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https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hibiscus

Hibiscus
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

For other uses, see Hibiscus (disambiguation).


Hibiscus (/hbsks/[2] or /habsks/[3]) is a genus of flowering
plants in the mallow family, Malvaceae. It is quite large, containing
several hundred species that are native to warm-temperate,
subtropical and tropical regions throughout the world. Member
species are often noted for their showy flowers and are commonly
known simply as hibiscus, or less widely known as rose mallow. The
genus includes both annual and perennial herbaceous plants, as well
as woody shrubs and small trees. The generic name is derived from
the Greek word (hibskos), which was the name Pedanius
Dioscorides (ca. 4090) gave to Althaea officinalis.[4]

Hibiscus

Contents
1 Description
2 Uses
2.1 Symbolism and culture
2.2 Landscaping
2.3 Paper
2.4 Beverage
2.5 Food
2.6 Health benefits
3 Precautions and contraindications
3.1 Pregnancy and lactation
3.2 Contraindications
4 Adverse effects
4.1 Drug interactions
5 Species
5.1 Formerly placed here
6 Photos
7 References
8 External links

Hibiscus rosa-sinensis

Scientific classification
Kingdom:

Plantae

(unranked):

Angiosperms

(unranked):

Eudicots

(unranked):

Rosids

Order:

Malvales

Family:

Malvaceae

Subfamily:

Malvoideae

Tribe:

Hibisceae

Genus:

Hibiscus
L.

Description

Species
The leaves are alternate, ovate to lanceolate, often with a toothed or
lobed margin. The flowers are large, conspicuous, trumpet-shaped,
with five or more petals, color from white to pink, red, orange, purple
or yellow, and from 418 cm broad. Flower color in certain species,
such as H. mutabilis and H. tiliaceus, changes with age.[5] The fruit is
a dry five-lobed capsule, containing several seeds in each lobe, which
are released when the capsule dehisces (splits open) at maturity. It is
of red and white colours. It is an example of complete flowers.

232 species
Synonyms
Bombycidendron Zoll. & Moritzi
Bombycodendron Hassk.
Brockmania W.Fitzg.

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Uses

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hibiscus

Pariti Adans.
Wilhelminia Hochr.[1]

Symbolism and culture


The hibiscus is the national flower of Haiti and is used in their
national tourism slogan of Hati: Experience It![6][7] The Hibiscus
species also represents several other nations. The Hibiscus syriacus is
the national flower of South Korea, and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis is the
national flower of Malaysia. The red hibiscus is the flower of the
Hindu goddess Kali, and appears frequently in depictions of her in the
art of Bengal, India, often with the goddess and the flower merging in
form. The hibiscus is used as an offering to goddess Kali and Lord
Ganesha in Hindu worship. [8]
In the Philippines, the gumamela (local name for hibiscus) is used by
children as part of a bubble-making pastime. The flowers and leaves
are crushed until the sticky juices come out. Hollow papaya stalks are
then dipped into this and used as straws for blowing bubbles.
The hibiscus flower is traditionally worn by Tahitian and Hawaiian
girls. If the flower is worn behind the left ear, the woman is married
or in a relationship. If the flower is worn on the right, she is single or
openly available for a relationship. The hibiscus is Hawaii's state
flower.

A white Hibiscus arnottianus in


Hawaii.

Nigerian author Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie named her first novel


Purple Hibiscus after the delicate flower.
The bark of the hibiscus contains strong bast fibres that can be
obtained by letting the stripped bark set in the sea to let the organic
material rot away.

Landscaping

Hibiscus hirtus

Many species are grown for their showy flowers or used as landscape
shrubs, and are used to attract butterflies, bees, and hummingbirds. [9]

Paper
One species of Hibiscus, known as kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus), is
extensively used in paper-making.
A pink hibiscus in winter.

