Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 146

. .

S - 1 0

1982

81.2-9
0 -7 8



. .
. .
. .
. . , . ,
5432
03.03.82. 19.08.82. 8410872. . .
2. . . . . . . 7,56. . . . 7,69.
.-. . 7,62. 100 000 . 6931. 20 .

,
.
. 3- . 41.

.1
. . ,
.
153628, . , . , 6.

0 -78

.

.
, 1982,

.
: , . .
8 10 . , . .:
144 .

, 810
,
,
.

;

.

4306021500-752
103(03)-82

81. 2-9
4()(075)

, 1982 .

CONTENTS

P art One
1. Holiday Time for Young P io n e e rs .............................................
2. An English Social .
.....................................................................
3. Festive Processions............................................................................
4. Joining the Komsomol......................................................................
5. The Right to H o u sin g ......................................................................
6. Climate and a Talk About the W e a th e r .....................................
7. Seasons Are Not Only G e o g ra p h y .............................................
8. Animals and O urselves....................................................................
9. Theres a Time for All Things .................................................
10. Meals in B r ita in ...............................................................................
11. Buying in a Department S t o r e .....................................................
12. The Homeland of Some Sports and G a m e s ............................
13. Hiking Is a Good T h in g .................................................................
14. Cycling and S ta m p s ........................................................................
15. You Can Get Anywhere by B u s .....................................................
16. Travelling by R a i l .........................................................................
17. Waters as H ig h w ay s........................................................................
18. Theres Nothing Like Travelling by A i r ...................................
19. Examinations Are Not a L o tte r y .................................................
20. Occupations, Trades, P ro fessio n s.................................................

7
9
11
13
15
17
20
2J
24
25
28
31
33
35
37
39
41
44
46
48

P a rt Two
1. Museums of Glorious History , ^ ..............................................
2* Celebrating A nniversaries................................................................
3. Where Books Are Kept for U s e .................................................
4. The Soviet P r e s s ...............................................................................
5. SubbotnikLabour S a tu r d a y .........................................................
6. Respect a Man, He Will Do the More ................................
7. Talking Across O c e a n s....................................................................
8. British H o m e s....................................................................................
9. Practice in Housekeeping ............................................................
10. T id in e s s................................................................................................
11. The Weekly W a sh in g .......................................................................
12. W a s h in g - U p .......................................................................................
13. Everyday Services for A l l ...............................................................
14. Tailors in Proverbs and in Tailor S h o p s ......................................
15. The Kitchen Is an Important P l a c e .............................................
16. Dont Forget Your M a n n e rs.........................................................
17. Paying a V i s i t ...................................................................................
18. Medicines and H e a lth .......................................................................
19. A Motor T o u r ....................................................................................
20. Will You Go to the Z o o ...................................................................

56
58
60
62
64
66
67
70
72
74
75
77
79
,82
83
85
87
88
91
93

P art Three
1, From the History of the K om som ol.........................................
2ft Voting for Communist and Non-Party Bloc
........................
3. Foreign Languages? Thats G o o d l.............................................
4. The City of W ashington..................................................................
5. The Industrial Heart of E n g la n d .................................................
6. Agriculture in B r i t a i n ....................................................................
7. An Island in a Stormy S e a ...........................................................
8. An Upside-Down W o r ld .................................................................
9. Yuri Gagarin About H im s e lf ....................................................
10. Holding a M e etin g ............................................................................
11. Everything Must Be Beautiful in a Person ........................
12. Personal Interests Are N u m ero u s.............................................
13. Art Is P o w e r.......................................................................................
14. Radio and Television in B r ita in ...................................................
15. Having Fun at the C ir c u s .............................................................
16. A Wonder of the Modern W o r ld .................................................
17. Public Holidays in Britain and in the U S A .............................
18. Getting a Letter to Your D o o r .....................................................
19. Over the T elep h o n e .........................................................................
20. How Interesting Are Your L e tte r s ? .........................................
.............................................................................

100
102
104
106
107
108
Ill
113
116
118
120
122
125
127
130
132
134
136
138
141
144

!
, ,
, .
.
, , ,
:
,
,
, ,
;
-, , ,
, -
.
,

.
,
, .
,
. ,
, ,
,. ,
,
, , -,
, , -,

.
,
.
,
. ( , ,
.
.)
.
,
.

.
, - .
. ,
, ,
? ,
: ,
.
-
, , . ,
,
- .
,
: ?
,
, . ?
. - ...

.
, , .
, . , .

, -.
, P unic wars
, - ,
. : H annibal was famous
general in N orth Africa. He led a great arm y and achieved
m any victories in Europe. There were m any elephants in his
arm y. They carried arm ed soldiers and helped them to fight.
The elephants were very useful in battles. ,

. ,
. ,
.
.
,
,
.
, , - ,
. :
- ,
.

PART ONE

1. HO LIDAY TIME FOR YOUNG PIONEERS


H ave you ever been to a Pioneer Camp? We hope you have,
b u t if you h av en t, you have heard a lot about w hat Pioneer
Camps are and w hat young pioneers do there.
R ead about th e subject in E nglish now and see w hat you
can add to it.
W hen sum m er comes, m ost young pioneers go to Young
Pioneer Camps.
T he camps are situ ated on th e shores of lakes, near rivers,
in woods or by th e seaside. The boys and girls bathe, lie in
th e sun and go in for sports. There are also hobby clubs
which they can join if they w ant to. If they are interested
in m usic, handicrafts, m odelling, photography, acting or
dancing they will find a club to suit them .^
For those children in cities and towns, who do not go away
to a camp in sum m er, there are local day camps and childrens
playgrounds. These children go picnicking 5 in the country
for th e day, or they go swim m ing and in the evening return
home. In all parks there are Games P avillions where they
can play. They can read books in the public libraries or go
to th e cinem a. The Young Pioneer Palaces are also open all
sum m er and boys and girls can work at th eir favourite hob
bies as m uch as they like.
I. EXPRESS YOUR OPINION

as to; *
1. The best way to spend tim e in a Pioneer Camp during
th e sum m er holidays.
2. How boys and girls live in a Pioneer Camp away from
the heat and dust of towns and cities.
3. W hether wet w eather is a problem in a Pioneer Camp.
When th ere is tim e for reading books and w riting postcards
or letters?
* to suit them
to go picnicking
? as to ,

II. SAY WHAT YOU CAN

about th e following things:


1. How you enjoyed the holidays.
2. The ways in which you spent th e long, sunny days.
3. W hat you devoted the greater p art of your tim e to
during th e sum m er holidays.
4. W here you w ent, how you travelled and w hat you did.
5. W hether you w anted to get back to school to see all
your friends.
I I I . TELL, ASK, DISCUSS

1. T ell your p artn er w hat you know about how school


children in other countries spend th eir school holidays.
2. You heard a boy say, I m glad i t s tim e for school
again. W eve been tw o m onths aw ay.
Ask your p artn er to explain why th e speaker is glad to
go back to school again.
3. Tell each other about
a trip you m ade in th e sum
m er and how you enjoyed
it.
4. Schoolchildren discuss
holiday news when they
come back to school. R epeat
in E nglish w hat you have
heard some of them say.

Can 1 go away some place and


just lie down?

Questions:
1. W hy isnt th e m an interested in w hat the travel bureau
I'bjuarou] has for travellers?
2. W hat is especially difficult in learning w ater-skiing?
3. W hy m ust everybody learn to swim?

Word L ist
add V
ever adv -
express [iks'pres] v

handicraft ['haendikraft] n ;
heat n

local a
modelling ['modaliij] n
op in io n [a'pinjan] n

shore n
subject n ,
wet a , !

2. AN ENGLISH SOCIAL
E nglish socials are arranged ^ by school students who
learn th e E nglish language. The whole program m e is in Eng
lish and it includes recitations of E nglish and A m erican po
etry, songs and short plays. The actors and actresses usually
belong to th e d ram atic group of th e school E nglish-language
club. Some of th e costumes are m ade by its m embers, some
are borrowed 2 from the local theatre.
If you atten d such a perform ance you w ill enjoy it g re at
ly. You w ill spend an interesting evening and have a good
tim e.
T he item s on the program m e of an- E nglish social are
announced by a pupil who takes part in am ateur perform ances.
He m ay announce them in th e following way;
N. will recite a poem by . . . . Then he w ill read his own
tra n sla tio n of it (a tran slatio n by . . .).
Now M. will sing . .
N ext you will see a scene from . . . by . . . perform ed by
th e pupils of . . .
The last item on our program me is . . .
E nglish socials help school students to understand Eng
lish b etter and to use it out of school.
So dont miss a social at your schooll B ut to tak e an ac
tiv e p art in it is best of all. You m ay try to recite apoem or
you m ay sing in a choir or perform in a play.
If, however, you th in k th a t tak in g p art in perform ances
is not for you, th ere are some other things announcing
th e item s on th e programme, for exam ple, or helping to
arrange a social.
An E nglish social for all school students includes more
songs and dances. A social for parallel classes has m ore rec
itatio n s, short plays and word games on its program m e
because they are easier for the pupils of th e sam e classes.
Isn t it a nice th in g to understand everything you hear?
^ to arrange [a'reinds] to organize
* to borrow '] to get something after promising or agreeing to
give it back again later
9

