parents who are passive in this
study when viewed from the Reggio Emilia approach has not been seen at all. The passive
ways can we see at the readiness of schools and parents in providing rights and obligations.
Reggio Emilia Approach also explain that the parents involvement at program it doesnt
mean only parenting program. The examples of parents involvement is make rules at class
about activities that involved parent. This study description how parents help the program
when child will performance. They prepared the own child to make up or get the dress, if
that program analyzed from Reggio Emilia Approach we can say that parents get involved in
passive ways. The parents actually can more involved with the program like being the
organizer so they can joined the activities more active, because the can make a rule, design
the events, or performer.
From the description above forms of parent involvement activities are carried out in early
childhood learning is the level of parents involvement at level 1. At this level, parents
involvement is at the lowest level. The level of participation of parents conducted in
accordance with the service given school. Responses given in the lowest level of this depends
on the willingness of each parent. For parents who need information or a more in-depth
program of activities will be fully involved parents, but for parents who had had enough with
the services of the school does not require further communication. This is in accordance with
the views expressed by Morrison (1988: 324) which states that the level 1 is the lowest level
in parents involvement, it consists primarily of involving parents as providers of services. The
service can be provide are limited only by Reviews their time and desires.
In the process of involving parents in early childhood learning when referring to the
opinion of Morrison (1988: 323) about the readiness of educators in designing learning
activities that involve parents. There are three levels of readiness of educators in engaging
parents, this study shows the level of preparedness of teachers in second level passive
readiness.
Readiness educators at the second level of passive readiness emphasis on face to face
communication activities, short or infrequent phone calls, and having an open house only
once a year. Activities that have been held in the early childhood program activities as
described by Morrison that the parents have not been fully involved in the learning process on
the other hand has a new educator readiness in conducting parent involvement at level two
with passive readiness.
CONCLUSION
The discussion above the involved of parents in early childhood education in Yogyakarta
over view of Reggio Emilia approach showing the readiness of parents at level one and level

181

two educators readiness with passive readiness. Improving the quality of early childhood
learning programs through parents involvement are expected to be used as one way of
improving the quality of school learning. Parent involvement programs need to be understood
by educators and parents before they designing learning programs for early childhood, so that
both sides have equal readiness. With equal readiness of the learning program will be
designed according to the needs of children's growth and development.
REFERENCE
Brostrm, Stig. (2006). Curriculum In Preschool. International Journal of Early Childhood.
2006, 38, 1, Research Library, pg. 65.
Hedge, Archana V. & Cassidy, Deborah J. (2009). Kindergaten Teachers Perspectives on
Developmentally Appropriate Practices (DAP): A Study Conduted in Mumbai (India).
Journal of Research in Childhood Education, Spring 2009, Vol. 23, No. 3, pg. 367.
Kostelnik, Marjorie J. Soderman, Anne K. & Whiren, Alice Phipps. 1999. Developmentally
Appropriate Curriculum. Best Practices in Early Childhood Education. Upper Saddle
River: Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Morisson, George S. (1988). Early Childhood Education Today. Fourth Edition. Columbus:
Merrill Publishing Company
Morrison, George S. (1988). Education and Development of Infants, Toddlers, and
Preschoolers. London: Scott, Foresman, and Company.
Miles, M. B. & Huberman, A.M. (1984). Qualitative Data Analysis. Beverly Hills: SAGE
Publication Ltd.
Miyahara, Jungko & Meyers, Cliff. (2008). Early Learning and Development Standards in
East Asia And The Pacific: Experiences From Eight Countries. International Journal
of Early Childhood, 2008, 40, 2, pg. 17.
Moleong, Lexy J. (1993). Metodologi Penelitian Kualitatif. Bandung: PT Remaja
Rosdakarya.
Vera, Avanti. (2014). Sriwijaya University Learning and Education- International Conference
2014.. Improving The Development Of Qualified Preschool Until 1st Grade Primary
Education Through Involvement The Parents. Faculty of Teacher Training and
Educational, Sriwijaya University, Palembang, May 16-18 2014
Vera, Avanti. (2013). Suara Merdeka: Lentera. Keluargaku, Sekolah Pertamaku. 15 Juni
2013.

182

Gender Issues in ECE

184

GENDER POWER RELATIONS IN INDONESIA EARLY CHILDHOOD


EDUCATION: AN ANALYSIS OF TEXTBOOKS FOR TEACHERS
By Vina Adriany
Abstact
For the last 10 years, the practice of early childhood education in Indonesia has been very
much influenced by Developmental Appropriate Practices (DAP). It has been widely
believed that DAP provides of a more comprehensive and humanistic understanding of young
children. We suggest that the central theme in DAP is predicated on the child centred
approach, an approach that argues that early childhood education should be based on
childrens psychological, physical as well as emotional needs. Such practices are believed to
balance the power relation between teachers and children in the classroom. Using a feminist
poststructuralist approach, this paper will attempt to examine power relations in the practice
of DAP in early childhood education in Indonesia. This research will analyse three Indonesia
early childhood education text books in order to understand the power relations in the practice
of DAP in Indonesia. Findings from this research yield power relations in three main
discourses i.e. time and space, adult-child, and gender discourses. This research also shows
the extent to which the early childhood education textbooks regulate children as well as
teachers in sophisticated manner.
Keywords: Power relation, DAP, feminist poststructuralist, discourses, and early childhood
education, Indonesia
Introduction
For the last ten years, the practice of early childhood education in Indonesia has been
very much influenced by developmental appropriate practice (DAP) approach. The DAP itself
is an approach in education that is influenced by developmental psychology theories. One of
the most prominent theories in developmental psychology theories is Piagets theory of stage
development. His theory basically sees childrens development undergoes certain stages of
development that is assumed to occur universally irrespective of childrens socio-cultural
background. In order to show how young children move from one stage to another stage,
Piaget conduct his experiment in a laboratory setting. His finding reveals the extent to which
young children are seen as a rational and active being that are able to make decision for
themselves (Burman, 2008). DAP is widely celebrated because it tends to see young children
in a more democratic way. Early childhood education practitioners believe that DAP liberate
children and thus DAP has been widely implemented in educational setting including in
Indonesia. Early childhood education educators in Indonesia take DAP for granted perhaps
because as Burman (2008) suggests, they believe that DAP provides a more humanistic
perspective on young children.
The aims of early childhood education in Indonesia is to prepare young children
entering basic formal education, to assist them to achieve their fullest being by providing
conducive environment and observing closely their developmental task (Departemen
Pendidikan Nasional, 2009). Such intervention provided by early childhood education in
Indonesia is therefore consistent with what defined by Hall (Burman, 2008) as the most
effective means of helping children.
In addition to that, in the first book out of the three text books analyzed in this paper,
Indonesia Directorate of Kindergarten and Primary School Services have also listed 10 basic

185

principles of early childhood education (Departemen Pendidikan Nasional, 2006). First, early
childhood education should be based on playing while learning principle. This principle
becomes in fact becomes one of the most fundamental principle of DAP (Walkerdine, 1984).
DAP maintains the boundaries between play and work in early childhood education,
where play is considered to be childrens normal characteristic. Any form of working such as
reading behaviour is considered as deviant and thus it needs to be regulated and normalized
(Walkerdine, 1984). The second principle is developmental task oriented pedagogy. This
principle is very much predicated on Piagets theory of child development. Any activities in
the classroom should be designed in a way that it doesnt contradict childrens stage of
development. Any form of interferes that go beyond childrens stage of development are seen
as a form of abuse that may harm children development. The third principle is childs need
oriented pedagogy. Education should be directed to fulfil specific needs of the children. The
fourth principle is early childhood education should be predicated on child centered
pedagogy. Child centered pedagogy itself is very much closely related to the DAP because
they both give emphasis on child as an active agent and what teachers and parents can do is
facilitating their development so that they can achieve their fullest being (Burman, 2008).
Fifth, early childhood education should use thematic approach. The thematic approach is
adopted because it is believed to value the different characteristics of children in the
classroom. Curriculum is then designed in order to respond to each need of the children. The
sixth principle of early childhood education in Indonesia is education should be active,
creative, effective and fun. This principle is similar to the idea that childs word should be
joyful as well as playful. Learning in early childhood education should be fun and thus any
forms of working in early childhood education needs to be control (Walkerdine, 1984).
Seventh, early childhood education should develop childrens life skill. Eight, learning in
early childhood education should be supported by conducive environment. The ninth principle
is that learning in early childhood education should be democratic. This principle might be
seen as Morss (1996) claims as an attempt to bring politic into early childhood education. The
use of the term democratic in the early childhood education is transformed when early
childhood education attempts to include children in the decision making processes. This idea
is also closely related to the belief that young children are rational subject that are capable of
making decision for them. Lastly, the tenth principle in early childhood education is learning
in early childhood education should be meaningful. These ten principles are clearly predicated
on DAP. They show obviously how early childhood education in Indonesia is very much
influenced by developmental psychology theories.
These basic tenth of early education have implications for teachers. In order to
implement these principles, early childhood teachers are expected to act accordingly. The
teachers should act as a facilitator in which they have to be responsive to the need of their
pupils. They should not interfere their pupils, but instead they need to provide a stimulating
environment for their children. Again, this is another indicator of how early childhood
education in Indonesia is shaped by Piagets theory. Piagets theory itself has also recognized
the role of teachers as a facilitator who manipulates the environment in order to gain desired
outcomes (Burman, 1994). The three text books analyzed in this paper also yield the extent to
which they are informed by Piagets theory and DAP. Emphasis on play, childrens stage of
development, the notion of children as active subjects, and teachers as facilitators can be
found out throughout the text in three books.
This research is conducted in the early stage of PhD research at Lancaster University
which aims to investigate gender construction in early childhood education in Indonesia.
Hence, this research can be considered as a small part of the PhD research as well. While the

186

larger research requires empirical observation from the field, this research will only deal with
three books in Indonesia early childhood education
Critiques of DAP
Though the practices of DAP appear to be harmless, and thus it still dominates the
curriculum and practices of early childhood education, an increasing number of scholars have
questioned its practice and offered an alternative approach to DAP (MacNaughton, 2000).
They offer a poststructuralist approach in understanding early childhood education. Studies
conducted by MacNaughton (2000), Davies (1994, 2003a &2003b), Yelland (1998), Kamler
(1999), & Walkerdine (1984) show the extent to which poststructuralist approach can be used
in both theories and practices of early childhood education. Their main criticism toward the
theories and practices of DAP is on their doubt about whether DAP frees or controls the
children in a more sophisticated manner (MacNaughton, 2000). Burman (1994) is also
sceptical to the fact of whether DAP can really fulfil the needs of all the children in one
particular classroom.
A teacher attempting to conform to those precepts encounters an untenable conflict
between mandate for non-interference to promote independence, and her institutional
position as responsible for childrens learning. How can she oversee the individual
development of a class of thirty children? Various studies of both accounts of and
implementation of progressive education...have highlighted how teacher position
themselves as both responsible for, but helpless in, moulding childrens development
(Burman, 1994: 165-166)
MacNaughton (2000) has also questioned the extent to which DAP is seen as gender neutral.
While many practitioners continue to see DAP as do not promote particular gender norms and
values, MacNaughton believes that DAP is in fact gendered. It maintains and sustains
particular gender norms and values which support the binary opposition between male and
female in the society.
Critiques toward DAP are also focused on the notion of developmentally appropriate
children. Early childhood education teachers tend to assume that the childrens developmental
stages are innate and universal. Greene (1999; p. 257) questions who is the child? Thorough
analysis conducted by Walkerdine (1984) and Greene (1999) show how the subject of child in
the early childhood education is produced and reproduced through power knowledge relation
hence the subject of child is not innate. Such subjectification of child creates normalization of
child (Walkerdine, 1984). The process has created norms against which all children, parents,
and also teachers are being judged (Greene, 1999). Children who do not conform to the norms
are seen as deviant and thus it may exclude children from different cultural, racial, and gender
background.
One of the central concepts in poststructuralist framework is the concept of power.
Our view of power follows that of Michael Foucault in which he examines how power is not
only confined to the use of punishment. Power according to Foucault is not centralised but it
operates within the discourse. Since power is circulated within the discourse, power is not
always oppressive. People are in fact participating in the discourse. The discourse on child
development for example might be embraced by mothers participates in a parenting class,
fathers buy children toys, teachers emphasizes on the play in her class room, the
establishment of child care and so forth. As Foucault said;
Power must be analysed as something circulates rather as something which only
functions in the form of a chain. Power is employed and exercised through a net-like
organisation. And not only do individuals circulate between its threads, they are

187

always in the position of simultaneously undergoing and exercising this power


(Foucault, 1980: 98)
Power is also exercised within various institutions such as mental hospital or even
school. Devine (2003) argues that the power embodies in school as a social institution enables
it to categorize children according to their sex, social status, and ability. Children who are not
categorized to the norms will then be excluded as the other. In this sense, power produces a
particular subject. As Foucault also mentions:
...power produces, it produces reality, it produces domain of objects and rituals of
truth. The individual and the knowledge that may be gained of him belong to this
production (Foucault, 1979: 194)
There are various dimensions of the power relations that circulate within the
institutions such as school. We can explore the circulation of power in school through a focus
on gender (Paechter, 1998) and also through a focus on age that is on adult-child relations.
(Davies, 1994, 2003a & 2003b; Devine, 2003; & Francis, 1998). Adult-child relations seem to
also contribute to the power relations in the school. Both adults and young children are
passively positioning or powerless in one discourse, while at the same time are taking an
active positioning or powerful in another discourse (Francis, 1998). In her study, Davies
(1994) observed a little girl named Joane who positioned herself in multiple ways. In one
discourse, Joane was powerful even when she had to play with her friend, Tony, in a tree
house in their school. She was so powerful that she was able to negotiate with Tony whom
they should prevent from entering the house. Yet when she realized that she was being
observed by adult that is Davies, the researcher, she positioned herself into domestic
discourse by claiming that what she did in the tree house was only cleaning the sawdust on
the floor (Davies, 1994). It shows the extent to which power relations are continued to be
negotiated.
Since the idea of power in this research is understood as something that operates as a
network within institutions, power can be seen to be embodied in the resources and outputs of
educational institutions as well as within social relationships permeate written as well as
spoken forms of educational discourse. We now turn to explore how power circulates within
the production and use of educational text books. We examine the gendered nature of power
in such books.
Research conducted by Jackson and Gee (2005) in which they analyzed early school
reader illustrations across 50 years yield the extent to which early school reader illustrations
in New Zealand promote particular types of gender norms and values that sustain the binary
opposition between male and female in the society. Another research done by Jackson (2007)
reveals how women continue to be position as inferior to men in early school readers. Study
conducted by Brugeilles and Cromer (2009) also indicates how gender is represented in
school textbooks.
Several studies have also dealt with Indonesia text books at primary school level but
no studies so far have been conducted at the pre-school level. Study conducted by Logsdon
(1985) for instance, in which she examined several educational textbook in the primary school
reveals that the books prepared Indonesian children to live in a male dominated society where
womens primary function is reproduction. Another study conducted by Parker (1997) where
she studied the process of gendering children in Balinese school finds that teachers behaviour
and its curriculum tend to be gendered. This research thus aims to identify the extent to which
power relations can be found in Indonesia early childhood education text books. Text books
in this research can be defined as a set of books used by teachers in order to assist their
teaching practices. Hence, text books function as guidance that will ensure teachers teaching

188

practices are following them. In addition to that, the second aim of this research is to explore
the multiple discourses that constitute the books. It is through the production and usage of
such books that the underlying DAP theories discussed earlier come to influence pedagogy.
Focus on Three Textbooks for Early Education Teachers in Indonesia
The three text books analyzed in this research are produced and published by
Directorate of Kindergarten and Primary School Service, Indonesia Ministry of Education.
The production of these text books are seen as part of the larger curriculum in early childhood
education in Indonesia. These books are governments attempt to make sure that the practices
of early childhood education follow national curriculum (Departemen Pendidikan Nasional,
2006).
The first book i.e. Teaching and Learning Practices Guidance in Early Childhood
Education (Pedoman Pembelajaran di Taman Kanak-kanak) is a general guidance for early
childhood school principals and teachers (Departemen Pendidikan Nasional, 2006). It
explains the basic philosophy and characteristics of early childhood education and also point
out the key themes of early childhood education teaching. This book also discusses methods
that can be implemented in early childhood education, how to organize the class, and how to
evaluate children in the school. The other two books deal with more specific subjects. The
second book i.e. Teaching Guidance for Language in Early Childhood Education (Pedoman
Pembelajaran Bidang Pengembangan Berbahasa di Taman Kanak-kanak) is a book of
guidance of how to teach language in early childhood education (Departemen Pendidikan
Nasional, 2007a). This book besides elaborates the basic assumption of why teaching
language is important for children development, also provides with examples of how teachers
should teach language to young children. The last book i.e. Teaching Guidance for Moral
Development in Early Childhood Education (Pedoman Pembelajaran Bidang Pengembangan
Pembiasaan di Taman Kanak-kanak) is a book of how to teach routine to young children.
This book basically provides teacher with guidance of how to teach moral value to young
children (Departemen Pendidikan Nasional, 2007b).
These three books will be analysed using feminist poststructuralist approaches. The
use of poststructuralist frameworks will assist us, the researchers in two ways. First, they
enable us to understand the text from various meanings or from multiple discourses (Jackson,
2007). Second, the feminist poststructuralist approaches will also assist us to be aware in
identifying power relation in term of gendered (Jackson, 2007). The use of feminist
poststructuralist also involves careful reading of the text with awareness to inconsistency and
contradiction (Blaise, 2005). Finally, poststructuralist approach assists us in identifying how
power is circulated within these textbooks.
Analysis
Time, Space and Power
The distribution of power between teachers and children is reflected in the use and
allocation of time and space in the school (Devine, 2003). The relations between time and
power in the three books are quite obvious. In the first book i.e. Teaching and Learning
Practices Guidance in Early Childhood Education, an example of activities that can be
implemented in the classroom is given as follows;
1. Opening Activities/ Circle Time (approximately 30 minutes)
a. Singing, praying, and greetings
b. Discussing todays theme
c. Doing physical activities preferably outside the classroom

189

2. Main Activities (approximately 60 minutes)


a. Teacher explains the activities that will be done by children. Children normally are
divided into groups;
Group 1: Copying lines (fine motor)
Group 2: Drawing (art)
Group 3: Experiment for example by making tea (cognitive)
b. Children are allowed to free any activities that they like.
c. Children do not have to do all the three tasks in three different groups.
d. Children are allowed to do only 1 or 2 tasks, but teachers should remain motivate
them.
e. Children are free to move according to their interest. The movement doesnt have
to be clock wise, yet it will be allowed as long as children prefers that way. (For
example: a child moves from group 1 to group 2).
f. The time allocated for each groups is not restricted to 20 minutes. When children
have finished 2 or 3 tasks, the children are allowed to move into the playing zone.
3. Break (approximately 30 minutes)
Washing hands, praying, eating, and playing
4. Closing Activities
a. Counting from 1-5
b. Clapping hands with three different styles
c. Reviewing todays lesson
d. Singing, praying, and going home.
(Departemen Pendidikan Nasional, 2006: 30-31)
The above illustration clearly shows the extent to which the book regulates the time.
By regulating and specifying the time for each activity, the book does not only control the
children but it also controls the teachers. Thus teachers in early childhood education becomes
an individual that can be trained and thus they can be controlled as well (Walkerdine, 1984).
Giving a very strict time table, teachers in this situation will face with tension of how to
respond to the childrens need but at the same time follow the time table accordingly.
The idea that teachers in early childhood education needs to be controlled can also be
found in the second book i.e. Teaching Guidance for Language Development in Early
Childhood Education, when teachers teach language to children especially when they
introduce children how to use the word I1. This diagram is just one example to illustrate
how teachers behaviours are not natural but produced and reproduced within the discourse of
DAP.

In Indonesian language, the word I can be translated into two different words. Both carries the same
meaning, but one should take into consideration the social condition as well as to whom they speak to.
The first word is likely to be used more polite. While the second word is more likely to be used by people
with authority or when one declares something very important. The teaching of language in early
childhood education introduces these differences and considers this as a norm that needs to be acquired
by young children.
1

190

Stage 1
Teacher
explains
todays
activities

Stage 2
Children listen to
the teacher s
explanation of how
to use different
words of I and to
use them
appropriately

Stage 4
Teacher praises
pupil who can do
the task and
motivate those
who are still
strugling to do the
task.

Stage 3
Teacher assigns
the children to
use different
words of I
appropriately

(Departemen Pendidikan Nasional, 2007a: 13)


The diagram shows the extent to which teachers behaviour needs to be controlled by
providing step by step of procedures of how to teach young children. In this sense the book
show that teachers understanding toward their pupil is not innate, yet it is the result of
knowledge production. The discourse on developmental psychology has created subject
named early childhood teachers who posses certain behaviour such as praising and motivating
their pupil.
The book also provides an illustration of how early childhood education should be
organized. It gives example as follows;
Entrance
door

Blackboard
G
R

G
L
(Departemen Pendidikan
R Nasional, 2006: 35)

O
U

O
C

U Nasional, 2006: 35)


(Departemen Pendidikan

Group 2

R
S

Playing Zone

Even though the structures of the classroom appear to give space for childrens spontaneous
behaviour to move around without any restriction, but the establishment of the playing zone
as a separated zone create a distinction of the zone from the other activities in the classroom.
In addition to that, the fact that playing zone can only be used by children once they have
finished doing 2 or 3 tasks show how the concept of time and space in this book are very
much correlated to the notion of discipline. As Devine (2003) argues that time and space in
the school take place within disciplinary framework. Children need to be disciplined in order
to enable them to confirm the norms of the society.