Beverage
Main article: Hibiscus tea
The tea made of hibiscus flowers is known by many names in many countries around the world and is served
both hot and cold. The beverage is well known for its color, tanginess and flavor.
It is known as bissap in West Africa, "Gul e Khatmi" in Urdu & Persian, agua de jamaica in Mexico and
Honduras (the flower being flor de jamaica) and gudhal () in India. Some refer to it as roselle, a
common name for the hibiscus flower. In Jamaica, Trinidad and many other islands in the Caribbean, the
drink is known as sorrel (Hibiscus sabdariffa; not to be confused with Rumex acetosa, a species sharing the
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common name sorrel). In Ghana, the drink is known as soobolo in


one of the local languages.
In Cambodia, a cold beverage can be prepared by first steeping the
petals in hot water until the colors are leached from the petals, then
adding lime juice (which turns the beverage from dark brown/red to a
bright red), sweeteners (sugar/honey) and finally cold water/ice
cubes.
In Egypt, Sudan and the Arab world, hibiscus tea is known as
karkad (), and is served as both a hot and a cold drink.
Hibiscus lobatus

Food
Dried hibiscus is edible, and it is often a delicacy in Mexico. It can
also be candied and used as a garnish.[10]
The roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) is used as a vegetable. The species
Hibiscus suratensis Linn synonymous to Hibiscus aculeatus G. Don is
noted in Visayas Philippines being a souring ingredient for almost all
local vegetables and menus. Known as Labog in the Visayan area, (or
Labuag/Sapinit in Tagalog), the species is a very good ingredient in
cooking native chicken soup.
Hibiscus species are used as food plants by the larvae of some
Lepidopteran species, including Chionodes hibiscella, Hypercompe
hambletoni, the nutmeg moth, and the turnip moth.

Hibiscus hispidissimus (Wild


Hibiscus)

Health benefits
The tea is popular as a natural diuretic; it contains vitamin C and
minerals, and is used traditionally as a mild medicine. Polyphenol
compounds were discovered in the leaves of Hibiscus sabdariffa,
which has also shown anti-inflammatory activities. [11]

Hibiscus bud

Hibiscus stigma

A 2008 USDA study shows consuming hibiscus tea lowers blood


pressure in a group of prehypertensive and mildly hypertensive
adults. Three cups of tea daily resulted in an average drop of 8.1
mmHg in their systolic blood pressure, compared to a 1.3 mmHg drop
in the volunteers who drank the placebo beverage. Study participants
with higher blood pressure readings (129 or above) had a greater
response to hibiscus tea: their systolic blood pressure went down by
13.2 mmHg. These data support the idea that drinking hibiscus tea in
an amount readily incorporated into the diet may play a role in
controlling blood pressure, although more research is required. [12]
Studies have demonstrated the anti-hypertensive effects of H.
sabdariffa in both humans and animals.[13] It has been proposed that
the antihypertensive effects of H. sabdariffa is due to its angiotensinconverting enzyme inhibiting activity.[14] In a randomized, controlled
clinical trial involving 39 patients with mild to moderate
hypertension, Captopril was compared to an extract of H. sabdariffa
for antihypertensive effects. Subjects taking an extract of

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H.sabdariffa, consumed daily before breakfast for four weeks, found


