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The Growing Threat


Maj. Gen. Max W. Noah
Col. Alvin G. Rowe
Col. David 0. Cooksey
CSM Marvin L. Knowles
Lt. Col. Charles S. Nichols
Col. Phillip R. Hoge
Col. John W. Devens
Col. Stanley R. Johnson

Col. Robert A. Dey
Col. Peter J . Groh
Maj. James E. Kiley, Jr.
John Florence
Sp5 N.P. Lang
Sp5 Wayne Jones

Editor's Notes

Our cover story on page 14 begins with an allusion

tu Lhe difficu lty in accurately defining terrorism.
Fleeting as that description may be, terrorist inci
dents have become u fact of life (and death) in many
a reas of the world. As international terrorist actjvities
directed agamst lhe United States increase, so does
the Army's involvement in comba~ing the threat. U.S.
Army 01eruieu' FY82 canies a "Spectrum of Conflict''
curve showmg a dead heat between terrorism and un
conventional warfare as the most likely type of future
conflict involving the Atmy. That's worth noting. So
are Lhe leclure comments of Rudolph Levy who warns
that one of the greatest dangers facmg the Army dur
ing its growing invoJvemem in combating terrorism
is. in fact, underRtanding the threat. (Levy's 1eview of
The Terror Nett.oork appears on page 18). We hope our
feature on terrorism provides you usefuJ informatiO"n
on this complex topic.
As your new editor, 1 begjn my tenute bearing the
proverbial good news and bud news. The positive first:
Sp5 Nancy Lang, who did a superb job in single
handedly putting out the Spring and Summer '81 EN

GINEER, will remain on the stafT. Nancy's dedjcation

and many talents are a boon lo all of us. The DA Peri
odicals Review Board supplied the bad news: Signifi
cant reductions to an already threadbare ENGINEER
budget. The board admonished that further cuts at DA
level means they "may have to discontinue such jour
Somewhat in Lhis issue and particularly in those fol
lowing, you will see us economizing-fewer pages, less
color and possibly a move to a cheaper, uncoated pa
I look forward to meettng many of you in the coming
months and to receivtng your comments, cr:itich;ms
and, most importantly, to your continued support with
t.be timely, informative articles Lhat have marked EN
GINEER as an outstanding branch journal.



E ng1neer

VULUivlE 11

WI NTER 1981-82



Building A Homemade Training Mine

hy Lt. Cui. Richard L. Zeltner

Civilia n Schooling for Army Officers

b.1 Majors Wayne Shatp & Phtllip Richey


A Better Mousebap
hy Lt. Col. L,G . Ailinger & Capt. Donald Wh1Uen


TE RRORISM: The Philosophy. The Strategy .

by Capt. Tom Adams




Effective P erfor mance Counseling

hy Chaplam 1Ma; .J Wayne 0. Smith


Facilities Component Management

bv James G Winter


E ngineer Offi cer Career Ma n ag em ent

Lt. Cul. C. H . Dw111 Jr.








ISNGINFJER tB an authorL?;ed publlwltlon or thll IJS Army Eng weer Center amd Fon Belvoir. Va Unless speclt'lcaily stated, material
appearing herem does not nec:essarily reflect offacia.l pollc:y, thiokJng or endorsement by a.ny agency of the US Army AU photo
graphs contained bereiu are o fticla.l OS Army photograph" unlees otherW'lsu crredHed. Use of r-uode for printing tbls publication was
approved by Beadquartere. Department of tbe Army , July 22, 1981 Material herein may be reprm tett iC creda t as gwen to ENGI
NEER and the author ENGINEER OBJEC'l'TVES are to provide o. for11m tor t.he oxcha.nge of ldeiUI , to Inform and motivate , and to
promote the professional development of all members of the Army ijllguleer ramuy DfRE;OT CORRESPONDENCE wHh ENGINEER
ie authortZed and encouraged lnqulrles. lettere to the edHor. manuscript~< photographs and general correspondence l'Jbo~tld be sent
to Editor , ENGINEER Maga~:i.ne, US Army Engjneer Cente~ . Port ~elvolr. Va. 22060. ToJephone A"Utovon 3~ 3082 l f a. return or
manuscripts or material 1a desl.l'ed , a self-addressed envelope ts required StJBSCRlPTIONS to ENGlNEER are avaHa.ble through
tha Superintendent of DooumenLS, US Government Pt1n~mg Office, Washmgton, D.C. 20402. A check or money order, payable to Su
pet1ntendent of Documents, musl accompany all eubscripuon requests Subscription ra.~ee ~~>ro $8 .00 domestl ll (mclucllng APO and
FPO) addresses. and $10 00 for fori!! go addresses IndlvdusJ ooplea are avatla.ble "'"L $2 .7~ per copy ror domesti c addre8aev and $3.4.5
for foreign addresses. CONTROLLED CrRCOLA1'10N postage paid at Fort Belvoir Va and Riv&rd~!o , Md

by Maj. Gen. Max W. Noah

The Engineer Mission

From time to time. we Army

engineers must reflect on our
basic reason for existence .so as
to better focus our efforts in
concepts , doctrine, training and
materiel. Fwther, we need to
pay attenlion not only to what
we contribute to the Army mis
sion. but also how we cont.nb
ute. We need to look closely at
both the substance and spi~tl of
this-our DOCTRINE.
What? The U .S. Army Corps
of Engineers is a combat arm.
One wRy to express our mission
is , we work on modifying the
terrain. facilities and environ
ment in which we fight, work
and live-all efforts toward the
ultimate goal of enabling the
Army to win in battle. Func
tionally, we concentr ate on bat
tlefield arenas which deal with
enhancing friendly mobility,
countering enemy mobility, pro
viding physical protection. con
structing and maintaining all
types of facilities and providing
topographic analysis and infor
mation. These function s entail a
wide spectrum of tasks in sup
port of the maneuver units, the
fue support elements or the lo
gistical commands. Finally,
w ben we are needed more in the
firefight than we are in
pursuing engineer tasks, we
Join the maneuver elements in
the up front battle fighting as
How? The manner in which
we provide engineer support is
critical to mission success, and

it 1s here that. we often need to

concentrate our efforts. Weal
ways strive to provide high
quality support. To do this r e
quires skill. knowledge and un
derstanding in two distinct
areas-tirst. knowing what the
commander wants, and second,
knowing the technology and
operational techiques of getting
the job done .
The first area, determining
needs and desires, is probably
more of an art than a science.
Success in this depends upon a
myriad of fact<)rs, such as type
of unit, type of mission, person
alities, time, etc. In most cases,
success is enhanced by long
term , close relationships be
tween the engi neer and his sup
ported commander. The
commander's style, likes, dis
likes and needs are best learned
at close hand_ For this reason
we habitually assign an engi
n eer on the staff of the com
mander, to plan, coordinate and
direct the engineer tasks in bat
tle. He s hould do that in a delib
erate, aggressive manner and
not wait for someone to tell him
what to do. Further. we normal
ly "double hat'' the assigned en
gineer to serve as both the staff
e ngineer and commander of the
organic engineer unit , e.g., al
division, corps, etc. At maneu
ver brigade level , we are cur
rently evaluating how we will
provide a reasonable engineer
planning and directing capabili
ty, taking into acco unt that the

engineer company commander

normally supporting the bri
gade usually has eno ugh to do
tunning company operations
without having to tack on bri
gade engineer planning func
tion s.
Because of the factors dis
cussed in the preceding para
graph, it s hould be the rare ex
ception , rather than the rule,
that assigned unit en gineers
are replaced because of attach
ment or "OPCON" of another
engineer unit to the parent
unit. This issue most often
comes into play when an engi
neer unit with a commander
senior to t hat of the assigned
unit engineer is attached or
OPCON to the parent unit (e.g. ,
an engineer group attached to a
division which has its assigned
engineer battalion commander
as unit engineer). The question
arises as to who should be mak
ing the engineer decisions. I an
swer that by simply pointing
out that engineer units at
tached or in OPCON to a unit
such as a division, are under the
contr ol of the division com
mander and take directions
from him. It may be that in
structions actual ly come from
the assigned unit engineer, but
they are in the name of the
higher commander. In this re
gard, I must call attention to
the "solution" to the Military
Engineer Problem cited on
page 31 of the Summer 1981
ENGINEER. The method cited

ENGINEER/Winter 81-82

there is not one which

maximizes the effectiveness of
an already sound relationship
between a unit commander and
his assigned unit engineer. <A
more detailed discussion of that
problem is on page 6 of this is

The second element to be em

phasi7-ed in perfonning the en
gineer mission is, put simply .
the abiJity to do a quality engi
neering job. By the nature of
their work, engineers nonnally
have to be physically present at
the site of action in the battle.
This means the combat engi
neer supporting an engaged m a
neuver company or battalion
must perform his task alongside
the maneuver elements in the
heat of battle. This is the pri
ma tV 1eason we are a combat
~rm~ This closeness to the rna

neuver unit and the critical ne

cessity of immediate response is
also the reason we must pay
close attention to the unit com
mander we support-again, the
rationale is as in the previous
paragraph. We must plan and
execute engineer functions at
every level of operation. We are
a combined arms team member
and the success of the team, the
success of our effort, must pro
duce success in the battle.
'rhe future. The chain-of
thought 1 have tried to create
must be the center of our ap
proach to the future, especially
in combat engineering. It pro
vides the basis for our equip
ment to be faster and more
survivable in order t.o equal the
supported force. It requires us
to be more responsive to unit..-;
in the M-CM-S functions. ft is
this thought pattern we wilJ use

at the Engineer School as we

start our Mission Area Analysi!>
on the DA functional area of
"Combat Support, Engineering
and Mine Warfare." We hav._,
used it in the new Engineer
Combat Operations, FM 5-100,
copies of which will soon be out
for your coordin ation comments.
1 recently had a splendid visit
to the Canadian Forces Engi
neer School at Chilliwack.
Theil" engineer symbol holds the
word "Ubique'' which means
''Everywhere." The presence of
the engineer on the battlefield~
physical and othel'wise, needs to
he everywhere. Each of us needs
to ensure that. when culled. we
cun responsively
" Clear Lhe Way''

Who'sA Who

partial list of Engineer School

personnel and departments
CMF 81, Mr. D. Uber,
Systems Evaluation, Capt. W.R.
AV 354-1831
Sanderson, Jr.,
AV 354-2287
Academic Records, Mrs. J. Stone,
AV 354-2011
Organization and Force Design, Col. D.
AV 354-3826
EOBC Training, Capt.. J.W. Wessel.
AV 354-2477
Extension Ttaining, Cv.pt. G. Sack,
AV 354-3268
Communicative Arts, Capt. D. Barthle,
AV 354-3993
CMF 12 and MOS 12B, Capt (P) G.
AV 354-3632
Roads and Airfields, Maj. G. CajigaL
AV 354-2527
MOS, 12C, Capt. J. Ross,
AV 354-2684
Bridging, Maj. J.R. Van Zee,
AV 354-5981
MOS l2E, 1 Lt. T. Gregg,
AV 354-2684
Structures and Utilities, Capt. R. Inouye,
A V 354-3806
MOS 12F, Capt. H. Mayorga,
AV 354-2684
CMF 51. Maj. W. Peters,
AV 354-3112
AV 354-3646
ENGINEER/Winter 81-82

____.flNews & Notes

Reorganization planned
Plans for reorganizing var
tous civil works activities due to
budget and manpower cutbacks
include converting the New
England division to a district.
Chief of Engineers Lt. Gen. Jo
seph K . Bratton reports.
No Corps field offices will be
closed, but the reorganization
includes personnel reductions at
all Corps activities, streamlin
ing district s, centralizing
administrative and accounting
functions. reducing services at
lock structures, reducing or
eliminating some recreation ac
tivities and further reducing
the Corps' dredging fleet.
The Corps will continue its
mobilization mission. keeping
most engineering, construction
and other technical skills avail
able and well prepared. Engi
neers will also continue to
provide water resource manage
me nt, and to perform design
and construction for the Army,
Air F orce and other federal
Water to Quartermasters
Engineer proponency for field
water purification and distribu
tion is being transferred to the
Quartermaster Corps , with En
gineers retaining responsibility
for water source detection and
facility support.
TOEs released in April 1981
show that division level engi
neer battalions and companies
supporting separate brigades
and regiments no longer main
tain water purification sections.
TOEs tor units above division
level are scheduled for release
in 1982, with MTOEs to be im
plemented later by MACOMs.
Engineer concepts and doc
trine favor making the adjust
ment as soon as mission and re
sources permit.

New sand-grid roadway for desert or beach

A new roadway system de
signed by the Army Engineer
Waterways Experiment Station
(WES), Vicksburg, Miss., uses a
gridded, sand confinement sys
tem to solve the problem of
moving heavy vehicles across
the desert and beach.

Researchers discovered that a

layer of aluminum grid cells
filled with sand and topped by a
sprayed-on Ct>at of emulsified
asphalt creates a stable road
During tests, the sand-grid

confinement system supported

tandem-axle truck loads of
53.000 pounds for 10,000 passes
with only slight rutting . In
unconfined sand, the same
truck made only 10 passes be
fore becoming bogged down in
11-inch ruts.
Originally, the system was
designed with honeycomb-type
aluminum grids, but now thin
ner, lighter plastic is being
evaluated. Trial sections of the
sand-grids have been included
in United Nations road building
projects in Africa.

Army buys more detectors

A $7.3 million contract calling for retrofitting
9,500 existing mine detectors and buying 1.461
new units is part of a program to retrofit the
Army's entire inventory of AN/PRS--7 mine de
The man-portable unit, which worked well in
the relatively moist soils of Europe and the
United States, had a very low response to non
met.allic mines wben tested in desert environ
ments like the Suez Canal region. A new , more
effective mine detector looks the same as the
original unit but has new electronics and new
battery for greater reliability in dry soils.
ENGINEER/Winter 81-82

News & Notes

Knowles named Belvoir CSM

CSM Marvin L. Knowles has assumed duties as
Engineer Center and Fort Belvoir command ser
geant. major following t.he retirement of CSM
Frederick J. E isenbart.
A 27-year Army veteran, Knowles came to Fort
Belvoir from Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md .,
where he was post se rgeant major.
A graduate of the Sergeants Major Academy,
Knowles has also served in K orea, Vietnam and
four tours in Germany . His decorations include
the Meritorious Service Medal, Army
Commendation Medal with three oak leaf clus
ters and the Humanitarian Service Medal.
Lang wins journalism award
Assistant ENGINEER editor Sp5 Nancy P .
Lang has won second place in the Published Edi
torials division of the Army-wide 1981 Keith L.
Ware competition for journalism excellence.
Lang, who served as interim-editor of ENGI
NEER from January to September 1981, wrote
the editorials for Fort Belvoir's CASTLE newspa
per. Competition winners are selected by a panel
of military and civilian journalists.