191

Adult-Child Power Relation


Adult-child power relation is very much obvious in the text books. The text in the
books yields the extent to which adults are so powerful. In fact, though Foucault (1980)
himself believes that power is continued to be negotiated, there is almost no place for
negotiation in adult-child relationship in these books. Despite of the fact that DAP perceives
young children as rational being that can make decision for themselves, children are
continued to be seen as powerless throughout the discourse in the books.
Adult-child power relation can be found in the following example, given in the third
book i.e. Teaching Guidance for Moral Development in Early Childhood Education. This
illustration shows how teacher should respond a childs inappropriate behaviour and thus
replace it with a good behaviour.
The school is almost finished. All the children are ready to go home and started wearing
their shoes. One boy named Rama suddenly shouts, Teacher! and at the same time he
lifts up his feet.
The teacher asks him, Whats wrong with your feet dear?. Rama replies, I cant tie my
shoelace!. Oh, I see., the teacher responds. Why dont you try to speak nicely to me,
like teacher can you please help me tie up my shoelace?.
Rama then follows his teacher instruction. The teacher ties up his shoelace and Rama says
thank you to the teacher.
Note:
It is the duty of the teachers to fix childrens inappropriate behavior.
(Departemen Pendidikan Nasional, 2007b: 25)
Despite of DAPs believe in the notion of child as an active being, the above
illustration shows the extent to which DAP views children as a passive being, receiving
whatever information provided by the environment. They do not have the capacity to
construct their own identity. Their identity construction is built upon the sponge models of
identity formation (MacNaughton, 2000). A model argues that a child constructs their identity
simply by observing adults.
Another example shows how children are continued to be portrayed as voiceless in the
text books.
Stage 1

Stage 2

Stage 3

Stage 4

Stage 5

Stage 6

Teacher
prepares
teaching
materials

Teacher
pronounc
eseveral
words in
order,
children
listen
attentively

Children
imitates
teacherss
word in
the same
order like
teacher

Teacher
pronounc
edifferent
words in
order,
children
listen
attentively

Children
should at
least say
three
words in
order

Teacher
allows
children
to say at
least three
different
word in
order out
of the two
examples
given eexg

(Departemen Pendidikan Nasional, 2007a: 16)

192

The diagram point outs how adult-child power relations in the text books are so
pervaded and how childrens behaviour are merely the result of copying adults behaviour.
Every childs behaviour is thus the result of socialization process and hence children are
continued to be seen as voiceless.
Gender Discourses
Part of the power-relations found in the textbooks is gender discourse discourses. The
gender discourses found in the books sustain and also promote the binary opposition between
male and female in the society. Dominant norms of masculinity and femininity are operated
throughout the text books.
Gender norms in these books can be found both in the text and also in the illustration.
The image in the books obviously show gender discourses in term of fashion. Blaise (2005) in
her research has identified that gender discourses are often maintained by discourse on
fashion. Boys and girls in the books are drawn in a particular stereotype fashion.
These two pictures are taken from the book Teaching Guidance for Language
Development in Early Childhood Education. It shows the situation where boys and girls play
together.

(Departemen Pendidikan Nasional, 2007a: 42)

193

The image below can also be found in the book;

(Departemen Pendidikan Nasional, 2007a: 15)


Though the three pictures above show the activities done by both girls and boys, yet if
we analyze the image thoroughly, it is very obvious that girls and boys are using certain type
of clothes, each indicate a gender norms in the society. The picture symbolizes what and how
girls and boys should behave accordingly in the society, in matters of dress.
Another picture involved show how girls should behave when they become an adult.

(Departemen Pendidikan Nasional, 2007a: 41)


The picture above not only indicates what it is to be a grown up female in a society,
but it also shows how this textbook domesticates women. Womens main role is illustrated as
a mother.
In the other book i.e. Teaching Guidance for Moral Development in Early Childhood
Education, other stereotype gender value is also socialized. The book consistently uses the
word she to point out early childhood teachers in the books (Departemen Pendidikan
Nasional, 2007b: 24, 25, 26, 43, & 50). By utilizing the word she, the book does not only
show that early childhood education teacher is associated as females job, but it also excludes
male from the discourse on early childhood education. By excluding men, the book can be
seen as perpetuating hegemonic masculinity and emphasized femininity. Both hegemonic
masculinity and emphasized femininity define a stereotypical gendered norms and expectation
considered appropriate male and female (Connel, 1987 & Blaise, 2005). By not illustrating
male as a teacher in early childhood education in the book, it leaves out male from the
profession and continues to see male as the other in the field of early childhood education
(Sumsion, 2000).

194

Conclusion
Findings of this research indicate the extent to which power relations operate in the
text books. Though as Paechter (1998) mentions it is undeniable that early developmental
psychology and child-centered approach create friendlier and more exciting classrooms, it
also has a dark side. The research shows how developmental psychology and DAP persist to
produce subjects named early childhood education teachers and children. Teachers and
children who are able to follow the characteristics given in the books will be regarded as
either good teachers or developmentally appropriate children. Those who fail to subscribe to
the categories will be excluded and seen as the other. Thus, finding of this research confirm
Walkerdines arguments about how the subject of child is produced and reproduced in DAP
(Walkerdine, 1984). This research also shows how power is circulated in the textbooks not by
a mean of oppression but by discourses (Morss, 1996). Finally, this finding also reveals that
the practices of early childhood education found in these books tend to control children in a
more subtle ways.
References
Blaise, M. (2005). A feminist poststructuralist study of children doing gender in an urban
kindergarten classroom. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 20 (2005), 85108.
Brugeilles, C. & Cromer, S. (2009). Analysing Gender Representations in School Textbooks.
Paris: CEPED.
Burman, E. (1994). Deconstructing Developmental Psychology. London: Routledge
Connel, R.W. (1987). Gender & Power; Society, the Person, and Sexual Politics. Cambridge:
Blackwell Publishers Ltd.
Davies, B. (1994). Poststructuralist Theory Classroom Practice. Victoria: Deakin University
Press.
Davies, B. (2003a). Frogs and Snails and Feminist Tales. New Jersey: Hampton Press, Inc.
Davies, B. (2003b). Shard of Glass. Children Reading and Writing Beyond Gendered
Identities. New Jersey: Hampton Press Inc.
Departemen Pendidikan Nasional (2006). Pedoman Pembelajaran di Taman Kanak-kanak.
Jakarta: Departemen Pendidikan Nasional
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Berbahasa di Taman Kanak-kanak. Jakarta: Departemen Pendidikan Nasional
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Pembiasaan di Taman Kanak-kanak. Jakarta: Departemen Pendidikan Nasional
Devine, D. (2003). Children, Power, and Schooling: How Childhood is Structured in The
Primary School. Staffordshire: Trentham Books Limited.
Foucault, M. (1979). Discipline and Punish: the Birth of the Prison. New York: Random
House.
Foucault, M. (1980). Michael Foucault: Power Knowledge. Herrtfordshire: Harvester
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Francis, B. (1998). Power Plays: Primary School Childrens Construction of Gender, Power,
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Greene, S. (1999). Child development: old themes, new direction in Martin, W., Dorothy, F.,
& Karen, L. (eds.), Making Sense of Social Development (pp. 250-268). London:
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Jackson, S. & Gee, S. (2005). Look Janet, No you look John: construction of gender in
early in early school reader illustrations across 50 years. Gender and Education, Vol.
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Jackson, S. (2007). She might not have the right tools...and he does: childrens sense making
of gender, work, and abilities in early school readers. Gender and Education, Vol. 19,
No.1, pp. 61-77.
Kamler, B. (1999). Constructing Gender and Difference. Critical Research Perspective on
Early Childhood. New Jersey: Hampton Press Inc.
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Goodman (Ed.), Women and the Pacific: Towards an East-West Dialogue (pp. 243262). Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.
MacNaughton, G. (2000). Rethinking Gender in Early Childhood Education. New Sout
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Falmer Press.
Parker, L.(2001). Engendering School Children in Bali. Journal of the Royal Anthropological
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positioning. International of Early Years Education, Vol.8, No. 2.
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Yelland, N. (1998). Gender in Early Childhood. London: Routledge.

196

NEOLIBERAL EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION POLICY AND


WOMENS VOLUNTEERISM
Hani Yulindrasari
Faculty of Arts
The University of Melbourne
Prodi PGPAUD FIP UPI
Abstract
This essay analyses the neoliberal doctrines embedded in the ECE movement and the impact
of related reforms on women. The analysis of the several ECE document policies shows that
neoliberal idea is reflected in the mandate of ECE describe by the grand design of ECE
movement, the improvement of teachers quality agenda, and the governance of ECE, which
put forward competitiveness, non-government providers, and international penetration in the
ECE market. Neoliberal policy that intersects with patriarchal thinking has put women in a
disadvantaged situation. The ECE development has exploited women in the way it uses
women as unpaid workers and gives women extra burden for the sake of accreditation.
1. Introduction
The rise of the Suharto regime in Indonesia in the mid 1960s was accompanied by a
radical change from criticism of Western capitalism and economic neo-colonialism to an
embrace of foreign investment and Western supported development (Rosser, 2012). In this
context the World Bank introduced neo-liberal reforms in Indonesia such as deregulation and
opening up foreign investment and imports (Parente, 2009). In response to the Asian
economic crisis which hit the Indonesian economy the IMF forced the government to
implement further neo-liberal reforms such as massive reduction in tarrifs and elimination of
subsidies of daily goods, and privatization of public services (Dalrymple, 1998; Parente,
2009). In this period Indonesia moved from an emphasis on development to neoliberal
globalism (Gellert, 2005). The reform agenda stretched to the education sector. Within
neoliberal doctrine, education is defined as a mechanism for producing quality workers for the
economy (Robertson, 2007). Therefore, transformation of the education system is very
important for future economic development (Lee, 2012; Robertson, 2007).
Recognition in the field of child psychology and neuroscience that the early-childhood
period, from 0-6 years old, is a critical period of human development rationalized the World
Banks emphasis on investment in early-childhood education (Mahon, 2010). The World
Banks influence on the development of early-childhood education (ECE) in Indonesia started
in 1998 through a loan of as much as USD 21.5 million (World Bank, 2007). Since then, the
World Bank has pushed the Indonesian government to reform policy regarding ECE. In 2001,
as a critical step, a directorate of early-childhood education (DOECE) was established within
the Ministry of National Education (MONE) and an ECE movement in Indonesia started.
Aiming at Gross Enrolment Rate (GER) 72% in 2014, the government developed a target of
satu desa satu PAUD, to establish one ECE center in every village in Indonesia.
Historically women have dominated the ECE field in Indonesia, which has meant that
it is traditionally a low paid career. Therefore, reforms in ECE have primarily affected
women. This essay will analyse the neoliberal doctrines used in the ECE movement and the
impact of related reforms on women. Firstly, this essay will explain and clarify the concept of
neoliberal doctrines that frame my analysis. Secondly, I will briefly describe how neoliberal
discourse is embedded in the ECE movement. Thirdly, I will analyze the impact of neoliberal

197

policy in ECE on teachers who are mostly women. Throughout this essay, I argue that the
Indonesian ECE movements adoption of neoliberal principles has lead to further exploitation
of women in this field.
2. Neoliberalism in education
Early definition of neoliberalism emphasized economic policy characterized by privatization
of governments enterprises, deregulation or less governments intervention in the economy,
and competitiveness or the deployment of market mechanisms (Cox, 1996). However,
Ferguson (2009) explains that the term neoliberalism has been applied to diverse phenomena.
This essay will use Fergusons definition of neoliberalism as a regime of policy and
practices that works through and at the same time produces neoliberal agents (Ferguson,
2009: 170). Within a neoliberal regime, the government runs like a business, handing over the
function of the state to private parties of subcontractors for profit (Ferguson, 2007). People
are also seen as economic agents, who have skills, traits, marketable capacities and freedom
of choice (Gershon, 2011). Both the government and citizens are autonomous market actors.
Citizens are constructed as active and responsible to achieve governmental results
without any direct state intervention (Ferguson, 2009: 172). In this context the governmentcitizen relationship is a partnership with a distribution of responsibility and risk to maintain
each partys autonomy in the market (Gershon, 2011). For this essay, I focus on teachers, the
community and students; teachers and the community are the responsible subjects and
students are the subjects in whom skills and traits should be invested in and nurtured to
produce neoliberal agents.
In the field of education, Robertson (2007) underlines three key principles of a neoliberal
reform. The first one is the transformation of the mandate (the objective of education). A
neoliberal mandate of education is to develop competitive economic actors who are efficient,
creative, and problem solvers. The second is the forms of capacity or the means through
which the mandate is going to be achieved. Capacity is related to funding and human
resources (teacher). Neoliberal reforms emphasise the achievement of a mandate with the
most efficient budget. Education providers are usually encouraged to generate additional
income as the government limits its financial support. One strategy of cost efficiency is the
reformulation of the teacher's salary system. Performance-based pay is usually applied in the
reform. The third strategy is the mechanism of education governance. These are indicators of
neoliberal governance in education: outcome-based funding; some services are decentralized
and others are centralized, competition among educational institutions; introduction of a profit
oriented private education provider, and multi-national firms involvement in education
(Robertson, 2007). I will unpack the policy of Indonesian ECE movement accordingly to the
above principles explained by Robertson (2007).
3. Neoliberalism in the Indonesian Early Childhood Education Movement
a. The Education Mandate
The mandate of ECEC development in Indonesia corresponds with the neoliberal mandate of
education. The Grand Design of ECEC development in Indonesia, established in 2011,
inscribes the mandate of ECEC as instilling in Indonesian children with the dasa citra (ten
ideals) as the foundation of high-quality future human resources." The ten ideals are that
children will be faithful to one God, pious, noble, healthy, intelligent, honest, responsible,
creative, confident, and nationalist. To meet the criteria of being of high quality they will
also be globally competitive (MoNE, 2011). The term used to refer to future Indonesian
citizens is human resource. According to the Merriam-Webster dictionary, this term means

198

a group of people who are able to do work. The use of this term implies that children are
seen as part of the potential workforce for future national economic growth. The emphasis on
global competitiveness also means that the future citizens should have skills and capacity to
participate in the global market. Children are viewed as an asset that should be managed and
developed. This is in line with Gershons (2011) explanation about neoliberal self, that a
neoliberal self owns a bundle of skills and traits to be managed.
Another important aspect of the neoliberal self is autonomy (Gershon, 2011). The Learning
approach adopted in the ECE development standards in Indonesia (MoNE, 2009) is childcentered pedagogy. Ryan (2005) defines child-centered pedagogy as education with a
curriculum that corresponds to the unique characteristics, needs, and interest of each child.
Children are seen as independent and active learners and the teachers authority is viewed as
hindering childrens potential to explore and make sense of their world. Within a childcentered learning approach, children are free to choose their own activity according to their
individual interest. Therefore, the teacher is only a facilitator in this approach (Ryan,
2005:99). Children here are constructed as a self-regulating and rational individuals free from
others control (Walkerdine, 1990). This construction is connected to the concept of
neoliberal agency and the view that people should act autonomously, rationally, and
responsibly in free choice decisions (Gershon, 2011: 539-540).
b. The Form of Capacity
Robertson (2007) underlines two aspects of capacity: financial capacity and the teachers
capacity. Robertson (2007) argues that one of the characteristics of neoliberal policy in
education is budget cuts or fund efficiency. There have not been budget cuts to education in
Indonesia, Since 2005 the government increased education budget to twenty percent of total
National Development Budget and Spending (NDBS) (MoSS, 2009). However, public
spending on education as a percentage of GDP is decreasing every year, from 3.5% in 2009 to
3.0% in 2010, and 2.8% in 2011 (The World Bank, 2014). This could mean less government
commitment on education and deregulation in education, especially in higher education
sector. In 2012, the government has enacted new law about higher education that opens up
privatization in higher education (The Republic of Indonesia Law No. 12/2012).
One significant reform since 2005 is teacher professionalization which aims to
improve the quality of teachers. Taubman (2009) argues that improving teacher quality is one
of the key markers of neoliberal doctrine in education. The low pay and low status of teaching
in general have triggered the government to reform the teaching profession starting in 2005
through the Republic of Indonesian Law Number 14/2005 about Teachers and Lecturers, the
Government Regulation Number 74/2008 about teachers, and the Minister of National
Education Regulation Number 16/2007 about Standard of Teachers Academic Qualification
and Competencies. I would argue that this law and regulations aim to professionalize
teaching. According to Larson (1977) , professionalization is a systematic effort to
institutionalize a set of cultural and technical resources into a system of work for financial
benefits. Professionalization involves specified higher education, skill enhancement, and
professional training and development (Boyd, 2013). This law regulates teachers educational
qualifications, competencies, teachers management and development, and of course about
additional allowance to improve teachers take-home pay.
One of the most significant strategies of teacher professionalization in Indonesia is the
mechanisms of certification. Certification is conducted using a quality assurance mechanism
(Chang et al., 2014). According to Osgoods (2006) neoliberal professionalization,
emphasizes masculine attributes such as rationality, competitiveness, and individualism as its

199

standard. Teachers are assessed accordingly to certain criteria such as educational and training
experience, the period of employment as a teacher, their achievements, and competencies.
This assessment is document and test based. Not all teachers pass this assessment. It is highly
competitive. Teachers who have better documented paper-based portfolio are more likely to
pass regardless of their performance in class.
c. The Governance of ECE
According to Robertson (2007: 12) there are several indicators of neoliberal governance in
education. They are outcome-based funding; some services are decentralized and others are
centralized, competition among educational institutions; introduction of profit oriented private
education provider, and multi-national firms involvement in education.
ECE services in Indonesia are organized in such a way as open to competition
between the services. According to the Republic of Indonesia Law Number 20/2003 about the
National Education System, early-childhood education is not included in the formal education
system. However, ECE is divided into three forms of organization, formal ECE, non-formal
ECE, and informal ECE. Prior to ECE movement in 2001, there were only two categories of
ECE; ECE that used a school system for children age 4-6 (now called formal ECE) and nonschool system for children age 0-3 (now called non-formal ECE). The division was based on
the age of the children. In 2001, the government established the Directorate of EarlyChildhood Education within the Directorate General of Non-Formal Education in the
Ministry of Education and Culture. Since then, the distinction of formal and non-formal ECE
is only based on who manages the institution of ECE. The distinction by age has become
blurred as non-formal ECE also serves children age 4-6. This has resulted in high competition
between formal and non-formal ECE. The competition ranges from competition of getting
more students and government funding to opportunity for teachers professional development.
Later in 2011, the government made a change in the bureaucracy of ECE. All ECE
formal, non-formal, and informal are organized in one new directorate that is the Directorate
of Early-Childhood, Non-formal, Informal Education. Since then ECE refers to all kinds of
ECE, formal, non-formal, and informal. However, the distinction between formal ECE and
non-formal ECE persists in the public discourse, so does the competition.
Establishing a non-formal ECE is easier and simpler than a formal ECE. However, it
is still subject to accreditation. Non-formal ECE can be organized by a community without
any binding standards. This is why the types of ECE in Indonesia have become very diverse.
The following table is a brief summary of ECE types in Indonesia:

Kindergart
en
TK/RA
(Formal)

Play group
KB
(nonformal)

Childcare
TPA
(nonformal)

Child Age 4-6


(year old)
Target
Child

2-4

Focus

Preprimary
education

Integrated
Service Post
(Posyandu)
(non-formal)

Program for
Family with
Young Children
(BKB)
(non-formal)

3 mo-6 yo

Other form
of
playgroup
(SPS):
(nonformal)
2-4

0-6

0-5

Child

Child

Child

Mother

Child
developme
nt

Care
service for
children of

Child
developmen
t;

Child and
Mother
Health care
service
combined

200

Parenting
education,
combined with

Child
developme
nt and
school
readiness

Opening
hours

5-6
days/week
150-180
minute/day

Responsib
le
governme
nt
agencies

Ministry of
Education
and
Culture
for TK
Ministry of
Religious
Affairs
for RA

Minimum
2
days/week
150-180
minute/day
Ministry of
Education
and
Culture
policy and
guideline
developme
nt

working
parents;
supplement
ed with
child
developmen
t
5-6
days/week
8-10
hours/day

supplement
ed with
additional
program

with
parenting
education

child
development
activities during
meeting

Minimum 2
days/week

2
days/month
2 hours/day

2 days/month
2 hours/day

Ministry of
Social
Welfare
care and
social
service
component,
supervision
Ministry of
Education
and Culture
policy
and
guideline
developmen
t

Ministry of
Education
and Culture
Policy
and
guideline
developmen
t

Ministry of
Health
technical
support,
supervision

Ministry of
Womens
Empowerment
and Child
Protectionpolicy

Ministry of
Home
Affairs
works
together
with Family
Welfare and
Empowerme
nt
Movement

National
Population and
Family Planning
Board (Badan
Kependudukan
dan Keluarga
Berencana
Nasional/BKKB
N)

Source: (Yulindrasari, 2012)


Picture 1. ECE Types and Forms in Indonesia
According to the ECE Grand Design Indonesia targets 86.5% GER by 2025. This means that
Indonesia needs an additional of 30,000-42,000 ECE services a year to reach the target. To
achieve the goal the government has relied so much on the non-government providers, both
profit oriented private provider and community based provider. According to 2009/2010
statistic there are only 1.616 state- owned ECE from total 67.550 formal ECE in Indonesia
(Central Education Statistic, 2009/2010). Less regulated non-formal ECE has made it the
largest contributor to the increase of GER 36.51% from the total ECE GER 53.70% (MoNE,
2011). It also has made a wide gap of quality in the diverse ECE services. Many international
franchise education corporations establish ECEs, especially in big cities, with a very
sophisticated set of facilities (Newberry, 2012). On the other hand, there are also many ECE
services with very limited facilities (Hasan et al., 2013). Parents are treated as neoliberal
agents who act as rational and autonomous consumers to choose the service at their own risks.
4. The Impact of the Neoliberal ECE Movement on Women
Neoliberal state deploys its citizens and community to achieve expected governmental
result with minimal state intervention (Ferguson, 2009). The Indonesian government places
the responsibility of the ECE development on the community. Neoliberal policy that
intersects with patriarchal thinking has put women in a disadvantaged position. The dominant

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gender ideology in Indonesia prescribes child-care and education as womens most important
role and responsibility (Dewantara, 1961; Kartodirdjo, Poesponegoro & Notosusanto, 1977;
Yafie, 1999). Patriarchal thinking regards womens work as voluntary and free of charge for
the benefit of mens reproduction of power (Hearn, 1982). This ideology intensely influences
the government strategy concerning ECE especially in the governments instrumentalization
of grassroots womens organization as the driver of ECE. During the Suharto regime the
community and lower class women, through the Family Welfare Movement (FWM), were
used as unpaid workers to implement many development programs (Newberry, 2012). This
practice has persisted in the post Suharto period, community and womens organizations have
also been encouraged to establish more non-formal ECE. Some of the organizations, in
addition to FWM, are Forum PAUD, KOWANI, Dharma Wanita, Dharma Pertiwi, Muslimat
NU, Aisyiyah, Dewan Mesjid Indonesia, Wanita Islam, Wanita Katolik, Persit Kartika
Candrakirana, and Wanita Bhayangkari (MoNE, 2011).
A testimony from a FWM member, supports my argument about the governments
instrumentalization of womens organizations in the ECE field. Involvement of FWM
members in the ECE movement is primarily based on top-down instruction and it is voluntary
in a sense that there is no financial benefit from their involvement. Menik Ardi Leksono, a
principal of ECE Permata Bunda, writes in edukasi.kompasiana.com1 about her experience as
ECE teacher. In her article entitled The Dilemma of a Non-formal ECE Educator [translated
by HY] she writes how her involvement in ECE is connected to her role in FWM. The head of
FWM in her village suddenly sent her a decree appointing her as the head of FWM working
group II, and this made her a principal of ECE (Leksono, 2013).
Furthermore, women as mothers are considered volunteers such that, teaching and
caring young children is their responsibility that should not be commercialized. Material
compensation for the time and energy spent by the non-formal ECE workers is extremely
small. Their salary ranges from nothing to three hundred thousand rupiah (around AUD30)
per month. They are eligible for a monthly incentive from the government as much as one
hundred thousand rupiah (AUD10) to three hundred thousand rupiah (AUD30) depending on
the budget of the local government. The highest salary they get is six hundred thousand rupiah
(AUD60) monthly while the provinces average minimum wage is more than one million
rupiah per month. Not all ECE teachers are lucky enough to get eight hundred rupiah
monthly. Most of them receive less than five hundred thousand rupiah per month. The reason
why they accept low pay is their commitment to care for young children. As Menik mentions,
but I dont think about financial benefit. I get a spiritual fulfillment by seeing cute
young children. Seeing the progress of the children. From stuttering to becoming more
fluent. Seeing the children know A, I, U, E, O. Seeing the children can write their own
names, and so on and so on (Leksono, 2013) [translated by HY]
ECE teacher are always reminded by the society how noble they are and how they
are considered as a moral role model. Measuring their nobility with a financial benefit is
considered inappropriate. An article in perempuan.com, posted in 22 December 2012, entitled
Teaching kindergarten is like being a mother states,

Kompasiana is an online media of citizen journalism. Anyone can write their opinion or citizen reportage in it.
It is affiliated to Kompas.com, one of most popular online media in Indonesia.