reduction in blood pressure similar to Captopril.[15] Another
randomized, placebo clinical trial involving 54 study participants with
moderate hypertension demonstrated a reduction in both systolic and
diastolic blood pressure. However upon discontinuation of treatment,
both systolic and diastolic blood pressures were subsequently
elevated.[16]
Hibiscus rosa-sinensis has a number of medical uses in Chinese
herbology.[17] Sidram A. et al. their research indicates some potential
in cosmetic skin care; for example, an extract from the flowers of
Hibiscus rosa- sinensis has been shown to function as an anti-solar
agent by absorbing ultraviolet radiation.[18]
In the Indian traditional system of medicine, Ayurveda, hibiscus,
especially white hibiscus and red hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis), is
considered to have medicinal properties. The roots are used to make
various concoctions believed to cure ailments such as cough, hair loss
Close up of hibiscus center
or hair greying. As a hair treatment, the flowers are boiled in oil along
with other spices to make a medicated hair oil. The leaves and
flowers are ground into a fine paste with a little water, and the resulting lathery paste is used as a shampoo
plus conditioner.
Hibiscus tea also contains bioflavonoids, which are believed to help prevent an increase in LDL cholesterol,
which can increase the buildup of plaque in the arteries. [19]
A previous animal study demonstrated the effects of H.sabdariffa extract on atherosclerosis in rabbits.
Notably, a reduction in triglyceride, cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein was observed in rabbits
consuming a high cholesterol diet (HCD) in addition to H.sabdariffa extract compared to rabbits only fed
HCD, suggesting a beneficial effect.[20] Furthermore, the H. sabdariffa seed is abundant in phytosterol and
tocopherol, plant forms of cholesterol that have antioxidant and LDL cholesterol lowering effects.[21]

Precautions and contraindications


Pregnancy and lactation
While the mechanism is not well understood, previous animal studies have demonstrated both an inhibitory
effect of H. sabdariffa on muscle tone and the anti-fertility effects of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, respectively.
[22][23] The extract of H. sabdariffa has been shown to stimulate contraction of the rat bladder and uterus; [22]
the H.rosa-sinensis extract has exhibited contraceptive effects in the form of estrogen activity in rats.[23]
These findings have not been observed in humans. The Hibiscus rosa-sinensis is also thought to have
emmenagogue effects which can stimulate menstruation and, in some women, cause an abortion.[24][25][26]
Due to the documented adverse effects in animal studies and the reported pharmacological properties, the H.
sabdariffa and H.rosa-sinensis are not recommended for use during pregnancy.[26] Additionally, they are not
recommended while breastfeeding due to the lack of reliable information on its safety and use.

Contraindications

Adverse effects
Drug interactions
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It is postulated that H. sabdariffa interacts with diclofenac, chloroquine and acetaminophen by altering the
pharmacokinetics. In healthy human volunteers, the H. sabdariffa extract was found to reduce the excretion
of diclofenac upon co-administration.[27] Additionally, co-administration of Karkade (H. sabdariffa), a
common Sudanese beverage, was found to reduce chloroquine bioavailability.[28] However, no statistically
significant changes were observed in the pharmacokinetics of acetaminophen when administered with the
Zobo (H.sabdariffa) drink.[29] Further studies are needed to demonstrate clinical significance.

Species
In temperate zones, probably the most commonly grown ornamental species is Hibiscus syriacus, the
common garden hibiscus, also known in some areas as the "Rose of Althea" or "Rose of Sharon" (but not to
be confused with the unrelated Hypericum calycinum, also called "Rose of Sharon"). In tropical and
subtropical areas, the Chinese hibiscus (H. rosa-sinensis), with its many showy hybrids, is the most popular
hibiscus.
Several hundred species are known, including:
Hibiscis acapulcensis
Hibiscus acetosella Welw. ex Hiern.False
Roselle
Hibiscus acicularis
Hibiscus aculeatusComfortroot
Hibiscus altissimus
Hibiscus andongensis
Hibiscus angolensis
Hibiscus aponeurus[30]
Hibiscus archeriArcher's Hibiscus
Hibiscus aridicola
Hibiscus arnottianus A.GrayKokio ula
(Hawaii)
Hibiscus asperBush Roselle
Hibiscus austroyunnanensis
Hibiscus barbosae
Hibiscus benguellensis
Hibiscus berberidifolius
Hibiscus bernieri
Hibiscus bifurcatusFork-bracted Rosemallow
Hibiscus biseptusArizona Rosemallow
Hibiscus bojerianus
Hibiscus boryanusFoulsapate Marron
Hibiscus brackenridgei A.GrayHawaiian
hibiscus Mao hau hele
Hibiscus burtt-davyi
Hibiscus caerulescens
Hibiscus caesiusDark-eyed Hibiscus (South
Africa)
Hibiscus calyphyllusLemonyellow
Rosemallow (Tropical Africa)
Hibiscus cameroniiCameron's Hibiscus, Pink
Hibiscus