Now before you discuss th e tasks and questions th a t fol


low, here is a piece of advice: remem ber to speak not so m uch
about th e te x t you have ju st read, as about the E nglish so
cials you have atten d ed or w ould like to take part in.
I . YOUR OPINION

as to:
1. The usefulness of an E nglish school social.
2. How a social should be organized a) for all school
studen ts learning English; b) for parallel classes only.
8. W hat you like best of all at an E nglish social.
4.
How you would like to use your E nglish at a futur
school social.
I I . SAY WHAT YOU CAN

about an E nglish social w ith an interesting program me:


1. Your class is going to have an E nglish social next week.
W ho do you suppose will be present? W hat do you suppose
w ill be on th e programme?
2. Schoolchildren have places to go and plenty to do in
th eir leisure tim e. W hat places and activities can you rec
ommend?
I I I . TELL, ASK, DISCUSS

1. Tell your p artn er w hether or not you prefer the Englishlanguage club out of all th e school out-of-class activities.
2. Ask him if he would like to join a dram a club, a hobby
circle or th e school choir.
3. School students will get to know English b etter if
they a tten d English socials. Discuss how English can be used
out of school if you know it well.
4. Discuss w hat item s can m ake th e program me of an
English social very interesting. W hat would you like to in
clude? W hat w ould you like to keep out of th e programme?
W hy?

Word List
amateur ['aemsta;] n
announce [a'nauns] v
attend [a'tend] v
item I'aitam ] rt
leisure 1'1] n

10

plenty n
poetry ('pouitri] n ,
recite [ri'sait] v
social n
tuppose {sa'pouz] v

3. FESTIV E PROCESSIONS
H ere are tw o reports from E nglish-language new spapers
about ho lid ay dem o n strations in Moscow.
A nniversary C elebration in Red Square
Moscows Red S quare was festively decorated to welcom e
M uscovites and guests on th e 60th anniversary of th e Oc
to b er S ocialist R evolution.
T housands of Moscows w orking people m arched past
th e M ausoleum l,m o:s9'li9m I w ith banners, flags, flowers
and balloons.
T h eir stream ers proclaim ed th e achievem ents of th e ir
e n th u sia stic labour, th e ir so lid arity w ith those fighting
for n a tio n a l lib eratio n and social progress and th e ir desire ?
for u n ity in th e struggle for peace.
T housands M arch in Red Square
N e ith er ra in nor cold could stop M uscovites yesterday
as th ey m arched w ith th e ir red banners and flowers to ce
le b ra te M ay Day.
For th ree hours colum ns of Moscows w orking m en and
wom en passed through R ed S quare on th is great day of in
te rn a tio n a l w orking-class so lid arity .
They carried stream ers, some of w hich illu stra te d th e
achievem ents of th e past years. O thers proclaim ed pledges
to carry o u t th e Five-Y ear P la n .
T he u n ity of th e m any n a tio n a litie s in th e S oviet U nion
was expressed by a float * w hich carried a large m ap of th e
country and people in n a tio n a l costum es.
I . EX PRESS YOUR OPINION

as to:
1. How th e h o liday atm osphere is felt on N ovem ber 7
and on M ay D ay.
2. W hy M ay D ay is called a day of w orking-class struggle.
* Muscovite ['m Askavait] a person whose home is in Moscow
* desire [di'zais] a strong wish
* float , , . .

II

II. SAY WHAT YOU CAN

1. H o lid ay slogans of th e C entral C om m ittee of th e CPSU


call th e w orking people of th e USSR and other countries to
streng th en friendship. They speak about th e most im portant
tasks of com m unist construction.
W hat m ay holiday slogans contain for the peoples of th e
socialist countries?
2. T he C om m unist and W orkers P arties organize th e w ork
ing-class struggle for peace, democracy, national independ
ence and social progress.
W hat m ay holiday slogans contain for the international
w orking-class m ovem ent?
3. F actory floats and banners w hich can be seen in a fes
tiv e procession, report th e growing economic strength of
th e Soviet people.
Speak about industrial and economic achievem ents in
your d istrict (region).
4. One of the B ritish C om m unist P a rty veterans visiting
th e Soviet U nion, had th is to say about th e May Day demon
stra tio n in Moscow; I ve never seen anything like it in my
life before. W h at do you th in k m ade such a strong im pres
sion on him ?
III . TELL, ASK, DISCUSS

Spme of th e C om m unist P a rty s May Day slogans ex


greetings to fraternal C om m unist and W orkers P arties
and the solidarity of the
great arm y of the Commu
nists of th e whole world.
Tell each other w hat
you know about other slo
gans and greetings.
2.
Discuss w hat you ca
see when you watch a Red
Square celebration on TV.

Cant see a thing, too


balloons!

12

many

Questions:
1. W hy are there so m any balloons?
2. W hat does th e photographer w ant to see?

Word L ist
balloon [ba'lun] n
banner ['] n
column ['kolam] n
festive a
fraternal [fra'tanal] a
guest (gest] n
past adv

pledge [pleds] n
proclaim v
streamer n
through [0ru;] prep ,
u n ity ('ju;niti] n
welcome v

4. JO INING THE KOMSOMOL


At fourteen a boy or a girl can become a m em ber of the
Komsomol, th e Union of C om m unist Y outh, or th e Young
Com m unist Leage (the YCL), as it is called in B ritain and
th e U nited States. W hen you face th e local Komsomol Com
m ittee, which is a group of young people, all Komsomol
m em bers, not very m uch older th an you yourself, you become
very excited. This is understandable, because it is a great
honour to become a m em ber of th e L eninist Union of Com
m unist Y outh.
The Komsomol is open to all young people over fourteen
who wish to be active in th e economic and social life of the
country, who wish to be w orthy citizens of th e Soviet state.
Komsomols are in th e vanguard everyw here and m any boys
and girls join th e Komsomol when they are school students.
School Komsomol organizations are th e Komsomols young
est section.
W hat is th e m ain task of th e Komsomol?
Speaking at th e 3rd Congress of th e U nion of Com m unist
Y outh V ladim ir Ilyich Lenin said to th e young people: You
m ust tra in yourselves to be C om m unists.
T h at should be th e goal of all work done by the Komsomol.
A m em ber of the Komsomol should be an active fighter, who
helps to carry out the program m e of C om m unist construc
tion. He should set an exam ple in work and study, g et knowl
edge, be honest and tru th fu l, study th e foundations of M arx
ism -Leninism , and be able to explain to other young peo
ple th e policy of the Com m unist P arty .
1 to set an example to give an example
13

I. EXPRESS YOUR OPINION

as to w hat the following parts from th e R ules of th e Kom


somol mean to you:
1.
Q uickly and accurately to fulfil th e assignm ents given
by th e YCL organization. (W hy are quickness and accuracy
necessary? W hat m ay depend on how you fulfil your Kom
somol assignm ent?)
2. To keep f it, and go in for sports. (Does it help you
to study and get ready for work?)
3. To be honest and tru th fu l. (Why is it im portant to
tell th e tru th to another persons face? How should a tru e
friend act?)
4. To strengthen th e Armed Forces^ of the USSR. (Can
you strengthen the Soviet Armed Forces by taking p art in
th e A ll-U nion army and sports games O rlenok and Zarnitsa? W hat m ust schoolboys do to become good soldiers
when th ey join th e Soviet Armed Forces for m ilitary tra in
ing after finishing school?)
5. To tak e an active part in the countrys political life.
(W hat kind of political talks can young people give? W here
can th ey m ake reports on world events and w hat is going on
at home? At w hat age do young people begin tak in g p art in
elections to Soviet sta te organs?)
I I. SAY WHAT YOU CAN

1. T he Komsomol Rules say th a t the pioneer organization


should be helped in its work by the Komsomol. How can
Komsomols help the young pioneers?
2. Komsomols are leaders of young pioneers. W hat kind
of exam ple should they set?
3. Soviet young people should always try to im prove
th eir work. W hat m ust be done by your form Komsomol
organization?
4. Say now w hat p art you tak e in the social life of your
school (form).

* to keep fit
* armed forces
* to improve [im'pru:vj to make better
14

III . TELL, ASK, DISCUSS

1. Tell your partn er w hat you th in k should be done to


m ake the activ ities of your school pioneer organization
m ore interesting.
2. Ask your p artner w hat he likes in th e work of your
school Komsomol organization.
W hat would he do as Komsomol organizer in your form?
3. Discuss Komsomol m eetings and activ ities you would
like to have in your form.