202

the most important thing about being a kindergarten teacher is sincerity. Do not ever
think about salary, it will hinder your work ethic. Think about being a good teacher
who is useful to others. For women, teaching in kindergarten is similar to teaching our
own children. (Perempuan.com, 2012) [translated by HY]
Moreover, due to the professionalization, teachers in ECE are now required to do the
administrative work. The work includes preparing daily and the monthly lesson plans based
on the government prescribed curriculum. Non-formal ECE is also subject to government
accreditation that is why administrative work becomes important. Menik Ardi Leksono
writes:
As a non-formal ECE educator we are demanded to make Daily Work Plan, Monthly
Work Plan and use determined curriculum. It costs us energy and thoughts. It is not
equal with the salary which is only fifty thousand rupiah to one hundred rupiah a
month. I have a domestic helper at home who come every day from 6.45am to 12noon
and get five hundred thousand rupiah per month. If I use my logic, I will have extra
money if I stay at home and do not have helper rather than I work in ECE and only get
one hundred thousand per month. (Leksono, 2013) [translated by HY]
I agree with Osgood (2006) that professionalization in ECE gives teachers extra
administrative burdens as well as over-stressing technical competence. Therefore, it is not an
exaggeration to say that ECE professionalization furthers the exploitation of women.
5. Conclusion
The government of Indonesia has applied neoliberal ideas in the ECE policies. This is
reflected in the mandate of ECE describe by the grand design of ECE movement, the
improvement of teachers quality agenda, and the governance of ECE, which put forward
competitiveness, non-government providers, and international penetration in the ECE market.
Neoliberal policy that intersects with patriarchal thinking has put women in a disadvantaged
situation. The ECE development has exploited women in the way it uses women as unpaid
workers and gives women extra burden for the sake of accreditation.
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205

GENDER RESPONSIVE EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION IN ISLAMIC


PERSPECTIVE
Erhamwilda
PGPAUD Unisba Jl. Ranggagading 8 Bandung
email: erham_wilda@yahoo.co.id
Abstract
The responsive attitude and behavior of gender will grow well if its already been implanted
since early childhood because the early childhood is an important age to put many basic of
attitude and behavior formation. Gender perspective is affected by norm, values, and culture
where a person grows up. The globalization influence that is streamed via various media takes
part on the people view about gender. The inability of educator to form gender responsive
early childhood education process also gives a foundation to the emergence of biological,
social-emotional, and moral problem for kids. The cases of sexual abuses in early childhood
are examples for the lack of attention towards gender responsive education. Islam already
described how gender responsive education is. In Islam men and women are educated
according to their gender so they can fulfill their role as individual, social, and religious
appropriately.
Keyword: Gender Responsive, Early Childhood, Education, Islamic Perspective
INTRODUCTION
Early childhood is mentioned by Montessori as sensitive periods. In this period, the
process of growth and development in every aspect is enduring a quick period in human life
development. Developments of children personality include physical-motoric, intellectual,
social, emotional, moral, language, art, and creativity aspects. In this personality aspects
development, there are differences between male and female children besides their
similarities. The differences of development can affect the differences of needs, hopes, roles,
responsibilities, and dreams.
In moral and ethical aspect there will be differences of attitude and behavior between
male and female children because attitude and behavior are not only formed by culture, but
also the form of compliance towards a believed religion. In Islam there are ethics and rules
that applied only for girls, and there are rules applied only for boys, and there are rules that
applied for both. Islam also set how the social relation between boys and girls is built in
varied aspects of life. This is quite different with secular and liberal countries culture where
they set athinner border of ethics, moral, and behavior rules between man and woman, even
for radical feminism activists, people are free to choose their life role, without being restricted
by their sex.
Perspective differences about the behavior rules will affect the difference about the
roles and responsibilities as male or female, which is sometimes adverse one of gender and it
leads to injustice of gender. In many cases of gender injustice, often womenbecome the ones
that areadverse, even though its also can be found in men. Understanding of someone about
role and social relation form that is right, fair, equal, and benefit both males and females are
formed by social environment since early age.
Education held in home, school, or society becomes the main foundation to change the
perception about gender and apply it to form a gender responsive generation. In formal and
non-formal education, it isbeing set somehow so responsive gender education can be
implemented in every level of education.

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The implementation of responsive gender education is ruled as cited from


PERMENDIKNAS number 84/2008:
Section1: Every working unit of education field that doing a planning, implementing,
supervising, and evaluating from every policy, and development program of education field is
ordered to integrate gender inside it.
Gender Mainstreaming of Education Field as cited from verse (1) in environment of National
Department of Education is implemented using the implementation guidelines as cited inside
this Minister Policy Attachment.
Section 2: Working unit of education that is proved organizingGender Mainstreaming of
Education Field not corresponding to the provision that is said in section 1 will be given
punishment according to legislation policy.
In line with Permendiknas cited above, for formal or non-formal school where the
majority of students are muslim, or for muslim especially to held a gender responsive
education, it is needed to define clearly the meaning of gender, gender responsive, and gender
responsive education. In particular, considering early age period is the foundation of
formation for gender responsive attitude and behavior, so in PAUDs where the majority of
students are muslim and RadhatulAthfal needs to form a formula of Islamic gender responsive
education. This article will be focused on answering these following questions: (1) The
meaning of gender in many perspectives, (2) Islamic Gender Responsive Education, (3)
Gender responsive early childhood education in Islamic perspective.
METHODE
This study uses Book survey method; because most of data are take from literature. The main
idea of this article take from Quran and Hadith for explaining Islamic perspective.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The Meaning of Gender
When talking about gender, often the people identify gender with sex. This
understanding came from the English dictionary where it describes gender assex. On the other
side some people associate the talk about gender with woman problem. Despite of these, the
meaning of gender is a lot wider than just sex. In Websters New York Dictionary, its written
that gender can be described as the action that is being shown between men and women, seen
from value and behavioral perspective, while in Womens Studies Encyclopedia, gender is a
cultural concept that is trying to make a distinction in the matter of roles, behavior, mentality,
and emotional characteristic between men and women which is developed in the society.
Furthermore Hilary M. Lips describes gender as cultural expectation of women and men
(cited from Nasaruddin Umar, 2010: 29-30).
PP/PA Ministry defines gender as social construction or attribute given to human that
is built by human society; to separate identifications of human based on definition of
biological socio-culture. Gender is social construction built by human culture and has nonpermanent characteristic and will be adjusted with the development of human culture in the
same place and it differs in every different place with different culture.
Furthermore it can be interpreted that gender is about how individual role in daily
individual life, family, and society life, also how is the relation between men and women
being built.Gender role will be affected by individual understanding about the concept about
their selves whethertheyre born as men or women, and individual understanding about the
role they have to play based on internalization of values given to them and their life
experiences. The problem is, there is a culture teaching the equality of social role between

207

men and women, and otherwise there is a culture teaching roles that may adverse one of the
sex.
Jahiliyah Arabic culture before Islam came, taught roles and lower position of women.
Women were being treated as slaves for men, and even the parents in Jahiliyah era were
shame to have a daughter, even buried them alive. Reuben Levy (cited by Nasarudin Umar,
2010: 122) revealed an Arabic poet: The grave is the best bridegroom and the burial of
daughters is demanded by honour.
Allah Swt describes how cruel that culture was, as cited in Al Quran, QS An-Nahl
(16:58) that can be translated as: And when one of them is informed of [the birth of] a
female, his face becomes dark, and he suppresses grief. Furthermore in QS Az-Zukhruf
(43:17) its said: And when one of them is given good tidings of that which he attributes to
the Most Merciful in comparison, his face becomes dark, and he suppresses grief.
Islam breaks such culture by set roles, tasks, and responsibilities as men and women
based on their natural physique and psychology, through orders and bans for men, women,
and both to play their roles in varied life situation.
In western world, after the revolution in America and France at 18th century, the
exemption of women movement started to grow, because of there were too many unfair
treatments towards women occurred. The payment difference between men and women, and
the limited access or women in economical sector triggered a riot. This movement appeared as
a reaction of discriminative and unjust towards women in materialistic western civilization.
The women exemption movement stimulates many forms of ideas about pushing the
increase of role and exemption of women from any discrimination action. This movement
also affects the way of thinking in other countries, including Indonesia. However, the core of
the movement needs to be observed further before being adopted and implemented. This is
considering many kinds of developing idealism about gender are varied from the ones that
purely an attempt to increase life quality of women and the development of mutual social
relation for men and women until the idealism that came from the riot of women that suing
right equality with men, even theres a movement that want women to lead and rule the world,
defeating men on every aspects of life.
Abdul Wahab Almasiri states that feminism as one of the idealism that fight for
women justice, it means world spins for women. The radical feminism movement also
makes propaganda some slogans like theres no place for men, why men rule the world,
men are the cause of women pain, keep calm and fight the patriarchy, get angry and
smash patriarchy, how beautiful if women rule the world, and many others (cited by Diah
Nurwitasari, 2014).
Many forms of those propagandas and slogans are kept being fought by radical
feminism people so its reflected inside many laws inside world organizations. In 1967 UN
declared a special declaration about abolishment of discrimination: Civil society
organizations of women must be able to pursue a change against norms, religion values, and
culture that are valid. Furthermore in 1975 it was declarated as International Year of
Women. Then March 8th is set as International Day of Women (December 1977), and in 1979
Convention the Elimination of Al l Form of Discrimination Againts Women
(CEDAW) was being held.
Indonesia as a member of UN already did ratification of CEDAW. With the
ratification, Indonesia obligate to eliminate every form of unfair treatment toward women
and push the realization of gender equality and justice, temporary or in long term. Indonesia
through Inpres number 9 in 2000 already obligate every ministry, any governmental or nongovernmental organization in national, province, and city level to implement the

208

mainstreaming of gender (PUG). PUG is a strategy built to integrate gender into one integral
dimension in planning, implementing, supervising, and evaluation on national development
program and policy.
In PUG implementation, the meaning of gender propaganda given by western world
needs to be specially formulated because of the difference of culture and value believed. The
meaning of gender in every region in Indonesia could be different, for this the meaning of
gender in Islamic majority region shouldnt be opposing the value of Islam. Gender isnt a
women riot, and gender also doesnt mean to blur the role difference between men and
women in every aspects of life. This implicates that PUG for education doesnt mean to
make the students have perception that men and women are same or can change their sex
according to role they have perception on.
Considering many views about gender written above, and avoiding the gender
definition against the value of Islamic value, gender in Islamic perspective can be described as
a role and responsibility assignment for men and women in society with their position as God
Almighty servant.
Islamic Gender Responsive Education
Attitude of people towards gender can be classified as 5 kinds: gender blind,
gender aware, gender sensitive, gender introspective, and gender responsive. When a
person is a gender blind, we could be a neutral or gender bias. Gender neutral means they
couldnt see the difference in needs, aspiration, or hope between men and women. Gender
bias means when there is an alignment toward one of the sex, and the other one is ignored.
Gender aware means knowing what and who involves in gender, while gender sensitive
means understanding about gender roles. Then gender introspective means understanding
why the role difference happen, and gender responsive means the ability to analyze the
existence of gender problem according to their own needs. If theres a need that doesnt
given attention, it means there is a gender injustice.
An equal education for men and women can be described as a gender responsive
education. A gender responsive education doesnt mean to give a same treatment to boys
and girls, but giving education that may hell the development of personality aspects of
boys and girls according to their own needs, so they can grow healthily, normal, and
happy.
Furthermore Islamic gender responsive education means an education that gives
attention and facilitates the development and fulfillment of boys and girls needs without
breaking the religion norms that becomes a basic reference to live all aspects of life.
Islam views the equality of rights between men and women doesnt distinguish
love acts and justice toward both. In QS Al Maidah, 8, Allah Swt said: .Be just; that is
nearer to righteousness... Rasulullah Saw also said as narrated by Ashabus Sunan, Imam
Ahmad, and Ibnu Hibban from Numan bin Basyirr.a which translated as: Be fair between
your childrens, be fair between your childrens, be fair between your childrens.
As a realization from Allah Swt command and as being described by Rasulullah Saw,
all of parents at all ages, apply the base of justice and love equality, treatment, and love
towards children with discriminating between son and daughter (Nashih Ulwan, 2007: 38)..
Al Humaidi narrated from Abu Said, that Rasulullah Saw said: Whom having three
daughters and three sisters or two daughters or three sisters, then he treats them well and be
patient for them and cautious to Allah for them, he will enter paradise(Nashih Ulwan, 2007:
39)

209

Thus the gender responsive education in Islamic perspective is giving education to


boys and daughters according to their own needs and giving a same possibility or opportunity
to develop their potential so they can play their role as men or women according to God
guidance.
Until now the effort of building a gender responsive education, hasnt went really well
as it supposed to be. There are some cultures that still seeing women dont need to go to
school, and women only are supported so they can do their natural and reproduction function,
but the needs of a good education dont get enough attention. Cases of women trafficking,
sexual harassment, rape, and being used as a tool to get money are happening mostly to
women that are weak in knowledge, faith, economy, and arent given a proper education.
An Islamic gender responsive education is an equitable and equal education according
to Islamic policy: not give the education mostly only to men, in education process teaches
how to be a pious men and women in playing their roles as individual that maintain their
dignity, role in family, and in society, also a good relation between men and women
according to Islamic value.
Islamic Gender Responsive in Early Childhood Education
Early age is a root of forming a personality of an individual. Sigmund Freud sees
early years as an important key in developing a personality. The basic structure of
personality is formed in toddler age, and years after to complete it. Erikson, a
psychosocial expert, said that social development starts in early age with the development
of trust and mistrust (starts from 1.5 years old) towards environment (Hurlock, 1980: 76).
Trust can be developed if the needs of children are fulfilled with consistency and love.
Cognitive development will be optimum, starts from sensory-motor phase, when senses
are stimulated to recognize many things in environment. Motor development gave been
stimulated and started since early age, even since infant starts to do some reflex
movements.
Aside those personality aspects, one of the important personality aspect that need
to be developed in early age is moral aspect which is creating a situation that make child
to behave according to values and policy believed. Kohlberg with Piaget said that children
thought about moral are affected by their cognitive maturity rate. Children learn about
moral from their interaction with other people in thir environment, whether with adult or
their peers. Initially children are still egocentric, and only can see everything about
themselves, but it will decrease by the time, so they can see everything in other people
perspective. In this matter children need to learn about moral and control their behavior
according to applicable values.
About the role as men and women since early age has been taught by the
environment through roles played by father as man figure and mother as woman figure.
Ward (in Hurlock, 1992: 156) said sex role that is being decided by the culture, reflects
behavior and attitude that is generally accepted as masculine and feminine in a certain
culture. Characters which are deciding behavior pattern that are accepted for both of sex in
a culture depend on the things that are regarded in the culture. Stereotype about sex role
develops as a specific concept accepted, such as: body shape, face characteristics, clothes,
behavior pattern, way of talking, way of expressing emotion, way of earn a living
(Hurlock; 1992: 157). The forming stereotype will be a standard used by social group to
measure whether a person according to their gender or not.
Hurlock (1992, 158-159) also explained that stereotype acts as training guide for
children. Children are taught since the beginning of childhood to see, think, feel, and act

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as stereotype standards for their sex. Stereotype aspects include cognitive, affective, and
psychomotor aspects. There are some facts underlying the stereotype of sex role, there are:
(1) physical differences, men generally have a stronger body and a bigger power of
muscle. Women have a smaller body, weaker muscle, and less power; (2) physiological
difference, women can pregnancy and must endure an uncomfortable period during
menstruation, at menopause they lose of the physiological function, on the other hand men
dont have periodical discomfort, and dont have the decrease of sex will; (3) instinct
difference, motherhood instinct is considered encourage women to be a mother and spend
time with children. Father instinct function as an encouragement to protect their children
before the children independent enough; (4) intelligence different, theres a believe that
generally men have a bigger brain size and they have a higher intelligence rate; (5)
achievement difference; in history, the biggest achievement in art, music, literature,
science, and many others are held by men, and men are considered more superior; (6)
emotional difference, because women have a periodical disturbance, theres an assumption
that this periodical physiological disturbance led to emotional disturbance, and it m akes
women emotionally unstable; (7) health difference, women are considered as weak a nd
have more physical disturbance than men, because of the menstruation, pregnancy, giving
birth, and they are smaller, (8) death rate difference, women generally reach a longer age
because they have an easier and safer life, thanks to the protection of women.
In Islam its clear that men and women are different, not only in biological aspect
but also in every aspect of life that can be seen by the rules for men and women as
followed.
Allah said which translated as: "..And the male is not like the female (Q.S. Ali
Imran:36). Furthermore in (Q.S. An-Nisa: 34) Allah Swt said: Men are in charge of women
by [right of] what Allah has given one over the other and what they spend [for maintenance]
from their wealth. So righteous women are devoutly obedient, guarding in [the husband's]
absence what Allah would have them guard. But those [wives] from whom you fear arrogance
- [first] advise them; [then if they persist], forsake them in bed; and [finally], strike them. But
if they obey you [once more], seek no means against them. Indeed, Allah is ever Exalted and
Grand (translate, Dep. Agama, 2000) .
To celebrate the born of the baby, theres a difference between giving birth to son and
daughter, Aqiqah of male infant are 2 sheeps, and as for female infant is 1 sheep (Sahih
Abu Gaud No. 2451). This relates to a bigger responsibility given to men.
As for boys before 7 years old, theyre obligated to do a khitan, but theres no
obligation for girls. About shaving head: Women are prohibited to be bald (shaving thei r
hair completely), except its a sunnah for their 7 th day of birth (SahihTirmidzi, no. 838).
Furthermore about clothes and appearance, Rasulullah Saw said: Allah hates
women to look like men and men look like women (Sahih Abu Gaud, No 3574). As for
the meaning of look alike is about many things including: clothes, looks, voice, style,
habit, attitude, game, ethic, and many others.
The obligation of covering aurat is different between men and women. Aurat of
men is from the navel to the knees, as for women is all of the body except face and
palms. The meaning of aurat is the part of body that must be covered if they are not with
their mahram. Allah Swt said: Tell the believing men to reduce [some] of their vision and
guard their private parts. That is purer for them. Indeed, Allah is acquainted with what they
do (An-Nur: 30). And tell the believing women to reduce [some] of their vision and guard
their private parts and not expose their adornment except that which [necessarily] appears
thereof and to wrap [a portion of] their head covers over their chests and not expose their

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adornment except to their husbands, their fathers, their husbands' fathers, their sons, their
husbands' sons, their brothers, their brothers' sons, their sisters' sons, their women, that which
their right hands possess, or those male attendants having no physical desire, or children who
are not yet aware of the private aspects of women. And let them not stamp their feet to make
known what they conceal of their adornment. And turn to Allah in repentance, all of you, O
believers that you might succeed (An-Nur: 31).
In both of verses above, its clear that theres a difference of rules and ethics
between men and women in converse policy, where there is an order to reduce some of
their vision for both of men and women, and there is an order to cover body with scarf to
the chest for a baligh women. There are a lot of other commands showing the
characteristic differences men and women, so the attitude and behaviour shown must be
different. As in congregation prayer, The best saf for men is in the front, and the worst is
in the back, the best saf for women is in the back and the worst is in the front (Sahih
Muslim: 206-256 H).
Considering many general signs that have been underlined in Islam and
psychological theory of development, about the stereotype difference for men and women,
so in the development of early age personality aspects through formal, non-formal, and
informal education in families, it needs to be noted some matters as followed:
a. The needs of early age children according to the development and difference in needs
between boys and girls need to be given enough attention from the educators.
b. The facility provided to help the development of early age behavioral aspects,
especially indoor and outdoor games that can be played by both, by boys, and by girls,
need to be given attention. Games facility as the media of developing personality
aspects consider the needs, interest, participation, and the joy of boys and girls. Pla ying
according to stereotype will ease the children to learn according to their sex.
c. Approach and method of developing personality aspects, needs to be chosen according
to the capacity and potential of boys and girls. For example in motoric aspect
development; boys with gross motor skills can be trained to be braver, more agile,
stronger, while girls are trained for the gross motor skill according to their capacity, no
need demanding them to run, jump, or climb as fast as boys. Girls are trained to be
skilled washing household tools, using small broom, cleaning everything. Boys are
encouraged to protect, help, and safe girls (friends, sisters) and not harming women.
Otherwise girls need to be trained protecting themselves, being not rude, gentle, and
loving a beauty. Girls are raised their love instinct, tendency of taking care, shame, and
learn ethic as women. While in cognitive aspect, can be applied the same thing towards
boys and girls, because both of them need to sharp their mathematical logic thought,
and both of them have chance to be smart. Thus for linguistical, art, creativity aspects
for boys and girls can be developed their potential to actualize themselves.
d. Material or theme choosen in development of personality aspects need to be adjusted to
the needs of boys and girls. For example for Me theme, it will be different between
boys and girls. On the other side, they need stories, games, songs, that create the shapes
of men and women roles, also a mutual relation for men and women. Boys and girls
need a picture of the accepted attitude in the environment acording to Islamic value,
and which one that is rejected.
e. Character development, its needed clear examples through games, songs, group
activity, or stories that may grow attitude and understanding between men and women,
and they can work together without consider one of them is lower than them both.