Hibiscus genevii Bojer (Mauritius)


Hibiscus gilletii
Hibiscus gossweileri
Hibiscus grandidieri
Hibiscus grandiflorus Michx.Swamp
rosemallow (Southeastern United States)
Hibiscus grandistipulatus
Hibiscus grewiifolius
Hibiscus hamabo
Hibiscus hastatus
Hibiscus heterophyllusNative rosella
Hibiscus hirtusLesser Mallow
Hibiscus hispidissimus
Hibiscus huellensis
Hibiscus hybridus
Hibiscus indicus
Hibiscus insularis Endl.Phillip Island hibiscus
(Phillip Island)
Hibiscus integrifolius
Hibiscus jaliscensis
Hibiscus kochii
Hibiscus kokioRed Rosemallow
Hibiscus labordei
Hibiscus laevis All. (=H. militaris)Halberdleaved rosemallow (central and eastern North
America)
Hibiscus lasiocarposWoolly Rosemallow
Hibiscus lasiococcus
Hibiscus lavaterioides
Hibiscus laxiflorus
Hibiscus leptocladus ([Northwest Australia])
Hibiscus leviseminus
Hibiscus lilacinusLilac Hibiscus

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Hibiscus cannabinus L.Kenaf


Hibiscus castroi
Hibiscus cisplatinusRosa Del Rio
Hibiscus citrinusHibiscus clayi O.Deg. & I.Deg.Hawaiian red
hibiscus (Hawaii)
Hibiscus clypeatusCongo Mahoe
Hibiscus coccineus (Medik.) WalterScarlet
Rosemallow
Hibiscus colimensis
Hibiscus columnarisMahot Rempart
Hibiscus comoensis
Hibiscus congestiflorus
Hibiscus costatus
Hibiscus coulteriDesert Rosemallow
Hibiscus cuanzensis
Hibiscus dasycalyxNeches River
Rosemallow
Hibiscus denudatus Benth.Pale Face
(Southwestern United States, Northwestern
Mexico)
Hibiscus dimidiatus
Hibiscus dioscorides A.G.Mill. (Yemen)
Hibiscus diplocrater
Hibiscus diriffan A.G.Mill. (Yemen)
Hibiscus diversifoliusSwamp Hibiscus
Hibiscus dongolensis
Hibiscus donianus
Hibiscus elatusMahoe
Hibiscus elegans
Hibiscus engleriWild Hibiscus
Hibiscus escobariae
Hibiscus excellii
Hibiscus ferrugineus
Hibiscus ficalhoanus
Hibiscus flavoroseus
Hibiscus fragilis DC.Mandrinette (Mascarene
Islands)
Hibiscus fragrans
Hibiscus fritzscheae
Hibiscus furcellatus Desr.Lindenleaf
rosemallow (Caribbean, Florida, Central
America, South America, Hawaii)
Hibiscus fugosioides
Hibiscus furcellatusSalad Hibiscus
Hibiscus fuscus