Word List
accurate ['aekjunt] , npa
assignment [a'sainmant] n ,

excited [ik'saitid] a ,
face V
foundation [faun'deijn] n

goal [goul] n
honest ('onist] a
train v ,
truthful ['tra-0ful] a
vanguard ['vaengctd] n
worthy ['wstdi] a

5. TH E R IG H T TO H O U SIN G *
In co ntrast to th e co n stitu tio n s of c a p ita list countries,
th e Soviet C o n stitu tio n not only proclaim s, b u t guarantees
real rights and freedoms for Soviet citizens. In addition to
such basic rig h ts as the rig h t to work, to rest and leisure,
to m aintenance in old age and th e rig h t to education, the
Soviet C o n stitution has an article which cannot be found in
any other co n stitu tio n ,the rig h t to housing.
T his is guaranteed, and every year more th an three m il
lion com fortable flats are com pleted ? in our country. Mil
lions of Soviet people move to new homes and give parties,*
house-w arm ing as they are called, to celebrate th eir occu
p atio n of a new flat or house.
A house-warm ing p arty is a happy occasion not only for
those who give it. The guests who are invited eith er already
have a com fortable flat, or they are sure th a t they soon will
have. They know very well th a t th e concern of all for the
^ the right to housing
to be completed [kam'pliitid]here means to be built
* to give a party

15

good of each and th e concern of each for th e good of all is


th e law of life in Soviet society. T h at is why th e num ber of
house-warm ings in th e Soviet U nion is th e greatest in th e
world.
I. EXPRESS YOUR OPINION

as to:
1. Housing in th e USSR and in your d istrict.
2. W hat th e guests at a house-w arm ing party m ay see
when th ey are shown around th e new flat.
3. W hat people speak about when they gather for a house
w arm ing p arty .
II. SAY WHAT YOU CAN

1. The rig h t of Soviet citizens to housing is guaranteed


by A rticle 44 of the C onstitution. Every year nearly eleven
m illion Soviet people have th e ir housing im proved.
In w h at way is th eir housing im proved? Do they receive
new flats or does th e sta te help them to b u ild th eir own homes?
How else can housing be im proved in towns and in th e coun
tryside?
2. W hat basic rig h ts are laid down 2 in th e C onstitu tio n
of th e USSR? Say w hether these rig h ts can be found in
bourgeois constitutions. W hy is our C onstitution th e m ost
dem ocratic?
3. B asic duties of Soviet citizens are laid down in th e
USSR C o n stitu tio n , for exam ple, th e duty of Soviet citizens
to work honestly.
Speak about well-known labour veterans in your tow n
(district).
I I I . TELL, ASK, DISCUSS

1. Tell your p artn er how our C onstitution guarantees


the rig h t to work and w hat th e situ atio n is in cap italist
countries.
2. Ask him w hat th e C onstitution says about th e right
to education and w hat kind of education Soviet citizens can
rcceive.
J lo show around - , . .
* 1 lay down ( , )

16

3.
Discuss how our socialist society guarantees th e rig h
to education and how school stu d en ts should do th eir duty
to th e P a rty and G overnm ent.
IV. QUESTIONS ABOUT YOUR HOME

1. [f you have m oved w ith your parents to a new place,


w hat are some of the things you will have to learn? Traffic?
A cinema? A stadium ? A library? A club?
2. W hat kind of fuel is used to heat your home? To cook
your food? (Gas? Coal? Firewood? E lectricity?)
3. Suppose you had three pot-plants * in your house.
W hat would you do to m ake them grow well?

Word L ist
basic ['beisik] a
concern ['5:] n
contrast ('kontrast] n
fuel |fjU8l]
good

heat t' ,
house-warming n
housing ['hauzio] n ; ,
maintenance ['memtinans] n

nearly ado
occasion [' 1] n 1, ;
2.

6. CLIMATE AND A TALK ABOUT THE WEATHER


You know from your geography lessons th a t clim ate is
th e average w eather conditions of a place; it is m ade up of
th e average sum m er and w inter tem perature, th e am ount
of sunshine, th e direction of th e winds, th e average rainfall,?
and so on.*
C lim ates may be hot, cold, dry, wet, m ild, tropical and
sub-tropical, insular * and continental.
W eather is th e condition of th e atm osphere at a certain
tim e or over ^ a certain short period. W eather is connected
^
2

*
6

pot-plants
ra im a llthe amount of rain falling on a given area in a given time
and so on
insular ['insjula) clim ate the climate of an island
overhere means during
17

w ith atm ospheric pressure, tem perature, rainfall, cloudiness,


and wind.
W eather can be good, bad, fine, excellent, beautiful,
rainy , snowy, storm y, dry, hot, cold, warm , cool, pleasant.
Sam uel Johnson, an E nglish author of th e 18th century,
said: W hen two Englishm en m eet, th e ir first ta lk is of th e
w eath er. T his is tru e because th e w eather in th e B ritish
Isles is alw ays uncertain. O ther countries have a clim ate;
in E n gland we have w eather. T his statem ent is often m ade
by E nglishm en to describe th e m eteorological conditions
of th eir country.
E verybody talk s about th e w eather but nobody does
an y th in g about it. Some people th in k these words belong
to M ark Tw ain, b ut no one is qu ite sure. However, we can
see it is a joke because it is hardly possible to do any th in g
about th e w eather. Or do you th in k m an can change or im
prove it?
I . EXPRESS YOUR OPINION

as to:
1. T he difference between clim ate and w eather.
2. How long it would ta k e you to discover w hat English
w eather is like.
3. W hy th e w eather is always a topic of conversation in
E ngland.
4. W hat you can do in all w eathers.
5. W hat can depend on th e w eather.
6. W hy a certain kind of w eather is called flying w eath
e r.
II. TH IN K IN G IS FUN

1. If it is colder today th a n it was yesterday, w hat can


you say about yesterday?
2. W hy is it darker outdoors ^ on a cloudy day th a n on a
clear day?
3. W hen is a raincoat m ore convenient th a n an um brella?
4. At w h at tim e of th e year m ay there be hail?
5. W hat m ade it possible for Ja c k to say, T his would be
a good day to fly a k ite? ? W as it w indy weather?
* outdoors out of the house; In the open air
to fly a k ite
18

6. W hat happens when fog comes down on a large city?


W hat may fall from a cloudy sky on a sum m er (w inter)
day? W hat do you see in th e streets in rainy weather?
7. W hen we say there is a south wind, is it blowing to
w ards ^ th e south or from th e south? W hich direction does a
north wind blow?
8. W hich is nearer to the ground, fog or clouds? W hen are
we glad to see clouds in the sky? E xplain why we do not
like fog.
III. TELL, ASK, DISCUSS

1. As Alice and her m other were looking out of the win


dow, Alice said, See how hard th e wind is blowing.
As Alice could not really see th e wind, discuss how she
knew it was blowing hard?
2. Ask your p artn er to explain the different ways you
can tell when there is a wind.
3. T hunder and lightning take place at the sam e tim e.
Discuss why we see the lightning before we hear the thunder.

Pif in Rainy Weather

Questions:
1. In w hat places can you shelter from th e rain?
2. W hat do you do when you are caught in th e rain?

Word List
am ount [a'maunt] n
average ['aevarids] a
certain ('s9:tn] a
condition [kan'dijn] n
direct V
hail n
hard adv

hardly adv
lightning n
pressure ['preja] n
thunder n
uncertain a ( no*
)

towards [ta'wo:dz] in the direction of


19

7. SEASONS ARE NOT ONLY GEOGRAPHY


Books on geography say th a t seasons are those periods
of th e year which are characterized by special clim atic con
ditions. In th e tem perate zones, four seasons are generally
recognized. In the northern hem isphere spring includes
March, A pril, and May; sum m erJune, Ju ly , and August;
autum nSeptem ber, October, and November; and w inter
December, Jan u ary , and F ebruary.
In th e tem perate zones of th e southern hem isphere the
seasons are th e opposite. There, th e spring m onths are Sep
tem ber, October, and November, and th e summer, autum n
and w inter m onths follow.
In regions outside the tem perate zones, the year cannot
be divided into four seasons. In m uch of the tropics, th e sea
sons depend more on rainfall th an on th e position of th e sun,
and th e year is usually divided into the wet or rainy season
and th e dry season. Over m uch of India, the year is divided
into the cold season, th e hot season, and the rainy season.
The word season has m any other m eanings besides its
geographical one. For exam ple, some sport fans are happy
when th e football season begins; others talk about th e
hockey season or th e field and track season or the h u n tin g
season. Many people are sorry when th e th eatre season closes.
We also use the word when we speak of fruits and vege
tables and some other things, for exam ple, m ushroom s are
not in season now, or th e straw berry season is over.
I. SAY WHAT YOU CAN

1. Everyone has a favourite tim e of year. It is spring


when th e air gets warm er and th e days longer. Flowers come
out and green leaves appear on th e trees.
It is autum n when leaves go yellow, red and brown, and
there are^ plenty of good apples.
W hat about summer and w inter?
2. W hen you do geography at school th eres a lot to learn
about m ountains and rivers, clim ate and population, prod
ucts and industry. B ut it is also finding out ? about people
^ field and track .
to find o u t ,

20

In your own country and in other countries; how they live,


w hat th ey do at work and in th eir free tim e.
Say which you th in k is m ore interesting and w hether one
is m ore im portant th an th e other.
I I. THINKING IS FUN

1. W hen are m ost leaves heavier, when they are green or


after they have changed colour in autum n?
2. W hy do we enjoy th e shade of a tree in summer?
3. After a heavy sum m er rain there m ay be puddles of
w ater in th e street. W hat m ay cause them to disappear?
4. It d id n t rain last night, but the grass was wet th is
m orning. W hat m ade it wet? (The grass m ay become wet
during the night because of dew which is th e English for
. W hat things can be wet w ith dew?)
III. DISCUSS W ITH YOUR PARTNER

W hen it slopped snowing in th e evening, th e snow was


tw enty centim etres deep. Then a m em ber of your fam ily
said, There will be big
snow -drifts tom orrow m orn
ing.
W hy did he say this?
W as th e
wind blowing
hard? In w hat kind of
places will you find big
snow-drifts?