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f. Evaluation of personality development aspect for early age children basically doesnt
have any significant difference. In the scoring of boys and girls, it can be done in form
of portfolio, but in some aspects can be different between boys and girls. For example
in the development of moral and religious aspect, the children learn to pray in
congregation, girls can put themselves in back saf, while boys in front saf. Boys learn
how to be an imam, and being a makmum for girls. In dressing matter, its different
betweem girls and boys, according to Islamic rules.
According to the discussion above, can be drawn some main idea that core for
developing gender responsive education models.
1. There are many description about gender in scientific studies, there are describing
gender as: (a) gender as sex type; (b) gender as roles and responsibility distribution for
men and women are varied according to culture; (c) gender as equalization of men and
women with freedom to play the role as men and women without considering
values/ethics; (d) gender related to psychological development that rises the stereotype
and determines the roles and relationships between men and women.
2. Gender in Islamic perspective is role and responsibility assignment men and women
happening in society according to their position as God Almighty servant.
3. Responsive gender education is a fair and equal education for both boys and girls but
that doesnt meant to give a same treatment to boys and girls, but giving an education
that helps the development of personality aspects for both boys and girls according to
their own needs and aspirations, so they can grow healthy, pious, and happy.
4. Islamic responsive gender education; is a fair and equal education according to Islamic
rules that doesnt give more education to one of boys or girls only, which in the
education process teaches how to be a pious men and women in playing their roles as
an individual that protect their dignity, playing their roles in their family, and in
society, also make a relation between men and women according to Islamic value.
CONCLUSION
Islamic responsive gender educations a fair and equal education according to Islamic rules
for boys and girls that pay attention to their differences in needs, aspirations, abilities, and
hopes, by facilitating their own development through the preparation of games facility as
media, choosing approach and education method, formulating theme and its
implementation in AUD education, also development evaluation of AUD that encourage
boys and girls to play their roles, tasks, and responsibilities according to Islamic guidance.
REFERENCE
Daud, Abu. (305 H).Sunan Abi Daud. Beirut: DarulFikri.
Diah Nurwitasari. (2014). Gender dan Ketahanan Keluarga.Makalah pada Raperda PUG
Jabar.Tidakditerbitkan.
Kemendiknas.(2008). Peraturan Menteri PendidikanNasional Nomor 84 Tahun2008.
Jakarta.
Hurlock, Elizabeth B. (1980). Psikologi Perkembangan (Suatu Pendekatan Sepanjang
Rentang Kehidupan). Terj.Ed. 5. Jakarta: Erlangga.
Hurlock, Elizabeth B.(1992). Perkembangan Anak. Jilid 2.Ed.6. Terj. Jakarta: Erlangga.
Muslim Bin Hajat.(206-256 H). Shoheh Muslim. Beirut: Darul Fikri.
Quran Tajwid dan Terjemah. (2006). Jakarta: Maghfirah Pustaka
Ulwan, Abdullah Nashih. (2007). Pendidikan Anak Dalam Islam. Jilid 1.Terj. Jakarta:
PustakaAmani.
Umar, Nasaruddin. (2010). Argumen Kesetaraan Gender Perspektif Al-Quran. Cet. 2.
Jakarta: Dian Rakyat.

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APPLICATION OF GENDER RESPONSIVE LEARNING


IN KINDERGARTEN
Anayanti Rahmawati
Sebelas Maret University, Teacher Training and Education Faculty
Science Education, Early Childhood Teacher Education
anayanti.rahmawati@yahoo.co.id
Abstract
Implementation of learning in Early Childhood Education is still not giving equal
treatment between boys and girls . Though education should be implemented equally, fairly
and equitably . Realization of equality of educational efforts can be done through gender
responsive learning , ie learning that no particular superiority of one gender over the other
gender . Gender have often given meaning as differences in the male and female also gender
was not an issue but the actual physical biological differences between men and women , nor
the problem of sex differences . Actual concept of gender is that gender is a difference in the
role created by society about what and how men and women should behave . Gender
differences can lead to gender bias , ie, a view that distinguishes the role , position , and
responsibilities of men and women in family and community life so that the appearance of
gender bias should be minimized as early as possible .
Research conducted in Aisyiyah 56 kindergarten at Baron Surakarta aims to identify
the implementation of gender responsive learning . This research is descriptive qualitative .
The research focus is gender responsive learning conducted in the classroom. Technic data
collection used were observation and interviews . The observations were made to determine
directly the learning process conducted by the teacher while the interviews were conducted to
obtain verbal descriptions about the learning process that teachers do in the classroom .
The results showed that gender responsive learning conducted in Aisyiyah 56
kindergarten at Baron Surakarta is not optimal because of the lack of gender responsive lesson
planning in detail and in writing . Suggestions can be submitted to Aisyiyah 56 kindergarten
at Baron Surakarta is the making of gender responsive lesson planning in detail and in writing
so that teachers have a guide in implementing gender responsive learning consistently .
Keywords : gender responsive learning , early childhood
INTRODUCTION
Education is the right of every citizen is guaranteed in the 1945 Constitution that is
"every citizen is entitled to teaching" (Chapter XIII chapter 31 verse 1). This means that every
citizen has the right to acquire an education. A Law No. 20 of 2003 on the national education
system stating that "education is dealt with in democratic and equitable and nondiscriminatory to uphold human rights, religious values, the cultural and racial diversity"
(Chapter III of chapter 4 verse 1). Referring to the legislation, then the maintenance of
education in Indonesia must be done in a fair and non-discriminatory.
Early childhood education as one of the elementary education held in Indonesia is "a
construction of effort devoted to children from birth until the age of six are done through the
provision of educational stimulation to assist the growth and development of body and soul to
his own readiness in entering further education "(Law No. 20 of 2003 Article 1, item 14).
Early childhood care and maintenance should be based also on the Law No. 23 Article 4 of
the 2002 Child Protection, which states that "Every child has the right to live, to grow, to
grow, and to participate as appropriate in accordance with the dignity of humanity, as well as

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protection from violence and discrimination." Based on these annotations can be concluded
that early childhood education is a preparation for entering the next level of education that
should be maintained in equal, fair and equitable. Equivalence for early childhood education
can be provided through a grant equal opportunity to every child regardless of the gender
difference.
The word gender derived from English, which have the meaning of "sex" (Echols and
Shadily, 1984). But the meaning of gender and sex is different, because the concept of sex
refers to the biological differences between women's and mens physically that brought a
divine birth, whereas gender according to Oakley (in Fakih, 2002) is a socio-cultural
understanding of what and how women and men should behave. The difference is not nature
but created by society through a long process of social culture. Shobahiya (2012) adds that
gender identity is a result of social construct so that up to a different place and a different
society could be developed in a different gender identity. For example, in Java island that is a
very unusual woman to climb trees, but it is usually done by the women of Sulawesi island.
From these annotations can be concluded that gender is not the nature or destiny from God,
but gender is created by the community itself.
Gender is created by this community can raise the occurrence of gender bias, that is a
view which distinguish the role, position, and responsibilities of men and women in family
and community life. Greater impact as a result of gender bias is the emergence of gender
discrimination which can have the shape of marginalization, subordination, gender
stereotypes and violence of different.
The emergence of gender bias in early childhood education can be minimized through
gender responsive learning, that learning is not a gender specific preferred over the other
gender. Salama (2006) stated that their continuing to be gender-responsive learning can be
done through two aspects of the material that is taught and teaching processes. Expansion is
done by analyzing the subject matter of each message in the subject matter to be presented
what was to meet students' learning needs in a fair gender. While the expansion of the process
of teaching and learning activities performed over the plan design learning model to the
implementation process of learning in the class was updated such that the applicability of the
parameters of justice and gender equality can be seen in terms of access, participation,
control, and acceptance of the benefits of each component of the learning design. But in
reality, the implementation of gender responsive learning in early childhood education has yet
to be fully realized. Research Jatiningsih & Kartikasari (2010) stated that the interaction
between teachers and children are still found gender bias, where the girls would be more
understandable if it was a way of expression to cry, but the boys are not treated equally. Other
condition is that teachers tend to give more latitude in playing anything on the boys while
girls tend to be limited in the play, especially in a game that is considered challenging
(dangerous). Moreover, the process of learning and teaching is still a tendency gender bias,
for example in a reading lesson, the teacher still often give examples of bias, such as "Mother
went to the market". When the teacher asked who cook at home and have children who
answered "Papa who cooked at home" the teacher did not respond by explaining that cooking
can be done by anyone, but even give answers "yes, it's because his father works in a
restaurant." Teaching materials used in early childhood education also still have gender bias,
such as the picture on the book more often favored the ability of men compared to women,
such as the male doctor examining a sick person is assisted by a female nurse.

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METHOD
This study was conducted in Aisyiyah 56 kindergarten at Baron, Surakarta. Subjects
were the teachers. The focus of this research is the study of gender responsive learning in the
classroom. Technic data collection used in this study is observation and interview. The
observations were made to determine directly the learning process conducted by the teacher
while the interviews were conducted to obtain verbal descriptions about the learning process
that teachers do in the classroom.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Based on the analysis of aspects of learning that teachers do in the classroom is known
that gender responsive learning conducted in Aisyiyah 56 kindergarten at Baron Surakarta not
optimal yet. Aspects of gender responsive learning consisting of planning, teaching, learning
and evaluation has been done by the teacher. However, the planning aspect of learning is
known that teachers in creating lesson plans still global, yet detailed written lesson plan for
gender responsive. This results in the learning process of teachers is less consistent for gender
responsive. Nevertheless, in the aspect of learning process which includes a preliminary
activity, core activities and events covering, teacher gender responsive enough to give the
same treatment to both genders, there is no distinction between genders. Evaluation of
learning has been implemented gender responsive by providing a non-discriminatory
evaluation but the results of the evaluation showed the tendency of certain learning outcomes
are superior to one gender. The results can be seen in the following table.
Table 1 of Gender Responsive Learning Implementation
Aspects of Learning
Planning
Teaching and learning process
a. Activities advances

Description
Planning teacher learning has been done globally but
has not yet written a detailed and gender responsive
Teachers provide apperception and motivation to both
genders, so that children are encouraged to do as best
as possible without any pressure or feeling defeated
before the match

b. Core activities

Teachers give equal treatment between genders, all


children have equal opportunity in the implementation
of the learning

c. activities cover

Teachers provide cover to praise one gender, but based


on the results of real children who have done together

Evaluation

Evaluation is done non-discriminatory, although there


was a trend girls excel in physical fine motor abilities
while boys tend to excel in physical gross motor
abilities

CONCLUSION
These findings are gender responsive learning implemented in Aisyiyah 56
kindergarten at Baron Surakarta not optimal yet because there is no gender-responsive
planning learning in detail and in writing. Advice that can be suggestion to Aisyiyah 56

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kindergarten at Batron Surakarta is making learning gender-responsive planning in detail and


written to guide teachers in implementing gender responsive learning consistently.
REFERENCES
Echols, J. M., Shadily. H., (1984). Dictionary English - Indonesia. Jakarta: PT Gramedia.
Fakih, M. (2001). Analysis of Gender and Social Transformation. Yogyakarta: Pustaka
Pelajar.
Jatiningsih., Kartikasari. (2010). Efforts sow Values Education Through Gender Equality in
Kindergarten. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Teacher Education;
Join Conference & UPSI UPI Bandung, Indonesia, 8-10 November 2010.
Salamah. (2006). Development of the Gender Responsive Learning Model Elementary School
in South Kalimantan. Khazanah, Vol. V (6), November December.
Shobahiya, M. (2012) Gender and the Islamic Learning for Early Childhood. Suhuf, Vol. 24
(1), May, pp. 39-50.
Act of 1945.
Law 23 of 2002 on Child Protection.
Law No. 20 Year 2003 on National Education System.

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Teachers Training in Early Childhood Education

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STRATEGY OF EXPANDING EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION TEACHERS


CREATIVITY IN LEARNING
Titin Faridatun Nisa
Yulias Wulani Fajar
Lecture at PGPAUD FKIP Universitas Trunojoyo Madura
Correspondency: Jl. Raya Telang PO BOX 2 Kamal, Bangkalan Madura
( tiha_04@yahoo.com, wholand@yahoo.com )
Abstract
Creativity is important to be given early. Therefore, guidance is needed to develop someones
creativity. A teacher who is creative will also create a creatively teaching design. The
creative learning will make students to be active in developing their own creativities.
Developing creativity can be conducted using various ways to build learning climate
triggering the development of the ability to think and work. The strategy that can be taken to
develop someones creativity is by asking some questions that challenge the highest level of
thinking process in accordance with the concept of the development of creative ideas, also
creative and innovative work. The questions given are categorized based on the profile map of
someones creativity (i.e.) the imaginative individual profile, investment, improver, and
incubating idea.
Key Words: Strategy, Creativity, and Profile Map of Creativity.
INTRODUCTION
Regulation number 20 2003 about national education system definitely said that early
childhood education is guidance try to a child from their birth until six year old it do by giving
stimulation education to help their grow and evolving body and soul. In order every child has
readiness in their next education. Early education childhood can be due by Formal way
(kindergarten, Raudatul Atfal) Non formal way (baby day care, play group, etc) and Informal
way (family education, environment)
Formal education in Indonesia almost significant to improve logical while stimulation to
improve creativity is ignored and for some case school resist they creativity such as by
improve imaginative rigid. In school children try a looking for one answer from one case. The
answer only one and same, exactly same like the teacher. The children never give independent
to solve the problem like the process that they wanted. early education childhood is the key to
solve nation slumped specially to prepare better human resource. Some research in neurology
prove if the child is stimulated from begin they will be genius (potentially) every child have
their own capability to learn (limitless capacity to learn) in herein to think creatively and
productively. Because of that children need education program that should open the hide
capacity (unlocking the capacity) by right education as early as can be. If the children
potentially never be show up it means the children loss chance and special moment in their
life, and at the time, the nation will lose their best human resource.
One of the ways to prove great education is needed teacher creativity to manage
education. The creative teacher will plan the education by creative design also. Creative
education will make student more active to improve the creativity. To improve it can be due
by some coordination or improve the in evolve the environment that could improve they effort
and creation. In the real there are 12 PAUD institutions in kecamatan kamal bangkalan
Madura that is observed, based on principal interview we know that many teacher less
creative in manage education process. Teacher less using the tools surround their environment

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that could be media for study educative. More over their method is less narrative. Teacher
only use paper work student work paper show educative method become monotone and less
creative. It is give bad effect for resist the student creativity because the environment doesnt
help. Human as a creator that has some potential one of the potential is creativity. Especially
in education is improving process. Nobody cant wakeup in a morning become a creative
teacher. The creative teacher start by make a design of educating may not in a good situation.
Improve their technique by real practice in class. Creativity is process that give a new think
different unique and innovative. Creativity is also process to think and imaginary thing and
fantasy by someone.
Best on the description above make a writer interested to study the strategy off teacher
improvement creativity in learning. So from the study can give general knowledge about
strategy teacher creativity improvement in learning, especially in improvement children
potency as like their talent profile map creativity. Individually profile map creativity is
studied in accordance Jeff De Graff and Katherine A Lawrence (2002) defied into 4 groups:
imagine, infest, improve and incubate.
METHODS
The method that used in this research is qualitative method. The method is chosen
because in the research we use subjective approach which the researcher tries to explain
human behavior so that can be understandable, specially to determine the strategy to improve
teacher creativity in learning.
The technical to gain the data are observation and interview. Observes do for she how
far teacher creativity in learning and interview do for dig information teacher profile creativity
in learning, and also to dig strategy for creativity improvement result and discussion.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Learn is a part of human life. Learning process include student and teacher. The purpose
of this learning process is get something new and interesting. Something new, original and
unique results from the creativity. Because of that need creative learning process, the process
of creativity learning is supported by:
1. Space to make creativity. To improve the creativity we need some physically
infrastructure like computer and books
2. Creative learning. Teacher should have to read the situation and monitoring and also
to evaluated evens and get the risk to innovate in learning process. Teacher should
have innovation humor and make a fun situation for the student.
Based on Harris (Khabibah, 2006:11) creativity is a special ability to think create
something new, ability to found new idea and combine chance and reuse some idea that
happen. Attitude is willingness to accept change and reform, play with idea and flexibility
view process is a hard worked process continuity step by step to make a change and to fix the
work. In this chases creativity is definition as capability for create and found something new.
Based on Walas (munandar 2002) Creativity process has four step: are preparation,
incubation, illumination and verification. Preparation mean student prepare their self for solve
the problem, incubation mean student try to free their self from the problem. Illuminations
mean involve the inspiration and new think. Verification is evaluation step which the idea or
new creation is verification by reality.
Based on Jeff De Graff and Katherine A Lawrence (2002) Individually profile map
creativity defied into 4 group: imagine, infest, improve and incubate.

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picture 1. profile map creativity

Imaginative individual profile has competition that based by imaginary to improve their
creativity. Every individual has in a imaginary ability but only imaginative individual can
prove their imagine become idea and unique works. At the last imagine is work.
Imaginative individual explore new ideas create new art create new product, create new
solve problem. Investor individual profile shows the strong the competition individual show
the strong competition this step readies the loss or win or take the risk. Many new invention in
since and technology born from this individual type that has character, strong willingness
never gives up.
Improve Individual Profile state by their creativity character that never and. The activity
to copying modifications make perfect and engineering something better. This character
support the process by great discipline fast work and obey the rule.
Incubate profile someone that could give innovation idea before retaliation this
character are work with surely and full heart sure for their work and feel, believe, based with
norm life standard. They has strong commitment for the community, focus and effective
communicated. They grow in group interaction improve individual power in a group,
allowance human resource trying improve organitation function that their step better.
Based explanation about Jeff De Graff and Katherine A Lawrence make a summary
from individual creativity profil :
1. Imagine notable prove to innovation purpose and improve. Character : generalize,
exploration, change able, and stylish
2. Invest notable speed and profit. Character : oriented to work, good think, diciplin and
challenge
3. Improve notable quality and optimalitation. Character : systemic technique, practice and
concern to the process
4. Incubate notable to interest and idea. Character : idea, communicative, learner.
CREATIVE LEARN DESAIGN PLAN
Creative learn make student feel fun and improve their creativity it make student active
to improve their creativity. It is the strategy to gain new idea, new method, new design, new

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model better than before. All new think come from some caused such us : new information,
new discovery, new technology, variety learn, collaboration system, and new competition.
Essentially learn design is a process creativity and state the mutual target as creative and
innovative product. Indicator of creatifity in creative learn desaign plan, example :
1. Learn process is planned to improve the new learn experience for the student
2. Learn process is planned for get new information
3. Learn process is planned to improve think and ideas
4. Learn process get different learn product from before
5. Learn product is expresioned and communicated by creative media
Based on the target above teacher should prepare the plane design not only for the
material student work paper but also focus to improve student creativity.
STRATEGY TO IMPROVE CREATIVITY IN LEARNING
Generally student creativity improve can be done by thinking and create. Based on
conquer the knowledge and scient in great skill. In taksonomi bloom to create is a important
think to make perfect so cognitive sphere dosnt ended by evaluation alto creation. Creation
is product in highest thinking level. To improve creative student need teacher that has
competent like :
1. Knowledge about character and creative student needs
2. Skill to improve ability highest thinking
3. Skill to improve student ability to solve the problem
4. Solve improve learn tools to challenge the student more creative
5. Improve learn strategy individually and collaborative
6. Give tolerance and freedom although it is different but can get creative learning product
Beside teacher competention student creativity improve by environment learning
cultural that support them. Based on study Utami Munandar 2002 character of creative
student are :
Open for new experience
Flexible
Freedom for by self
Appraised for fantasy
Interest in creative activity
Confidence for their ideas
Autonomous and initiative
Teacher hope the student will honest, diligent, finished the task on time, compromistis
obey the rule confidence, energy full and thinkable. To improve student creativity the teacher
should use some question like:
Are there any new idea
Do you have any idea
Is there any new process to make it perfect
Is there any revision to make it better
To improve imagine can use this question
Is there something in your mind
Is there new idea
Can you make a new formula

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CONCLUSION
Human as a creator that has some potential one of the potential is creativity. Especially
in education is improving process. Nobody cant wakeup in a morning become a creative
teacher. The creative teacher start by make a design of educating may not in a good situation.
Improve their technique by real practice in class. Creativity is process that give a new think
different unique and innovative. Creativity is also process to think and imaginary thing and
fantasy by someone. Essentially learn design is a process creativity and state the mutual
target as creative and innovative product
REFERENCES
Munandar, Utami. (2002). Kreativitas dan Keberbakatan. Jakarta: PT Gramedia Pustaka
Utama
Munandar, Utami. (2009). Pengembangan Kreativitas Anak Berbakat. Jakarta: PT Rineka
Cipta
Jeff DeGraff & Katherine A. Lawrence. (2002). Creativity at Work: Developing the Right
Practices to Make Innovation Happen. San Francisco: University of Michigan Business
School Management Series, Jossey-Bass a Wiley Company.
Khabibah, Siti. (2006). Pengembangan Model Pembelajaran Matematika dengan Soal
Terbuka untuk Meningkatkan Kreativitas Siswa SD. (Dissertation, Universitas Negeri
Surabaya).