652d Engineers win championship

Reservjsts of the 652d Engineer Company
Bridge), Ellsworth, Wis., captured irrst
place in the 416th Engineer Command's third an
nual M4T6 tactical rafting competition for active,
reserve and National Guard units.
Claiming their third strrught victory in the
competition, 652d engineers constructed a 55-foot
Long , 44-foot wide tactical raft across Squaw
Lake, Fort McCoy, Wjs. , in 55:47 minutes
nearly 12 minutes faster than last year,
The com petition emphasized construction
speed, with one-minute penalty points incurred
for safety errors like failure to wear gloves or life
jackets, for running or for throwing lools. Penalty
points were also assessed for construction errors.
Other competing units included Company A,
397th Engineer Battalion (USAR), Ladysmith,
Wis., (second place); and Company A, 224tb Engi
neer Battalion, Iowa National Guard (third
Plans call for the: Missouri National Guard's
35th Engineer Brigade to host the competition
next year at Fort Leonard Wood, Mo.
I Float




(photos by Marcus T. Castro)

! The 82d Airborne's 307tb Engineer Battalion

show their demolition skills at McRidge

Range during Engineer Week.

ENGINEER/Winter 81-82

____,F1News & Notes

Combat Engineer Game

The final coordination draft of
the Engineer School's new
"Combat Engineer Garne" is be
ing tested by nearly 900 units
with the final, improved version
available through local training
and audiovisual support centers
during fourth quarter FY 82.
The game, for two-to-six play
ers in MOS 12B or 12C, in
vo lve s organizing men and
eq uipment, locating the proper
start point using grid coordi
nates and choos in g the best
r oute to the assigned release
point. Players then complete
various missions, moving t heir
men and equipment by correctly
answering general military

Engineer Problem correction

Readers noted th at Lhe solution to tlw :;unllner 1981

Military Engineer Problem was incon!>isltmt with :~ccept
ed enginef"r doctrine. There are, indeed. cumprlling rPa
son;; not to accept the published S(llu tion , and we apolo
gize for the error. The original problem and solution ts
reprinted on page 7 for reference.
'I11e first discrepancy concerns the mlc of the a;;::;istant
division tmgincer. Sinc-e task organization i:. o function of
PomnuHHI. the di11ision commander mak~s all dech.ions
Qn the allocation of forces within the dio..-ision task organi
zation. Certainl y the staff will assist him, hut tlw impli
cation in our proLlem that the ussistant division tngine-'r
alone decides the allocution of engineer forces i~ incnr
A second point concerns the brigade engineer who
should be the cnmmauder of the oonnally associ~tted en
gtneer company. Tu be e ffective, the brigade enghteer
mt~st be knowledgeable of the brigade and its opera tions.

From the other p,-.r;spec-tive. the brigade commander

needs aml enf!;LIIetr wllllm he knows. c-an Lrust, anJ whn
will ::;erve him loyally. Tr 1s ''~f) unliktoly that a eurps rn
gineer unit ('ommandcr cnn beeome an efft>ttiiiP brigade
engineer for an ope.ration of short duration. Thrrefore.
the designated bri,:tade enginee1 should alwa)S ~;ome from
tbe divisional en~;ineer ballalion. The solution for the 1st
anrl 2nd hrigade violates this principal and would hinder
effel'tive ancl responsive enginut'r supporl. However.
wlwn a non-<livisionaJ Luttulion is al1ached to a maneuver
brigade. the battalion commander and his staff become
valuable assets to 1he brigade commander. The brigade
commander will look to this senior engmeer office for ad
vice and assistance in devrlopinf!, and executing the engi
neer plan for support. Hnwl"ver, ht:cau5e of t he finite as
sociaUon bet ween the no n-divisiunal battalion and the
brigade, the designllted brigade engineer mul'>L remain the
oomtally associated company command~:r.

ENGINEER/Winter 81-82

News & Notes

Sum.m e 1 Engineer Problmn

Th, ;)2cl lnl.tut r~ Dh 1~""' (\T...,~h,lui:-.<"d) mu1,1 df.:ncl J
pun ion Ctf the II Gvrv" dtlt>nstH ,.eclttr. '['),,. G.3 hn~ au,llytcl
tlw thre;ll und Cotnh ll:!hc>d Brigad ,,.dut,,
2d Bngadc i~ p,i1~n thr IWrruclOI .....,.tor, ,,,tdde the enenn'~
prohablt- .ma111 aHnuo rJf' nppruad1 A supp<ll'tllll; ullnrk ~ t"<
(WI'ted tn :lt] Bng..~dt-" ~eo tor. 1 ~1 Bngade'~ tlr.ll ha;. n,tril'ti~r
lt:rrain ami a nJaJOr atlal'k th~re i~ unlikd'l.
\,:; 1fw 1\ssislanl Divi,iufl ugiucer ( AOE). ~VII hilH t'\111<
plet.:J till .-stimalt- of 1he rt'<Jillrl'd englllfl'r rffvrt The dJI'Ic.mu
al ru1ering l'nrr,. require!' fc11or C'Ufllnt'.. t rolr\p<Jtlie~. 2d Bdgl;ldt
roquiro.i< thrt'C' ('ollllpanir'l, .111 Ong11rl.- lt'<jllirt:!< I"'' CUIIIJHIIII>F. ,
:~nd lsi flrigaol(' requirt-s uno:- tuwpan~. as lnditated Ldo" .
'inte 12 nmpanio> v( enginrr effc1rl 111,.. nqu1red. tbe tli1 i
Rion hn~ reque!.lt'ol 111d l"rt.:~il ttl Lht' supp<U"I uf twn rnrps rt~ttl
hu r hartuhun....
Acting Ut> \DE., trt.~k/ur)lllltizt the di1 isiunul ""~inrtr huttal
'"" lllH''huniYetll 1111-i tl.- tw" urp" curnbu1 l~<tlluliom. '' ith111
tlu: UtVI><i<>n urt-u. In J,., dap111~ Y<!Uf ""lullt'" yuu ~lhmld nn

The (nnll11:~nrl/~uppurl 1C/~l rellltlllH,Itip uf lht' En~tlrtl'N
C"rp" C.. mh~tt Hlltt:t llun!> tu tlu 52ol flivi,.ion .
rhr CIS relallllll'lttv ,,r llll\' t"IIJ!Ille~r enmpanic~ qt: lll fvr
"'Urtl to w11rl-. in the Bngt~Ut: urea~.
The utiliJ.alinn of tloe Hll::dtaltuerl rl"i""'"" ' <'lll!in<'er~ iu
Pt)l)jun~:llon with th~: less nwbdr corps Cl\f!;lneerb.
Wh,. is tn h<' lht! Brig;,ult rngi<t~rr (ur .:uol. lmgade ure<t
and whv "ill olirccl !Itt: t'ngiut"er rffo rt 111 tlw cuvt-tin!! lore.,


1st Brigade
1 company

2d Brigade
.3 companies

Cover Force

Divisjon Contr ol
52d Engr Bn
500tb Engr Cbt Bn
502d Engr Cbt Bn

4 companies

3d Brigade
2 companies

IWvl' l'O!YIJlMIIt:S to maneUII'I <lcnt~lll6 \\US folluwecl. r"P.pt in

thr ra.:,t- ,,r the ht Brigade A!S2d wllS o~tuchcol tn till' Cuvt"rill~
Forot'. bust'd on <1 wf'll di'fin<'d neeJ i11 tht L.J. .1, , II cun b<> n::-
sumeJ thLtt once the C<l t'l'HIJI. Fun:~: bunt" i~ cnmpkted. A/32d
will fi'IUtu tn l!-1 Hrigad.: ;.upport.
Th soluLtOil ulsu prr)l"rtlos fur a tub ur th .. tll el' hano~cl dlvi
~innal .~nginel!r~ uoul the l~:::;s IIHlbil.... Curps l'ngint't'rs, II gi"t:~
mllllr'll~'"f ommandrs the haul "apab1lit) uf Curl'~ cngll l l'<'r~
(,'i(1 .';-tr~ll rluonp lltll'l..b pr!t ha11nlio1111 :\lid ih.. snothilit\ utll
~un i~abilil\ of llw Oi' l:>lon'-. lrhWhllnl7-r>d rngu!Pers. I n Ihe
ru~P 1\f ~d- Hn,l\od... l)/:ltJ2,J i,; 0 PLON tu c/521i lu enstue
l'OIIt'dJn rHPd t'll~t irwer dfnrt 111 the Jd Uri~tHiv ar<"u.
rhe HrtJ(III it' Engtnl'l'r 10 l~t Ari;mdt- j-. tbt' ('~11111111\0fler of
U500th 1-:n~meer Curnbat Battalion. In 2d Brigadr it would l<c
the rnlrn,111Ut'r uf ''"' 502d l.ngin<.'er Cornu~! Batl,t littn. ;uld in
3tl Bugat!P, it WoJtild bt th,. cmnmunder of C/52d Englllr't'l llal
lliult. thr h:ohotualh LUt~ueialtd eompllll\ cnlttmandl'r. Tht<
t:lliiiiiiU. ndt'r <,r ~npnNr Tnsl.. F~11ce Herl wrrulrl hr !he n~inc.-o
r~sp.m~i!Jle for the Cuvenn~ furce en)!inccr o>ffort. The SOOth
E"~ine,., Comhal ll111111li"n pr<JvfJeb thr heAdCJUilttcr-. ekmtul
far T~' l{cd. Thi s h<!oJJquartc~ Wt>ul.t J)robaLlv romsist rl 1ht'
liuttali(m '>;() anti reprr;wntallvc~ frc11>1 the vanous s ttlfl ~ .., .
tiun~ . The remamder uf the .')Oflth F.ugint'm Oattaliun's hea<I
IJII!Irlel'>l "oulrl rcma111 under Oivt.!>ion cou trol anti plun for fu
tllre Of'NUIII,m~.
Thi~ o;olutiuol diverts. from th<' "11urn1" of Curpl' cugiii('N unll<o
bt>in)! 0::. to a IJhJsion. il the Cnrps Englnt><'r Cnmlal B,~ual
iulls Wt'rt' DS tu tlw Di\ I' inn. they would lli;IVl' to (Jp t"nlployerl
f<wcordiJlf1. ltJ FM ~-100. En,;int'Pr Uremtion,;) '" u C:.. nernl
:'upJHITI 1GSJ rnlr, ;.ince 11 uuit th1.t1 il> in D.., cauu!ol loe further
~ubtlt"it!erl. Th!' pruJ.IcJU '' ith GS (und the ('CIItralizetl t.:tJttltul
that 11 tfltnlis) is rhot Rn~ude corrunancl.-rs art nut ~~~~lltt'd uf a
tim~:ly r.-sponM' frum Curp:; l"o~lne,.r, in 1hr1r seeto1<., <!\en
thoup:h thl"' Jlla\ ltavt n recop;mzed neod fur rrsponsl\ r- engt
ll<.'N eiT1>rt in their <ltta.
i\ 11othl'r prob ltl) ~hil'11 a.riF.I'l'l from th.: OS ~ltUollion ul1uVc i~
1hat t.f lo!!i~>titalh ~lpportlng the Co o p~ enE:in.-t>rs a,~ tht'Y move
fol'llllt<l inln tht: divisi,.n ure. Situ,. theilP 111111- are still unrler
the command of tltelf pa.rcnt Corp;; 111111. they n10st ohtulll their
lngistic~ thr,lu 0 h Corp~ ~ha nnt'ls . On paper. tlli~ i! 11\J proulem.
On the gruuncl, liuwf.lv~r. C.Jrfis cngiroet'r unit6 PlnJInved in 1h1
DiYiJ..Ion area often wurk great distance~ from tllt'ir parent untlt;
~'~O lu!(i~lk~ support he~.:o>ne~ tnur<' dirfitU II a.s the distaJH.!r in

The incorrect &olutiou

fhl!rr are many pvssiblc: ~tdutinns lv thi:. prvhlcm, rit"
pundnp; tn the lacllcal sitllallvn. ln tlu" solul1011, Corps eng
n.:tr unit> ,1ft- attucl~tJ to tlae Division. nnd furthe:r allarh.:J to
tht Brigacies <tnd Ct.. vering Force. Tlw mechn.nizecl rlivi~iunal
engineers are also alhll'ht:d our to the maue11ver fones. This
~V('l> maneUVP.I t!Ontlnli!Jtit:rS the- n.:x.ibility It> further attach, nr
Jmct suppt>ll (DS). <'ngmet>rs to subordinate rommundeN llo
tleo:-med neces!H.Ir"f Tht! ha1Jitu11l assuciu1i11u ojf rlivisinnal engi-

ENGINEER/Winter 81-82

1\naclun~ Corps umts In the- Oiviion eliminate-s tht' lo~istics

pwhlern ~ n ee tlte Corps engu1c~r un.itr. t'an rrc:tl\'t' ~upport
frum rhe Divi.;;inn Suppurt Cllmmand (IJ ISCQ;\11. The Corps
"upport Comnu1nl. 111 tum, t'UII ;;end a .,.(ir-e of 11s asset~ to the
DISC0.\1 lu nrt:IUnl for the attached units.
One cou lrl argue thai unce the Corps entHleer> ure llllar-hcrl
'" 1h~: Dtvi~ion the) ~huulJ Ut' plncc:d In OS lu the BngariP,~ (liCit
th., L<Wtring Fornd, rather than ntblcht'd. This t1ption provides
more rentralizcd runtrol of the engineer effort withiu the Divi
Sion arcu and cnultl he an arr-eptabl" ~Clhernativt>, dep.. mllllf:\ on
th e tactical situation.

Building a

Homemade Training Mine

by Lt. Col. Richard L. Zeltner

A ~:ohortngt-

th< thin ml'laJ. a puuch is hesl llt>Pd.