Merry Melody

Questions:
I. W hat season is it when birds begin to sing?
2 Do composers use singing birds songs in th eir music?

Word List
disappear (,dis 9'pid] v
divide [di'vaidj v ,

snow-drift n

generally adv
hemisphere I'hemisfia] n

hunt V

21

mushroom n
puddle n
recognize ('rekagnaiz]

shade n
strawberry ('str3.T)9ril n
v - temperate ['tem paritl a

8. ANIM ALS AND OURSELVES


H ave you ever thought of yourself as part of the anim al
kingdom? ^ If you rem em ber w hat you have learnt and read,
this is w hat we are, very, very highly developed anim als
who can th in k and speak.
In one of his Just-S o Stories, R udyard K ipling
de
scribes ways th a t he im agined in which Stone Age m an
tau g h t anim als to work for him .
K ipling was quite rig h tfrom th e very earliest tim es ani
m als have worked for men. Oxen, for exam ple, could do as
m uch work in one day as a farm er could do in a week.
Horses were, of course, th e most common m eans of tran s
port u n til the beginning of th is century. The camel is called
the ship of the desert because for centuries it carried peo
ple across deserts. You have probably seen pictures of ele
phants carrying heavy things from place to place w ith th eir
trunks.* Dogs were probably m ans first friends...
Yet m an has been very cruel in the way he has used ani
m als. There are m any anim als which we know today only
from pictures, others are now dying out.
T he tim e has come to protect our lesser brothers. If
we do not act soon, new generations m ay know some anim als
only from a picture in a book.
I. SAY WHAT YOU CAN

Most young people who live in towns have few opportu


nities 5 of studying living anim als except cats and dogs if
there is no zoo in th eir town.
C ountry children are luckier. They will be able to tell
you m uch about dom estic anim als and about some w ild ones.
* animal kingdom
Rudyard K ipling ,
^ (1865 1936), '

* Stone Age
* tru n k . '
* opportunity [^opa'tjuaiiti] convenient occasion to do something

23

Speak about things you know about anim als.


Add som ething about th e regular TV program m e about
th e anim al kingdom and its usefulness.
II. THIN K IN G IS FUN

1. Why do you suppose th e eyes of most anim als are at


about the highest p art of th eir body?
2. W hich pet is th e noisiest?
3. One day in April, a girl heard a flock (a large group)
of birds flying in th e sky and looked up. In w hat direction
were they flying? W hen will this girl see flocks of birds
flying in th e opposite direction?
III . TELL, ASK, DISCUSS

The keeping of pets is


quite popular now. W hen
th e subject of
anim als
comes up in conversation,
everyone usually has some
th in g to say.
Ask your partn er w hat
he th in k s about keeping
pets and tell him w hat you
think .
43f course I can
lets see you fly.

talk. Now

Questions:
1. W hich is more difficult if not im possibleto teach a
parrot to ta lk or a person to fly?
2. W hat can parrots say?

Word List
camel ['!] n
cruel [krual] a
desert ['dezat] n
domestic [ds'mestik] a
generation [^dsena'reijn] n

Imagine [I'msedsin] v ,

oxen ['] n pi
parrot ['paerat] n
pet n ()

sale n
wild a
yet adv
23

9. THERE'S A TIME FOR ALL THINGS


The title of to d ay s te x t is a quotation from a work by
W illiam Shalcespeare.
Tim e is a very valu ab le th in g (do you rem em ber th e say
ing Tim e is money?), and th a t is why m any famous people
have spoken or w ritten about how to save tim e. For exam ple,
an E nglish statesm an and w riter of th e 18th century said,
I recommend you to tak e care of th e m inutes, for th e hours
will tak e care of them selves. Know th e tru e value of tim e ...
enjoy every m oment of it. Never put off till tom orrow w hat
you can do to d ay .
And here are some English proverbs about how to value
tim e.
E v erything has its tim e.
He th a t gains ^ tim e gains all things.
Lost tim e is never found again.
Tim e flies like an arrow; and tim e lost never returns.
Tim e lost cannot be won again.
Tim e w aits for no m an.
Tim e flies (explanation: tim e passes very quicklyso do
n ot w aste it).
There is no tim e like th e present (explanation: th e present
Is th e best tim e to do som ething th a t has to be done).
To save tim e is to lengthen 5 life.
I. EXPLAIN

1. How you understand th e title of th e tex t.


2. W hy secondary school students should be busy most
ef th e tim e.
3. W hy you should not waste tim e.
4. W hat you th in k is th e best way for schoolchildren to
use th e ir tim e after school.
5. How to have a good tim e on a Sunday in spring.
II. QUESTIONS ABOUT TIME

1. W hy does it tak e some schoolchildren a long tim e to


do th e ir homework?
2. How m uch spare tim e do you have?
3. How do you spend your out-of-school tim e?
4. How do you save tim e for your hobbies?
^ to gain to get, to win
* to le ig th e n to make (a thing) longer
?4

. THINKING IS FUN

1. C ould a child learn to tell th e tim e before he learns to


read?
2. T he hands of a clock are in one line and th e sm all hand
is near three. W hat tim e is it?
IV. TELL, ASK,
DISCUSS

1. Tim e works ^ won


ders.
2. Tim e works great
changes.
3. Tim e and experience
m ake men wise.*"

Oh dearl When the English say


the
shut the doors at 10
oc ock theyre not jokingl

Questions:
1. W hy is tim e no joke?
2. How should school students organize th eir time?

Word List
arrow ['aerou] n
experience [iks'pianans] n
hand n
proverb ('provabj n
quote [kwout] v
save V

spare a
value ['vaelju:] v
waste [weist] v ()
wise [waiz] a
wonder ['wAnda] n

10. M EALS IN B R IT A IN
A meal is an occasion for taking food; it is also the food
th a t is eaten. M eal-tim e is the usual tim e for tak in g a meal.
Meals and m eal-tim es in E ngland are not th e sam e in all
fam ilies.
1 to work
,
2 : .
25

B reakfast is th e first m eal of th e day. The cooked break


fast can be rath er good. The w riter Somerset M augham once
said: If you w ant to eat well in E ngland, eat three break
fasts d a ily . ^
At one oclock comes a meal which is dinner to some peo
ple, lunch ^ to others. More than half th e population has a
hot dinner, sometimes called lunch, in the m iddle of the day,
and a cold meal at about half past five or six, which is gen
erally called tea or high tea. O thers have a light lunch at
one, and a hot dinner at seven or half past seven.
Between nine and ten in th e evening, those fam ilies which
have a hot meal in the m iddle of th e day, generally have tea
or some other drink m ade w ith m ilk, and sandwiches * and
cakes. This is called supper.
Most people who work in London get a break of about an
hour for lunch. During th a t tim e they go to a canteen * or
a lunch bar to have th eir m idday i meal.
As there are so m any people at work in London, there
are a lot of cafes there. In m any of these cafes there is selfservice (people serve themselves).
I. EXPRESS YOUR OPINION

as to:
1. W hy children are taught not to eat between meals.
Is it b etter for the h ealth to eat at regular intervals? Will
a child eat his dinner w ith appetite if he eats som ething
before usual dinner time? Can sweets tak e his appetite away?
2. W hy you m ust have a hot meal every day. Is it neces
sary for the health to have at least one hot meal a day? Whicii
do. you prefer to have at school a hot lunch or a cake witli
a glass of lemonade?
3. W hether it is good to rest after a m eal. After dinner
sit aw hile [a'wail] (for some tim e), after supper walk a m ile
is an E nglish proverb. W ould you like to follow th is rule?
Why?
dally every day
lunch a meal taken between breakfast and dinner
sandwich ( )
* canteen [ k a n 't t n ] - place in factory or offices where meals can
be bought and eaten
midday the middle of the day (the midday meal is either lunch dr
dinner)
26