225

DISCOVERY PATTERN LEARNING OF DISTANCE HIGHER EDUCATION


STUDENT THROUGH UTILIZATION ONLINE INDEPENDENT EXERCISE
Sri Tatminingsih and Trini Prastati
Academic staff of Faculty of Teaching and Education Sciences,
Universitas Terbuka Indonesia
tatmi@ut.ac.id
ABSTRACT: This research aims to find the pattern of student learning in order to improve
their learning ability after using of online independent exercise in the website. Research
conducted in semesters 2011.2 used techniques of observation and interview on teacher
education for early childhood education students in district of Jakarta and Serang-Indonesia
study groups Pondok Pinang and Serpong. Data obtained based on the activity of 27 of 30
students who had been trained on how to access and benefit from a menu contained in the
website UT. Data elaborated in a qualitative manner descriptive based on a journal made by
student freely. The result showed that flattened any respondents access 2.94 times or about
three times. Most respondents access between 2 p.m. until 5 p.m. with an average of about 2
to 3 hours per access. A menu opened by respondents included independent training online,
online tutorials the smart teacher online, smart registration, students, the laboratory of
learning, and menus strategy learned long distances. In addition, there are 4 (four) patterns
or the order in the manner of a student access to online exercise independent. Other results
suggest that the activity of students accessing and working on exercise independent online
directly or indirectly will make students able to study or read a book on subject matter
dealing with is student learning activities are on the increasing ability especially in reading
modules after they actively access the online independent exercise.
Keywords: learning activities, distance higher education, the online independent exercise
INTRODUCTION
Universitas Terbuka (UT) or Indonesian Open University as the only open and distance
higher education institution in Indonesia has more than 600 thousands students all over
Indonesia who are actively following the program. Most of the students are teachers who are
living in all over Indonesian territory, in big cities, small countries, or even remote areas that
rarely can be accessed by any vehicle. Besides, the students are those who have a job so that
they have to be able to manage their time both for working and studying.
The main learning material used by the students is Student text book (Buku Materi Pokok
(BMP)) or the Main Material Book. Every single subject has BMP that consists of several
modules and the number of the modules depends on how many SKS (Sistem Kredit Semester)
or Semester Credit Unit the BMP has. In addition to the main learning material, Universitas
Terbuka also provides the students with a variety of alternative learning materials and
resources as learning supplements such as video, audio cassette, and they are mostly included
in the BMP,
Besides the integrated supplement, UT also offers other learning resources in UTs
Website (www.ut.ac.id). One of them is Latihan Mandiri (LM) or Independent Exercise.
Based on observation at a glance in the field and some non-formal interviews with some
students, important information revealed that is they have never known or utilized
Independent Exercise. Based on that fact, we were interested in investigating how the
students utilized Independent exercise.

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The study area was limited to UPBJJ Jakarta and Serang on 8th semester S1 PGPAUD
(Teacher Education in Early Childhood Education) students, with approximately 30 students.
It was based on several reasons, these are: 1) in UPBJJ Serang and Jakarta there are a lot of
students who are studying in 8th semester, 2) in the 8th semester students have to take a subject
matter namely Computers in Early Childhood Development Activities that are associated with
skills to access internet, 3) The subject that is observed is Management of Early Childhood
Development Activities. Only one Kelompok Belajar (Pokjar) or study group taken from each
UPBJJ because not all study groups have the 8th semester students. This study aims to: 1)
know how students take an advantage of LM to improve their learning skills, 2) determine
whether or not there is an increase in student learning abilities as they use the LM.
Supplement learning materials functioning as additional learning materials aimed to clarify
the matter of elusive modules, upgrade expiry of the printed material that has not been revised
and enriched.
Supplement learning materials can be accessed via menus on UT website. While the
tutorial at UT held in several models, namely: 1) face-to-face tutorials (Tutorial Tatap Muka
or TTM), 2) Online tutorials (tutorial online or tuton) that can be accessed via menus on UT
website. 3) tutorial through television broadcasts and 4) tutorial on radio
(http://www.ut.ac.id/informasi-mahasiswa.html)
Other learning support service provided by UT is the availability of various services in UT
website. Facilities contained in this website will facilitate students to get in touch with UT.
UT has so many services like this. Some of them are: 1) the student menu contains student
services provided in the form of information services, learning support services, academic
advising, and academic administration services. This service is intended to help students cope
with academic and administrative problems encountered during studying at UT.
http://www.ut.ac.id/informasi-mahasiswa.html.
2) Online UT that is facilities provided by UT for all students. These services include
online tutorials (tuton) that is for registered courses in last semester. Tuton is guided by a
tutor who will help students in online learning through internet networks. Tuton initiations are
available within eight weeks. Each initiation contained course materials and assignments to be
done and sent back to UT through online. (http://www.ut.ac.id/ut-online.html)
3) Independent exercise (LM) that is a menu in UTs website that can be used by students
to learn subject matter materials and to measure their capability in doing various test items. In
this LM menu the students can do the objective tests or multiple choices tests directly or
through online by downloading the test items first. If the students do the test items directly
through online, they will be able to know directly whether their answers right or wrong
because the LM application has been facilitated by the answers and a reason why an answer is
right or wrong. Besides, the students also are given references which part of the module they
have learned that can be used to confirm the answer of the test. The online address for LM is
http://student.ut.ac.id/repository/.
4) UT Open Courseware, which is a menu where the students can access various web
supplements that can widen their views of knowledge of some particular subject
matters.http://www.ut.ac.id/html/suplemen /suplemen.html.
METHODS
This research used the qualitative research about learning activites at PGPAUD (Teacher
Education in Early Childhood Education) students in UPBJJ Jakarta and Serang. Overall steps
in carrying out research described as procedure follows.

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Figure 1. Research Prosedure

Figure 2. Research Design


Subjects were student PGPAUD-UT UPBJJ Jakarta at the time of registration 2012.2 as
many as 30 students of group learning in the classroom Pondok Pinang and Serpong Tutorial
Face to Face (TTM) 2012.2. The group have been the subject of research for several reasons,
which have characteristics and varying backgrounds, education, duration of work, work place,
but be in a study group and follow the same course, and follows the activities of TTM with
the same tutor as well. The advantages of this group are generally already familiar with
computers, and used to open the internet.

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RESULT AND DISCUSSION


Distance Education System
Some of distance education characteristics are: (1) teachers and learners are separated
which means there is a distance between them. The physical distance is relative because it
cannot be determined by kilometers or miles, and teachers and learners are not in the same
classroom in the same time. 2) the influence of an educational organization that is different
from personal study. It is to say that educational process in UT differs from that of informal
education, autodidact, or self learning. UT is an organization or educational institution that
manages a distance education as one of the requirements of Distance Higher Education
Institution; 3) the usage of technical media: printed media, audio, video or computer to
integrate teachers and learners and bring along the educational content with them, meaning
that in UTs educational system, there is a process of communication between teachers and
students using both printed media (module or BMP) and no printed media (tapes, radio, video,
television, computers and the Internet) as an intermediary and a messenger of educational
message; (4) availability of two-directions communication so as participants learners can have
benefits and can take initiative to make a dialog, meaning that student can take initiative to
discuss their problems both administrative or academic problems with educational managers;
(5) the possibility of occasional meetings for the purposes of teaching and socialization, in
this case is the provision of learning support such as face-to-face and on-line tutorials as an
event to help the students in learning and provide them with opportunities to socialize with
tutors, managers and fellow students; (6) participation in the form of educational
industrialization, meaning that in UTs educational system there is a long, systematic and
complex processes. (Suparman, 2004)
Learning Strategy in Distance Education System
In distance education system, there are some learning strategies which can be applied by
students. One of them is MURDER learning strategy (Thomas Hobbes, year unknown,
http://www.studygs.net/murder.htm) in Tatminingsih (2009) (http://www.ut.ac.id/strategibelajar-murder.html). MURDER (English) = Mood - Understand Recall Digest Expand
Review which can be described as follows:
1) Mood that is to create a positive mood to learn like what ancient words say that There
is no love without knowing, so that the students should try to know learning materials,
tutor or BMP first before start to study a subject matter. Besides, the students should
always try to create a happy mood anytime they are going to study the learning materials.
2) Understand One way to understand the learning materials is by continuously reading
the BMP and giving marks some difficult words or sentences. Then, if you have a chance,
try to figure out the explanation of that words or sentences by asking a tutor or finding
some other resources.
3) Recall The students should periodically and continuously reread the learning material
4) Digest It can be done by reread summary which is created by the students themselves.
If they remain find some unclear explanations, they have to search them in other relevant
resources.
5) Expand Learning materials can be developed by trying to apply the materials or
concepts into real life.
6) Review The students should reread the learning materials anytime they have a chance,
it will make them easier to understand and memorize the materials.
Strategy to Learn Printed Learning Materials
The main learning materials in Universitas Terbuka, is printed learning material that
usually called Buku Materi Pokok (BMP) or The Main Material Book that consists of

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modules. Each of the three modules equal with one Semester Credit Unit or Sistem Kredit
Semester (SKS). In UT thera are two kinds of printed materials i.e. BMP and Guidance Book.
Some strategies that can be used to learn printed materials are as follows.
(http://www.ut.ac.id/tips-mempelajari-modul.html). The first strategy with activities as
follows : a). Read the preface of the module carefully so that you really understand the
contents of the module, benefits of learning the module, and how to understand the content of
the module (b) read the whole content of the module at a glance (c) find key-words and
difficult words to understand or new words and try to find the meaning of the words in a
dictionary (d) Next, read the content of the module part by part (e) attempt to really
understand the content of the module by yourself or by having discussions with colleagues (f)
learn learning material supplements in order to widen the view of a problem or knowledge (g)
If it is possible, do an observation on physical development of children who are living arround
you, and make a resume (h) do available exercises and tests formative seriously i) utilize
tutorial activities by asking difficult parts of the module to the tutor or colleagues.
The Way Students Utilize LM to Improve Their Learning Skills and Handicaps They
Are Facing with
Observation data on students learning activities through LM in UT website can be
achieved through journals which are freely created by respondents. The numbers of
respondents who are observed are 27. These students were actively opening LM and they
were living in Serang and Jakarta, and studying in Pokjar (Study Group) Serpong UPBJJSerang and Pokjar Pondok Pinang UPBJJ Jakarta. They have had a one-day short training
about how to access menus in UT Website.
Respondents were asked to write date and access time, what menus they have visited, what
activities they did when and after accessing the internet, and what handicaps they found. The
students made a journal start with the 3rd until the 8th tutorial class and its about five weeks.
Researchers did not control the students journal every week, but collected the final journals
at the end of the tutorial class.
Based on the respondents journal, it is known that in 5 weeks respondents visited LM and
other menus in UT website 5 to 22 times at average or it is about 2. 94 times or about three
times a week. Most of them visited the website at 1 p.m. until 5 p.m. and once access is about
2 to 3 hours. They visited Latihan Mandiri (LM) or Independent exercise, Online Tutorial,
Guru Pintar Online (GPO) or Online Smart Teacher, Registration, Students, Learning
Laboratorium, and Distance Learning Strategy.
Besides information about what menus have been opened by the students, the data also
uncovered patterns or steps how the students accessed LM. There are 4 patterns the students
most preferred:

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In this 1st pattern it can be seen that the students execute LM online then they make a note
all wrong answers and after that they look for the right answers in BMP. Moreover, they
access other menus like tuton or GPO.

In this 2nd pattern, students access to LM just for downloading and printing the LM and
they do the tests off line at home or school. If they cannot answer the questions, they look for
the answers in BMP or ask colleges or tutors in tutorial activities.

The 3rd pattern shows that students do the tests (LM) online and record wrong answers.
After that, they download and print LM. They dont directly seek the right answers in BMP
but they visit some other menus in UT website. After they finish with the computer, then they
seek the answers in BMP. Finally they learn LM and BMP all together in once time.

In the 4th pattern, we can see that when accessing UT website, the students will access
tuton first and learn initiation materials in that tuton. After that the students will visit LM
menu and execute the test online in LM menu and jot down the guidance to answer the test
(hint) that available in LM application. Then, the students will open GPO, Learning Lab., and
Students Menu. After living the computer, the students study the BMP based on the guidance
to answer the test that has been recorded by them. Meaning that the students only learn

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particular material based on the guidance. The students who are using this pattern are they
who have registered themselves for following tuton.
Based on the collected data, it can be concluded that through the use of LM, directly or not,
the students have attempted to improve their learning activities and it is satisfy the distance
learning strategy, MURDER. This analysis can be described as follows:
Mood The application of mood is that the students have to prepare themselves not only
their time but also their energy to accomplish LM.
Understand One way to understand the learning materials is by reading the BMP
continuously, giving marks to some difficult-to-understand words. Then try to find out the
explanation of those words by asking to colleges or tutor or other believable resources. The
implication of this strategy is that the students directly or not will learn BMP with many ways
and ask to people who can answer their questions.
Recall This part can be seen from the ways the students use almost the same patterns
many times. They execute LM then record the wrong answers, look for the right answers in
BMP or other resources and then do the test (LM) again with their new knowledge.
Digest The implication in this part is that the students study BMP based on their notes or
memory about test (LM). They analyze their wrong answers and try to correct the answers
when they access LM again.
Expand The students expand learning materials by trying to open and look for
association other menus with their learning activities. The students also try to expand their
knowledge by asking colleges or tutors.
Review This part can be seen when the students are going to have semester final
examination (Ujian Akhir Semester). They review all materials they have learned before to be
able to answer the exams.
Besides the data about the way the students access LM, collected data also show that the
most of respondents said that they have no significant handicaps in accessing LM. It is to say
that LM is easy to be accessed by the students.
From the side of the students, it can be seen that students ability in using ICT (Information
Communication and Technology) is good as well. They can collaboratively use internet and
BMP to help them understand the learning materials.
The students seem to be able to look for other learning resources through the use of
internet so that their knowledge improves. However, it can be denied that there is a small
number of students said that access to the internet goes slowly.
After doing deepen interview to these students, it is known that the slow access was caused
by internet network in their village or the internet provider is having network trouble. When
they were asked to use another provider, they have no problem anymore with the network.
CONCLUSSION
From the result of the research, it can be concluded that accessibility to LM by the
respondents is 5 to 22 times in 5 weeks. So in average in one week a respondent visited LM
2,94 times or about three times a week.
Most of the respondents access LM from 1 p.m. to 5 p.m. with the length of time about 2
to 3 hours for once access. They visited Latihan Mandiri (LM) or Independent exercise,
Online Tutorial, Guru Pintar Online (GPO) or Online Smart Teacher, Registration, Students,
Learning Laboratorium, and Distance Learning Strategy. Besides, the data also uncover four
patterns the way the students access LM.
The result of this research also shows that accessing LM and do the test, directly or not,
will make the students study their BMP. The students utilize LM continuously or stimulant

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with their reading activity. It is to say that students learning activities have improved and it
can be seen from the improvement of their reading activities in which they read BMP after or
when they have access to LM.
On the basis of the conclusion, the researchers recommend that UT has to socialize LM
and other menus in UT website continuously not only to the students but also to tutors and
Pokjar (study group) management officers because the students have a lot of information from
their study group.
Besides, it is suggested that tutors (face to face and online) utilize LM and other menus in
UT website in their learning process. While the students are suggested to apply distance
learning strategy correctly and continuously so self learning will really happened and can be
internalized by the students.
REFFERENCES
Daulay, Pardamean (2010). Pemanfaatan ICT center dalam peningkatan akses sumber belajar
bagi mahasiswa universitas terbuka. Jurnal PTJJ. Vol.10(1). Jakarta: Universitas
Terbuka
Pusat Bahasa Depdiknas. (2001). Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia (3rd Edition). Jakarta: Balai
Pustaka.
Suparman, M. Atwi dan Zuhairi, Aminudin. (2004). Pendidikan Jarak Jauh Teori dan
Praktek. Cet.1. Jakarta: Universitas terbuka
Tatminingsih, Sri (2009) Tips Mempelajari Modul (Buku Materi Pokok.
http://www.ut.ac.id/tips-mempelajari-modul.html. Downloaded Monday 10
Oktober 2011 at 09.15 a.m.
Thomas Hobbes (---) MURDER a Study System http://www.studygs.net/murder.htm
Downloaded Monday 10 Oktober 2011 at 10.00 a.m.
Tim Universitas Terbuka (2007). Katalog Program Pendas. Jakarta: Universitas Terbuka.
Robin Mc. Taggart, (1991). Action Research A Short Modern History. Victoria: Deakin
University.
Wardani, IGAK, (2005). Program tutorial dalam sistem pendidikan tinggi Terbuka dan jarak
jauh. http://www.ut.ac.id
-----------, Layanan Bantuan Belajar. http://www.ut.ac.id/informasi-mahasiswa.html
Downloaded Monday 10 October 2011 at 10.14 a.m.
-----------, UT-Online. http://www.ut.ac.id/ut-online.html Downloaded Tuesday 11 October
2011 at 1.30 p.m.
-----------, Latihan Mandiri, http://student.ut.ac.id/repository/. Downloaded Tuesday 11
October 2011 at 1.45 p.m.
-----------, Web Suplemen, http://www.ut.ac.id/html/suplemen /suplemen.html. Downloaded
Tuesday 11 October 2011 at 1.55 p.m.

233

COUNSELING MODEL-BASED COLLABORATIVE ENVIRONMENT


SOCIAL CULTURE STUDENT PGPAUD FKIP UNINUS BANDUNG

Dr Hj. Euis Karwati, M.Pd. S.Kom


ABSTRACT
Less successful implementation of counseling in London Uninus FKIP PGPUD counseling
due to lack of implementation based on the socio-cultural environment of the counselee.
Therefore, the model-based collaborative counseling socio-cultural environment should be
implemented immediately. The target of this research is the completion of the
implementation of the results of the model. Subjects were counselors and students.
Techniques of data collection using questionnaire, interview and observation. The results
show that most students PGPAUD FKIP Uninus Bandung still has shortcomings in terms of:
mutual aid, develop skills, apply concepts, improve the quality of tasks, manage time, learn
the conceptual, advancing alma mater, utilizing the abilities of others, traditions and events.
In addition, counselors are lacking to build collaborative relationships, clarify complaints,
problems, objectives and expected results, changing perspective, how to act, and the
atmosphere of the counselee and less precise in evaluating and terminating counseling. Data
were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively.
Keywords: collaborative counseling, social and cultural environment
One indicator of the success of counseling is the counselee is able to solve the problem
in the present and future problems and be able to change the views, action and atmosphere
counselee. The ability to solve problems is very supportive of the socio-cultural development
of students, while the socio-cultural development of students is recognized as one of the goals
the college.
The results of the observation team of researchers showed that most students PGPAUD
FKIP Uninus, still has shortcomings in terms of: (1) implement and maintain good habits
during exam time, learning, and task groups; (2) use polite language in interaction; (3)
positive activities; (4) sharing of experiences; (4) use of research, (5) develop new ideas; (6)
help each other solve problems; and (5) create comfort in interacting with friends.
Understanding sociocultural counselee an important effort in carrying out counseling.
Implement counseling based on socio-cultural environment will direct students to the noble
values, wisdom, creativity, and independence of the counselee. The atmosphere of the
counseling support the realization of socio-cultural development of the counselee. Improved
social and cultural development of the counselee will be effective, if the counselor uses a
model-based counseling molaboratif socio-cultural environment of students, because the
model is collaborating with many counselees, counselees attention to values and habits,
lifting ability, strength and experience of the counselee, lots of dialogue, tone and emphasis
in speech accordance with the conditions of the counselee. On the basis of this, it is necessary
to implement the model-based collaborative counseling students in the social and cultural
environment Prodi PGPAUD FKIP Uninus Bandung.
B. Problem Formulation
Conditions in the implementation of counseling Prodi PGPAUD FKIP Uninus can be
described as follows: (1) the implementation of counseling is not conducted jointly with the
counselee; (2) the disparity cooperation expected by the counselee and counselor; (3) less
counselor encourages counselees to join together with the counselor in solving the problems
of the counselee; (4) less counselor can explore issues, objectives and expected changes
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counselee; (5) counselors are less able to use the experience, toughness and ability to solve
the problem of the counselee; (6) the counselor has not been widely used at the time of the
counselee circumstances can change him; (7) does not carry out an assessment counselor
when the counseling process and after counseling is completed; (8) lack of linking counselor
counselee problem shared with his future.
To provide a significant contribution to the improvement of the socio-cultural counselee, the
collaborative counseling needs to be implemented. Based on this, the formulation of the
problem in this study is how the implementation of a collaborative model of counseling based
socio-cultural environment of students.
C. Research Objectives
The purpose of this study is the completion of the implementation of the results-based
collaborative model of counseling student socio-cultural environment in Prodi PGPAUD
FKIP Uninus Bandung.
D. Study Library
1. The concept of Collaborative Counseling
Frans & Bursuck (1996: 74) says that "is a style of collaborative professionals chose to
use in order to Accomplish a goal they share". So collaborative is a preferred way for use by
professionals in achieving a common goal. Idol & Baran (Schmidt, 2003: 60) argues that "In
a collaborative, planning and implementing are joint effort".
Collaborative research is carried out by the cooperation with the counselee counselor
who focuses on the relationship of partnership, active participation, and the change in them.
Counseling is a collaborative service that prioritizes performance patterns respectful, creative,
not looking at the problem from one perspective, not force match counselee to one theory, but
the emphasis reality. The idea can be generated through conversation and interaction between
counselor and counselee. This issue was raised Berger & Luckmann (Bertolino and O,
Hanlon, 2002: 4).
Counseling is a collaborative effort of assistance provided to the counselee through
collaboration between counselors and students that is based on socio-cultural environment
counselee to create change views, actions, and the atmosphere, so that the counselee is able to
solve problems in the present and in the future.
The concept of collaborative counseling adapted from the opinion Bertolino and
O'Hanlon (2002), among others: the cornerstone philosophy of counseling is based on
constructivism and social kontruksionisme, the approach used focused on solving problems at
the moment and in the future. Counseling is based on the principle of collaborative
involvement of the counselee, improve relationships, change-oriented and future, as well as
the prediction of the changes. Dimensions collaborative counseling are: experience, views,
actions, and atmosphere. The steps include: building collaborative relationships, clarify
complaints, problems, goals, and results are prioritized, creating a shift in perspective, how to
act, and the atmosphere of the counselee, evaluation and follow-up.
2. Socio-Cultural Environment Students
Culture is the atmosphere of the college campus where college community interaction.
H.A.R. Tilaar (2002: 6) argues that "... .the organization must be dynamic, flexible, so it can
absorb the rapid changes, among others, due to the development of science and technology,
changes in society leads to an increasingly democratic society and respect for human rights" ,
including the number of personnel and their behavior, social interactions every college
personnel is influenced by life in society.