A ~/a-iuclt punch H u,uaU .' av~ilahle
ttl vour lll':lfCSl trainilll uidp-. !'lUppl)
off'ic. (TASU 1.
J'lll' ::,erontf \'IJII!:!Irlfl"t iiJII Slt'J> is LO

ol training tnints i!>

nut' Jf the pPTt'nltt,ll c hull('ngt"s fnet'd
b\' enginrtr,;, Tltrre arP 11w11~ reu
St>ll" for the ~hl)rtag... : lat 1.. of hllldi'O.
I Itt> hi{l:lt cost 111' indi' idual inert
trtinc-,; and till' abs,~IH't' vf u ''hut"
(ttHl't'lll h prvduringl prodll, t ivn
lme. He~ardle-,s uf the rra,.tuts, tlw

"it-inch I'Oar~>c- 1 hreacl hull

with u 111inimum thread len~th of five
inch... ~> are~ I two -YS-inch <'CHll"'t>-1 hread
uul,., u, l.ltr)\\ 11 in F'igun 2 . Tht>n,
spra1 the btlt '' uh a lubtirant nncl
IIISI!'II 11 tliruu~h tlw ht.Jif' i11 tilt an
ublitlll a

shortagl' rloe::. t<Xi>-1.

llere ts a "lltJ;gestit)n which \lilll.l

solve all mim a\aihtlulit~ pruhlrms,
but 1l lll.J~ Pflahf<> 5\)T or Ill h('r Ill HIP
truiuin~ 111 continut ,~t.t"n nnrmul
,.uppli~::. .,f trainiu~ mint"'- art- nll
avuilubiP. t\1 Figurt- 1 helow j,. u
ontrnun 1111111ht-r 2h c;u1 whid1 il'>
t'llltlllwul~ u~cd (altlto\l!{h nvt iu !urge:
(Jllllnlitit's) O\ Arrll) IIWS:-. hull... l'h1s
t.:Ell1 pos:;esrw.<, tlt1: t'XElCI t'XII'I'IIUJ di
meuswns c.f a line "en-k:t> munit11111
Ml6 antipt:'r::.onrwl mine.
The first stp IO'MinJ eomt'llll~
lhl' tan tnlo 1:1 lraning min!' i<; to
p 11 o c h o 5.11- 1 n l' h ll n I e in I h \' rt'
maiuinl!, nd ttlH. tltess -.t.. ward has
alrcud~ r.,-muvf"tl 111 t'nd). The holt
is rt"ntered npproxinuttdy 1 114 - im~
from the ed~... of the cu11. a:- shown in
tht> tup vi<w in F'igur\ 2. Sint'!.' drill
lllg th.. h!lle is dtffil'ltll becuu:.t' ,.f

'"'Lh ont> nul on thr> inside and urw

11111 nn th out:;;tJe. n~ illustraterl itt
tht> c!ula"a' l ' it'\\ iu FigLre :\, 'IJJic
thul th,, boll 1s i11serted ..u that tl11:
tlmudt'd port ion extend, at least four
llll'ht~ iutu tlw ran. Tins will pniVirle
"J>tlre fc1r in..,rung a 1\160.5 fu7t> whell
1he> nc Lilt' is cumplettcl.
\lt:xt. in1ert th as~etnhlt>.l ran
a11ol ldl it with a ltlllC'T>'ll' mix. 011~ c

tlw ,.,,,.rrete Ita:.


tht> lmlt awl ...,.

IPrnal nUl cun bt" rt'lllOVt-'rl. Bt>('UU::le

of the lubriranl appliPrl i11 :iiPp thr~e.
1lw l.utlt shvuld IJ., r"aS} tu rimuvP.

Th 1111ernal 11111 "tll rtnain lt)(kt>cl

in the concrete. a:, shuwn in Fi{;Ufl'
I, The holt' lt>fl hy I he b,,L! l' iII U<!
t'llllllltoclute the M60!) fu1.e. Tlw nul
loekt>rl in tlw viiCr\le ""ill pro\ldr

t lw 1hreudld bu,e Iur 1he


Fnwlh. paint tlw 111i11t> blue with a

paint tft-..;tgnt>d 11.1 udhPn '" llletal
SUI' rUC'<'!,. 'J}w ht.JIIWillOrlt' lraini11g
ntilw '' ilJ w.-tgh a ltUlt: lts,.. than thl"
sl'n teo>




rem;vnahl~ -111

raLI... i::: tlttctt<Jble. awl l1rbl uf all

-i;;; illt.:Xfll'll'il\t'.
l nert M605 ru.-.cs muy h{ ubtaint'cl
from lwu SJunes: tbev llliiY .be left
ovN from thP current trait1iu~ mines,
or they lllll) he rt:.lovered when livf'
M605 fuzes are t-\penJed as part of
the smnke-produC'in~. J-llastrf' miues

mai n t111ned by uws t TASO,. Ry thtc>

way. TASO~ mniutruu fmH typtc>s ,,{
pla:;t..ic Lranun~ m111es. ThNe art> l\\11
M 16,. (Ont' tlumrny and 011e smoke
pmducing) ann twn M2h {one durn
uty uud t>llt- smukc produeinp;) These
arf' t:\Cellr-nt trQiuing dt:vict'S anc.J
their uvu.ilahility is imnasing. But il
they don't (ill your tnuning nePds .
you may want lo produce a few lwruc
made Mlh troming mines.

Lt. Col. Zeltner is chtef of the U.S.

.-lrmy En[!ineer School's Tr(J.Inmg lh
Vt'lllpment F~t.ftl Office tit Fort Lt'on
artl WotJd, Mo.

Figure 1

Figure 2

F igure 3

Figure 4

ENGINEER/Winter 81- 82

Civilian Schooling

For Army Officers

Ar111ually, nearly 900 officers attend

colleges a11d ut1ivers1t1es. Here are the
programs that make it possible.


Because Army training requirements

cannot be met exclusively by service
schools, the Army's Civil Schools (ACS)
program was begun in 1946. Initially a graduate
degree program only, it later was expanded to en
sure that enlisted personnel have a high school
education before completing their first enlist
ment; that warrant officers have an associate de
gree related to their specialty; and that commis
sioned officers have a baccalaureate degree.
The program also allows commissioned and
warrant officers to participate in advanced de
gree educational programs which meet A rmy
needs as validated by the Army Education Re
quirements Board <AERB).
ACS fully-funded and partially-funded pro
grams are available with the fully-funded pro
grams providing full-time schooling for up to two
years. The Army pays all tuition and fees under

by Majors Wayne Sharp &

Phillip Richey

ENGINEER/ Winter 81-82

the fully-funded option and allows reimburse

ment of up to $200 per fiscal year for textbooks
and supplies. The service member also draws full
pay and allowances and is authorized a pertna
nent change of station to attend school. Fully
funded baccalaureate level programs for enlisted
members were eliminated in 1976.
The partially-funded programs also authorize
full pay and allowances, but the service member
pays all tuition, fee s and textbook expenses.
These educational costs may be offset by finan
cial aid available under the Veteran's Readjust
ment Benefits Act of 1966, Veteran's Educational
Assistance Program (VEAP), or tuition assist
ance governed by AR 621-5.
Army medical (AMEDD) programs are unique
and are covered under AR 351-3.
USMA Instructor Program provides a ppropri
ate level graduate training for officers selected as
instructors at USMA. Future faculty members at
tend up to t.wo years of schooUng and non
teaching staff members, 18 months or less.
USMA and ROTC Top 5 Percent Program al
lows the top 5 percent USMA and ROTC gradu9

ates, as ~;elected by a hoard, to pursue graduate

civil schooling. Selected cadets may attend grad

uate civil schooling art)' time during their fourth
through tenth years of commissioned service. pro
vided their performance of duty and demon
strated potential are equal to that of other offi
cers se lee ted for the ACS program

Fulf(if!cl Lt!gal Edu colu'J/1 PrlJgram

rFLEP J allows up to three years of law

school and assignment to the Judge Ad

vocate General Corps for officers in their second
through sixth year of servlCe. The program is
governed by AR 351- 22; Law School Admissions
Test cLSATl scores are required before applica
Trainu1~ uilh lndust1y tTWI) allows selected
officers to gain knowledge. experience and per
spective in management and operational tech
niques in the civilian business community. Grad
uates fill positions of significant responsibility in
Department of the Army level commands dealing
with civiJian industry. Training lasts one year,
followed by a three-year utilization assignment.
Quotas in shortage disciplines for the progtams
listed above are allocated annually to the three
assignment divisions of MILPERCEN, Office of
the Chief of Chaplains and to the Judge Advocate
GeneraL Program participants normally study up
to 18 months and mtl.l>"i. agree to serve a three
year utilization tour in a validated AERB posi
tion immediately following the schooling. Pro~
gram details a1e in AR 621-1.
Warra1lt Officer A1;sociah Degree Program is
the only fully-funded undergraduate program. Up
to 68 wanant officers may be schooled annually.
Fellowships, Scholarships and Grant8 covers
all Army personnel (less .A.."v!EDD) participating
in fellowships, scholarships or grants offered by
Lax exempt corporations, foundations, schools.
etc., operating primarily for scientific, literary or
educational purposes. Although not trul y a fully
funded program because the Army does not. pay
tuition and other educational expenses, all other
fully-funded rules apply, except that an AERB
utilization assignment is not required. ConsuJt
AR 621- 7.
Short Course Training provides tuition funds
for unprogrammed trairung conducted by univer
sities, federal agencies ton a reimbursable basis)
and civilian organizations. Training must be less
than 20 weeks, deemed necessary to perform im
mediate duties and approved by Headquarters,
Department of the Army under the provisions of
AR 621-2. Tuition is funded by MILPERCEN
while travel and per diem are funded by the par
ticipant's parent organization. There is usually
no active duty service obligation incurred by at
tendance at short courses; the one exception is for
colonels that attend advanced management train
ing under the provisions of AR 351-23.

At the graduate level, there are three partial

ly-funded programs available- t he degree com
pletion program (DCP) a nd the cooperative de
gree program <COOP), both governed by
AR 621-2; and the advanced degree program for
ROTC instructor duty tADPRIO) under AR
621-101. These three programs have some gener
al features in common:
The discipline must be in a shottage field for
which there are AERB requirements, except
as indicated under COOP
The discipline must support one of the offi
cer's specialties.
A three-year utilization Lour is required, ex
cept where noted.
The primary zone of participation is from t he
fifth through 13th year of service.
Dcgrct ('(miplehon Program lS an opportunity
Lo complete remainmg degree requirements on a
full -time basis at a civiJian academic institution .
DCP serves as an incentive to begin degree ef
forts off-duty. to be followed by full-time study
under DCP later. Applicants must have scholas
tic aptitude and career potential. Eighteen
months are authorized to complete the degree;
however. most students are limited to 12 months,
and many fini:=th in six months or less.

Application must. be made by letter.

through channels, lo the proper Lrain
'-;-----:-:'--'ing agency (para l - 4G. AR 621- 21 not
later than 150 days prior to the start of schooling.
Participation in DCP has decreased markedly in
recent years 182 personnel in FY- 79; 39 in
FY- 80). Many officers continue to get their mas
ter's degrees off-duty (in disciplines not related to
one of thei r specialties) while this partially
funded program goes under-utilized.
Cooperalwe Degree Program Awards civilian
academic course credit by an accredited college or
university for a combination of course work done
as part of a program of instruction at an A1my
college or school, and course work done at a civil
ian college or university. The program consists of
Lhree key elements:
Academic credit is granted by a civilian
college or university for portions of the Army
course of instruction.
Civilian college courses are taken in conjunc
tion with the Army course of instruction.
Civilian college courses are taken pdor
and/or subsequent to the Army course of i.hstruc
Cooperative degree programs are conducted at
the U.S. Army Command and General Staff
Cotlege, U .S . Army War College, Industrial
College of the Armed Forces and at the U .S.
Army Logistics Managemeut Center. Duration of
study is limited to t.he length of the Army course
of instruction, plus six months. Participant.'! in
ENGINEER/Winter 81-82

COOP at other than senwr staff college (SSCl

level are requirPd to study in AERB shortage dis
ciplines. Officers attending a COOP at the U.S.
Army Logistics Management Center are required
to serve in an immediate AERB utilizaUon as


Selection f<>r t.he COOP is predicated

upon selection for the service school,
and each school has its own admittance
criteria. Interested officers shouJd contact their
M-!LPERCEN assi~nrnent. division or the nppro
pnate sthooJ coordmator fm further information.
Advanced D41gree Program (or ROTC Inslruclor
D_ut.y upgrades the academic standing and pro~
Vldes greater assignment stability for officers as
Aigned. to ROTC instructor duty. Officers al1eady
possessmg a master's degree are assignt'<l directly to
a three-year ROTC assignment. Applicants not
possessing an advanced degree can be sent to
school (normally the institution of ultimate as
sign~entl for up to 16 months to complete degree
reqUirements at the master's level. Schooling will
be followed by a three-year ROTC assignment.
The program of study must be in an AERB vali
tlat.etl shortage di&ipline and align with one uf
the officer's specialties. Officers desiring to par
ticipate in this program should apply by letter to
t.herr management division. ln recent years, an
aver~ge of only 30 officers per yeat have been al
tendmg school under the provision of thia pro
Permissive TDY although not a formal pro
gram, allows officers who have completed aJl but
fmal resident requirements for an advanced de
gr~e. full-time atl;ldY for up to 139 days on a per
mlSSIVe TDY b<lsts. All provisions of the DCP and
the pat-tially-funded ptograms generally apply.
Application procedures for all prograius are ex
plained in the applicable regulations, with AR
621-1 covering most civilian schooling programs.
The Department of the Army must be notified if
an individual desires to participate in a civilian
education program because all programs are vol
untary. Usually, a DA Form 1618-R mailed to
MILPERCEN is sufficient to formalize the re
quest. Assignment managers at MILPERCEN
should also be consuJted to determine selection
potential ~or one of the programs and if selected,
the best t1me to attend. The individual may also
n eed to formally apply for admission to the school
se.lected; this _will be detetmined when talking
wtth your asstgnment officer. Most universittes
require Graduate Record Examination tGRE ) re
sults before an individual can be accepted into a
graduate school so arrangement::~ should be made
to take the exam early. The test is usually offered
only four times a year.
The most frequently made mistakes when re
questing gtaduate school are:

ENGINEER/Winter 8 1-82


According to Engineer branch, arceptance into

civil schooling programs is selective based on out
standing performance. Applicants should have
the following qualifications:
Held a successful company command
Be an advanced course graduate
Setved overseas
Completed two tours since commissioning

Current engineel' shortage disciplines are.

CiviJ Engineering
Aeronautical Engineering
ADPS Engineering
Geodetic Science
Geological Engineering
Environmental Engineering

Study is requested in general, "soft skill" dis

ciplines s uch as master's of business administra
tion, management, education, history or political
science for which there are very few Army l'e
Applicants for civilian education programs
fail to plan ahead. Arrangements must be made
well in advance to take the GRE and to apply for
admission at several schools.
Many applicants have an insufficient back
glound in mathematics to study in the technical
fields that make up the majority of areas on the
shortage discipline list. Applicants should insure
proficiency in mathematics through calculus and
Annually, the Dt>partment of t.he Army budgets
more than $3 million to educate warrant and
commissioned officers at the associate, under
graduate and master's level. This amount covers
a pproximately 440 officers in fully-funded pro
grams and more than 400 officers in partially
funded programs.
FC>r more information wnte: HQDA
Stovall Street, Alexandria, VA 22332 or call
AUTOVON 221-0685/8100 or commercial l202)
Ma,J. Sharp, n MILPERCEN militury eciucalion
offieer. graduated [rom a Kansa.s Stat; Unwr rs1ty
ancL holds a rnaster's degree from NPrthwe.~l
Missouri State University. H e ha:; ,<:('rued in arttf.
fery u111ls and as A ssislant PMS at Missoun West
ern St.atr Cnllege. Ma.J . Riehe.v. a MILPERCEN
program resource officer. graduated from Oregon
StrziP UnwerE:tlv nnd has n Moster's J1>gree from
Georgia Stale (11//l 'l.'I'Si ty He ha.~ :::erl'ed as
1\s,<:uJ/Onl PMS at Untrersity n/' OreJ:on and as a
nfl(' plotoon l~ader tn Vt1tnum

by Judi Milling .