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hibiscus

Hibiscus liliiflorusRodrigues Tree Hibiscus


Hibiscus longifolius
Hibiscus longisepalus
Hibiscus ludwigii
Hibiscus lunariifolius
Hibiscus macrogonus
Hibiscus macrophyllusLargeleaf Rosemallow
Hibiscus macropodus
Hibiscus makinoiOkinawan Hibiscus
Hibiscus malacophyllus Balf.f. (Yemen)
Hibiscus malacospermus
Hibiscus martianusHeartleaf Rosemallow
Hibiscus moscheutos Welw. ex Hiern.
Crimsoneyed Rosemallow (Central and
Eastern North America)
Hibiscus mutabilis L.Cotton Rosemallow,
Confederate Rose (East Asia)
Hibiscus paramutabilis
Hibiscus pedunculatus
Hibiscus pernambucensisSeaside Mahoe
Hibiscus phoeniceusBrazilian Rosemallow
Hibiscus platanifolius
Hibiscus quattenensis
Hibiscus poeppigiiPoeppig's Rosemallow
Hibiscus radiatusMonarch Rosemallow
Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L.Chinese hibiscus
(East Asia)
Hibiscus sabdariffa L.Roselle, Omutete, or
Sorrel
Hibiscus schizopetalusFringed Rosemallow
Hibiscus scottii
Hibiscus socotranus
Hibiscus sinosyriacus
Hibiscus splendens
Hibiscus stenanthus Balf.f. (Yemen)
Hibiscus striatusStriped Rosemallow
Hibiscus syriacus L. (Type species)Rose of
Sharon (Asia)
Hibiscus tiliaceus L.Sea hibiscus (Australia,
Southeast Asia, Oceania)
Hibiscus trilobusThreelobe Rosemallow
Hibiscus trionum L.Flower-of-an-Hour
Hibiscus vitifoliusTropical Rose Mallow
Hibiscus waimeae A.HellerKokio keokeo
(Hawaii)

Formerly placed here

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Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench (as H.


esculentus L.)
Abelmoschus ficulneus (L.) Wight & Arn. (as H.
ficulneus L.)
Abelmoschus manihot subsp. manihot (as H.
manihot L.)
Abelmoschus manihot var. pungens (Roxb.) Hochr.
(as H. pungens Roxb.)
Abelmoschus manihot var. tetraphyllus (Roxb. ex
Hornem.) Borss. Waalk. (as H. tetraphyllus Roxb. ex
Hornem.)
Abelmoschus moschatus subsp. moschatus (as
H. abelmoschus L.)
Abelmoschus moschatus subsp. tuberosus (Span.)
Borss. Waalk. (as H. sagittifolius Kurz)
Alyogyne cuneiformis (DC.) Lewton (as H.
cuneiformis DC.)
Alyogyne hakeifolia (Giord.) Alef. (as H.
hakeifolius Giord.)
Alyogyne huegelii (Endl.) Fryxell (as H. wrayae
Lindl.)
Alyogyne pinoniana (Gaudich.) Fryxell (as H.
pinonianus Gaudich.)

Firmiana simplex (L.) W.Wight (as H. simplex L.)


Lagunaria patersonia subsp. patersonia (as H.
patersonius Andrews)
Kosteletzkya adoensis (Hochst. ex A. Rich.) Mast.
(as H. adoensis Hochst. ex A.Rich.)
Kosteletzkya pentacarpos (L.) Ledeb. (as H.
pentacarpos L.)
Kosteletzkya tubiflora (DC.) Blanch. & McVaugh (as
H. tubiflorus DC.)
Kosteletzkya virginica (L.) C.Presl ex A.Gray (as H.
virginicus L.)
Pavonia arabica Hochst. & Steud. ex Boiss. (as H.
flavus Forssk.)
Pavonia spinifex (L.) Cav. (as H. spinifex L.)
Radyera farragei (F.Muell.) Fryxell & S.H.Hashmi
(as H. farragei F.Muell.)
Thespesia lampas (Cav.) Dalzell (as H. lampas
Cav.)
Thespesia populnea (L.) Sol. ex Corra (as H.
populneoides Roxb. or H. populneus L.)[31]

Photos

A yellow hibiscus in
Houston.

Hibiscus Flower

Hibiscus flower in
Waikiki, Hawaii

Hibiscus Flower

A hibiscus, showing
pistil and stamens

Hibiscus rosa-sinensis,
Mallorca.