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The system of individual interaction will produce a social climate that will affect the
college personnel to interact with other personnel. The college will also give effect to the
social institutions beyond. Thus the college with other social institutions have a reciprocal
relationship.
Discuss the community college as a means to discuss culture, because culture can be defined
as the way of life of a society. Society is a group of individuals who interact organized to
follow a certain way of life. Society formed by people who are in it, while the culture is the
way they behave, the crystallization of the way of thinking, and acting in a community
environment. Social and cultural environment will be formed following the human existence.
Humans have a special position in the world. This suggests that human behavior has a
purpose and is always associated with other human beings.
Culture is a resource for the community's personality, one of the elements is a system of
knowledge that directly shape perspective, action, and creativity of the self and its world.
Results of human reflexes are not learned as essentially naruli not include culture. The results
of creativity, initiative, and a sense of the human can be classified into: ideas, activities, and
objects work (Koentjaraningrat, 1985: 2).
The above description can be concluded that the socio-cultural environment college is
the way individuals think, act, and be creative in interacting with its environment that can
generate norms, values, beliefs, and behaviors are learned and possessed by every individual.
This is in accordance with the opinion of the said Saphier and King (1983) that:
... ..school Culture with norms and expectations that support change and
improvement: collegiality, experimentation, high expectations, trust and confidence,
tangiblesupport, reaching out to the knowledge base, appreciation and recognition,
celebration and humor caring, involvement indecision making, protection of what "s
important, hones open communication, traditions.
Based on the above opinion, socio-cultural college has the following characteristics: (1)
kesejawatan, (2) experimentation, (3) high expectations, (4) trust, (5) support, (6) the
development of basic capabilities, (7 ) awards and recognition, (8) caring, celebration, and
humor, (9) involvement in decision making, (10) protection, (11) traditions, as well as (12)
honesty and open communication.
E. Methods
The approach used in this study is a qualitative approach, whereas the method is
descriptive. Subjects were counselors and students. The research data was collected using
questionnaires, observation and interviews. The stages of the research is the preparation
phase, data collection and processing as well as the discussion of the research results.
F. Results and Discussion
Results
1.
The data collected through observations, questionnaires and interviews with students
from Bandung Uninus FKIP PGPAUD Prodi,
a.
Student Social and Cultural Environment
Some students Prodi PGPAUD FKIP Uninus Bandung still has shortcomings, among
others: (1) lack of mutual aid in performing the duties of a lecturer; (2) less developed
expertise as a teacher; (3) fails to apply the concepts in carrying out the duties of a lecturer;
(4) lack of motivation to improve the quality of the given task lecturer; (5) less set up time to
study the results of the lecture material; (6) are less interested in learning the course material
that is conceptual; (7) less concerned to advance Uninus name; (8) an underutilization of the
ability of others to solve problems and make decisions, (9) an underutilization of tradition
and important events on campus for self progression; (10) is less open to classmates.
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b. Implementation of collaborative counseling counselor


Counselors Prodi PGPAUD FKIP Uninus Bandung in implementing collaborative
counseling still has shortcomings, in terms of: (1) Establish collaborative relationships; (2)
Clarify complaints, problems, objectives and expected results; (3) Changing perspectives,
how to act, and the atmosphere of the counselee; (4) Evaluate the process and outcome of
counseling; (5) End of counseling.
2. Discussion
This discussion will describe the results of research on the socio-cultural environment
of students, and student opinion on the implementation of collaborative counseling conducted
by counselors in Prodi PGPAUD FKIP Uninus Bandung.
a. Student Social and Cultural Environment
Some students Prodi PGPAUD FKIP Uninus Bandung still has shortcomings with
regard to socio-cultural environment. Therefore, the counselor should plan a strategy so that
students are able to perform the activity by conditioning the social and cultural environment
conducive. Conditions necessary for conditioning the atmosphere is the ability to change the
way, how to act, and the student atmosphere. One of these counselors must understand and
apply the concept of collaborative counseling that is based on socio-cultural environment of
students, so that students who have these deficiencies can be overcome through the
implementation of the principles and steps of collaborative counseling.
b. Implementation of collaborative counseling
1). Counselors less build collaborative relationships, due to: (a) less revealing strengths and
weaknesses of the counselee; (b) less explaining the counseling process and do not make a
deal in implementing collaborative counseling; (c) lack of participation counselee in
problem solving; (d) lack of appropriate language used by the counselee counselor; (e)
lack of direct talks on changing the counselee; (f) less directs counselees on goal in the
future;
2) clarify the counselor less complaints, problems, goals and results, due to: (a) less revealing
excess counselee in problem solving so that less find alternative solutions to problems; and
(b) less directed at changes in the future.
3) The counselor about creating change in view, the action and the atmosphere, due to: (a)
less eliminate or change the story that contains the problem into a fun story; (b) not trying
to create and connect patterns and problem solving with the present; (c) lack of trying to
find a family atmosphere that affect the counselee and the counselee find problematic
story.
4) The counselor about evaluating and end the meeting, due to: (a) less revealing new issues
and evidence of change in the counselee; (b) lack of trying to encourage the counselee to
achieve priority goals and outcomes; (c) reveal that less has changed and relate them to the
problems of the counselee dihapadi.
5) The counselor is not quite right in the end the counseling, the counselor due to lack of the
causes of unsuccessful, change, problematic stories into a fun story, the benefits of sharing
experiences; and explained that counseling is not an end to the activities of the latter.
G. Conclusion
The conclusion of this study is the counselee still has shortcomings in terms of helping
each other, develop skills, apply concepts, motivation improve the quality of tasks, manage
time, learn the conceptual, advancing alma mater, take advantage of the ability of other
people, traditions and events. In addition, counselors are lacking to build collaborative
237

relationships, clarify complaints, problems, objectives and expected results, changing


perspective, how to act, and the atmosphere of the counselee; less precise in evaluating and
terminating counseling.
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238

DEVELOPING A PROFESSIONAL CULTURE IN THE PRESCHOOL TEACHERS:


A PERSPECTIVE OF GAGASCERIA PRESCHOOL
Delila Saskia P
GagasCeria Preschool, Bandung Indonesia
(delila.saskia@yahoo.com)
In Indonesian history, preschool are known as not formal education form. Therefore,
preschool did not considered as important sector on several years ago. Nowadays after
government gives a special attention, public understanding about the importance of early
childhood education (ECE) began to increase. The total numbers of pre-school institutions
and children who attend in pre-school education increased progressively, but the availability
of human resources in this field is still limited. To meet the growing demand of preschool
services, many pre-school institutions providing teachers who do not fit both of qualification
and competencies. Ministry of National Education and Culture (MONEC) overcomes this
issues by (1) established a national standard for qualification and competencies of early
childhood educator, and (2) providing gradually teacher training and course program.
However MONEC have limited capabilities to serve a huge numbers of preschool teachers
around Indonesia. The opportunity of teachers training and course program is not spread
evenly so that preschool teachers facing a lot of obstacles on finding resources and best
practices required for their professional development on the field. Accordingly, MONEC (3)
has given permission to all private preschool institution in Indonesia to perform regulation
system on teacher professional development. Since most of recruited teachers are not from
ECE background education, GagasCeria as one of private preschool in Bandung Indonesia
also has a strategy on teacher professional development. This presentation will bring out the
perspective of GagasCeria preschool on developing a teacher professional culture.
Key words: early childhood education, Indonesian preschool, teacher professional
development, GagasCeria preschool.
1. Introduction: General overview of Indonesian Early Childhood Education sector
Early childhood education has become a national public movement in Indonesia, since
Indonesian Ministry of National Education and Culture (MONEC) declared "Indonesian
Golden Generation" on the National Education Day on July 2012. It is a big plan of
Indonesian to preparing the golden generation in 100th Indonesias Independence Day
anniversary on 2045.
In previous time Kindergarten and Elementary are in the same directorate, Kindergarten
offers the education only for children aged 4-6 years. Based on Dakar framework for action
2001, Indonesian MONEC launched the Directorate General of Early Childhood Education.
Then in 2003 the national education system was changed significantly with regarding the new
regulation: (1) Early childhood education is addressed for children aged 0-6 years; (2)
Developmental process of early childhood through education stimulation; (3) The aim of early
childhood education is to assist the growth and developmental process of child's physical and
mental in a holistic way; (4) Developmental and educational process in early childhood is to
preparing the further education (Sujiono, 2012). The implementation of those new regulation
shaped a formal preschool (Kindergarten, for children aged 4-6 years) and non-formal
preschool (Child care for children aged 0-6 years and Playgroup for children aged 2-4 years).
Nowadays Indonesia has about 30 million early childhood and the gross enrollment
rate of children in preschool in 2012 is 34.5% of the government's target of approximately

239

75% by 2014 (Latif, 2013). Indonesia Government has promoted to increase the number of
preschool institution to enhance the opportunities of underserved children in preschool level.
After government gives a special attention, public understanding about the importance of
early childhood education (ECE) began to increase. The total numbers of pre-school
institutions growing rapidly and also children who attend in pre-school education increased
progressively. Unfortunately, the quality of Indonesian preschool educators gained attention
lately, the availability of human resources in this field is still limited. To meet the growing
demand of preschool services, many pre-school institutions providing teachers who do not fit
both of qualification and competencies on early childhood education sector.
Ministry of National Education and Culture (MONEC) overcomes this issues by (1)
established a national standard for qualification and competencies of early childhood
educator, and (2) providing gradually teacher training and course program (3) giving a
permission to all private preschool institution in Indonesia to perform regulation system on
teacher professional development.
Even though the policy has been made by MONEC, but quality of preschool teachers
are still not completely well due to the following reasons: (1) number of teacher's supply from
university are not meet the needed of field's demand (2) the limited number of teacher's
supply from university resulting teachers with non appropriate qualification and competencies
for early childhood education (3) MONEC has limited capabilities to serve training and
education for a huge numbers of preschool teachers around Indonesia. Even though the
Indonesian Directorate General of Early Childhood Education has been held frequently the
formal course, seminars, workshop, conferences, subject training to improving the quality of
preschool teachers, but the opportunity of teachers training and course program is not spread
evenly. In fact, preschool teachers facing a lot of obstacles on finding resources and best
practices required for their professional development on the field. (4) Many preschool's
institutions has limited resources to serve professional development program to improve
teacher's qualities (5) Teacher's training generally designing slightly different of the realclassroom context.
These conditions are challenges that must be solved in Indonesia preschool sector
certainly, since in recent years the government has concerning on improvement the quality of
preschool service.
2. Teacher's Profesional Development at GagasCeria Preschool
To meet the challenges based on Indonesia teachers preschool condition above, each
preschool institution in the field has their own regulation system on teacher professional
development in addition to the governments teachers training program.
GagasCeria preschool as a private preschool has own system on improving teachers
quality, because teachers must contend with competing demands that challenge their ability to
provide quality instruction (West-Olatunji et al: 2008). Since someone decided to entering the
early childhood educator profession, they will perform many task: to interaction with
children, working with family, being part of team, and implementing curriculum, standards
and assessment (Feeney et al, 2010). GagasCeria has realized that the significance of
professional development is crucial for quality of early childhood education practices in terms
of developing a childs perspectives, understanding childs development stages, implementing
play and learning contents into practices, designing better lesson plans, creating adequate
play/learning environments for children, establishing harmonious collegiality, and so on
(Kadota, 2012).

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There are three types of teacher professional development at GagasCeria Preschool:


a. Pre-service training
Pre-service training serve for a new teacher that will joint at GagasCeria Preschool.
GagasCeria accept motivated teacher with various background of education in Bachelor
degree. The differences of background subject study has been made GagasCeria to do
much more effort for teacher's pre-service program. However strongly motivated a new
teacher for entering teaching field, they will always ecounter some difficulties in achieving
all the teacher's role (Orenstein et al, 2011) without any preparation. In service training
consist of several days of lectures, observing classroom, lesson reflecting session, teaching
practice, discussions, and workshop on teacher's administration stuff.

b. In-service training
Serve for all teachers and staff at GagasCeria Preschool. In-service training consists of
intern and extern training based on teacher's need and stage of teacher's developmental.
Intern training are conducting by GagasCeria Preschool with expert as a trainer. Extern
training is sending teacher to attend seminar/training in other institutions. All training
based on teachers needed.
c. Regular of teacher's activities
- Weekly meeting
There are several activities of teachers during a year. In every week teachers gather to
discuss and share their experience in their own classroom, the relation with parents, and
other issues at school. Sometimes teacher conducted book review activity or small
workshop on early childhood education or teacher's issues.
- Classroom news paper
Regularly, teacher publish their own classroom paper that inform about classroom
activities or special moment that happened at their classroom. Actually this activities
can help teachers to improve their writing skill.
- Lesson Study
Lesson Study is daily activity that conducts by teachers as learning and research
process in order to improve the quality of lesson. Such learning and research process
improve the quality of professional during the planning, observing, and reflecting
children activities collaboratively in teacher's team.
3. Discussion about Lesson Study
3.1 Lesson Study in Indonesia
Lesson Study is a model of Japanese school-based teacher professional development
as collaborative research on classroom activities is thought to make possible the exchange of
experiences between teachers, collaborative planning, participatory learning, the enhancement
of professional dialogue among teachers, and teachers reflection (Matoba, 2007). Lesson
study has been introduced and spread faster since early 2000s in Indonesia by cooperation
between JICA, Indonesian MONEC and several universities (Suratno, 2012). Even so, the
Lesson Study for practical research program has been launched by MONEC and introduced to
junior high school level only, then they are spreading to elementary school level in 2013.
Today, lesson study is widely used across the continuum from secondary to preschool settings
(West-Olatunji et al: 2008).

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3.2 Typical of Lesson Study


The most interesting aspect of Lesson Study is the mechanism it provides for studying
and improving the methods teachers use. Lesson Study breaks away from the model of expert
telling teachers what to do. Rather, it assumes that teachers learn to teach by treating teaching
as an object of study by trying to improve teaching by studying carefully what works and
what doesnt (Stigler and Hiebert, 1999). Through Lesson Study, the classroom becomes the
teachers laboratory for continuous improvement of teaching and learning (Wang-Iverson and
Yoshida, 2005). Teachers in Lesson Study groups are not only improving their own
knowledge and skills but are also contributing to a knowledge base that may, potentially,
inform more permanent improvements over time (Stigler and Hiebert, 1999) since Lesson
Study contirbute on build an environment for teachers to be reflective and good observers.
3.3 Lesson Study in GagasCeria Preschool
Since 2009 GagasCeria Preschool has been using Lesson Study as one tool of teachers
professional development based real-classroom context, besides the other various pre-service
and in-service teachers training annual program. In reality, Lesson Study was never launched
in early childhood education sector. Lesson study in preschool level has not known as well as
in the higher level of education. There is no resource or reference to be accessed about Lesson
Study best practice in Indonesian preschool level. Therefore, this issue is not only in
Indonesia but also in international scale. Lesson Study approach is spreading to early
childhood education and care in study in the countries that adapt the former approach (Akita
& Lewis 2008) which is usual Lesson Study for primary. It is become a challenge for
GagasCeria preschool as an institution that organized playgroup and kindergarten for children
aged 2-6 years, to introduce Lesson Study as a teacher professional development in order to
create a learning community and teachers as researcher.
Therefore, the way early childhood education examine classes is different from the
usually lesson study. It does not compare and examine the teaching plan and practice, but
observe what activities and events children experienced in the field, how they were recorded
for recollection, and they reflect and examine the case to interpret with colleagues (Akita,
2011). The successful adoption and implementation of Lesson Study in pre-school setting
require changes in the mindset of both teachers and leaders. Lesson Study is often
missunderstood as focusing on creating perfect lessons. This is not about observing and
evaluating the teachers teaching the lessons. The focus is on the students and how the lesson
facilitate learning (Lewis et al, 2009).
Since preschool teacher is always expected to engaged in an ongoing cycle of
observing, guiding learning, and assessing children's progress (Dodge, 2006), Lesson Study
become an appropriate tool to support such teacher's roles.
3.4 Benefits of Lesson Study at GagasCeria Preschool
- Teacher's quality
Effective Lesson Study will have a long-term impact on teachers profesional
development. Teachers can develop their high quality professional such a strong
understanding of the subject content knowledge and pedagogical knowledge. Specifically
Lesson Study improve several foundation skills for teacher as follows: (a) lesson plan:
designing a lesson with high level of prediction and anticipations, and arrangement lesson
materials and tools, (b) to conduct the instructional: give an optimal response to children,
observing the children, collecting data from observation, (c) reflecting the lesson: analyzing

242

data, making interpretation, and re-design the lesson to support children development process.
Some teachers believe that the most important thing in lesson is lesson plan, but in fact there
might be a risk that the regular lesson plan is followed technically and without reflection by
the teacher (Runesson & Gustafsson: 2012). Finally, Lesson Study develop high quality
teachers and directly put an impact on student learning process.
- Teacher's collegiality
By working in groups to improve instruction, teachers are able to develop a shared
language for describing and analyzing classroom teaching, and to teach each other about
teaching (Stigler and Hiebert, 1999).
Wang-Iverson and Yoshida (2005) described about what makes Lesson Study unique,
when compared to traditional professional development:
It is teacher-led, long term professional learning.
It is planned collaboratively over a periode of time through intensive study of materials,
standards, and students; It was found that lesson preparation was done in a more in-depth
manner.
It supports a collaborative focus on student thinking through observation of classroom
practice in real time, sometimes with external experts; the support of the knowledgeable
other was critical.
It offers a process that makes a goal (e.g., enhancing student motivation for learning) for
learning concrete through an actual lesson.
It provides fresh perspectives on teaching and learning.
It foster shared reflection based on classroom evidence
It concretizes the idea of teacher reflection, as well as what problem solving looks like
and what thinking entails
It involves long-term participation of knowledgeable others.
- School's culture
Lesson study is a culturally centered professional development tool that stresses group
rather than individual goals and outcomes (West-Olatunji: 2008). Lesson Study provides two
important pieces that are often missing from professional development: the direct observation
of students and teachers in the classroom, and teachers coming together to discuss what they
have observed. Such reflection and discussion session on teachers team called as collaborative
research process. During the discussion, teachers are learning each other: senior teachers and
also the junior teachers. The culture of Lesson Study is all of teachers is on the same level
during the process. The goal of their collaborative work is to improve the lesson rather than
examine teacher or classroom activity.
4. Conclusion
Among the roles of the teachers are researcher and learner. Therefore, professional
development is actually part of the job description, an ongoing and continuous process, rather
than a qualification for employment. Perhaps the most important prerequisite for employment
as a teacher there is the disposition to go on learning. Early childhood education sector need
to consider alternative models of teachers professional development. Lesson Study offering
professional learning process and continuous improvement of teacher's daily role by
observing the children. For teachers, watching lesson from the student's perspective can build
knowledge of student thinking and motivation to improve their own instruction (Lewis et al,
2012).