A better


The 20th Engineer's ((Mission

Card" reduces class preparation

time, improves training quality

by Lt. Col. L.G. Ailin ger

and Capt. Donald Whitten
The Battalion Training Man
agement System <BTMSl is now
the standard training system
throughout the Army. By defi
nition under BTMS, the squad
leader is the primary trainer,
and this indeed is proper. All
echelons above the trainer have
the primru:y task of providing
him the resources to accomplish
t.his trai ning mission , and of
these, time is probably his most
acutely needed resource. For
the trainer to do his job proper
ly under BTMS, while st ill
paying proper attention to his
leadership responsibilities, is
truly a challenging, full-time
endeavor. Can we p1ovide him
more time? Perhaps not., but the
20th Engineer Battalion at Fort
Campbell, Ky ., has devised a
way to minimize the squad lead
er's time requirements while
serving in his role as the train
er. The vehicle we employed to
construct this better mousetrap
is the "mission card."
Our 5-by-8 inch mission card

was designed to mtnlmtze the

inordinate amount of research
required to properly prepare a
class on any of our ARTEP
tasks. Each ARTEP task was
addressed at every appJicable

echelon . An example, shown in

Figure 1, describes ARTEP task
6-18, Construct Barbed Wire
Entanglements, which is a
squad level task. (As an aside,
our card was adapted as an offi-



MISShJ! t W!bUUCT bA~ 8fll Ill 1\f t.'ITM<r.Lf lf.~1:.




~- ~~



Pl'l.. J ~o


!U:l.Al'ED AET!!J' '!'ASK' h-"2l


&:..~unt l ets



llilti"lr'l-41... aval L"'ble on


S...Curlty c r ov l ded .

dV-at.lable .

i,OrltSt .


~ t ;._o d.trd



fl51 - l9~- 100)/11101111102


2Cot.1ro.11r:ru:c J..nt.!e. rest

~ -wj_tT~ct """'J:tt obst.a c. l ~ \~e

-1 q\- lOcJ) /l 0{)1

note ) p~l -t 9S-luO.si IO<)z



FC ta r oo 2 -IS .


The mission card provides a complete listing of

ARTEP tasks and s ub-tasks. (Figure 1. )
ENGINEER/Winter 81-82

cardR tas does each squad

leaderl. Ultimately, there is one
258-card deck at battalion con
cerning all tasks at the battal
ion. com p any, plat.oon and
squad levels.
The initial compilation of t he
complete deck was a staggering
task, but its impact was reduced
by equitably distributing card
prepa r ation tasks to all 1evels
throughout the battalion. T hus,
any given squad leader was re
sponsible for preparing only two
or three cards. The draft cards
were reviewed at a ll echelons
before fina l approval and publi
cation. Word processing equip
ment, while not essential, has
been an extremely valuable aid
As a handy guide listing references and train ing assets.
in quickly and simply refining
mission cards significantly reduce class preparation time
existing cards.
lor unit instructors. (Figure 2.)
A complete set of ARTEP 5
35 mission cards will be for
warded to the Engineer School
cial For t Campbell form and is
post tra ining and audiovisual
for their possible use since sub
support center, including all
n ow available to any unil. not
stantial numbers of the tasks
just engineers.)
pertinent training films, train
are common to all engi
The front of the card lists not
mg dev1ces, instructional pack
Once a set or
onlv the ARTEP task number.
ets. etc. The Notes/Remark.-; sec
mission cards is completed, the
tide and con ditions, but also
tion perhaps would have been
user's task is simply to continu
shows related ARTEP tasks, the
bette r titled "Training Tips''
refine and improve the
principle leadership Soldier's
~;ince each trainer notes here
The 20th Engineer Bat
Manual (SM) tasktsl. and all
any items of particular interest,
talion is extremely pleased with
sub-tasks, either specified in
such as a refinement. knack or
the mission card concept and
the ARTEP itself or implied.
clever nuance he has discov
how il has increased the effi
Most importantly perhap~. it
ered. This information if:i then
of trainers at aU levels
also 1ists all the related SM
s h ared at periodic company/
and improved the profesRional
tasks where individual profi
battalion meetings.
ism of battalion tra ining. Try
ciency will be required to satis
Basically, the mission card
using mission cards. we think
factorily complete the collective
contains, in one place, all the
like them. too!
task. Knowing these required
necessary information required
tasks, the squad leader can be
to prepare a class on any
gin preparing his soldiers well
ARTEP task. It has done tbe
abead of the required ARTEP
t.rainer's homework, for the
L l. C <~I . A i l i 11 g e r . u s c n m
task class, using his job books to
most part, allowing the trainer
mander of tht 20th Engineer
determine individual proficien
to devote his scarce time to
Battalwn fCnmbat >. Fort Camp
cy and opportunity training
preparing the class. not re
bell, Ky., designed the mission
time as needed.
searching it. The in1provement
card system, institu/Lng it with
Tbe reverse of the miss ion
in both class presentations and
the help of Capt. Whitten, the
card lists hjs squad's status on
in task proficiency is signifi
bulloUon operations officer.
the ARTEP task so he'll know
Aili11ger. comrnander of th1
exactly the depth of instruction
Each trainer has a set of mis
173rd Engineer Company (Air
required. It also lists all neces
ston cards for all tasks at his
borne) in Vtefnam, currentl,v is
sary references, resources in
level, and for each echelon be
executive officer of the physics
cluding applicable training
low his level. Thus a platoon
department at the U.S. Militat)'
extension course tapes m the
Academy. Whitten, a Virginia
leader/sergeant has the 67 cards
battalion learning resource cen
Military Institute graduate, still
for his platoon tasks and also a
ter. and assets available at t.he
complete set of the 4 1 ~quad
sert'es as the 20th's S-3.


ENGINEER/Win ter 81-82



The philosophy. The strategy.

Terrorism is like love. It's hard t o

define, but you know it when you see it.
Tenodsm is a tool used by
many widely varying types of
mganizations throughout t he
world. For these orga nizations.
terrorism i~ a rational, cohesive
strategy for the achievement. of
personal and political ends.
While unbalanced individuals
may be attracted to and
exploited by terrorist groups,
their individual abberations
should not be seen as indicative
of the nature of the sponsoring
organization. The acts of LerrQr
il'>t groups are seldom ej thel' ir
rational or random. Instead
t.hey are purposeful and ration
al. fonning patterns which may
be identified and analyzed.
Attri butes of Terro rism
Alexander George and
Hichard Smoke have proposed
that rationality ls really five
separate attributes: 11 an inter
nally cons1:;;tent value system;
2\ an ability to assess the out
come of an action, that is, the
ability to anticipate conse
quences: 3) an ability to relate a
specific act to an expected out
come; 4) an ability to under
stund an opponent's value sys
tem without necessarily sharing
it: and fina lly. 5) the possession
()f sufficient information to ac
complish items 2, 3 and 4.
abc>ve. The ralional actor must
have a consistent value system,
the ability to choose actions
which are likely to achieve his
goals and an understanding of
the effect such actions wil I have
on an adversary.'

by Capt. Ton1 Adams


First of all, it ts easily shown

that terrorists responsible for
some supposedly "pointless''
atrocity have a definite objec
tive in mind which is vital to
them . The senseless violence of
the terrorist is. in facL, aimed at
achieving some valued goal
such as lhe liberatton of one'!'
homeland lthe Irish Republican
Army [IRA) or South West Af,i
can People's Organization
ISWAPOP or the smashing of
international imperialism !the
Uruted Re-d Army).

T actica l Goa ls
Most theorists agree on five
general tactical goals of terror
ISt groups: l l publicity for their
cause; 2l harassment of the au
thorities; 31 polarization of soci
ety: 4l Aggravation of state-to
slate tt-lations: and finally. 5)
t.he achievement of operational
objectt ves I money , the release of
imprisoned lenders. and so
forth). Operational objectives
are usually secondary objec
tives . The primary purpose
kidnapping or assassination is
most likely to be found among
the first four goals. The mem
omo~, !'tatements and interview!'
of terrorist leaders a nd theo
rif>ts show that they are usually
able to evaluate outcomes and
objectives in a rational man


n~r . i

The ability to relate a specific

action to an expected outcome
bas been al'sessed by Etnest
Evens. Evens suggests that ter
rorists wetgh various possible
courses and adopt the most pro
ductive ones. He illustrates this

p01nt by exarruning the recent

history of polltical k.idnappings
and pro\'ing that th e incidence
of such kidnappings incr eased
dramatically after they were
shown to be a profitable and ef
fective tactic in 1969. Further
more. as ter ror ists discovered
the utility of k idnapping diplo
mats. specifically US diplomats.
the number of incidents
invol\'ing American officials
The fourth attribut.e. the abi l
ity to understand an opponent's
value svstem, is less obviouslv
met and represents an impor:
tant we-akness in terrorist oper
atlons. Some groups, the Cypri
ot. Lenorists for example, have
shown a shrewd grasp of their
adversruv's value svstem and
an ability to manip~late it. Oth
er groups show less of this abili
ty. The Palestinians who hi
jacked an Israeli airliner to
Entebbe revealed littlE> under
standing of the lsraeh perspec
tive. espectally Israel's willing
ness t.o put hostage passengers
at risk . Similarly, the inability
of powerful elements in han's
Revolutionary Council Lo under
stand American values probably
prolonged the US hostage crisis.
ThE' fifth point, the need for
information, is invariably met
by floods of information provid
ed by the medta and various
governments. This gives terror
ist groups arnple feedback and
useful intelligence for planning
further moves.

Terr orism's Comm o n l d eolo

While terrorist groups may be
rational, t.bere seems to be an
almost infinite variatwn in
methods, goals and rationales
among them. Fortunately they
ENGINEER/Winter 81 - 82


some basic characteris~

tics. Among leftist revolution
ary groups (the bulk of tetror
groups) there is an essential
ideology which seems to t.ran
scend nationality a nd cir cum
stances, All groups or move
ments loosely characteriz-ed as
leftist revolutionary are op
posed to what they term "ex
ploitation." In practice they
equate exploitation with capi
talism, and capitalism in turn
with fascism, l'Cgardless of any
democratic process<es' in
volved." 1 n the words of
Sekigunha, the self-proclaimed
'' warrior" societv behjnd the
United Red Army of Japan.
"What we will never accept is
the fad. brought about by capi
lalism, of people exploiting oth
er people. And this is our
motive for being wiUing to fight
a nd being prepared to use all
means possible to fight.''G
By exploitation, leftist terror
groups seem to mean the use of
anyone's person, talents, abili
ties, property or resources for
any purpose with which lhat in
ilividual does not fully and fr ee
ly agree. The fact t.hal terrorism
is itself an extraordinarily cruel
rorm of exploitation does not
distUlb its advocates ami apolo
This leads to th e next com
moo ideological principle, the
idea that "no one ts innocent.''
and there are no innocent vic
tims of terrorism . This pl'inciple
is divided imo several sub
arguments but all lead Lo the

same conclusion: the taking of

lives is mor ally justified. Brief
ly pu~. terrorists hold ev~ry
member of a societ-y responsible
for the wrongs perpetrated by
that society, even if only by in
action. Terrorists land their
supporters) alone are "inno
cent" because they alone are ac
tively opposed to the ''wrongs"
of society. The Tupamaros of
Uruguay hold that, "there are
no innocent bystanders.''!! There
a1e two popular varia~ions of
tlLis argument. First. terrorists
claim th ey are acting on behalf
of an oppressed, greatly suffer
ing people and that any act cal
culated to end that suffering is
justifiable. Second, they argue
Lhat the adversary government,
by its oppressive behavior,
forces them to act nnd is there
fore to blame.
The last important philosoph
ical common ground is Lhe no
tion that violence is worth
while, whether or not it
achieves any tangible goal. In
its most eloquent form this idea
was expressed by psychiatnst
Frantz Fanon, a supporter of
I he Fr ont Liberation Nationale
rFLN> in Algeria. Fanon's book,
The Wtetched of the Earth,
achieved great popularity
among terror apologists,
influP-ncing groups as diverse ns
the Front de Liberation du
Quebec (FLQ) in Canada and
lhe Frente Nacional de
Liherataco de Angola t.FNLA). 7
Fanon became a major spokes
man for terrorism when he

wrote that violence has a

c1eansing effect on individuals
Ctl1e perpetrators, not the vic
tims>. freeing the oppressed
from feelings of inferiority nnd
making them fearless. Fanon
further argued that the mere
fact of violence raises national
consciousness, forcing people to
take sides by making them con
scious of their common cause
agamst the oppressor.11 The no
tion that violence need not have
a concr ete goal to be e ffe ctive is
especiaJly important because it
answers the charge that terror
ist acts are unproductive.
Although terrorists possess
something in the way of a com
mon ideology they have a com
mon strategy on ly tn the most
general sense because terror or
ganizations represent an entire
spectrum of behavior ranging
from criminal/psychopathic to
national "pauiots" or ''libera
tors ... For our purposes the most
signi fic<~n t strategy of the ter
rorist stems from a particular
notion of the rela1 innship of a
government to iL~ people .
In its most prim:itve form a
go,ernment is organized Lo pro
tect those who subscribe to it,
and to assist them in gaining
basic needs. n ptotects and as
sists its people by means of se
curity forces (police and m.ili
taryl and social welfare
programs, Citizens are allowed
whntcver freedom t.h~y possess
becaus~ t.he govE>rnment pro


Nal!onalil\ of
V u t IJ iiH (1f In tf'I'
Milfonnl Terrl r

~ub ~hdrltl

bl Atluck"'.

1Dh!~ 1980


;r.m res~"~'

En! mop



ENGINEER/Winter 81-82




International T er rorist Attacks on US Perso nnel and Facilities , 1980

Location of Event


A met~ca

\.atm America
Western Europe

Milita ry


US Govt.




P at1fi c.