Hibiscus Flower

Hibiscus

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Hibiscus from Kerala,


India

Orange coloured
hibiscus

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hibiscus

MultiLayer Yellow
hibiscus Velachery

Hibiscus syriacus

Pink and white hibiscus

Hibiscus furcellatus

White
hibiscus with
pink touch

Yellow hibiscus

Yellow hibiscus
with red

All white hibiscus in


Karnal

Hibiscus
moscheutos

Hibiscus Brilliant

Hibiscus in Bhopal

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At left, a flower emerges from a bud.


At right, the same flower less than 18
hours later.

Hibiscus syriacus in
Bensheim.

Hibiscus splendens, a rainforest


plant from eastern Australia.

Red-layered hibiscus in
Trivandrum

Hibiscus from Kerala, India

Hibiscus
schizopetalus
flower in
Trivandrum,
Kerala, India.

Red hibiscus in Alicante.

Hardy Giant Hibiscus

Tricolor hibiscus in
Malaysia

Red hibiscus : The National


Flower of Malaysia

Pink hibiscus in Malaysia


Hibiscus from Kerala, India

Hibiscus from Kerala, India

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Hibiscus from La
Fortuna, Costa Rica

A hibiscus at the
United States Botanic
Garden located in
Washington, D.C

References
1. "Genus: Hibiscus L". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture.
2007-10-05. Retrieved 2010-02-16.
2. Oxford English Dictionary
3. Sunset Western Garden Book, 1995:606607
4. Lawton, Barbara Perry (2004). Hibiscus: Hardy and Tropical Plants for the Garden. Timber Press. p. 36.
ISBN 978-0-88192-654-5.
5. Lee, David Webster (2007). Nature's Palette: the Science of Plant Color. University of Chicago Press. p. 183.
ISBN 978-0-226-47052-8.
6. CIA World Factbook: National Symbols (https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields
/2230.html)
7. Embassy of the Republic of Haiti: The National Flower of Haiti (http://www.embassyofhaiti-rsa.org/index.php
/haiti/general-info/national-symbols/30-the-national-flower-of-haiti)
8. CIA World Factbook: National Symbols (http://www.embassyofhaiti-rsa.org/index.php/haiti/general-info/nationalsymbols/30-the-national-flower-of-haiti)
9. Floridata: Plants That Attract Butterflies (http://www.floridata.com/lists/butterfly_plants.cfm)
10. Nation's Restaurant News: Hibiscus blossoms as a food, drink ingredient (http://www.nrn.com
/landingPage.aspx?menu_id=1380&coll_id=616&id=375762)
11. Zhen, Jing, Thomas S. Villani, Yue Guo, Yadong Qi, Kit Chin, Min-Hsiung Pan, Chi-Tang Ho, James E. Simon,
and Qingli Wu. "Phytochemistry, antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content and anti-inflammatory activity of
Hibiscus sabdariffa leaves." Food chemistry 190 (2016): 673-680.http://www.researchgate.net/publication
/277956385_Phytochemistry_antioxidant_capacity_total_phenolic_content_and_antiinflammatory_activity_of_Hibiscus_sabdariffa_leaves
12. Study Shows Consuming Hibiscus Tea Lowers Blood Pressure (http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/pr/2008/081110.htm)
(accessed 05/10/2009)
13. Ali BH, Al Wabel N & Blunden G. Phytochemical, pharmacological and toxicological aspects of Hibiscus
sabdariffa L.: a review. Phytother Res.19(5): 369-375. (2005)
14. D. Ojeda et al. Inhibition of angiotensin convertin enzyme (ACE) activity by the anthocyanins delphinidin- and
cyaniding-3-O-sambubiosides from Hibiscus sabdariffa. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 127: 7-10. (2010)
15. A. Herrera-Arellano et al. Effectiveness and tolerability of a standardized extract from H. sabdariffa in patients
with mild to moderate hypertension: a controlled and randomized clinical trial. Phytomedicine. 11: 375-382.
(2004)
16. M.Haji faraji & A.H. Haji Tarkhani. The effect of sour tea (Hibiscus sabdariffa) on essential hypertension. Journal
of Ethnopharmacology. 65: 231-236. (1999)
17. Plants for a Future: Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Hibiscus+rosasinensis). (accessed 07/05/2009)
18. Nevade Sidram A., Sachin G. Lokapure and N.V. Kalyane. 2011. Study on anti-solar activity of ehanolic extract of
flower of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn (http://www.rjptonline.org/RJPT/RJPT_4_3_2011_Abstract.pdf). Research
Journal of Pharmacy and Technology 4(3): 472473.
19. http://www.poundoftea.com/benefits-of-hibiscus-flower-tea/
20. C.C.Chen et al. Hibiscus sabdariffa Extract Inhibits the Development of Atherosclerosis in Cholesterol-Fed
Rabbits. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 51: 5472-5477. (2003)
21. R. Mohamed et al. Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) Seed Oil Is a Rich Source of Tocopherol. Journal of Food