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Becoming an qualified's teacher will require consistent opportunities over long periods
of time for teachers to study and improve their own teaching. There are at least three ways to
improve the lesson: individual teachers, teacher community, materials and tools (Lewis et al,
2009). Lesson Study could answer that chance and become a continuous pathway to improve
the lesson.
GagaSceria Preschool has been conducted Lesson Study for five years as regular
activity for teacher. Lesson Study give more benefits on develop teacher's culture as a learners
and researchers. Teachers can planing, observing, and reflecting the lesson better time by
time. Lesson study can become a school's learning culture in order to improve quality of
teachers and quality of lesson. Finally, the author wish that teachers, educational researchers
and teachers educators could respond positively to spread the benefits of lesson study in
preschool sector.
REFERENCES:
Akita, Kiyomi. (2011). Study on early childhood education and care and Lesson Study.
Keisuisya: National Association for the Study of Educationan Methods(Ed.) Lesson
Study in Japan., chapter 19, pg. 421 432.
Akita, Kiyomi., Lewis, Catherine. C. (eds.) (2008). Jugyo no Kenkyuu, Kyoshi no Gakusyu Guidence for Lesson Study: Lesson Study and Teacher's Learning. Tokyo: Akashi
syoten.
Chichibu, Toshiya., Kihara, Toshiyuki. (2012). How Japanese school build a professional
learning community by Lesson Study. Emerald: International Journal for Lesson and
Learning Studies, 2 (1), pg.1 25.
Dodge, Diane Trister., Colker, Laura J., Heroman, Cate. (2000). The Creative Curriculum
For Preschool Fourth Edition. Washington DC: Teaching Strategies.
Feeney, Stephanie., et.al. (2006). Who Am I In The Lives Of Children. Canada, USA:
Pearson.
Kadota, Ryo. (2012). Examining Issues and Challenges of Field-Based On-Site Training
Session in JapanesseKindergarten - focusing on its roles, perception, and frms of
documentation. Presented on WALS 2012 International Conference, Singapore.
Latif, Mukhtar., Zukhairina., Zubaedah, Rita., Afandi, Muhammad., (2013). Orientasi Baru
Pendidikan Anak Usia Dini, Teori dan Aplikasinya. Jakarta: Kencana.
Lewis, Catherine C., Perry, Rebecca R., Hurd, Jacqueline. (2009). Improving mathematics
instruction through lesson study: a theoretical model and North American case.
Springer Science+Business Media, B.V. 2009, pg. 285-304.
Lewis, Catherine C., Perry, Rebecca R., Friedkin, Shelley., Roth, Jillian R. (2012). Improving
teaching does improve teachers: evidence from Lesson Study. SAGE: Journal of
Teacher Education, 63 (5), pg. 368 373.
Ornstein, Allan. C, Levine, Daniel U, Gutek, Gerald L. (2011). Foundation of Education
International Edition. Belmont: Wadswroth.
Runesson, Ulla., Gustafsson, Gerd. (2012). Sharing and developing knowledge products from
Learning Study. Emerald: International Journal for Lesson and Learning Studies, 1 (3),
pg. 245 260.
Stigler, James W., Hiebert, James. (1999). The Teaching Gap. New York: Free Press.
Sujiono, Yuliani Nurani. (2012). Konsep Dasar Pendidikan Anak Usia Dini. Jakarta: Indeks.
Suratno, Tatang. (2012). Lesson Study in Indonesia: an Indonesia University of Education
experience. Emerald: International Journal for Lesson and Learning Studies, 1 (3),
pg.196 215.

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West-Olatunji, Cirecie., Behar-Horenstein., Rant, Jeffrey. (2008). Mediated Lesson Study,


collaborative learning and cultural competence among early childhood educators.
Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 23 (1), pg. 96 108.
Wang-Iverson, P., Yoshida, M. (Eds.) (2005). Building our understanding of Lesson Study.
Philadelphia: Research for Better School.

245

DEVELOPMENT OF TEACHERS TRAINING PROGRAM


IN CHARACTER BASED LEARNING FOR EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION
DR. Ocih Setiasih, M.Pd1
setiasih@upi.edu
Rita Mariyana, M.Pd2
ritamariyana@upi.edu
Ali Nugraha, M.Pd3
alinugrah4@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
The literature reveals that the process of learning in early childhood emphasis on the
development of a variety of potential terms, the formation of attitudes and behaviors as well
as the development of basic knowledge and skills they need to adapt to the environment and
to face the developmental tasks further study. Character is the quality of mental or moral,
moral strength, name or reputation. This study aims to develop a teacher training program in
character education-based learning for young children. Research using the method of
Research and Development. The final product of this research is a training program for
teachers in character education based learning for early childhood that are designed based on
the results of research.
Keywords: Training, Programme, Teachers, Character, Early Childhood, Education.

INTRODUCTION
Law of the Republic of Indonesia (UURI) No. 14 Year 2005 on Teachers and
Lecturers Chapter I of the general provisions of Pasal 1 states that the meaning of: "Teachers
are professional educators with the primary task of educating, teaching, guiding, directing,
training, assessing, and evaluate students on early childhood education, formal education,
primary education and secondary education. "(Ayat 1). "Professional is the work or activity
undertaken by a person's life and become a source of income that requires expertise, skills, or
skills that meet certain quality standards or norms as well as the educational needs of the
profession." (Ayat 4). "Competence is a set of knowledge, skills and behaviors that must be
owned, lived, and controlled by the teacher or lecturer in performing the task
kerpofesionalan." (Ayat 10). Law of the Republic of Indonesia Number 20 Year 2003 on
National Education System (UUSPN) on the seventh of the Early Childhood Education
(ECD) in Pasal three of Ayat 28 (3) states that "early childhood education in formal education
shaped Taman Kanak-kanak (TK), raudatul Athfal (RA), or other forms equal ". In the
explanation of Article 28 paragraph (3) explained that the kindergarten (kindergarten)
education for personal development and self-potential according to the stage of development
of learners. Raudhatul Athfal (RA) Islamic religious education that instills the values of faith
and devotion to the students to develop their potential as in kindergarten.
Children aged 4-6 years were part of early childhood who are at the age range of birth
to 6 years. At this age the term referred to as preschoolers. Kindergarten (TK) is one of the
1

Lecturer Indonesa University of Education


Lecturer Indonesa University of Education
3
Lecturer Indonesa University of Education
2

246

pre-school education in formal education. Preschool children between the range of 4-6 years,
usually doing his formal education, both organized by the government (State) or private
parties. At kindergarten age (4-6 years), is a sensitive period for children. Children begin
sensitive to receiving all potential development efforts. Sensitive period is the period of
maturation of the functions of the physical and psychological ready to respond to the
stimulation provided by the environment. This period is a time of laying the first foundation
in developing the physical, cognitive, language, social, emotional, self-concept, selfdiscipline, self-reliance, art, moral, and religious values.
THEORETICAL
Teacher Competency
The term competence in Indonesian defined as skill or ability. There are several
meanings of competency, including the opinion of experts as follows.
1. "Teacher competency is the ability of a teacher to her responsibility or has performed
duties appropriately". (Uzer Usman, 2000). The ability of a teacher to perform the duties
in a responsible and decent.
2. "... is a knowledge, skills, and abilities or capabilities that a person Achieves, roomates
Become part of his or her being to the exent he or she can satisfactorily perform particular
cognitive, afective, and psychomotor behaviors". (McAshan, 1981) in Mulyasa (2002).
Competence is defined as the knowledge, skills and abilities controlled by someone who
has been a part of him, so he can do the behaviors of cognitive, affective, and psychomotor
as well as possible.
3. Competence is a set of knowledge, skills and behaviors that must be owned, lived, and
controlled by the teacher or lecturer in performing the task porfesionalism.
The teacher is a position or profession that requires specialized skills as a teacher. Can not
be done by people who do not have the expertise to undertake the activity or job as a teacher.
To be a teacher is required special conditions, especially as a professional teacher must master
the ins and outs of true education with a variety of other science that needs to be nurtured and
developed through specific training or education period Prajabatan (Usman, 2000: 5). In Big
Indonesian Dictionary, is defined as a teacher who teaches his job. However, in the
implementation of educational activities the teacher's task is certainly not just teaching
oriented skill development dimension of the realm of copyright alone but also teachers also
developed the realm of taste and Karas learners. Because, in the perspective of educational
psychology of teaching, in principle, means the act of a person (teacher) from others
(learners) learning, in the sense of changing the entire dimension of behavior. (Shah, 1999:
222). Meanwhile, according to Surya (2003: 134-135) evaluated from a psychological
standpoint as teachers are: (1) educational psychologists, means a person who understands the
psychology of education and are able to practice it in his duties as an educator; (2) the artist in
human relations (artist in human relations), means that the teacher is the one who has the
ability to create an atmosphere of human relations, especially with the students so that they
can achieve educational goals; (3) forming a group (group builder), which is able to create
groups and activities to achieve educational goals; (4) the catalytic agent or innovator, one
who is able to create a renewal to make things better; and (5) mental health workers (mental
hygiene workers), means that the teacher is responsible for the creation of the mental health of
the students.

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Character Education for Early Childhood


1. Definition of Character
The character is currently a debate is interesting and as the discussion in every field,
especially in the field of education because education is a transformation of knowledge
from generation to generation, as people involved in education would have to understand
what is meant by character. in language, the character comes from the Greek meaning
charassein carve, when we try to understand more deeply what it means to "carve out" we
find that the results are good and the engraving on the good things will continue to cling,
not easily worn out.
2. Character education
Character education is made up of two words that have meaning when separated each,
education is always concerned with human social relations, human birth can not live alone
but need someone else while the character is more subjective because it is said to be
related to the structure as a human anthropological and actions in defining freedom.
Character education should be provided in educational institutions, especially early
childhood education due to the formation of character can not be done quickly but takes a
long process that can be attached to the positive character strong in the individual soul is
like carving that will not wear out terrmakan time, character education in the school
context capable of animating and directing a realistic appreciation of character education,
consistent and integral.
3. Character Education Training For Early Childhood
Coaching is a character in this study contains educational material on a set of positive
values that are considered appropriate for the character mengembagkan early childhood
consisting of (1) Against the Almighty God's love in the form of values based on the
behaviors that demonstrate compliance with the command and Almighty God prohibition
applied in everyday life; (2) tolerance and pacifism are planting a habit to be patient,
tolerant, and resist emotions and desires; (3) discipline, namely the value associated with
the order and regularity; (4) honesty is the attitude that shows understanding the
capabilities and value of self-esteem; (5) the attitude of confidence that shows the ability
to understand themselves and the value of self-esteem; (6) Self that is the behavior that do
not rely on others. Planting value aims to help get children determine, perform, and fulfill
its own needs without assistance or with assistance as necessary; (7) creative behavior is
behavior that encourages a person to be able to give birth to something new in the form of
ideas, as well as new works by emphasizing on the ability to combine, solve a problem or
answer and reflect the operational capability of the creative child; (8) the value of hard
work that is related to the behavior of such unyielding grind to finish with joy; and (9) the
liability value is associated with consciousness to perform and endure everything.

METHOD
The research method of research, we choose the research and development or research
and development is adapted from Borg & Gall models by taking the 7 stages of development:
1. Reseach and information collecting (collecting information, literature review, research
framework)
2. Planning (do the designing, formulating research objectives, research work procedures)
3. Develop a preliminary form of the product (scratch or develop a form of product design
and validate an earlier draft of the initial draft products)
4. Preliminary field testing (test-limited)
5. Main product revision (to revise the main product)

248

6. Main field testing (test-expanded) and


7. Operational product revision (to revise the extended trial)
Methods of Research and Development is used to develop a teacher training program in
character education-based learning for young children. Reseach and Development Methods
used because it will produce a draft program of teacher training in character education-based
learning for young children. For more details the implementation phase of the study described
the stages of research to be conducted following the flow chart below.
Theoretical and
Empirical
Studies

1.
2.

3.

Teacher
Competency
Based Learning
Character
Education
Preliminary
Study

Program
Planning

The design of the


Teacher Training
Program in
Character
Education-Based
Learning for Early
Childhood

Program
Development

Hypothetical
Program Based
Learning Teacher
Training in
Character
Education for
Early Childhood

Figure 1. Stage Research Procedure


RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Teacher training programs in character education based learning for early childhood is
designed with three phases: the preparation phase, the implementation phase and the
evaluation phase. Description of each stage of the design of the above described as follows:
Preparation Phase I.
There are five main activities in the preparation stages, namely: 1) Drafting Training, 2)
Develop Training Module, 3) Setting up the Media and Training Tool, 4) Recruitment
and Coaching Coaches, and 5) Target Teacher Recruitment. Explanation of each activity
in the preparation stages are as follows:
1. Drafting Training
Training plan is a plan of action that will be performed by a trained trainer or speaker.
Component design of the training include:
a. competency
b. Training Materials
c. delivery strategy
d. Assessment Plan
2. Develop Training Module
The training module is the main material for all participants. To facilitate the participants
in the study module, the presentation module using the following format: (A)
Introduction, (B) Competence Participant, (C) Exposure Matter (Concept and description),
(C) Example Application, (D) Exercise independent.

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3. Preparing Media and Training Tools


Media training and tools mentioned here are apart of a Training Module. Media and tools
both for projection, as well as tools and materials that will be used by the participants
during the training activities carried out. Media and tools / basic training materials to be
prepared are: infokus, flipcharts, markers (colored), isolatif da scissors, and other
contextually required
4. Recruitment and Coaching Coach
Trainers / resource persons who will be involved in this trial is a coach that has been
prepared. Coach taken from teachers who came from FIP PGPAUD Prodi UPI and Senior
Teacher / Head of Laboratory UPI kindergarten.
5. Teacher Recruitment Goals
Trainees who will be the target of training is the kindergarten teacher from the
circumference Campus University of Indonesia, including UPI Lab School kindergarten
teacher and kindergarten teachers from the District of Sukasari.
II. Implementation phase
There are seven main activities in the preparation stages, namely:
1) Pre-Test,
2) Presentation Materials I, II, III, ...
3) Practice I, II, III, ...
4) Reflection,
5) Strengthening,
6) Simulation (Peer teaching), and to
7) Post Test.
Explanation of each phase of the activity on the following:
1. Pre-Test
Before participants attended the training, they work on the problems of pre-tests that have
been prepared by the researcher (team). Pre-test is intended to determine the ability of the
participants before the start of training. The results will be used to determine the portion
of the effectiveness of the training.
2. Presentation Materials I, II, III ...
Coach / resource presenting training materials in accordance with the scope of the material
in the module. Presentation by using a variety of strategies as specified in the training
plan. Presentation materials also by optimizing the various media and tools / materials that
have been prepared. The presentation of the material is always accompanied with
illustrations and examples of relevant and adequate.
3. Practice I, II, III, ..
Practice is intended participants perform various exercise activities either independently,
in pairs, or in groups. Practice activity is a manifestation of the material that has been
given to the participants. Thus mastery of the skills of participants on the material is
always detected. This training system also emphasizes the application-based material
progress of each participant / group (progressive approach).
4. Reflection
Reflection is done after all of the material delivered to the participants. The focus of
reflection is to check the control participants on the overall material that has been given.
Things that have not been controlled within their competencies expected, it will be used as
an ingredient in providing reinforcement.

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5. Strengthening
Reinforcement is an activity to fulfill the material that has not been well controlled by the
participants. Strengthening done by looking at the learning style of participants, followed
by an illustration of the most understood by participants. Targe reinforcement is
controlled participant maximum competence in accordance with the predetermined.
6. Simulation (Peer Teaching)
The simulation was performed when the participants have expressed mastered the whole
matter, which was concluded through reflection and reinforcement activities. Simulations
using peer teaching approach, where each participant mencob appear as teachers, and
other participants appear as learners.
7. Post Test
Post test given after all participants to follow all stages of training. Results of post-test
will be one part in seeing the success of training conducted.
III. Evaluation phase
There are three main activities in the evaluation stages, namely:
1) The process of training,
2) training results, and
3) Develop Plan for Follow-up.
Explanation of each activity in the evaluation stage are as follows:
1. Assessment Process Training
Assessment process is carried out on all stages, starting from the preparation phase, the
implementation phase to phase of the evaluation itself.
2. Training Outcomes Assessment
Assessment of training outcomes include assessment of competency achievement and
other training products, namely in the form of materials and various devices / procedures
applied in the training.
3. Making Plans Follow-up
Develop follow up the activities carried out between the material and or progressive
training plan.
CLOSING
1. Character education should be given early because during early childhood has a huge
opportunity to instill good character in children. that the education given to children in
conformity with the development of each individual or institution involved in early
childhood education, child development, especially to understand the emotional and moral
development of children because of this development is a capital base planting character
in children.
2. Competency-based learning teachers in character education in early childhood needs to be
improved through various forms of training that can facilitate teachers to understand more
komprehenship implementation of character education for early childhood integrated with
learning in kindergarten from the conceptual level to the level of practice.
3. The teacher training program in character education based learning for early childhood is
designed with three phases: the preparation phase, the implementation phase and the
evaluation phase.

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REFERENCES
Gutama, (2002). Kecerdasan Spiritual dalam Membentuk Perilaku Anak. Jurnal Ilmiah
Anak Dini Usia. Vol. 02. Hal. 32-37.
Hamalik, Oemar. (2004). Pendidikan Guru Berdasarkan Pendekatan Kompetensi. Jakarta :
Bumi Aksara
Jalal, Fasli (2002). Pendidikan Anak Usia Dini Pendidikan yang Mendasar. Jurnal Ilmiah
Anak Dini Usia. Vol.03 Hal.4-8.
M. Surya, (2001) Psikologi Pembelajaran. Publikasi Jurusan Psikologi Pendidikan dan
Bimbingan FIP UPI.
Mulyasa, E. (2006). Menjadi Guru Profesional Menciptakan Pembelajaran Kreatif dan
Menyenangkan. Bandung : Remaja Rosdakarya
Mariyana, Rita. (2007). Pengembangan Program Pembelajaran Berbasis Bimbingan di
Taman Kanak-Kanak. Tesis. Sekolah Pacsasarjana Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia.
(Tidak diterbitkan)
Majid, Abdul dan Andayani, Dian. (2012). Pendidikan Karakter Perspektif Islam.Remaja
Rosdakaya: Bandung
Muhibbin Syah, (2001). Psikologi Pendidikan. Remaja Rosdakarya: Bandung.
Masnifal, (2013). Siap Menjadi Guru dan Pengelola PAUD Profesional (Pijakan Mahasiswa,
Guru dan Pengelola TK/RA/KB/TPA). PT Elex Media Komputindo : Jakarta
Solehuddin, M. (1997). Konsep Dasar Pendidikan Prasekolah. Departemen Pendidikan dan
Kebudayaan, Fakultas Ilmu Pendidikan, Institut Keguruan dan Ilmu Pendidikan;
Bandung.
Sugiyono, (2005). Memahami Penelitian Kualitatif. Bandung : Alfabeta.
Usman Uzer, (2004). Menjadi Guru Profesional. Remaja Rosdakarya; Bandung.
Yusuf, S (2001). Psikologi Perkembangan Anak dan Remaja. Bandung : Remaja Rosdakarya.

252

IMPLEMENTATION OF LEARNING MODEL COLLABORATIVE COUNSELING


BASED ON TUTOR TRAINING IN RANCAKALONG SUMEDANG
By:
N. Dede Kohoerioah
ABSTRACT
Not optimal training results in early childhood tutor in Rancakalong Sumedang was one of
them due to lack of instructors to motivate trainees to participate in the learning process
through the disclosure and use of abilities, strengths and experiences of early childhood tutor
so as to increase the independence of learning. Therefore, the need to carry out the
implementation of a collaborative learning model based counseling on early childhood tutor
throughout Rancakalong Sumedang. The purpose of the implementation of this model, is that
early childhood tutor is able to learn independently. Number of participants as many as 50
people. The timing of the 4 meetings / 4 hrs. Developmental psychology training materials.
The results of the implementation of the model indicate a positive change in early childhood
tutor, proved (1) expect more early childhood training tutors to implement collaborative
learning model based counseling, (2) early childhood education tutors felt helped in solving
the problem of learning, (3) early childhood education tutors feel increased motivation to
learn mandirinya, (4) realize the importance of early childhood education tutors independent
learning. Data revealed by using questionnaires and interviews. The data were analyzed
qualitatively.
Keywords: implementation of learning, collaborative counseling, and independent learning
A. Introduction
1. Background
The success of training can be seen from there and whether or not changes to the
trainee, one of which is the increasing independence of learning. Independence of higher
learning will help facilitate the trainees to learn, but if a low learning self-reliance will have
difficulty in learning.
The success of the training process is supported by the participation of many
pelatihan.Oleh Therefore, participants should serve as partners in the planning of training,
building relationships, explain the objectives, materials, and training strategies. These
conditions will increase learning motivation, participation, and creative, as well as fun and
increase the independence of learning of participants.
Results of interviews with tutors early childhood research team before training begins
(August 2014) showed that the training provided by some instructors still are lacking: (1)
increase the independence of learning; (2) relationships; (3) describe a training strategy; (5)
make an agreement on training activities; (6) utilize the capabilities, strengths, and
experiences of early childhood education tutors; (7) creates a change in training; (8) provide a
useful task for trainees; (9) to motivate a lot of reading; (10) to understand the advantages and
disadvantages of early childhood learning tutor.
Results of interviews with participants in the district early childhood tutor Rancakalong
showed that most trainees feel less capable in terms of: (1) understand the training materials;
(2) completing the task correctly; (3) resolve issues relating to learning; (4) increase the
enthusiasm in learning; (5) improving the ability of self-learning; (6) improve attitudes and
study habits.

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Based on the above conditions, the instructor in the training process should give priority
to implementing training plans, relationships, cooperation, participation, and utilization of
early childhood tutor. So the training is conducted to develop independent learning
participants. To develop independent learning trainees can be reached by the implementation
of the teaching model based on collaborative counseling, because it is a learning process that
prioritizes partnership, collaboration, participation of trainees, oriented towards problemsolving and future. Thus the focus of this study, is the application of counseling collaborative
learning model based on tutor training ECD in Sub Rancakalong, Sumedang District.
2. Problem Formulation
How is the implementation of a collaborative learning model based counseling to
improve independent learning early childhood tutor trainees throughout Rancakalong District
of Sumedang District.
3. Research Objectives
The purpose of this study was to obtain the results of the implementation of counselingbased collaborative learning model to improve learning independence early childhood tutor
trainees throughout Rancakalong District of Sumedang District.
B. Counseling Collaborative Based Learning Model to Improve Learning Independence
Counseling collaborative based learning model to improve learning independence,
arranged in order to enhance independent learning through the learning process. This model is
based on the concept of collaborative counseling, independent learning profiles of students,
learning conditions performed by lecturers FKIP Uninus Bandung, then tested the feasibility
through the seminar by presenting students, faculty and experts FKIP Uninus Bandung.
Furthermore, this hypothetical model is implemented in early childhood tutor training in Sub
Rancakalong. The components of the model implemented in early childhood tutor training,
are:
1. Purpose
The general purpose of this collaborative learning based counseling is to help trainees in
improving learning independence with regard to aspects of knowledge, attitudes and skills in
learning.
The specific objective is to help the trainees to understand and realize the importance of
self-reliance, discipline, commitment, basic skills, a self-learning, meaning learning, and selfefficacy in learning, and is able to perform the proper steps to learn, able to interact with
others, able to solve problems learning and life problems and have principles and strong
confidence.
2. Learning Materials
Collaborative learning materials based counseling is learning independence related to
aspects of the knowledge, skills and attitudes to learning. If these materials are detailed every
aspect are: aspects of knowledge in the study consists of understand and realize the
importance of self-reliance, discipline, commitment, basic skills, a self-learning, meaning
learning, and self-efficacy in learning. Aspects of the study consisted of attitudes capable of
doing the proper steps to learn, able to interact with others, able to solve problems of learning
and life issues. Aspects of the learning skills of principles and strong confidence.