Humlnn ol EYents

tects them as a group and does

not need to protect them as in
The political terrorist, unlike
the cnminal. attacks this im
plied contract between a gov
ernment and its citizens. Crimi
nal tenor is usually incidental
to the commission of a crime
and seldom disruptive of the so
cial system. The use of criminal
methods by terrorists can, how
ever, have significant effect by
a larmi.ng an entire populace
and casting doubt on a govern
ment's ability to protect its peo
ple. This can be accomplished
through the application of
seemingly random violence,
requiring very little equipment
and few people. Since innocent
lives are taken or jeopardized,
eue1:yone has cause to fear such
attacks. And even th e harshest
and most repressive govern
ment cannot protect everyone
all of tbe time.
To fult111 its most basic obli
gation to protect its citizens, a
government beset by terrorists
must resort to harsh methods
roadblocks , stop and search
laws. arrest without warrant
and detention without trial,
suppressing basic liberties even
as these measures disrupt the
economy and inhibit the gov
er nment's social weJfar e func
tion. While the government
may succeed in repr essing ter
rorism, the ordinary citizens
most adversely affected by its


antiterrorist programs may be

gin to see it, and not the terror
ists, as the source of their prob
In actual practice, of course,
all this does not work out. so
neatly. West Germany's
Baader-Meinhof Gang and Can
ada's FLQ succeeded in provok
ing repressive measures with
out generat1ng significant
support for th eir movements.
Uruguay's Tuparmaro urban
guerrillas provoked har sh but
effective governmental meas
ures which actually succeeded
in wiping out the Tupamaros.
I n the end . few terror ist
groups expected to topple an ad
versary government through
their personal efforts. Instead,
they hope to stimulate geneml
opposition to the government.
creating genuine popular upris
ings which they themselves
would lead. 9 The Front de Lib
eration Nationale achieved this
in Algeria while the IRA Provi
sionals in Ulster succeeded in
shifting much sectarian hostili
ty onto the British.

Categorizing Ter rorists

Tn separating revolutionary
terrorists fTom other varieties,
it is critically important to un
derstand that there are no iron
clad categories. Some terrorist
groups are very difficult to pin
down . The most important vari
able among them is the degree
of political orientation. Conilict


10 0


Nuf'\bc>r of [\'ents

theorist J . Bowye1, Bell sepa

tates terror users into four
broad categories: criminals,
psychopaths, vigilantes and rev
olutionaries.HJ T he intelligence
analyst must be able to differ
entiate one from another be
cause aJl may use the fashiona
ble rhetoric of revolution and
national liberation .''
Although American theorists
rightfully tend to regard all ter
rorists as criminals, such think
ing is nol very helpful. Crimi
nals are deterred by arrest and
denial of a n opportunity to prof
it mcmetar ily while politically
motivated terrorists are not
deterred by the same means.
The hnmediate, material gains
of terrorist acts (such as ran
som ) are secondary to the de
sired political gains. Terrorists
are not averse to the publicity
of a trial , and unlike most crim
inals , they are not unwilling to
be martyred for their causes. u
The psychopathic or cult ter
rorists who use revolutionary
jargon are more confusing. The
notorious Atlanta murders of
1980-81 have some characteris
tics of terrorist violence and
have certainly spread fear
among the population while
lacking any apparent political
context. These are apparently
psychopathic acts of terror. Less
obviously psychopathic are cults
such as the Manson "family''
(with its vague pronouncements
of race war) and the surrealistic
ENGINEER/Winte r 81- 82

Symbionese Liberation Army.

Unfortunately. l<lo many ob
servers accept these groups'
self-proclaimed revolutionary
status. Combjning the worst as
pects of cult and criminal con
spiracy. t.hese groups utilize
revolutionary rhetoric to
rationlize tbeil self-deRtluctive
impulses. '"violence as therapy,''
Bell terms it. 12 They might be
characterized as violent eccen
trics but, lacking purpose, pro
gram or constituency. they are
not revolutionary.
Vigilante groups, right-wing
tenorist,s fight1 ng real or per
ceived threats Lo the established
order. a.re at once mmc danger
ous and difUcult. Some, such as
the Ku Klux Klan, rmd their
targets among various racial ot
ethnic segments of the pc>pula
tion. Others, such as the Fight
ing Union of El Salvador or the
Ojo por Ojo <Eye for an Eyel in
Guatemala, oppose leftist
threats to existing government.
The Ulster Defense Association.
for example. sees Itself at- a de
fender against the terronst
threat of the Provisional IRA. 13
Right-wing groups often draw
on local security forces for mem
bership and support since such
forces. by definition. support
the status quo. Occasionally.
they operate with the tacit
consent or outright approval of
the regime in power. Rarely. a~
in the case of Haiti's Ton Ton
Macoo, vigilante groups are ac
tually established by the local
rulers and function as a traves
ty of a civil police force. 14
The last Lype of terrorist
group we w i 11 consider lR the
revolutionary movement with
genuine political goals. Such
groups are somettmes seen as
real terrorists, They should not
be confused with guerrilla or in
t;urgent. movements havmg real
ronstituencies and si~:,rnificant
community support.. Guerrillas
are recognized under interna
twnal law and are, at least in
theory, subject to che rules of

ENGINEER/Winter 81-82

Revolutionary terrorism may

be visualized as a step preced
ing guerrilla warfare. Il is the
weapon of groups too weak to
challenge t.he authorities
through lnegular warfare. Ter
rorism allows such groups a
means of creaLing a situation
which will belp their cause to
succeed. Should they become
f\.Jll-fledged popular revolution
ary movements, a concern for
their reputation as liberators
may well result in limited ter
rorist acts although tenorism
will be used against members m
otder to maintain internal dis
cipline. Counter-terrorists
should therefore realize that a
terrorist group is most. in a dan
gerous state afler Lhe would-be
movement gains !'iome support
and until lt has gained enough
support to allow it to ubandon
terrorism . During th1s period,
the group's capabiUties and re
sources are steadily improving,
making it potentially lethall>
effective. Many revolutionary
movements remain in this in
terim staLe for years although
the FLN is. one group which suc
ceeded in making the transition
from terrorist faction to revolu
tionary movement. The IRA has
not managed the transition to
popular revolutionary move

2. Ernest Evens, Calling a

T:tuce to Terror t London:
Greenwood Press, 1979), p. 73.
See a Iso: George Grivas. Mem
oirs of General Grivas <New
York: Preager Ptess. 1965), p,
204: and Leila Khaleu. My Peo
ple Shall Live !London: Hod
den & Staughton, 1973), p. 214.
3 . Evens, op cit, p. 74.
4. Jan Schriber. The Ulti
mate Weapon (New York:
William Morrow & Co .. 1978),
p. 199.
Ibul., p. 200.
6. Terrorism, Skeptic
\January-February 1976). p.
37. See also: Christopher
Dobson, Black September
( N~w York: Macmillan Pub
lishmg. 19741. p. 3L
7. Gustave Morf. Terror in
Quebec (Toronto: Clarke, Irwin
& Co ., 1970). p. 35.
8. Frantz Fanon, The
Wretched of the Earth <New
York: Grove Press. 19631, pp.
9. See Regis Debray. Revolu
tion in the Revolution? !New
York: Grove Press, 19671.
10. J . Bowyer Bell, A Time of
Terror (New York: Ba"iic Books ,
1978l, pp. 36-57.
lL Rand Corp. study as cited
by Paul Wilkinson, Terrorism
and the Liberal State
!MacMillan, London, 19771, p,

While the logic of tenotism Is
mdeed alien to most observers.
tb~ study of terrorism is impor
tant. Terrorism has become a
permanent force in the modern
world and as such, it deserves
our special aLLention and close

12. Bell, op C'it ., p 43

13. Ulster, the Countu
Terror. Sunday World
lDubtinl, 9 June 1973.
14. See also: Amnesty Inter
national. Report on Torture
!New York: Farrar, Strauss &
Giroux, 1973, 1975).
15. Tom Adams, Tarunsm
and lnfprnati.onal Law, TVI

JournaltOctober 19801, pp. 3, 6

L Alexander George and
Richard Smoke. Deterrence in

American Foreign Policy:

Theory and Practice CNew
York: Columbia Universitv
Press, 19741, p. 48 .

Repnnted from .,1tlttary lntellt.

gence magazine. Graphs fiom
Defense & Ec:on01ny World Sur


Book R eview

The Terror


- --

- --

Tbf' Ttr r o r Ne twork , t.v Unire ~tt"rling . ll ult,

({tnelturt .md Wtn"ton anrl Re11rl~rs ()ij(+''>l Press, "lew

) urk.

~- Y.



Rudo lf

L f'\')

Clairr ~tf'rlin)l..,. ren.-nt lmok

1111 tilt" "ntltm{lltnnal ter

rorist nmnerltun," I" a \\ rll prcst>nled. 1n-deptlt ~ htch ,,f

t"Ontempurar\ intHnatiunal tf'fronsrn. Many of the ept
""lft:,. dhtU,;.I'd Ill tht- ltltllk htt\1: been l"UIISlOI'rt"d c:inC"C'
tilt' earl\ 1960s. Tlu. T c>rro.r N.-two rk appruprtoltel}
crnplw... l7c::" thf' welJ-IJrgu ul zed and well-financ,.rf uulurt
ul tht llllernatinnul tetrtlri><t nlll< hinen "'lticl1 hu~> I'\ en
sprt'"clll 1nln traditional!\ rwutrul and p+'areful ntuntric"


a., ~witzerlancl anrl /\ IJ!';triu .

T h t Ttrror Ne t wo rk !'howl> in indi.. putl.lhlt: lt'nll" tht>
nrigin uf ntosl nl tlw tt-rrunsto.." <Urn" a~d _finalll"tiil. SUJ!
purt. ~11-rling', ruther humnrou-. clt"<.crtplllllt of Ltbya ..
Mu:unrnnr l.}uudduri as th~ "Oadd) Warhwks." ,uuld not
h~ fli,..puttcl In l)uoJrlafi'.._ ~taUnC'ht'st ~uppvtll r-. ur In
11 tltcr ltmn :-upp(lrlf>t:; ,..nch as Cuba, tltt :,v, wl Lnmn
nnd tls ""t,.Jiilt~ ~orth Kurl'a. Vit'lnant nnd aft>" 11tltt:rs.
Author Sttrltn~ ,kdlfull)' t,plums <~nd dm.umt'tll" the
t'Xpert ~o>iet 111anipulution of Cuban ar11l P.tlt>:-llninn
t,IU,Ot''i intu '"ulll~llttk pul~s I and n .'' aud the o;.ubYNSinn
ol rnany lcaitirnutt lilumllm mmement... tnlo t:<Hmnuni,.t
Jt>Ytllutlllna~ tenorist oprrattOn'>. SoHcl unci Cuh.Jil l!'ud
crship in iniclllntionnl tt>norisrn hu.- fur jo(re~:~ter tmplicLl
ltont. tltun e~~r nn.t~im:d.
~tt'rllllj('-> dt'ol"US;;IQtl uf th!'. ... uppnll 11f lht> llliPrllOilOnUJ
tcrrom.. t twtwork dur111g th(' Frtght Dt>tndc~ ol thc 1970;.
"ugge'-1.., that lt>rmrisrll will bt' t'\~ll murc pervR"'I'C in thr
19HO.... One uf thr ),.,.,t t"<amplc,. uf mlt>mntwnal tcrrorbt
coop... rutlotll unlvhled in th<' IY70 ll\11.<.!'Ul"H' at Israel", Locl
Airpnr1. perylt'trntcd hv memLPr-. of thf' Japant'"t' R...d
Ann\ whu had htcn trntn('d tn LebantJII and eh.cwhert Jn
the \1idrlle East. pru\ idttl with false dcwmnent:> h~ Wcsl
Cerm 4u t tc-rom-ts artd urmfll \' tlh Czedtulovnkiun weap
llni' Jcliverec.l 111 Rumt h} a \ ~llt'LUdan Cor,llnttuhl. ln
thP T.ll(l A.irporl mas:.al"ft, tlw Japone"t> IPrron!'t!l raltul>
mudu n1-gunncol a no\\ d pri111u ril y cr11nposed l)f Puerto
Rican ptlgnm!' to th~ Hoi} Land
M<.. !'tcrlin~;", porlravl of ll11h Ram1re2 :->anrhe". al!-n
knrn-.rt ,,, Curios tlu J utkHI, 1::1 I'K!'lual cii"II' Untt'ntutiou of
a rlt>cllt att'"d. l"uiJ-blooderl tt>rrori-.t ttaiutd h~ the Cuha11
DGl til LLlmp \llatanza" under thP tutt'iaJ?,e of the noton
u~ h.(,R ten 0 n,;t ofll'rutl)r l.lJitmt"l Vtk\l)r Srmenov.
Carloc." further tt'n-orist educallon. on rccumm.:ndntion of
thc> CumntuJltsl Part\ of ht!' noll\ e \ etHzuela. uwluded a
:;tint at Patrie, Lt;mumuu L nwe.-sity in Mo:>t'CJ Y., Ull"
'"grarluatr i:>C'huul of tcrruri"m After furtlt!'r training 111
the Midtlle Ea-.1. Lar)u,.. worked for oT 011 b!"half of the


P!il<:>;,tini.ut .. trug~tlt>. " spectnltzinJ! in 1\.St;R!I~lllalions <~nd

kidn.:~pptng,.. the or~tRnlzallon of IC'rTIIrt"'t c:eJJ... throughout
EtHI>pe and lhf' ~~~~uggl i ng of wcapvn!l. Carini'' grcnad1
altat k on a auwJ nt l.t OruJ! Storr in Pari:., wl11ch killed
i;t'\:(raJ pc>uplt> unrf UlJllrerf 2(1. W8~ !Jiannt'd IU r101 pres
sure un tfw FrcuC"h gov,.rnment on uehalf ul tht Japall t'be
Red 1\rm~ lt'rrurio.,t!'- tlwn holdmg the French Ernba"s) in
Holland in orrler to In~ f'omrudes then ht:ld 1n ~ rt'rt< h
jails. (fncirlentully, tlw ~trcn.tnes ul'ed tn lht ntlu(k on Lc
Drug Ston' were
M-26 grtnde~; o;tolen bv till' liuader
M~>inhof Can,_ from tlu L:!-- >\rm~ Ammuuiltclll Deput .JI
Mw<~<Ht. Germany. The !;rPnudtt:o stulen from tLe dtput
wrtt' u~ed iu four other tcrrurtst lllll\cks durtn~ the
1970,., l Curlu... maslerminrll'd the kuinupptUf! of OPEL oil
mtntster,. f;Lllltf'Tt>d tn Vi,nna. \usLTiu Y.tth lhP help of thf'
Buodcr-Mctnhof Can~. Carlo,. nl;;o <~Mlllf(!!ltl !:luviet-modt
~A ~-7 mn....ile" into ltalv. wh~re only a tip from 1-.raeli
tntt'lltgente tu ltalt<lll authoritie., prevl'ntctl the: Pale-!:-11111
an terrorisl,; from shunting down an Israeli aitliner taking
off fmn1 Romto \ irpurt.