II. THINKING IS FUN

1. W hich comes earlier in the day, lunch or breakfast?


W hat tim e do you have these meals?
2. W hen frozen m eat is taken from a refrigerator, why is
it not cooked right away? ^ How long does it tak e frozen meat
to become ready for cooking?
3. Why do we use a saltshaker instead of a spoon to put
salt on our food at table? Is it more convenient to keep salt
in a saltshaker? Is it because you may put too m uch salt
on your food if you use a spoon?
4. Suppose you find th a t a pot of soup tastes too salty.
W hat could you do to m ake it less salty? Could you add
som ething to th e soup to m ake it less salty?
5. Before you order a meal at a restau ran t, you will look
at the menu. W hat two things will you try to find out first?
(As you know, the m enu I'm enju:] is a list of th e food
th a t can be served at th a t m eal.)
III. TELL, ASK, DISCUSS

1. When all the fam ily are at home, they can have their
meal together. B ut your m other may be angry if you dont
come home in tim e and th e dinner gets cold.
Tell your p artner w hat your m other m ay say.
2. At dinner an American may say, Reach me th e salt,
pleasel
Ask your p artn er how else * he could ask for som ething
which is on the table and not near him .
3. G ive each other scientific reasons why we always
should wash our hands well before we begin a m eal. Is it
because we w ant to keep well?
4. Discuss in w hat ways cups and plates m ade of paper
are b etter th an regular cups and plates. In w hat way are
they not as good?
5. Discuss where and when you m ay have to cook your
own m eals. Do you have to cook your own m eals when your
m other works? Or when she is on a business trip in another
town? W ill you be able to cook your own m eals if you go on
a two-day or three-day hike?
* right aw ay
* bow else
27

IV. JOKE

W aiter, ^ shouted th e diner,? th is foods terrible!


I w ant to ta lk to th e owner of this restau ran t! Sorry, sir,
answered th e w aiter, b ut h es out to lunch.
Question: W hy did th e owner of the restau ran t go out
for lunch?

I ate it all standing in the queue...

Questions:
1. Why did th e m an eat his dinner as he stood in th e queue?
2. W hat will the cashier say?

Word List
angry ['aeogri] a
instead [in'sted] of adv
order V
pot n
rather f'roida] adv
reach v 1.^, ;
2.

refrigerator [ri'fridsareita] n

regular ['regjula] a
saltshaker n

taste V ,
while [wail] cj

. BUYING IN A DEPARTMENT STORE


We go to th e shops p ractically every day but if you w ant
to buy som ething im p o rtant, you go to a large departm ent
store. These stores are very useful places. It is easy to un^ waiter a man who serves food at table in a restaurant
diner ('daina] a person who dines (has dinner)
26

derstand why people enjoy shopping there. All kinds of things


are on sale so you can do your shopping under one roof. All
th e th ings for sale are displayed so th a t they can be easily
seen, and th e custom ers * walk round and choose w hat they
w ant.
The store is divided into departm ents; womens clothes,
m ens clothes, shoes, toys, sports goods, leather goods, china
and glass, radios, kitchen goods and so on. In some depart
m ent stores there are escalators to take people to th e differ
ent floors. There is often a tea-room where you can have
tea or a cup of coffee and a cake or a sandwich.
In a departm ent store you may find lots of little things
th a t you m ay w ant for th e house. And if you are going to
buy a b irth d ay present for somebody, you m ay see one or
tw o su itab le things as you walk round.
In th e food departm ent your m other can always buy
som ething ready-cooked to m ake a quick meal for th e fam ily
when she gets home after work.
I. EXPRESS YOLR OPINION

as to;
1. W hy people enjoy shopping at th e big departm ent
stores.
2. W hat you can get in most of these stores (under one
roof).
3. W hat you can do in a big store besides shopping.
4. W hy shop-assistants and custom ers should both be
polite.
5. W hat advantages m ay self-service in a store have
or the customers? W hat disadvantages?
I I. THINKING IS FUN

1. Suppose you ask th e butcher for a kilogram of m eat


and, when he cuts w hat he guesses will be a kilogram , he
finds it weighs a kijogram and one hundred grams. Does the
butcher cut off enough m eat to m ake it w eight exactly one
kilogram ? W hat does he do? How does he figure how much
you m ust pay for th e m eat?
2. A child three years old can see fewer things w hile walk
ing through a store th an his m other can. Why?
* customer ['kAstamaJ a person who buys
29

3.
W hat will you do if, by m istake, you are given th
wrong change, if you are given more (less) than th e correct
am ount?
III.

TALKING TOGETHER

Do you help w ith the shopping in your home? P robably


you do. C ertainly you m ust know the shops where your fam
ily buys its food, its clothes, and other things for the house.
1. Now ask your p artner to describe th e shops he goes to.
2. Tell him why some necessary things arent bought
by children.

Advertising Durable Paint

Questions:
1. How durable is Bloggs paint?
2. W hat kinds of goods can be advertised in
countries?

cap italist

Word List
advertise ['aedv9taiz] v

china ['tjaina] n

department [di'patm ant] store n

display [dis'plei] v ,

durable ['djuarabl] a

exact fiq'zaekt] a
30

figure ('figa] v
furniture ['fatnit/s] n
leather () n
paint n
roof n
store n
suitable ['sjatabl] a

12. T H E HOM ELAND


GAMES

OF

SOME

SPO RTS

AND

M any sports and games which are nowadays ^ played all


over th e world ? were invented in B ritain . F ootball is the
best exam ple, but among th e others are horse-racing, tennis,*
golf and rowing.
E very week thousands of people tak e part in some kind
of sport and m illions w atch TV sports program mes. Every
day m illions read th e sports pages in th e new spapers and
follow th e sports reports on th e radio.
F ootball in B ritain is played from late August until
early M ay. It is played all over th e country. The Cup F i
nal * is th e great event of th e football year. It is played at
W em bley S tadium , near London, and more th a n a hundred
thousand fans come from all parts of th e country to watch it.
Tennis is a very popular game. The great event of the
tennis year is the W im bledon Tournam ent (W im bledon is
a suburb south of London) in which cham pions compete
from all over th e world, including th e Soviet Union.
W ater sports, sw im m ing and diving are less popular in
B ritain . The most popular rowing event is th e boat race
between th e eights (or team s of eight) from th e universities
of Oxford and Cam bridge, rowed on th e R iver Tham es, near
London, in March or A pril each year.
I. SAY WHAT YOU CAN

about:
1. T he sports and games invented in B ritain.
2. T he game regarded as typically English.
3. The m ost popular B ritish sport.
4. The annual 5 sporting event which takes place on the
river Tham es.
5. One or more sports w hich you enjoy w atching or play
ing.
* nowadays ('nauadeiz] in these days; at the present time
* all oyer the worldno
* Tennis In its modern form was first played in Britain towards the
end of the 19th century. It was played on a grass court, and called
lawn tennis. Today it is usually played on a hard court.
* Cup Final ['fain alj
S annual [']1]coming or happening every year
1

6.
Reasons for the popularity of football and ice-hockey
in our country. Are they favourite games of m illions of
people?
II. TELL, ASK, DISCUSS

1. You looked out of your window and saw schoolm ates


some distance away, coming irom th e school football game.
Our team has v/on, you said. How did you guess th at?
2. At w hat tim e of th e year are most football games
played? Most basketball games? Can you guess th e reason?
III. TELL, ASK, DISCUSS

E n th u siastic supporters of a sports team are called fans


in B ritain and sufferers in our country. Who do you suf
fer for? is th e English for th e usual form of the question, as
you know. And a common answer is: I am ill for D ynam o.
Now try to use the English
word only.
1. Ask your partner w hether
he is a D ynam o fan and why.
2. Tell him w hether a fan
should go in for sports, too,
and why.
Yes, 1 do exercises every morn
ing. I touch my shoes twenty
times as soon as I wake up.
Then I get up and put them on.

Questions:
1. W hat is wrong w ith th e exercises th e m an does every
m orning?
2. W hat kind of m orning exercises would you advise for
such people?

Word List
amettg [ ' ] prep ,
common ['koman| a
,
enthuslastlo [in,6ju'zi'sstik] a

horse-racing n
Invent fin'vent] v
popularity (,p 3 p ju 'la riti] n no

regard (ri'gad] v ; pac


row [rou] V
suffer ['sAfa] v ; .
support [sa'port] V
tournament ['tuanam ant] n

13. HIKING IS A GOOD THING


A hike, as English dictionaries say, is a long w alk of
m arch in th e country, for pleasure or exercise. And to go
h ik in g is to go for a walk of th is kind.
If you w ant to see the real countryside you should spend
p art of your sum m er holiday hiking. M any people th in k th a t
is th e best way to see th e country.
If you are a good walker,^ you will do about five kilom e
tres an hour or even more, but generally speaking,? you
should not be in a hurry * if you w ant to enjoy your hiking
trip .
As we have said, hiking is a good thing, and one of its
advantages is th a t you need not worry about luggage, tick
ets, tra in s and other things.
W hat you need is just a knapsack w ith those few things
necessary for a hike.
Many secondary school stu d en ts go hiking or m ake w alk
ing tours * to some of those places w here Soviet people have
done glorious deeds. They v isit places fam ous for th e ir rev
o lutionary trad itio n s, o r places where Soviet people fought
heroically during th e Civil W ar or th e G reat P a trio tic W ar.
Fam ous plan ts and collective farm s are places of labour
glory. You can also visit th em and learn more about the
lab o u r enthusiasm of th e Soviet people.
I . EXPRESS YOUR OPINION