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3. Type of Service
The type of service used in this model is general and intervention services. Public service
is the assistance provided to all participants in the classical training through a learning process
that is carried out lecturers to enhance learning independence. While intervention services are
carried out by lecturers assistance to trainees individually and personal problem that aims to
help solve learning problems intractable by them and not possible in the learning process.
4. Requirements
The requirement for counseling-based collaborative learning, are: (a) has an interest to
increase the independence of learning; (b) Understand the concept of teaching, counseling,
collaborative and independent learning; (c) Ability to conduct interviews; (d) Ability to
appreciate and understand the learning independence; (e) Ability to listen and interpret the
problem independent learning; (f) Ability to disclose information of the trainees or
instructors; (g) Has the nature of patient, thoughtful, quiet and pleasant; (h) has the feeling of
humor, self-esteem, and social; (i) Able to accept criticism with open heart; (j) Ability to use
the ability, strength and experience of the student; (k) Clarify complaints, problems, and the
preferred destination of students; (l) Have a willingness to change views, action and
atmosphere of the student; (m) Able to evaluate from the beginning to the end of the learning
process
4. Technique
The technique used in this model are (a) the interview; (b) consultation; (c)
discussions; (d) workshop (seminars and workshops).
5. Evaluation
a. Type of evaluation that can be used is the evaluation process and results.
b. Evaluation Criteria: (1) trainees feel more active, and feel increased self-reliance of
learning; (2) comfortable and satisfied after consultation with the instructor; (3) the trainees
feel heard and valued; (4) an increase in the number of participants to consult the instructor;
(6) the existence of a positive assessment and change perceptions of the trainees after
receiving assistance; (7) an increase in motivation, skills, attitudes and study habits of
trainees; (8) the existence of clarifying the complaints, problems, goals take precedence; (12)
the change in view of the action and atmosphere of the trainee.
C. Research Methods
1. Research Approach
The approach used in the implementation of this model is a qualitative approach, the
research method is descriptive, technical questionnaire, interview and observation guide.
2. Research Stage
The stages in the implementation of research-based learning model collaborative
counseling (August 2014) are: (1) preparation, (2) the implementation of a collaborative
learning model based counseling on tutor training ECD in Sub Rancakalong Sumedang (3)
The collection of data, and (4) Analysis of the research results.

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3. Operational Definition of Variables


a. Learning Model
The learning model is the pattern of faculty teaching activities conducted with participants
from the beginning to the end of the lesson it contains approaches, strategies, methods, and
techniques and learning tactics were agreed upon by the faculty and students.
b. counseling Collaborative
Counseling is a collaborative relief effort focuses on the relationship of cooperation,
partnership, participation counselee, many came, listen, appreciate and validate the counselee,
and respectful, creative, do not use a lot of force and the conversation so as to uncover and
exploit the capabilities, advantages and experiences counselee to achieve the objectives and
expected results.
c. Implementation of Collaborative Learning Based Counseling
Learning-based counseling is a collaborative teaching and learning patterns between
instructors with early childhood tutor built on the basis of a harmonious partnership, making
agreement on training, motivating early childhood tutor, responding to, appreciate, validate,
uncover and exploit the capabilities, advantages, and early childhood tutor experience to
achieve the training objectives.
d. Independence of Learning Tutor ECD
Independent learning tutor ECD include the ability to solve problems related to learning,
the ability to understand the training materials, training, have attitudes and habits, as well as
making it easier to learn the skills training. Characteristics of early childhood learning
independence tutor that is the willingness to learn, positive thinking, changes in attitude,
behavior and self-sufficient.
e. Tutor Training ECD of Rancakalong
Early childhood tutor training Rancakalong is Rancakalong District of community
members who have the desire and was approved by the local community as well as the
Department of Education to become a tutor Rancakalong District of ECD in Rancakalong and
training organized by the SBRC Uninus Bandung.
4. Research Instruments
The data required in the implementation of this model is the independence of the
conditions studied early childhood education tutors tutor training and implementation of early
childhood education, while the data collection tool is the instrument of implementation of
tutor training and early childhood learning independence.
5. Location and Research Subject
Locations used in the implementation of this model is the se-ECD District of Rancakalong
Kab.Sumedang and research subjects are early childhood tutors and instructors.
6. Data Analysis
After the independence of data and implementation of early childhood learning tutor
collected models, followed by the processing and analysis of data.

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E. Results and Discussion


1. Results Before the Treatment
The results of this study indicate that the majority of trainees throughout early
childhood tutor District of Rancakalong show that independence is still less independent
learning when viewed from the aspects of knowledge, skills and attitude to learn.
An examination of the partial knowledge of early childhood education tutor who became a
trainee less independence of learning, proved: (a) lack of understanding of the benefits of
independent learning, so the lack of early childhood tutor read books or articles on early
childhood education; (b) lack of understanding of the benefits of discipline and commitment
to learning, so that learning plans that have been made are rarely implemented; (c) (d) lack of
knowledge of basic skills in learning, so if you find difficulty in learning often stops learning;
(e) less ordinary self-learning activities, so that when the first material to be read before the
training find it difficult to understand; (f) less know the benefits of early childhood learning
for life tutor, so after learning does not know its effect on activities in addition to learning; (g)
lack of knowledge capabilities, advantages / strengths and learning experience, so often feel
unable to learn something that will be studied.
An examination of the attitude of some early childhood tutor trainee learning less
independence, proved: (a) less have a handle to develop independent learning, so that learning
is often unfocused and affected by other activities; (b) less firm stance in achieving success in
learning, so it is not tough and less confident of the business to be achieved; (c) lack of
confidence in the ability possessed by himself, so often feel faint when having difficulties in
learning.
Viewed of aspects of the skills most lacking independence early childhood learning
tutor, is proven: (a) less know how to learn effectively, so that in conducting the study was
preceded by a difficult and complex matter leading to an easy and simple first; (b) less able to
communicate with others, so that if it finds it difficult to learn the training material is difficult
to ask for help to others; (c) less able to deal with learning problems, so if there are
difficulties in learning are not able to finish the training and the test results are less good; (d)
less able to deal with life, so that when facing life problems often affects the learning
motivation.
2. Results After Treatment
After carrying out the implementation of a collaborative learning model based
counseling on early childhood tutor training, a team of researchers gave questionnaires
unstructured and interviewed about the impact of early childhood tutor training using
collaborative learning based counseling. The impact of treatment in terms of knowledge,
among others: (a) want to know how to learn effectively; (b) to understand the importance of
learning activities; (c) want to know how to understand the AUD to be able to control it; (d) to
prove the truth of the concept to the conditions at the school; (e) want to increase the
motivation to understand the AUD, (f) wanted to improve teaching AUD; (g) want to know
how to create something that children love to learn; (h) can recall the knowledge of the AU at
the time of the lecture; (i) wish to apply learning independence in everyday life.
The impact of treatment in terms of attitude, are: (a) can improve morale and interest in
learning; (b) may increase the passion for reading modules of training; (c) to foster the desire
to observe the child in school; (d) may increase the patience to do the learning; (e) may
meningatkan confidence in the face of the child; (f) can improve the attitude of caution; (g)
scaling up the responsibility for advancing the AUD, (h) can increase creativity in creating a

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new one; (i) the manner and attitude can change the face of the child; (j) can increase
closeness, kerahaman, tenderness in the face of a child.
The impact of treatment in terms of skills, is (a) able to explore the potential of AUD;
(b) more skilled dealing with children who depend on their parents; (c) often gives
reinforcement to the child at school; (d) can create a simple skill; (e) more active and more
fond of AUD; (f) be able to perform appropriate learning to AUD; (g) to look for more
creative learning themes; (h) often try to teach by applying AJEL; (i) often gives
reinforcement to the child at school.
2. Discussion
Based on the results of the study before and after treatment were treated turns given to
early childhood tutor very positive impact, in terms of knowledge, attitudes, and skills. Tutor
training early childhood in District Rancakalong appear once the spirit and feel the need for
training, it is evident at the time of training they are rarely absent except for when it is no
Agustusan event. Before the instructor is present and when the training starts they already
exist in the training room. Training time they are excited, the material presented by the
instructor is always considered good. After completion of the training team of researchers
conducted tests, the results are very satisfactory. Thus large changes in their terms of
knowledge, attitudes and skills as a sign that the implementation of a collaborative learning
model based on the tutor early childhood counseling in District Rancakalong Sumedang was
very successful. So most of them are looking forward to returning to training held in District
Rancakalong.
F. Conclusions and Recommendations
The results of the implementation of this model can be concluded that the majority of
early childhood tutors was less independent in their learning from the aspects of knowledge,
skills and attitudes to learning. But after being given treatment turned out to be a lot of
changes in the early childhood tutor.
Suggestions are based on the results of the implementation of this model, intended for
early childhood instructors tutor is expected at the time of training, explained to the tutor on
the importance of early childhood learning independence, discuss the behavior of early
childhood learning with a tutor, the tutor exercises for early childhood learning in the exercise
room by providing training materials that have not described by the instructor, and tutor
directed to early childhood, each capable of learning itself, and able to fill the matter made by
the instructor.
G. REFERENCES
Aprillia, Imas Diana (2010), Model Bimbingan dan Konseling Kemandirian Remaja
Tunarungu di SLB B. Bandung. Proceeding 2ND International Seminar 2010 Practice
Pedagogic in Global Educational Perspective.
Borg, W.R. & Gall, M.D. (1989). Educational Research: An Introduction. New York:
Longman.
Brookfield, SD. (1986) Understanding and Facilitating Adult Learning. Milton Keynes:
Open University Press.
Nurhayati, Eti. (2010). Model Bimbingan Akademik Untuk Peningkatan Keterampilan dan
Kemandirian Belajar Mahasiswa Di Perguruan Tinggi. Disertasi. Bandung. Sekolah
Pascasarjana UPI. Tidak diterbitkan.
Furqon. (2002). Statistika Terapan Untuk Penelitian. Bandung: Alfabeta.

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Hidayat, Ayi Najmul. (2010). Model Bimbingan dan Konseling Kolaboratif Untuk
Meningkatkan Keterampilan Belajar Siswa SMA. Disertasi. Bandung. Sekolah
Pascasarjana UPI. Tidak diterbitkan.
Ikbal, Muhammad. (2010). Model Bimbingan Perkembangan Untuk Pengembangan Konsep
Diri dan Kematangan Karir Siswa Madrasah Aliyah Di Bandar Lampung. Disertasi.
Bandung. Sekolah Pascasarjana. UPI. Tidak diterbitkan.
Prayitno. (1997). Pelayanan Bimbingan dan Konseling Sekolah Menengah Umum (SMU).
Jakarta. Kerjasama Koperasi Karyawan Pusgrafin dengan Penebar Aksara.
Sukmadinata, Nana Syaodih. (2002). Pendekatan Penelitian dan Pengembangan. Bandung
PPS. UPI.
Sukmadinata, Nana Syaodih. (2005). Konseling, Pembelajaran, dan Kreativitas dalam
Pendidikan dan Konseling di Era Global. Bandung: Rizki.
Zubaedi. (2011). Desain Pendidikan Karakter. Konsepsi dan aplikasinya dalam pendidikan.
Jakarta. Kencana.

259

CAREER GUIDANCE MODEL IN EARLY CHILDHOOD TEACHER TRAINING


PROGRAM FKIP UNIVERSITAS ISLAM NUSANTARA (UNINUS) BANDUNG
Ayi Najmul Hidayat
ABSTRACT
Less successful career guidance and lack of career maturity of students in Early Childhood
Teacher Training Program University of Islam Nusantara Bandung one of them due to the
lack of career guidance programs are arranged systematically, and comprehensively.
Therefore, we need a model of effective career guidance program in Early Chidhood Teacher
Training Program Uninus Bandung. The research objective of this unity, the drafting of
hypothetical models. The approach used in this research is a qualitative approach, whereas the
method is descriptive. Subjects were faculty and students. The research data was collected
using questionnaires, observation and interviews. The results show that some students still
feel poorly informed about the work, are less able to determine the choice of a job, are less
able to prepare work plans, are less able to resolve career issues and problems in the work
place. The components of the model of career guidance programs, are: purpose, content of
career guidance services, career guidance service providers requirements, career counseling
techniques, and evaluation. The data were analyzed qualitatively.
Keywords: career guidance program

A. Background
Process in higher education is at least able to develop students to become qualified
human resources, discipline, drive development, and become professionals. Human resources
development in college is an attempt to develop the potential of students to develop optimally.
Therefore, universities should seek to develop the potential of students, and help channel
capabilities. The process of education at an educational institution needs to implement three
service areas are administrative services, teaching and guidance (Mortensen and Schmuller,
1964: 7). The three fields are intended to optimize potential and enhance the development of
student's personality.
Implementation of the field of career guidance services absolutely need to be done in
the education process at the college. This is because a part of the career counseling guidance
and counseling, guidance and counseling while the companion main areas of teaching and
student intellectual development. Guidance and counseling functions and key positions in
education (Rochman Natawidjaja, 1990: 16). Learning is done by the lecturers many touches
on the intellectual, while the non-intellectual students less touches, so the problem is less be
concerned student career
Based on the observations of the research team showed that Early Childhood Teacher
Training Program FKIP Uninus career guidance programs have yet to develop a systematic
and comprehensive manner. Even if the existing ones need to be tailored to the student's
career problems. Efforts to develop programs need to identify bimbigan career preparation
and career maturity of students, examines the factors causing the problems a student's career,
and how the efforts to solve them. On the basis of the conditions of the research team are
interested in doing research on career guidance program model in Early Childhood Teacher
Training Program. FKIP Uninus.

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B. Problem Formulation
Some phenomena, among others: (1) there is a variety of student needs and career
problems, (2) do not have a career guidance program organized in a professional, systematic
and comprehensive, (3) necessary to prepare an appropriate career guidance program student
career issues. On that basis, the formulation of the problem in this study is a model of how the
career guidance program is implemented in the right PGPAUD FKIP Uninus?
C. Research Objectives
In general, this study aims to produce a model of proper career guidance program in Guidance
and Counseling PGPAUD Uninus Bandung.
D. Study of Theory
1. Career Guidance Program
The program is a set of activities or steps that are prioritized for the purpose, as
proposed by Hunger and Wheelen (1993: 17) is a program ... a statement of activities or steps
needed to Accomplish a single use plan. The program consists of several elements, among
other objectives, implementing, type of activity, resource, strategy, and execution time. This
is in accordance with the opinion of Robins (1978: 160) that ".... a program should Contain all
the activities Necessary for Achieving the objectives, and clarify WHO should do, what, and
when".
Based on the above opinion, it can be concluded that there should be a program element
objectives, operational, type of activity, resource, strategy and implementation time.
Semiawan (Ikbal, 2010: 40) argues that career guidance is an aid services to the entire
population in the realization of his life as a meaningful statement of the quality of life of
individuals in the balance of interaction with the community in which he lives is constantly
changing.
The above opinion, explaining that career guidance should be directed to optimize the
potential of the students, so that students feel a meaningful life, and career guidance should be
dynamic by considering the changing demands of society and the world of work.
Thus meaning that career guidance is the guidance given to students by a professional
person in order for the students to recognize, understand, accept and direct potential, and can
plan a career, and career decision making, leading to satisfaction, happiness for herself and
society.
To be an effective career guidance program, let attention to the following factors: (1) to
the provision of career guidance program objectives to be achieved; (2) the details of the
activities to be undertaken; (3) the officers who have expertise in career guidance, are aware
of the function and role, moral, and able to judge yourself, (4) the existence of a positive
attitude of management and other personnel for career guidance, (5) the existence of a
container that manages the program career guidance; (6) there is good coordination between
the staff of career guidance; (7) the existence of a good working system, clear and orderly; (8)
the presence of data recording; (9) the existence of tools for collecting data, (10) the existence
of sufficient facilities and infrastructure; (11) the existence of an adequate budget for the
benefit of career guidance services; and (12) the existence of a cooperative relationship with
the personnel inside and outside the PGPAUD.

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2. Students Career Issues


Surya (1997: 14) suggests that the problems commonly faced by students career
include: (1) career information, (2) the skills to enter the career world, (3) personal
information, (4) planning a future career, and (5 ) career adjustment. Based on these opinions,
then the problem is the student's career in this study is limited to issues related to career
preparation: (1) information about the job, (2) the determination of employment options, (3)
planning of the work, and (4) problem-solving work.
E. Results of Preliminary Study
Based on the results of data collection by a team of researchers at students showed that
PGPAUD FKIP Uninus London does not yet have a model career guidance program
organized in a systematic, comprehensive, and not based on student issues. In addition, career
guidance programs are not being disseminated evenly to the entire faculty, so some professors
there who do not understand the meaning of career guidance in more depth, and the
motivation, insight, and responsibilities in implementing career guidance is still not optimal.
Objective conditions appear to have been done in the field of career guidance by lecturers to
students, the relationship between faculty and students seem familiar, as well as relationships
with the leadership lecturers Prodi. The objective conditions are contributing factors that can
be used to formulate a systematic career guidance program and comprehensive.
F. Research Methods
The approach used in this study is a qualitative approach, whereas the method is descriptive.
The subject of research is that faculty and students. The research data was collected using
questionnaires, observation and interviews. The stages of the research conducted in this study,
is the preparation phase, data collection and processing as well as the discussion of the results
of research and designing stages hypothetical model.
G. Results and Discussion
The results show that some students still feel uninformed. This is related to information
in addition to being a kindergarten teacher / AR. Difficult to determine the choice because the
information obtained is less detailed and in-depth. Less capable of planning because the
information obtained is less explain the possibilities that will occur in the future. Less able to
solve the problem because career guidance given to students is not based on the analysis of
the problems of students so that students are less interested and less helped in solving the
problem.
Components of a hypothetical model of career guidance program has been arranged
consists of: objectives, materials of career guidance services, career guidance service
providers requirements, career counseling techniques, and evaluation.
H. Bibliography
Dardji Darmodihardjo. (1988). Anak Serta Penjengjangan Pendidikan. : Makalah Konvensi
Pendidikan Nasional Indonesia I. Bandung. Gedung Merdeka.
Gall, M.D. (2003). Educational Research: An Introduction. Boston: Pearson Education, Inc.
Miller, Frank, W. (1978). Guidance Principle and Service,. Sidney: Charles E. Merril
Publishing Company.
Motensen , D.G. and Schmuller, A.M., (1964). Guidance in Today Schools. New York: John
Willey & Sons Inc.
Robbins, Stephen, P, (1978). The Adminiatrative Process. New Delhi: Prentice-Hall of India.

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Rochman Natawidjaja, (1988). Peranan Guru dalam Pendidikan di Sekolah. Bandung:


Abardin.
_______, (1990). Fungsi Profesionalisasi Bimbingan karir dalam Pendidikan.Pada FIP IKIP
Bandung.
Nana Syaodih Sukmadinata. (2005). Konseling, Pembelajaran, dan Kreativitas dalam
Pendidikan dan Konseling di Era Global. Bandung: Rizki
Shertzer, B. and Stone. S.C., (1980). Fundamentals of Counseling. New York: Hougton
Mifflin Company.

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CRITICAL POLICY STUDY FOR EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION TEACHERS


TRAINNING PROFESSION
Rudiyanto, S.Pd, M.Si1 (Ketua)
rudiyanto1706@gmail.com
Rita Mariyana, M.Pd2 (Anggota)
ritamariyana@upi.edu
Euis Kurniati, M.Pd3(Anggota)
euis_kurniati@yahoo.com
Ali Nugraha, M.Pd4(Anggota)
alinugrah4@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Being a professional teacher is a continuous process that refers to the basic standard with
continuous performance assessment. The process of becoming a professional teacher pursued
through academic education and professional education. This study aimed to describe the
policy of professional education Early Childhood Education teachers to improve the
professionalism of early childhood teachers. The study uses descriptive analytical research
methods with quantitative and qualitative approaches. The final product of this research is the
teaching profession education programs that are designed based on the results of research
proven and reliable.
Keywords: Professional, Teacher, Education, Early Childhood
INTRODUCTION
Teachers are professional educators with the primary task of educating, teaching,
directing, training, assessing, and evaluating students in early childhood education, formal
education, primary education and secondary education (PP 19: 2005 pasal 1.1). "Teacher Is
The Heart Of Quality Education." (Bahrul Hayat, 2005) This expression implies that the
teacher is one of the indicators that determine the quality of education. Good or not the
quality of education will be seen from the performance and competence of teachers as
educators implement the learning process.
Teacher education is the key to success, with his professional duties, the teacher helps
the other people (students) to learn and grow; foster the intellectual, personal and social
citizens who entered the school (Cooper, 1982). Teachers motivate students to learn, in
addition to managing the classroom effectively (Barry & King, 1993). For the teacher should
be a facilitator of learning for learners who dyed condensed by the atmosphere warm and
acceptance, realness, openess, prizing, trust, empathic understanding, love, caring (Rogers,
1969; Gordon, 1974; Smith, 1978; Barry & King, 1993; Hendrick, 1994). Teachers should
always pay attention to and understand the atmosphere of the class and the class as a cool
handle, not explosive (Silberman, 1970), because "the language of acceptance is so powerful"
(Gordon, 1974). The attitude of teachers affects the behavior and activities of student learning

Lecturer PGPAUD Indonesia University of Education


Lecturer PGPAUD Indonesia University of Education
3
Lecturer PGPAUD Indonesia University of Education
4
Lecturer PGPAUD Indonesia University of Education
2

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(Smith, 1978). The classroom atmosphere should be made into a democratic pattern of
relationships "me okay, you're ok" (Beechhold, 1971) in (Prayitno, 2005)
Based Educator Standards in Government Regulation No. 19 of 2005 states that
"Teachers should have the academic qualifications and competencies as agents of learning,
physical and spiritual health, as well as having the ability to achieve national education goals"
which include:
1. The minimum education qualification of Diploma (D-IV) or Bachelor (S1)
2. Educational background in areas or subjects taught
3. Cer