Tht> Te rror '\4t" o rk ...ltlnrat.. and p.-rllllt'llt Jata

on ;.nrh intemottfUll::tl lt'"JTnrtsl Of{!Ul11/Utions ut:> tht.: .luttltt

fH l{e\olutiunan Cuutdiuutiun giv1s ltli:>ll-\ltl llllu tlu:

lC:llrl. a bit> prttgr; ..... ul tnlc-mat tunal ll'rTuri!'lll f'urmtd 1n

Latin t\mPrtC"u IJ, \r~t"ntrutuu. ChtleHII, Par;~gua\Ull lltld

Ucu~ua\311 lcnorist,... tit., .I HL ,,,c. r'"\Jiund~d and t.~~ .,.

"""' h1 th... ( uhan IH";l ln111al fund ... \\t'rt' ~1\t'n h, lhl

Ar~cnttne., \lurltwwto,. tmm Hlll:'-11111" f+'t"t!tHJ front the

Uni t' " Stull-" un.l 11tlwr nuti"'" fttr 11,,. rt-lt>ull
11\ t' \t"l'"ttl i It'~
Aftrr ( uhnn and ::.o\lel llll'lhc>lllt-111 \11th thr JRC. uth
"'' htu.lql liltltr;. aul ,,urdttwtiull uffl""" V.t'IP npenc>cl In
Putt'>. Li,b,,u .uul Bru...-<tl,... l'lw J IH ' pn...t 111 h ttll"ltule:>
Ba<.cptt tcnttriS..,. lrt"h R.t.:pnhlilall -\rm1 PrulhHtrl.tl'.
c..erlll.lll\"' Rf'd Arm) Fi:l!' II OII. lhf' llllf't'l \\11011
llHI\Cilll'lll... 1111l tltr H.JUl '-l~ udic Urq!,adt' nl I I.Ull"' l'ul
''"ll rllan.... Ht><l Bn)l.ldl'" of lt,th anrl -.,eral L .11111 \ntrt
t.tn ll'rrun... t j~;ltlttp" rh.,.. .1 R< '" ">llll ~m\1 tug1 lrotsk)
til' drcant ttf ~(,,(,allttd t11<~ristn and r.. n,luttlltt c:ontt."



\\ ,.,r

I lilt ',

\lam~ lri~hlt nillJ( th.lll ll"llVII"lll tbllf i,., th1 till\\ dltng
11 f n;tll1\
nul itJrtS \nllltu.J in~. until n-etnt h. Iht
l lltlttl ~lUI"' Itt ft' II~Ill7l th... -luhnl naturl' ollterrnri,m


('lr it,. inclutal!k ;,upport h) ... u, II natiun:> a-. tht =::..tt\1<'1

I Intun uud l "ltha \ .wcnnd pntbl.-nt i"' 1he UtcnmnHtda
IJullt"-1 nllttutl~ .. r ouunlnf".,. "hi,..h "u11lrl rathlr n>' ~ t
tn\uherl wlllt tentht' fot fenr o f t<'rt"llll"l 1etrihuttun
~vn~ of tltt.,t tnJ,;Iake" an 11<~~>' Ut'lll~ o:ttftt'tl a-. nwn]
uatiuns a1 rllc,,ulrrtog th;ll 1111 nt.Jilt>r hu" llghtl) tht\
,llllt thrtr ,., ,. lt'liiTI'nl \'ill not go ..n 18\ .;;ome ,troug
IHI."<t .. ure;, haq 111'1' 11 IUk<'lt 111 t'ttlltnol tnt.-rnallllltal hliTPr
tstn ann muumi71' tlw effct tl; uf 11-ntlrt:;lll llll tlw intrtta
tional f'0111tnllnit\, but lrrunc.m i>< no" ,,dl-rntrwlwd .
II ,,., htJped that it t~ thtl hm lutt.
'flu T .-rro r Net Y.urk ,.. "''' ,.,,,.lltut ... t111h .. r krrur
, ...111, und. 11 nhout a cluuhl. tnm>l rl"ttJtng for .JII tnilitur~

Rcprwtrd .fr''"' 1/iliran lntt>lli!{<'"'r rrtn[liJ;tnr. Rwlalf

Lt'l 'l rl/l ruahor. {Prturr.r Cllltl re.(Jl<"<ll"d nuthnr11~ 011 tcr
mrt~m. II II .\Itt/( tfll'fllba of t/1( 4ml) fnftlft/(l'fl(t' C<II/C!f

tlnrl .;;t:h11ol. F v;, 1/ttllhm,;. ~ri:.

ENGINEER/Wb:ater 81-82


Led by 20 general officers,

morP than 600 engineers from
196 active and reserve compo
nent units converged at Crystal
City, Va., December 5-6 for the
1981 Engineer Commanders'
T1aining Conference (ECTC>.
The meeting was hosted by En
gineer School Commandant
Maj . Gen. Max W. Noah. Major
discussion topics were engineer
operations in the airland battle
and training initiatives in units
Lt . Gen. William J . Livsey
Jr., commander. VII Corps, U.S.
Army Europe tUSAREUR),
presented a dynamic keynote
address on engineer support re
quirements as viewed by a ma
jor maneuver force commander.
Corps of Engineers support to
ENGINEER/Winter 81-82

the Total Army was covered by

Chief of Engineer& LL. Gen. Jo
seph K. Bratton.
Livsey discussed the chal
lenge of engineer support at
corps level and stressed the
need for frequent training un
der conditions duplicating as
closely as possible the milieu of
the battlefield. The former 8th
Infantry Division commander
praised U.S. soldiers saying, ''1
have no qualms about the quali
ty of our young American sol
diers. They are, in fact,
magnificient. All they need is
outstanding leadership, care,
compassion and love." His as
sessment of USAREUR was
"we're better than we've ever
Another highlight was 2d En
gineer Battalion (2d Infantry
Division) commander Lt. CoL
C.H. "Strcteh'' Dunn Jr.'s pres
entation of the battalion's live
fire training in overcoming a
complex obstacle. Dunn, aided
by slides and a video tape, de
tailed bow the battalion pre
pared for the exercise by con
structing a simulaLed North
Korean mine field s uppJe
mented by two anti-tank ditch
es. The battalion then con
ducted a successful assault
breach of the obstacle, support
ed by tanks. artille y, armed
helicopters, intelligence and air
defense assets. (An article by
Dunn regarding engineer officer
career management a ppears in
this issue of ENGINEER on
page 28.)
Other topics covered in the
two-day conference included a
discussion of the operational
doctrine in the recently pub
lished FM 5-100 Engineer
Combat Operations. Army 86
studies, airfield damage repair
and the Systems Program Re

view action plan.

The innovative Engmeer Bat
talion Training Management
Program developed by the 579th
Engineers, California Army Na
tional Guard, and engineer par
ticipation in Operation Bright
Star were discussed and will be
covered in detail in future is
sues of ENGINEER.
Conference coordinator Lt.
CoL George Temple reports the
1982 ECTC will be held in early
December in the Washington ,
D.C .. area.

ECTC 81 keynote speaki'r

Lt. Gen. William J. Livsey Jt.

stressed tl1e importance of fl'e

quent. realistic training.


by Chaplain (Maj.) WaYJte 0. S1nitl1

Couns e ling
plays a s ignifi
cant role in the
functioning and
eff ectiv e ness o f
military units,
regardless of size or mission.
Leaders who see counseling as a
positive tool and who use it as
such wi II also see positive re
s1.lits in overall performance of
duties. Many units throughout
Lhe Army are practicing good
counseling and have ongoing
training in how to counsel.
An aid to effective counseling
can be the counseling statement
or record of counseling. If it is
used pro per ly, this document
can be very helpful, especially
in performance counseling.
It can provide a summary of
what was said, a record of what
was said, and as a last resort,
evidence of what was said. The

use of the WOl'd can'' here is in

tentional. There is an apparent
trend toward the misuse and
even abuse of the counseling
Although it was never intend
ed to be a substitute for coun
seling, the counseling state
ment has become just that for
many people in supervisory po
sitions. Admittedly, having a
pre-printed form and simply
filling in the blanks instead of
holding a formal counseling ses
sion, saves some time Cinitial
lyl. but how does it improve per
formance? How does it develop
respectful, healthy relalion
ships between the counselor and
the counselee? The answer, of
course, is that it does not. Too
often the question, "Have you
counseled this soldier?" gets
t.he response, "Yes. I have sev
eral counseling statements on
him.'' But has the soldier really
been counseled?

The format of the counseling

statement is also important. If
the format is negative. demean

ing or ace usalory. it will Iikely

sabotage any possibility of good
counseling. It will produce, 1f
anything, merely grudging com
pliance. The counseling state
ment that requires the reading
of a soldier's rights under Arti
cle 31 of the UCMJ precludes
any positive feedback, and is a
far cry from what performance
counseling is all aboul.
There are many reasons lor
the abuse and misuse of the
counseling statement: two of
them will be addressed here
The first. bas to do with the in
ability, real or perceived, to do
effective counseling. Good per
formance counseling involves
training, work and risk-tak ing.
Thus, il is easier to have some
one devise a form which can bf'
used in lieu of real counseling
The result, however, is often
that the negative performance
is highlighted and the positive
performance goes unrewarded,
if not altogether unnoticed. One
of the responsibillties of mili
tary leaders is to develop cotm
sellng skills early.
A second reason counseling
statements are misused is a re
flection of t.he leader/supervi
sor's overall outlook towards
subordinates. If that outlook is
what Douglas McGregor (1957) 1
terms "Theory X," the subordi
nate is viewed as basically lazy .
unmotivated, with T,lO ambition,
no sense of responsibility. Addi
tionally, Lhe subordinate is per
ceived as motivated only
through threats of punishment
and must be coerced and con
trolled in otder to ensure per
formance. With this orientation.
supervisors often fall to see the
danger 10 devising a counseling
statement tllat is totally nega
t,i ve and used primarily to
"nail" people.
Although the Theory X ap
proach does achieve some objec
tives, it is not the most efficient

1 Douglas McGregor. The B u.mao Side

of Enterpr ise <McGraw-Hill, l957 ).

ENGINEER/Winter 81- 82

PERSONAl IN NAlltRl ,.nrn complettc!

2. Measurable
a. What do you want the
soldier to do?.
b. How well?
c. By when?

Counseling Record
Pr r:q Ad


on Re'Ese

S{CltOII t-lndiYtnUal !latJ


SfCIIOfi 11-CIIcurnslart(!S



Ctas~l Out1

Secton 'Companr

111 -Counl<!tO<s Comm..,u

Cou~llliS S(llotur~

1 hrl' seen a copy ol tht

rerm~ ~ntl

1~-lndllldual Ac~na..li!dgemonl

hAlP been coun.Ued o>nce<ntni tn! tefl(ll



P(RSONAI IN N.liiiRE hen rOnpteU

A good roun$clmg statement format is essential to l'/frctne coun

means of getting the job done
low for positive critique and
and should not. be encouraged.
growth. The counseling state
This is an important considera
ment should be used to reflect
tion in view of the Army's ''up
both positive and negative as
or-out" system because the su
pects of the session. A clear rec
pervisor should be grooming ord of what was said puts the
subordinates l.o move into su
responsibility on the counselor
pervisory jobs. Some soldiers fit
to do good counseling. Effective
the Theory X description, but perfonnance counseling should
the majority do not. Thus effec
at least be:
tive performance counseling
must involve more than threats
1. Specific
of punishment and devising
a. W h at are the unit's
ways to "nail Lhe guy ."
It follows then, that good per
b. What are your expecta
formance counseling should al
tions of the counselee?
ENGINEER/Winter 81-82

Establishing these criteria be

fore and clarifying them during
the session will make it easy to
record them on the counseling
statement after th e session.
By using a bl ank counseling
statement format. the counselor
can staLe the circumstances be
hind the counseling session
Some examples are r egularly
scheduled performance coun
seling (not OERIEER time), on
the-spot corrections, and coun
seli ng arising from specific
incidents. There should also be
space l.o succinctly state what
was said by both counselor and
counselee, and room for any per
tinent notes or recommenda
tions. With a little effort, this
ktnd of counseling statement
will provide a meaningful gauge
of the soldier's growth, data for
future recommendations for
awards, promotion or assign
ment, and will help strengthen
leader/subordinate relation
ships which will ultimately en
hance mission accomplishment.
Chaplatn ( Maj.) Wayne 0
Smith is chief of the Command
and Leadership Branch . U.S
Army Engineer Cellfer. Forf
Be/uoir. Va. He has serued as
197th lnf. Bde. chap/atn and os
chaplain of Camp Ames, Korea.
He has a bachelor's degree 1n
psychology, and M.A . in theolo
gy and has done doctoral work
at Southern Semtnary tn
Louistille, Ky.



The A Engineer
You have just concluded reconnaissance
of a bridge targeted for demolition. During
the recon you determined it will be neces
sary to cut four steel !-beams of dimen
sions shown. Using ribbon charge, what is
the minimum amount of C4 tM112) explo
sive needed for the job?

11 " ---.11




L-..--- l 112"
.,. . . _~- 1 1 " - - ( f


The C\ A Engineer
A city with a population of 50,000 pro
duces 4 pounds per capita per day of waste.
A sanitary landfj]) site of 20 acres has
been set aside for this waste. Fifteen per
cent of the site must be used as buffer and
the landfill height cannot exceed 15 feet.
If the trash can be compacted to a densi
ty of 800 pounds per cubic yard, how long
can the landfill be opera ted?