as to;
1. W hat is good about hiking.
2. The way hiking helps to enjoy th e beauties of nature.
3. The educational value of a hike (things you m ay learn
on a hike).
4. How hiking helps a person to learn all about his home
region.
5. W hat you should be able to do to receive th e Young
T ourist badge.
* w alkera person who walks, especially one who walks regularly for
exercise or pleasure
* generally speaking
to be in a hurry ,
* walking tour
2

w, 6931

33

II. SAY WHAT YOU CAN

1. As you know, a hike is a long walk or m arch in the


country for pleasure or exercise. W hat kind of pleasure and
w hat kind of exercise?
2. A guide points out and explains the sights to travellers
or tourists. Im agine th a t you are a guide.
W hat kind of sights would you point out to visitors in
your d istrict? Are there places famous for th eir revolution
ary trad itio n s? For b attles in th e G reat P a trio tic W ar?
For their industrial im portance?
3. C lim bing hills or following strange trails is interest
ing and exciting. W hat can you see from th e top of a hill?
4. At each tu rn of the trail you may come upon som ething
new, unexpected. W hat do you im agine these new, unex
pected things may be?
I I I . A JO K E FOR DISCUSSION

Which is More Im portant?


Lewis and Clark were th e leaders of an expedition. To
wards evening, one day, Lewis m ade an announcem ent.
Men, he said, I have some good news and some bad news
for you. F irst, the good news: we have covered more m iles
today than any other day on
our trip; weve done fifty
miles. Now the bad news:
were lost. ^
Discuss:
1. How did Lewis find out
th a t the travellers were lost?
2. W hat do people do if
they lose their way during
an expedition?
I ts very nice, but those moun
tains bloci< the view.

Questions:
1. Do these hikers enjoy the countryside?
2. W hat do you th in k can be seen over there behind th e
m ountains?
* to be lost
34

Word List
badge (baeds] n
civil ('sivilj a
climb [klaim]
deed n
exciting [ik'saitig] a

glory ('gio:ri] n
guide [gaid] n

just adv ; .
Icnapsack ['naeps%l<| n
trail n
upon ('] adv

14. CYCLING AND STAMPS


Cycling is rid in g a bicycle, and a cyclist is one who rides
a bicycle. If you have a bicycle, or if you hope to have one,
you m ay be interested in reading th is tex t.
You can get plenty of exercise and v isit a lot of places
in th e countryside if you rid e a bike. B iking is even better
th an rid in g in a car or m otor-cycling because you can follow
narrow tra ils in th e fields and in th e woods where there are
no roads. You can hear birds sing, listen to th e sounds of
n a tu re and enjoy th e fresh air.
All th is is im possible for a person trav ellin g by car or
riding a m otor bike.
Do you ride a bicycle? Do you collect stam ps? If you like
both cycling and stam p collecting, why not s ta rt collecting
stam ps w hich show cycling? T here are lots of stam ps th a t
will interest you. You can have a beautiful cycling page in
your album w ith nothing b u t stam ps about cycling. M any
countries are very keen on cycle racing ^ and they keep bring
ing o ut ? stam ps showing pictures of cycle races.
Besides cycle racing th ere are m any stam ps showing m o
to r racing and m otorcycle racing. These sports are very ex
citing and you w ill probably love to collect stam ps which
show pictures of them .
I. EXPRESS YOUR OPINION

as to:
1. T he advantages of cycling in th e countryside.
2. W hy bicycles and cycling are becoming very popular
in m any countries. W hich is b etter for the health, cycling
I to be keen on something -
* to bring out ( )
2*

35

or driving a car? Who (whom) would you recom m end to use


a bicycle every day?
3. T he bike as a m eans of tran sp o rt. W here is it m ost
useful, in tow n or in th e countryside?
4. W hether stam p collecting can popularize * cycling
or develop an interest to it.
5. W hether cycling and other sports can popularize stam p
collecting or develop an interest to it.
6. How p h ilately ? helps to develop new hobbies. W hat
can be pictured on stam ps?
II. SAY WHAT YOU CAN

1. W hat do you know about cycling as a sport? W hat is


cycle racing?
2. Speak about th e possibilities and lim itatio n s of a m od
ern bicycle.
In w hich case is a bicycle m ore (less) convenient and
useful th a n a car?
3. E x p lain th e educational value of cycling tours.
W hat can you see and learn on a cycling tour? How can
it help you to learn more about th e geography and history of
a place, about botany and other subjects? W hat kind of col
lections can you m ake on such a tour?
I I I . THIN K IN G IS FUN

Suppose you are alone on a fam iliar * road w ith


bike on an autum n evening. You have no light and it
dark you cant see your
before you. W ill you ride
bike or will you w alk
push your bike? Why?

your
is so
hand
your
and

between 1-6

IV. TELL, ASK, DISCUSS

Discuss the advantages of


a tour a) as a passenger in a
car; b) on horseback ?; c) on a
bicycle.
I ts all right Im ninel
] to make popular
^ popularize ['popjularaiz]collecting
? philately [fi'laetaliJ stamp
sta
[tu9l a journey, an
* tour [tu9)
ai excursion
* familiar [fa'milja) well known to ycu
P on horseback ( )
36

Tell each oth er w hich you prefer and why. If you have
fio experience w ith horses and c a n t rid e a horse or if you
have never m ade a cycling to u r, rem em ber w hat you have
read or heard. T ry and im agine som ething special in each
case.
Questions:
1. How d id th e little girl understand th e notice?
2. W hat did th e policem an explain to th e little girl?

Word L ist
bicycle ['baisikl) n
( ^ bike)
cycling {'saiklig] n
lim itation [.lim i'teijan] n
motorcycle ['moutasaikl] n

possibility [,pos3'biliti] n
sound [saundj n
stamp n
start v
value ['vaelju:] n

15. YOU CAN GET A N Y W H ER Ei BY BUS


H ave you trav elled on a bus? O r do you tak e the schoolbus every m orning to get to school? In th a t case you never
ask where your bus is bound for.? You ju st get on it and get
off it when it stops at your school.
If you live in a v illage you m ay w ant to travel to the
nearest town. Then you will perhaps catch th e bus which runs
between your village and th e tow n, or w hich passes through
it on its way to th e town.
If th ere is a conductress * on your bus, she says, Fares,
please, and then Any m ore fares, please?
If th ere is no conductress, you put your five copecks in
the tick et m achine and tak e a tic k e t. W hen th e bus is crow d
ed,* passengers pass the m oney along to th e passenger near
est to th e m achine, and th e tic k e t is then passed back.
^ anywhereto any place
* is bound [baund] for .
conductress [ksn'dAktris] a woman conductor
* crowded t'k ra u d id jfull of people
37

W hen you get near the stop at which you w ant to get out,
you ask th e person in front of you w hether he is getting out
st the n ex t stop. If not, he m akes room for you to get by, and
you slowly m ove to th e front.
I.

as
1.
2.
3.
Step
4.
stops.
5.

EXPRESS YOUR OPINION

to:
W hy th e driver of a bus m ay not open th e doors.
W hy a bus m ay be full (packed).
Why th e conductress, or one of th e passengers, says
along,^ please!
W hy th e conductress (or th e driver) calls out i all th e
W hy passengers should m ove up to th e front.
II.

THINKING IS FUN

1. Do buses in the USSR keep to the left or to th e right


of th e street when they are going to th e centre of a town?
In B ritain ? In th e U nited States? In most countries?
W hen traffic is going away from the centre of a town,
which side of th e road do they keep to?
2. W hy are th ere one-way streets ^ for traffic in many
towns and cities?
3. Nam e th e reasons why m any people try to be among
th e first to get on a bus instead of w aiting in line.
4. W hich can stop more quickly, a bus or a train?
5. W ill there be more cars in a city street between 7 and 9
oclock on a Sunday m orning or on a weekday m orning? W hy?
i l l . TELL, ASK, DISCUSS

1. Tell your p artn er why bus conductors always say:


H urry along there, please! and discuss the situ atio n in
which he can hardly force his way through to tak e th e fares.
2. Ask your p artn er why he m ust w ait for a break in the
passing traffic before he crosses th e street.
^ Step alongl . !
to call o u i . ()
^ one-way street
38

3.
Discuss th e instructions about crossing streets whic
teachers and ORUD (traffic m ilitia) representatives have
given you.
Tell each other w hat you know about traffic regulations.
IV.

A JOKE

Honesty Is Not Her Policy


Sign on a city bus: C hildren 10 and under pay half fare.
Ai u m : Now rem em ber, youre ten.

S o n : O.K.?
B us
Son:
Driv
Son:

d r i v e r : How old are you, lad?


Ten.
e r : W hen will you be eleven?
As soon as I get off th is bus.

Question: W hat should you not teach sm all children?