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Science. 72(3): 2007-211. (2007)


22. A.M.Fouda, M.Y.Daba & G.M. Dahab. Inhibitory effects of aqueous extracts of Hibiscus sabdariffa on
contractility of the rat bladder and uterus. Can.J.Physiol.Pharmacol. 85:1020-1031. (2007)
23. N.Vasudeva & S.K.Sharma. Post-Coital Antifertility Activity of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn.roots. Evid Based
Complement Alternat Med. 5(1): 91-94. (2008)
24. H.J.de Boer & C.Cotingting. Medicinal plants for womens healthcare in Southeast Asia: a meta-analysis of their
traditional use, chemical constituents, and pharmacology. J Ethnopharmacol. 151(2): 747-767. (2014)
25. Ali BH, Al Wabel N & Blunden G. Phytochemical, pharmacological and toxicological aspects of Hibiscus
sabdariffa L.: a review. Phytother Res.19(5): 369-375.(2005)
26. E.Ernst. Herbal medicinal products during pregnancy: are they safe? Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 109: 227-235. (2002)
27. T.O. Fakeye et al. Effects of Water Extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa, Linn (Malvaceae) Roselle on Excretion of a
Diclofenac Formulation. Phytotherapy Research. 21: 96-98 (2007)
28. B.M. Mahmoud et al. Significant reduction in chloroquine bioavailability following coadministration with the
Sudanese beverages Aradaib, Karkadi and Lemon. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. 33: 10051009 (1994)
29. J.A.Kolawole & A.Maduenyi. Effect of Zobo drink (Hibiscus sabdariffa water extract) on the pharmacokinetics of
acetaminophen in human volunteers. Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 29(1): 25-29. (2004)
30. Bussmann, R. W., et al. (2006). Plant use of the Maasai of Sekenani Valley, Maasai Mara, Kenya.
(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1475560/) J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 2 22.
31. "GRIN Species Records of Hibiscus". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of
Agriculture. Retrieved 2011-02-10.

External links
American Hibiscus Society (AHS)
Wikimedia Commons has
(http://www.americanhibiscus.org/)
media related to Hibiscus.
Australian Hibiscus Society
(http://www.australianhibiscus.com/)
Wikispecies has
International Hibiscus Society
information related to:
(http://www.internationalhibiscussociety.org/)
Hibiscus
Foundation for Revitalisation of Local Health Traditions
(http://envis.frlht.org/plant_details.php?disp_id=1134&parname=0/)
Dressler, S.; Schmidt, M. & Zizka, G. (2014). "Hibiscus". African plants a Photo Guide.
Frankfurt/Main: Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg.
Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Hibiscus&oldid=682146247"
Categories: Hibiscus Flowers Medicinal plants National symbols of Haiti
This page was last modified on 21 September 2015, at 20:42.
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29.9.2015 14:09