Solutions page 27

Subsetlbe to

nf chonMl"ll Engmr~r




JJ'papon8 d.: Equipmen(

Cuner Vana(Jtmenl
Signifirant Erent.'<

ENGINEER/Winter 81-82




A ((mature
military engineering
construction system...''
by James G. Winter
Army Chtef of Staff Gen. E. C.
Meyer, stated in his White Pa
ter 1980 that ''A key to winning
the fitst battle, as well as the
~econd and last battle, is an ad
equate sustaining capability
Maintenance, transportation
and other service support gives
us this needed dimension," The
Army Facilities Component
System tAFCS) aids in pr ovid
ing the sustaining capability by
providing facility installation
designs which fill the gaps in
host nation support, replaces
those facilities destroyed by en
emy action, dtrectly su pports
the Army in forward areas, and
forms the basis for base devel
opment planning.
The AFCS is a tool to assist
military planners, su pply
agencies and construction per
sonnel at all levels in the con
struction of facilities required
Lo support combat or rear eche
lon <communication zone) sup
port elements in theaters of op
eration anywhere in the world.
The AFCS was initiated in
1951 when , following World
ENGINEER/Winte r 81-82

War II and dursng the Korean

conflict, it became apparent
that a vitaJ need existed for an
effective, organized emergency
c.onstruction and supply system.
Since its inception, AFCS has
developed into a mature mili
tary engineering construction
system that includes planning
guidance, detailed construction
drawings and computer updated
bills-of-materials for approxi
mately 2,900 facllities and 300
Some of the facilities and in
stallations in the system in
clude troop camps, hospitals.
marine terminals, complete pe
troleum storage and distribu
tion systems, ammunition stor
age facilities, roads, bridges,
maintenance facilities, power
plants, living-related facilities
and operational facil ities.
Army Regulation 415-16 pro
vtdes the basic guidance for
AFCS, while the Huntsville Di
vision, Corps of EngineerR,
working in concert with the as
sistant chief of engineers, is re
s p onsible for updatin g and

maintaining the system. Liai

son is maintained by the
Huntsville Division with the
Navy, Air Force and Marine
Corps for planning and to mini
mize duplication of design effort
for similar facilities.
AFCS Data Base
The AFCS data base consists
of four Army technical manuals,
TMs 5-301, 302. 303. and a new
AFCS u ser's manual, TM
5-304. The TM 5-301 contains
installation and facility sum
maries published in four
volumes for facilities and in
stallations in temperate, frigid,
troptcal and desert climatic
zones. It currently includes cost,
shipping weight, volume and
maohours required for construc
tion of each facility, as well as
three standa rds of construc
tion-initial <zero to six
months>, intermediate Cstx to 24
months), and temporary (24
month s to five years>. In re
sponse to Joint Chiefs of Staff
guidance, action is underway to
eliminate the intermediate


is any construction material

(such as a bag of cement) that is
used to form a facility (such as a
maintenance building). An in
stallation petroleum, oils and
lubricants (POL) facility for ex
ample, is formed by assembling
a group of facilities designed to
provide a specific service or sup
port to some military function
in a theater of operations.

r. 1






j_ _ ____ _j



standard and to reduce the tem

porary standard to 24 months.
TM 5- 302 consists of three
volumes containing site plans,
utility plans and facility con
struction drawings for the
various installations and facili
ties. TM 5-303 lists all of the
items contained in the bills-of
materials for each facility with
each item identified by national
stock number . TM 5-304, the


user's manual, explains the

AFCS and provides detailed in
structions on how to use the in
formation in TMs 5 - 301
through 5-303.
The AFCS uses a building
block concept to permit maxi
mum flexibility; the "building
blocks" being items, facilities
and installations. An item, usu
ally available for procurement
under a national stock number,

Planning Considerations
Figure 1 outlines the general
procedure for us ing AFCS in
planning and designing. Shown
in the circles are information
and directives from planning
headquarters and information
from local sources that need to
be considered at the various
steps of the procedure. The deci
sion points and check points are
shown in diamond-shaped
boxes. The outputs of specific
steps are shown in rectangular
boxes . Inputs from the AFCS
manuals (TMs 5-301 through
5- 303) are shown in the hexa
gons. The following paragraphs
are lettered, numbered and
keyed to Figure 1.
a. Information and direc
tives from higher planning
headquarters a nd informa
tion from local sources:
tl } Civil engineering support
planning (CESP) and construc
tion directiue.s. The major direc
tive may include selected base
sites, assigned support mission,
operational target dates, scope
of construction requirements,
etc. It may also specify priori
ties and construction standards
and allocate resources and real
( 2 ) Terrain. information re
quirements. Terrain informa
tion inc) udes map reconnais
sance, s ite reconnaissance,
climate and soil. Terrain re
quirements are provided in the
base development plan, where
concealment requirements and
the expected level of mobility
are specified.
(3) Available existing facili
ties. This information could
come from higher planning
headquarters or local intelli
gence sources. The existing faENGINEER/Winter 81-82

'-'<1111'e TPnTtln.;l

Ta11~ frut:.~ Loa<JI'lQ







'\:''l~"'~ \__"

Stdllnn 1050 l.>f'M

1"itKJf1nllC Tto'frllrt.1lli10 MIJ BBI I


f?~O 000





A" Tttmtllii>

But R~'f'" r.,(llllt:S


cilities include buildings, utili

ties, roads, etc.
(4) Local resources. This in
formation could come from in
telligence so urces. L ocal re
sources inc! ude availability of
skilled craftsmen, genera] con
struction labor and construction
materials such as steel, lumber,
cement and aggregate.
I 5) Construvtion rt>sources.
'fhe se include the e ngineer
units assigned by t he higher
planning headquarters, as well
as available civilian laborers lo
perform the construction tasks.
b . Decision and verification
<1 ) Material choice. The choice
of material depends largely on
t he ty pe of facility and is con
strained by the standard of con
struction . Several types of con
st ruction technology a r e
available in the AFCS, includ
ing wood frame. steel fra me and
prefabricated buildings. The se
lection of a particular building
type s hould be based on the
ENGINEER/Winter 81-82

availability of materials, time

co n straints and the t y pes of
craftsmen needed.
(2) Verification of fJitc selec
tion. The esti mate of total real
estate tequirements is based on
the final installation layouts.
The results are compared to the
previously seJected or assigned
sites. and steps are then taken
to a cquire any required a ddi
tional land.
c. Planning, design and es
timation stages that generate
( 1 ) General problem state
tnent . The base de velopme nt
pl a n s hould be reviewed for
completeness and consistency.
A gen eral problem statement
consists of military plans and
s upport requirements in terms
of the tasks to be accomplished
by the construction unit and re
so urces available. The state
ment should also include infor
m atio n on si ze , location ,
climate, standard of construc
tion. etc.
(2) Site selection. The amount


of la nd needed is estimated
based on the cons tructjon re
quirements. Using this esti
mate. information on candidate
sites is evaluated based on ter
rain requirements. The mos t
likely site is inspected by a re
connaissance team, and a site is
then chosen for the installation.
(3) Scope of construction. The
n et facility r equirements and
an,y useable existing facilities.
Existing faciHties include build
ings, utilities, etc.
(4)Lst of installations and
facilities. On the basis of the
s cope of instruction require
ments and the choice of the con
struction standard, a Jist of in
sta llation s and facilitie s,
identified by their numbers, is
developed . TM 5-301 is used to
select the desired installations
and facilities.
(5) Installation layout. The
recommended layout of facili
ties within the installation is
given in TM 5- 302; however1
based on terrain requirements
and other conditions such as ex-


tsting buildings, roadways, and

works to aid combat engineers
airfields. s1gna l in tel ltgence fa
utilities. the recommended lay
in construction phasing; t.otaJ
cit i ties , theater construction
out may not be feasible and
conversion of the numbering
materials and desert facilities
should be revised as necessary
system to conform to the catego
In addition. medical faciltties
to meet the requirements.
ry codes included in AR 415- 28;
such as mobilization health care
correlating AFCS directly to the
facilities. medical depot fa cili
16l Determinatwn of real es
facility requirements of each ta
ties and medical TO&E facili
tate requiremRnts. The quantity
ble of organization and equip
ties are under design .
of land required for the recom
ment (TO&E> unit ; increased
It is difl'icult to make long
mended facility layout is listed
emphasis on facilities directly
range projecLions for the n eed~
in TM 5-301. If the recom
supporting troops; and seeking
of the Army, but we do antic
mended facility layouts are not
methods to lower cost, weight,
ipate designs to accommodate
used, the actual required land
volume and erection time for in
the Division 86 weapons sys
areas shoul d be calculated
dividual facilities.
tems being developed and a
based on the revised layout.
A major change has been pre
shift. Lo lighter-wetght, quickly
I7l Con:;truction effort, cost.

deployable structures. Th ert>
lc>gtstical data and bills of male

will probably be a reduction m
rials (BO M J. Estimated con

installations being added to the

the diversity of building sizes
struction man-hours, cost and
system; the drawings being con
available in the AFCS as a re
logistical data for transporta
of a studv of the actual re
tion are provided in TM 5- 303
~f approximate!)
The number of man-hours r e
all material and pricing data in
700 TO&E units . Future de
quired for all horizontal, verti
the data base
Signs will reflect the best sized
cal and general construction
facililtes for the largest number
s hould he tabulated and com
of TO&E units
pared to the number of man
ure 2); Army airfield design s
1'he total Army communtty
hours available from construc
and other services have ex
tion units in each category. If , ancluding horizontal and verti
cal facilities for both fixed wing
pressed increasi ng interest in
deficiencies are indicated, addi
the AFCS and Department of
tional manpower support is re
ily of panelized buildings; pre
the Army personnel contmue to
quested. The total time needed
engineered metal buildings:
heavily usc AFCS in preparing
to complete all construction can
sanitary facilities: electrical
civil engineering and support
be estimated on the basis of the
planning The Army Facilities
available manpower and the
facility and installation update;
Component System provides a
number of man-hours requared
and medical facility installa
well documented set of plans
for construction.
tions. The change s hould be
and bills-of-mat.enals which
(8l Project execut1on. This
ready for di s tribution before
should meet the various facility
step separates the actual execu
next spring.
and installation requirement:a
tion of the project from the pre
The Huntsville Division also
of the Army in theater of opera
vious seven planning steps. In
continuously updates the sys
tions anywhere in the world.
formation input is from the
working drawings in TM 5-302.
ance of the US Army Troop Sup
The means for carrying out the
port and Aviation Material
Jume!i G . Winter, chief of tht
project are provided by various
FacilL!ip,<f Compunen/!(
construction resources, includ
section at the Huntsmltc
ing engineer units and civilian
Drulston, U .S. Arm_y Corp s of'
New Designs
Engineers, has participated Ln
Durmg the frrst three years of
managed lht> design of major
operation of the AFCS at the
The past emphasis on designs
construction programs
Huntsville Division, many initi
to support a war of several
thl! Corps in 1955.
atives have been set in motion
years duration has shifted to de
including launch and Launch
that will result in a marked im
signs that are more in keeping
support facilities for NASA , lh1
provement in the versatility
with the shorter, highly inten
Force and the Navy at Cape
and usability of the system.
sive and fluid concepts of mod
These initiatives consist of the
ern wazfare.
ABM s upport facilities and mu
publication of a new AFCS de
New designs underway that
nitions productton base factlities
sign manual whjch provides
directly support troops in the
the Huntsville DiuisiorL. Mr
uniform design standards; utili
ioWa) <0-6 months) phase in
is a graduate of the U.S
zation of decision trees on com
clude container handling ports
Merchant Marzne Academy and
plex installations to guide the
(utilizing DeLong pters), muni
is a ciu,[ engineering graduatt!
planner in selecting the proper
tions storage, a family of protec
the Unwersit;v of Florida
facilities; preparation of a fami
tive revetments , a family of
ly of "critical path method" net
field fortifications, Air Force


ENGINEER/Winter 81-a2

The Engineer Solutions


Identify and measure critical d imensions as shown in the

drawiog. Deter mine Lhe amount of explosive required using th e
following fo rmu la.
TC-charge t.hjcknesst
WC-charge width
LT - target length
1'T-La.rget. th ickness
LC-charge leo.gth
TC = % TT or lh'' min = 72 (lh'')
= % < 'h" min T C = 1<2''

we = aTe = 1 'h"

LC = L T = 2 (A+ B1 + C

LC I 2 (10.5") + 20 = 21" + 20"

LC = 41"
<Volume of charge) VC = TL x
we x LC + 112" x 11t2' x 41"
VC = 30.75 cubic inches
!Volume of one block 04) VS =
22 cubic inches
Bf = Total blocks C4 requ ired
(1 beam)
vc 30.75
Bl = - = - - = 1.4 = 2 Blocks C4
BT = Total blocks 04 required
(4 beams)
BT = 4 Bl = 4(21 = R blocks C4


The Cards Are Coming. . .

[n accordance with AR 310- 1
and po$tal regulations, ENGI
NEER is updating its mailing
Each unit or individual on
our current list wil1 receive a
btr.siness reply c~d which m11$t
be filled out completely and re
turned to continue receiving
In addition , the reply card
asks readers to carefully review
t he number of copies now re.
cei ved , a nd to reduce or in
cnase the number -af copies
according to unit needs. Depart
ment of the Army guid eline s
call for six readers pet copy,
Please return your completed
card promptly to insure unin
terrupted service.

Article Assistance?

ENGINEER is almost com

pletely dependent upon article
Ci vilian
submissions from the field , and
m any of you have, indeed, sup
Assuming the linal and intermediate covers wil1 be two feet, the
cell height. should be six to I 0 feet high. Daily ear th cover will to
ported your branch journal with
tal 5 percent of the volume.
ti mely , informative articles
qenefitting the entire Corps. We
r~alize . however, that many ex
cellent stories go untold for lack
'\ '
CELL 5 Y:l , '
of the time or public affairs sup
\ \
\ \
port needed to produce your EN
GINEER article.
The next time you find your
self wais't-deep in a terrific sto~
ry1 but with no one to write (or
\ '
help write, research or photo
\ \
graphl it, call us . We' ve re
ce-ived some fundi.Qg (Umited as
it is) for those oceasions, money
Available area= 20 acr es x 85% effective area x 43,560 sq.
allowing us to give yo1:1 on
ft ./acre = 740,520 sq. ft.
1 tJ.

Useable height = 151 - 2 - 2 = 11 feet (includes flnal and

oea on asslstance.
intermediate cove1s)
We . like you, a re s ubject to
time, personnel and cash short
Volume ofwaste = 11 x 740,520 sq. ft. x 95% volume of available
waste= 7,738,434 cu. ft.
ages, but we'll do our best to
Landfi ll life = (Volume of waste ) {Compacted density of waste>
give you a hand in getting your
(lbs of waste/capita/day) (populat ion) {27 cu. ft./cu. yd .> 5 torY in to pd n t Call
Landfill life= (7,738,434 cu . ft. ) (800 lhs/cu . yd.J
= 1,146 days or 703-664-3082 (AV 354}.
3.14 years
(4)bs/day) (50,000) (27 cu ft./cu. yd. )







ENGINEER/Winter 81-82


Engineer Officer

Career Management

-How we got the new program

by Lt. Col. C.H. Dunn Jr.