Word List
case n
lad ,
line n .

pack v ,
room n ,
sign [sain] n ;

16. TRAVELLING BY RAIL


The first railw ay in R ussia was opened in 1837 and since
th a t tim e people have covered m illions of kilom etres tra v e l
ling from one p art of the country to another by train .
Passenger train s carry people, goods train s carry goods,
and m ail * train s carry passengers and m ail. In B ritain and
in Am erica th ere are also special coaches attached to some
trains, called T ravelling Post Offices. In these coaches peo
ple sort * letters and parcels w hile th e tra in runs from one
statio n to another.
Long-distance train s 5 are fast trains. Local train s m ake
all the stops, and you can get on or off a local tra in at a very
small statio n , even if it is only a platform .
^ traffic regulations
* . . I'ou'keiJ ,
* m a il letters, newspapers, parcels, etc. sent by post
* to sort to separate things of one kind from things of another kind
long-distance tra in
39

If you are going to a d istan t place, a sleeping com part


m ent is very com fortable; a reserved seat ^ for a day journey
is good. Local train s have carriages ? w ith wooden seats
as passengers m ake only short trips.
After a long-distance tra in starts, th e passengers often
begin to ta lk to each other. They ask questions about how
far they are going and w hether they are travelling on busi
ness or going to v isit relatives or going to a rest home. They
ta lk about various things to pass th e time.
I. SAY WHAT YOU KNOW ABOUT
TRAIN

TRAVELLING

BY

1. W hat kinds of train s do you know?


2. W hat train s do you find m ost convenient for trav e l
ling over long distances?
3. How m any people can travel in a sleeping com part
m ent?
4. W here do passengers have th e ir m eals w hile trav ellin g
by rail?
5. W hat can passengers see from a m oving train?
II. SAY WHAT YOU CAN

Develop th e situ atio n s around these sentences. You have


heard them on the platform of a railw ay station or in a com
partm en t of a passenger train .
1. Please dont forget to w ritel
2. It was very nice of you (all) to come to see me off.
3. P leasant journey!
4. How far are you going?
5. W ould
you m ind if I switch on th e
radio? *
6. L ets get into th is one. There are some vacant ' seats
in here.
I I I . TELL, ASK, DISCUSS

Many cities in the Soviet Union have m iniature railw ay


system s * whose object is to interest children in train s and
^ reserved [ri'zeivd] seat
^ carriage ['kaendsJ a part of a railway train used by passengers
3 to pass the tim e
^ , ?
^ vacant [ veik9nt].not occupied
miniature ['minit/a] railway systemchildrens railway
40

railw ays. Some of them w ill be railw ay m en when they grow


up.
1. Tell your p artn e r w hich school subjects are especially
im po rtan t for those who wish to drive a locom otive or to do
other work connected w ith railw ays.
2. Ask your p artn er why
drivin g th e engine is the
most popular job in a m in
iatu re railw ay system .
3. Discuss the history
of railw ays, th e work of
a great railw ay system , and
its im portance to th e coun
try.

I want to be taken off ticketcollecting during rush-hours.

Questions:
1. W hat is difficult in ticket-collecting during rush-hours?
2. In w hat way can the ticket-collector be helped?

Word List
as [aez] cj
attach [a'taetj] v
coach [koutj] n
connected [ka'nektid] a
engine ['endsin] n

importance [im'pDitans] n
locomotive [.louka'moutiY] ft
,
object ['obdsikt] n
sentence ['sentans] n .

wooden ['wud9n] a

17. WATERS AS HIGHWAYS^


It was so m any thousands of years ago th a t we can only
im agine how and where it really happened; how a m an dig
covered ? th a t if he used a floating log, the w aters would
carry him from one place to another.
Afterwards, over a period of hundreds of years, meq ex
perim ented and invented m any things to help them cross
^ highway a main road
2 to discover [dis'kAva] to find out
afterwards ('aftaw 9dz]later
41

th e w aters. All sorts of boats were .invented and developed


in different p arts of the early world. The ancient E gyptians
of five thousand years ago m ade great boats; but when we
study th e p ain tin g on th e tom bs of E gyptian kings, we find
th a t th ey also m ade ships.
From such beginnings grew all th e boats and ships w hich
have become one of the w orlds m eans of travel and tran sp o rt.
The w aters have become highw ays. The size of boats has in
creased 1 up to th e great ships we use in our tim e.
Ocean-going liners and river boats are used to carry pas
sengers and goods. Pleasure boats are for tourists and holi
day-makers.?
As sum m er journeys are very popular in our co u n try , a
favourite way of trav elling is by river boat or canoe. M any
people travel for several weeks along th e m any big and sm all
rivers. O thers prefer a cruise * on th e B lack Sea or to foreign
countries.
I. EXPRESS YOUR OPINION

1. For some people there is nothing so fine as a voyage in


a big ship. W hat are the things th a t m ake trav ellin g by sea
so very attractiv e?
2. T ravelling on board a big liner is more convenient and
safer th a n trav ellin g in a sm all boat, but it is less exciting
and less interesting. W hat do you think?
3. W hat would you see if you took a cruise along th e B lack
Sea coast (round Europe)?
4. W hen do you think passengers began crossing th e A t
lantic on board ocean liners?
I I. SAY WHAT YOU CAN

1. In areas w ithout roads or railw ays, overland


*trav
is still very difficult. How are water-w ays used in
such area
2. In w hat way is trav ellin g by sea attractive?
3. W hich season is th e best to decide on if you w ant to
m ake a sea voyage? Why?
4. W hich do you th in k is b e tte r a journey by land, a
sea voyage or a trip along a river? Why?
1 to increase [m 'krhsj to become greater (in size, value, number, etc.)
* holiday-maker a person who goes away from home for a time (dur
ing a holiday) to enjoy himsell
cruise [kru:z] a sea voyage from port to port, especially for pleasure
* overland {'ouvalaendj by land, not by sea
42

I I I . TELL, ASK, DISCUSS

1. Tell your p artn er w h at you have learned about roundthe-w orld voyages from lite ra tu re and TV programmes.
2. Ask your partn er w hether he has ever m ade a voyage.
If he has, let him tell you th e nam e of his ship, the port
w here he started his voyage and other details.
3. Discuss which of you has m ade m ore excursions or
journeys by land, and by sea or along rivers.
IV. A JO K E

A M odest Wish
S h i p s c a p t a i n : W hat did th a t seasick passenger
say when you asked him if you could bring him anything?
Steward:
He said
he w anted m e to bring him
an island.
Question: W hy did th e
passenger w ant an island?

Do either of you know how to


row?

Questions:
1. W hat kind of a sea trip did th e two holiday-m akers
w ant to make?
2. How do to u rist firm s in ca p italist countries try to at
trac t customers?

Word List
attractive [9'traektiv] a

canoe ['] n ;
detail ['dcteil] n
Egyptian [I'dsipjan] n ;
a

floating I'flojtiQ] a
log n ,
means n ;
modest ('madistj a
ocean-going a (
)
43

scasick a

steward [stjuad] n

tomb [tu:m] n

18. TH ERES NOTHING L IK E TRAVELLING BY


A IR
M ans desire to fly first found expression in fantasy and
legend. Then he began to understand th e air and tru e flight
became possible. It is only about eighty years since m an
m ade th e first fljght in a powered aircraft.^
Today, trav ellin g by air is a common thing. Many people
like it because it is more com fortable, m ore convenient and,
of course, very m uch quicker th an any other m eans of tran s
port. As the A eroflot posters say, Ten hours by tra in
one hour by plane. A beautiful jet-propelled passenger
liner 2 w ill carry you to your destination * very quickly.
If th e distance is not very great you will fly on a sm aller
plane which can land on an air-field near a sm all town or
even a village.
W hen you board a plane th e stewardess greets you and by
radio, before th e plane takes off,* she gives the passengers
all the inform ation about the flight.
D uring local flights on sm all planes you can see th e
land below and enjoy the scenery.
You reach your destination very quickly and realize th a t
trav ellin g by air has m any advantages.
Is there a b etter way of travelling th an by air?
I. QUESTIONS ABOUT PASSENGER FLIGHTS

1. W hat are th e advantages of trav ellin g by plane?


2. W hat inform ation does th e strew ardess give the pas
sengers on board a plane?
3. D uring th e flight some of the passengers talk, some
^ aircraft ['eokraftj a plane
* jet-propelled liner
destination [^desti'neijan]the place to which a person is going or
a thing is sent
* to take off
44

read and others sleep. W hat else can they do, which is, per
haps, m ore interesting th an sleeping or talking?
4. W hat does th e ground look like ^ from a plane?
I I . SAY WHAT YOU CAN

1.
seat?
2.
3.
w ith
4.
5.
6.