As most of you know, new directions

in engineer officer career management

have emerged following a special

13-month study of engineer manage
ment policies under the Officer Person
nel Management System (OPMS). Rec
ommendations for revitalizing engineer
officer career management were approved by the
Army's Deputy Chief of Staff for Personnel in
March 1981; implementation began this fall and
will continue over about two years.
The major tenants of the new strategy were an
nounced in a brochure, Engtneer Professi.onal De
velopment, distributed to engineer officers last
summer. This article provides background to the
new system by explaining some of the compelling
reasons for the review and eventual revision of
our career management practices.
The task of researching the OPMS engineer of
ficer management program fe11 to a study team of
six Army War College (AWC) stud~nt.s, an Army
Research Institute analyst, Corps of Engineers
personnel officers, three engineer advance course
students and two MILPERCEN coordinators.
Acceptance of a new plan begins with the prem
ise that the existing .system needs some "adjust
ments." When OPMS was fully implemented in
1975, its major advantage was the capacity to
serve better the needs of the large density combat
arms specialties. The requirements/population


graph for some of the combat arms specialties

(Figure 1 l depicts a dramatic 1ack of "branch" po
sitions at the higher grades. Before OPMS, this
non-branch time was fairly randomly managed.
An infantry officer might spend one non-infantry
tour in the personnel business, and the next in
procurement. Such management practices did not
develop the expertise needed at the senior grades
in many of the career fields. The dual specialty
concept was instituted to sol ve this problem, and
after five years under OPMS. the system is now
mature enough to help accomodate those lower
density. more technically oriented specialites
with very different requirements/population pic
tures. A look at the distribution of engineer re
quirements reflects that at most grades there are
almost enough engineer positions to keep om en
tire inventory busy in engineer specialty jobs (see
Figure 21.
At the time these data were compiled, there
were insufficient captains to fill all the SC 21
captain requirements. The two most fundamental
reasons, then, to examine engineer personnel
management practices, were the faihrre of the
personnel system to recognize the consequences
of the under-strength engineer personnel condi
tion, and, secondly, an engineer requirements
pyramid which differed significantly from larger
density combat arms.
Addjtionally, there was concern with the ade
quacy of the present system to develop senior topENGlNEER/Wmter 81-82

ographlc experts and construction managers. The

problem in development of topographic experts
was fairly well acknowledged by those most fa
miliar with this area. Very simply, the ''system"
had not been successful in developing the number
and type of topographic experts needed at the
sentor grades. The Army generally has good offi
cers in this area, but they are amateurs in a busi
ness where their Air Force, Navy and civilian
counterparts have much more expertise.
Whether or not the system was adequately de
veloping construction managers was a controver
s ial topic. T.h e former Chief of Engineers felt very
strongly that the personnel system was remiss in
this area. He presented his position in a series of
letters to high-level decision makers last fall. An
extract from the Chief of Engineer's letter to the
Vice Chief of Staff of the Army states:
I am personally satisfied that OPMS is
trending toward not qualifying the best
engineer officers to become generals in
the Army.
Troop duty alone is not enough to be an
engineer general officer.
Except for the Commanding General,
Fort. Leonard Wood ; the Commanding
General, Fort Belvoir and the senior engi
neer in Europe, there are no general offi
cer positions for the SC 21 officers other
than the 19 who work for me CCOE ).
The present system is over-training the
best SC 21 lieutenant colonels and colo
nels m troops to the point they will either
not be qualified to serve as engineer gen
erals, or I <COE) will be asked to entrust a
peacetime constructton management pro
gram to generals who are inadequately
The Army needs engineer general offi
cers doing engineer work-this means a
proven troop commander and an experi
enced profess10nal engineer.
Another reason for the program review was
less tangible but certainly fundamental. The de
sires of key personnel decision makers sometimes
conflicted with the actual defmition of engineer
requirements as reflected in the coding require
ments documents by the field. For example. the
Chief of Engineer's views on what type officer ex
perience had proven 1ts utility to serve the Army
and the nation was sometimes different from the
assignments MILPERCEN made based on cur
rent SC 21 position coding in units and TDA ac
tivities. This conflict reve6led the lack of a recog
nized, workable strategy for developing officers
during the senior captain through lieutenant
colonel years. To use a trite phase, all the actors
in the comp lex personnel equation were not.
''playing off the same sheet of music."
Also at this ttme, organizational effectiveness
(QE ) field reports showed that, Army-wide, a neg
ative attitude toward OPMS still existed. The re
port revealed:
ENGINEER/Winter 81-82

pessimism toward the dual-track system, es

pecially among those with technicaJ academic de
a feeling among many officers that they did
not have sufficient opportunity to help chart
their careers.
rumors persil:ited and were fueled by senior
officers with antiquated information.
officers wanted more factual information
with alternatives spelled out so they could ana
lyze their career decisions.
a plea for stability in policies.







IN, AR, FA Requirements/

Population (lf l Figure 1







Requir(mentstPopulation (',

Figure 2


1980 sc 21





















l''igure 3



personnel briefers frequently presented infor

mation at a level too technical to be understood
by audiences in the field.
The OE researchers also discovered that many
officers were either unaware of the amount of ca
reer and professional development information in
the Army Times, b1ancb journals and personnel
periodicals or they failed to read them.
Through their own field visits, A WC study par
ticipants confirmed that the above pe1ceptions
generally applied to the engineer segment of the
Army population, and they remained very sensi
tive to those fmdings while developing their plan .
The new strategy had to be pragmatic enough for
all centralized decision makers to support, give
sufficient flexibility in meeting critical Army en
gineel' requirements, enhance stability by being
based on factors that were not likely to change in
this decade, and provide opportunities for officers
to share in their career management.
One factor became apparent in the early stages
of the study-the limited utility of the past expe
rience profiles of cunent senior engineer officers.
[t was no longer possible to develop our junior of
ficers to have the same general experience profile
as our serving senior engineer officers.
A review of officer record briefs (ORBs) of
serving colonels reflected a population that had
served an average of 7.1 PCS tours within the
mid-captain through lieutenant colonel window ,
These senior engineers were experienced tn
troop and construction management because they
underwent fairly frequent peacetime moves and
served in multiple positions during war. In the
1980's, however, officers are becoming stabilized.
It is estimated that engineer officers will average
about five PCS tours during the mid-captain
through lieutenant colonel window. In addition) a
professional development strategy cannot rely on
a war to produce the experience an officer corps
needs. We do not have, in our recent past, any



" peacetime-grown" engineers to contrast with our

projected 1990 engineers, so the utility of our
past experience base is limited.
A review was also needed to accomodate dra
matic changes in engineer demographic::;. Major
alterations have taken place in the areas of aca
demlc background and when engineer officers
join the specialty. A plan was needed to assimi
late the growing number of engineer officers with
academic backgrounds in non-engineer or non
physical science disciplines (Figure 3).
While the engineer specialty has always had
some officers with non-technical academic back
grounds, most of these officers were products of a
university curriculum that was heavily influ
enced by the "Sputnik era" of the 1960s. In those
days, history majors received some math and sci
ence courses as part of their core curriculum. To
day, many universities offer degrees requiring
little or no math/science background. Also today.
the competition for the limited engineer graduate
resource is becoming more intense. A recent
study conducted by the College Placement Coun
cil indicated there was a 53 percent increase in
the demand for engineers between 1978 and 1979
and that 63 percent of the jobs offered to new
college graduates went to engineering students,
While the demand for engineers ts increasing, the
supply is leveling off and is projected to decline in
the 1980s. The Army has centralized assignment
procedures to m sute that. ROTC accessions with
technical backgrounds are p1aced into engineer
ing or ordnance affiliated specialties, but, even
with the se efforts, a large number of officers
without " hard skill" degrees are given the SC 21
specialty to meet the Army's engineer require
As long as the Army pursues such a course, it
incurs a respons ibility for providing ways for ca
pable officers with a non-technical background to
progress through the system . Smce most young
ENGINEER/Winter 81-82

officers look first to their battalion commander

for career guidance, the personnel system mana
gers need to give middle managers the informa
tion that is essential for effective counseling of
energetic young officers, regardless of academic
background. A sound professional development
strategy must provide ways for non-technically
trained officers to progress based on their apti
tude and interest in technical arenas. This is not
to say opportunities will ever be equal among all
career paths for this has been, and will continue
to be. an unrealistic expectation. All the officer
co1ps really asks is that opportunities for prog
ress be reasonable in multip1e career tracks.
A second demographics transition is the extent
to which officers join the SC 21 specialty later in
their careers. In the foreseeable future, almost
four-of-10 engineer officers will acquire SC 21 as
an additional <late entry) specialty. This is neces
s ary to fill the extensive field grade engineer re
quirements which cannot be met fTom the avail
able company grade accession (initial entry )
SC 21 population <Figure 4).
Until year group (YQ} 73 was gwen their added
specialty designations, the SC 21 population was
about 95 percent initial-entry engineers. Howev
er, this YG population had dwindled to only 155
officers so, to aid in meeting t.he SC 21 field grade
needs, an additional 125 YG 73 officers (most
from the combat arms) were given a late-entry
specialty of SC 21. Population mix projections
show a sizeable portion of our engmeer family
will continue to join the SC 21 specialty at the
late-entry point.
With the advent of this large influx of late-entry
engineers, the engineer community must work
together to assist them in the assimilation proc
ess. The long-term welfare of the entire engineer
population will be s ignificantly affected by bow
well this assimilation takes place.
Finally, we needed to dispel the notion that the
onl y "success" model was troop asignmeots, bat

lalion command attendance at senior service

college and serving as a district engineer. As field
grade command tour lengt.hs increase (based on
the February 8, 1979 Chief of Staff of the Army
(CSA l decision) the opportunities to command
and to follow the traditional ''success" track be
come increasingly diminished. Future engineer
growth plans must ensure ways for success other
than solely via the command route. The credjbiJi
ty of these other tracks will be established with
the results of future promotion boards. Recent
CSA decisions to promote by specialty with floors
to lieutenant colonel and minimum Ooor-s for sen
ior service college selections, will. in time, pro
vtde the evidence needed to show there are non
command career options leading to colonel and
general officer grades.
Taken all together, these considerations were
determined to be sufficient to require changes in
how we do business.
Future articles in ENGINEER will addres!l
how the transition to the new plan will be accom
plished ov e r the next two years and progress
made during the implementation phase.
During implementation, there are many key
participants. Decision makers must provide their
continued support, and the engineer chain-of
command must become proficient in counseling
younger officers on their options under the new
system . MILPERCEN assignment practices must
conform with the parameters for mid and late
career development utilization. And, finally, each
of us must determine our own interests and aspi
rations, then mform our personnel assignment
counterparts in MILPERCEN .
Lt Col. C.H. Dunn Jr. commands th e 2nd ln
f'antry Divi.c;ion's 2nd Engineer Battalion . When
this article was turttten, he served as career pro
grnm manager fo r specialty cndes 21 & 22







(::: 45%)




Figu re 4

ENGINEER/Winter 81-82


ft Career Notes

Enlisted career a d visors

waiting to hear fro m you
MJLPERCEN's Enlisted Engi
neer Career Branch can answer
your questions on future assign
ments, schools, promotions and
career goals in general.
Assigned to the branch be
cause of their extensive back
ground in a wide variety of en
gineer assignments, engineer
career advisors confer with per
sonnel management specialists
to insure that every soldier is
properly assigned in line with
professional development goals.
If vou are in Career Manage
ment Field CCMF> 8l, an E-7tP>
or E-8 in CMF 12 or a drill ser
geant at Fort Leonard Wood,
contact SFC AI Henderson. SFC
Billy Moore handles CMF 51,
and SFC Robert Ford CMF 12.
at (202>
325-7710 /1/ 2 or Autovon
221-7710/1/2; or write the Mili
tary Personnel Center, ATTN:
DAPC-EPL-E, 2461 Eisenhower
Ave., AJexandria, VA 22331.

Officer 'dream s h eets'

are comp uterized
Preference statements for
officers managed by the Officer
Personnel Management Direc
torate will soon be stored in the
Army's computerized Officer
MlLPERCEN officials recently
Data is entered into the OMF
and assignment personnel com
pares officers' preferences with
Army requirements via comput
er. Assignment officers now re~
v1ew paper copies of officer pref
erence statements.
Although the capability for
storing data became available
in October, the Army wont be
gin feeding information into the
OMF until January, to allow of
ficers lime to review their cur
rent preference statements and
submit changes if necessary.


Preference statements may be

updated whenever an officer so
desires, however guidelines in
AR 614-100 encourage updat
ing preference statements abouL
12 months before completing an
overseas tour; about one year
after reporting to a CONUS
service school: or within 60 days
of beginning a course at a CO
NUS service school during a
permanent change of station, a
civilian school, or trainjng with
mdul'ltry. <ARNEWS)

New DA circu lar

helpful at re~ u p time
When a soli der considers
reclassification or reenlistment
out of an MOS. things like pro
motion potential and profes
sional development should be
carefully considered before
making a final decision.
DA Circular 611-81-4, Ca
reer Management of the Enlisted
Forces, now makes selecting a
new MOS easier by listing the
Atmy's needs for enlisted sol
diers by grade and MOS, r ather
than by years of service CYOS).
In addition , Appendix A
shows the entry/exit 1"lnJOut")
status of a soldier's current and
potential MOS, with the Army's
needs reflected by codes "Y"
lyesJ, ''N" !no) and "NA" (no au
'T'he new system should help
align MOS strength with Army
requirements and assist in the
professional development of en
listed soliders, MILP.ERCEN of
ficials say.

Deep sea divers

wanted b y Cor ps
Deep sea divers are urgently
needed by the Corps of Engi
neers, M1LPERCEN reports. If
you're looking for a new chal
lenge, this may be it.
E-:l through E-4 volunteers
under 30 years old are being ac

cepted !to the 12-week t'ourse.

Additionally, applicants must
have a minimum of 21 months
service remaining upon gradua
lion, score at least 250 on the
basic combat physical proficien~
cy test, have a GM score of at
least 100, a GT scor e of at least
110 and swi.m 300 yards using
the side or breast stroke in
eight minutes 30 seconds.
Applicants attend the Navy's
Second Class Divers Course at
Panama City, Fla., and can ex
pect assignments to Forl
Belvoir, Va., Fort Eustis , Va. ,
or Pohang, Korea.
SFC Billy Moore , AV
221-7710, can answer questions
about the program and help you
complete DA Form 4187 (avail
able at your local PAC) to vol
unteer for training in MOS OOB.
S upreme Cou rt decision
may effect reservists
A recent U.S. Supreme Court
decision, Monroe us. Standard
Oil ol Ohio. may effect some re~
Monroe's Army reserve duties
regularly conflicted with his
shift work assignments at a
Standard Oil refinery . While
Standard OiJ did not refuse
Monroe time off for drills, de
mote him or deprive him of
vacation time, seniority or other
benefits, the oil company would
not adjust Monroe's work so he
could put in a full schedule dur
ing pay periods that he also had
reserve duty
The law says a firm cannot
deprive a worker of any "inci
dent or advantage of employ
ment because of any obligation
as a member of a reserve compo
nent of the Armed Forces."
Though Monroe be l ieved a
40-hour week was ''an incident
or advantage of employment,"
Standard Oil did not.
The Supreme Court ruled in
favor of Standard Oil.

ENGINEER/ Winter 81- 82