How m any passengers can m odern passenger planes


Describe how passengers are seen off at an airport.
W hy are passengers of m odern planes not provided
parachutes I'paerajurtsl when they board a plane?
W hat does an airplane stewardess do?
Som etim es a plane is late. How can you explain this?
W hy do some people not like to travel by plane?
I I I . TELL, ASK, DISCUSS

1. W hen you tak e your seat in a plane, th e first thing


th a t m ay attra c t your atten tio n is a notice ? th a t says: Fas
ten seat belts.
Tell your partn er why passengers are allowed to unfas
ten th e ir seat belts when th e plane is well up in the air.
2. Ask your p artner w hat he knows about the kind of air
craft th a t can rise straig h t up from th e ground.
3. Discuss w hat you can see at an airport while you w ait
for your plane.
IV. A JOKE

No More Flying
A backwoodsm an took a flight in a sm all plane. As he
clim bed out of th e aircraft at th e end of the trip , he turned
to th e pilot and said, T hank you for both flights.
W hat are you talk ing about? asked th e pilot. You
only had one.
No, sir, answered th e passenger, I had two, m y first
and my last.
Question: W hat kind of trav ellin g do you th in k th e back
woodsman prefers?
to look like
* notice I'lioutis]ad.
45

L ist
allow (a'lau] v
attract [a'traekt] v
backwoodsman ['baekwudzman] n

below (bi'lou] adv
fasten {'fcusn] v
flight Iflait] n

poster ['pousta] n
powered ('pauad] a .
provide [pra'vaid] v ,
scenery ('sfcnari] n
seat v .
seat belt

19. EXAMINATIONS ARE NOT A LOTTERY


The school year will be over soon and you eighth-form ers
will have to tak e exams. The exam ination subjects are your
n ativ e language (w ritten and oral) and m athem atics (a w rit
ten exam in algebra and an oral one in geometry).
Of course, everybody w ants to do well in th e exams i
and receive excellent m arks. B ut to pass an exam well you
m ust know th e program me m aterial very well. Now is th e
most su itab le tim e to revise th e old m aterial, so your teach
ers are giving you revision lessons in all subjects. The m ain
task for you now is to be well prepared for each exam.
Sem e school students say th a t an exam is a lottery, you
can draw either a lucky or an unlucky exam ination card.
But th is is not so. If you know the subject well, all exam i
nation cards will be lucky and you will tell everybody how
easy th e exams were.
When exam ination tim e comes, dont forget about your
daily regime.? D ont study till late at night. Get up early in
th e m orning and do your gym nastics. This will m ake your
studies effective. All cards w ill be lucky.
I. EXPLAIN AND DISCUSS

1. W hy exam inations are so im portant.


2. The best way to prepare for an exam.
3. T he difference between ordinary lessons and revision
lessons.
to do well In the exams
* daily regime [rei'3l:ml
46

4. W hether a w ritten is easier to pass than


an oral one. W hy?
5. How to prepare for an exam together w ith a classm ate.
6. W hy exam s are n ot a lo ttery .
II.

SAY WHAT YOU CAN

1. To pass exams well, school students should persistently


acquire knowledge. Say w hether there are any subjects th at
come easy to you. W hich subjects do you have to study per
sistently?
2. School students should study diligently and listen
atten tiv ely to th e teachers explanations. W hat can you say
about how to study diligently?
3. Teachers always say th a t pupils should do th eir assign
m ents by them selves w ithout help from others. B ut some
tim es it may be very difficult to do homework assignm ents
w ithout outside help. W hat is th e difference between com
radely help given freely and copying from one another?

in.

TELL, ASK, DISCUSS

Tell your partner;


a) what you will do if your friend cant do a problem *
in algebra and you already know th e answer;
b) why a pupil m ust th in k calm ly before he or she answers
his teach ers questions.
Ask your partner:
a) why he should be sure of w hat he is going to say before
he rises to speak in class;
b) to repeat and then com plete th is sentence:
Instead of try in g to work really hard all the term , she...
IV.

A JOKE

Which Is More Difficult?


T e a c h e r : Are th e exam ination questions giving you
any trouble? ^
P u p i l : The questions are clear. I t s the answers th a t
are slowing me down.
1 to do a problem
to give somebody trouble ( ] -
to slow down ,

Word List
calm [kam ] a
diligent ['dilidsant] a
draw V .
effective [I'fek tiv] a
lottery ['loteri] n
oral [':1] a

ordinary ['oidinan] a
persistent [ps'sistsnt] a >

revise [ri'vaiz] v ( )
term . ()

20. OCCUPATIONS, T R A D E S, PROFESSIONS


An occupation is activ ity of any kind for which a per
son has th e necessary qualifications and train in g . For exam
ple: I am by occupation a teacher, and he is by occupation a
ta x i-d riv e r.
A trad e is an occupation, a handicraft by m eans of w hich
a person m akes his living.^ T rade schools teach different
trades, for exam ple: cooking, furniture-m aking, operating
different m achines. In these schools you can get tra in in g in
any tra d e you m ay choose.
A common exam ple of th e word tra d e given in English
dictionaries is this: Shoem aking is a useful trad e .
There are very m any trades, all of them im portant and
useful. W hy not to learn th e tra d e of a tu rn er, a fitte r or a
bricklayer after you finish school? W orkers of these trades
are always in great demand.?
As to th e word profession, you know it very well. B ut
be careful how you use it. E nglish people speak of th e pro
fession of teaching, of m edicine, or th e profession of secre
tary , shop-assistant, journalist.
Some of you m ay already know w hat occupation you wish
to follow, w hat you will be by trad e or profession. O thers
of you have not yet made your decision. There are so m any
different trades and professions today th a t it is not easy to
decide.* Your teachers and parents will help you to m ake a
correct choice. Choosing the trad e or profession that, you
will follow needs advice.
^
*
*
*

to
in
as
to

48

make ones living to get what is necessary for life


great demand they are always needed
to
decide [di'said] to make a choice

I. THINKING OUT ANSW ERS

1. W hat do you know about how a person chooses a trad e


or a profession?
2. W hat do you know about th e roads open to schoolleavers? ^
3. W hat can people of various trades and professions do
to help school stu d en ts to fin d out w hat a job in th e ir own
occupation means?

II.

SAY WHAT YOU CAN

1. There are schools th a t teach different trades. W hich of


them would be su itab le for you?
2. You have read th a t shoem aking is a useful trad e. N am e
some other useful trades and explain th eir usefulness.
3. W hat does a person do if he is a carpenter by trad e or
a nurse (hospital sister) by profession?
4. The profession of architect requires special education.
Nam e some other occupations in which special education
or train in g is required.
5. T he Soviet C o n stitution guarantees th e right to work.
How is th is rig h t carried into life by th e Com m unist P a rty
and th e Soviet Governm ent?

III. TA LK IN G TOGETHER
1. Tell your p artn er which you would or would not like
most to be some day: a bricklayer, a teacher, a hospital
nurse, an airplane p ilot, th e driver of a tracto r, or a shopassistant. W hy?
2. Ask your p artn er to tell you som ething about jobs
which interest him very m uch.
3. An E nglish proverb says Jac k of all trades is m aster
of none which m eans th a t a person who follows m any dif
ferent occupations is never expert at any.
Discuss w hether th is is correct and w hether you can learn
m any trades successfully.
school-leaver BUiiycKHHK
49

Word L ist
architect ['ttkitekt) n
bricklayer ['bnklei] n
carpenter ['kapinta] n
choice n
decision [di'sissn] n
expert ('ekspst] a

fitter ['fitaj n
nurse [na:s] n
require [ri'kwaia] v ()
specialize ['spejalaiz] v ()
turner [] n
various ('veariasj a

EVERYDA Y TOPICS
In th is section you will talk about various everyday s it
uations. They are new, of course, but th e topics are fam il
iar. T his is additional m aterial to P a rt One. Sections of
the same k in d can be found in P a rt Two (p. ...) and in P a rt
Three (p. ...).
I.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
50

THINK OF QUESTIONS TO WHICH THESE


ARE THE ANSWERS

I ll be back in a m inute.
I cant tell m ore than w hat I know.
W ell see w hat we can do.
He sim ply could not understand it.
I
have
a few things to say to you.
I
m ust
decide things for myself.
He w ants me to meet him tom orrow m orning.
I heard th is from his own lips.
I came to see if I could be of any help to you.
If I told you, youd never believe it.
A nybodyll tell you where it is.
There is only one way to find out w hat v.e w ant to know.
Our journey was not going too well.
There were different opinions about it.
I have interesting news for you.
The work was interesting enough.
I ll rem em ber in a m inute.
I dont know how I did it.
I ll have to th in k .
I w ant
to go out and do some shopping.
I told her th a t
I didnt know w hat she was talk in g abou

22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.

It needs careful thinkingW e talk ed on everyday topics.


All I could do was w ait and see.
It is not very difficult to im agine.
She w ill do as she is told.
I have had no tim e to th in k . E v ery th in g has happened
so quickly.
II.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.

TH IN K WHAT ANSWERS YOU CAN GIVE TO


THESE QUESTIONS

W here have you been all th is tim e?


W hat do you w ant me to do?
Is th ere any way I can help you?
W hen are you coming back?
W h a ts going to happen to me?
W hat sort of a girl is she?
W here are you going to spend th e evening?
How was he when you last saw him?
And hows your work going?
How often have you m et him?
W here have you been all th e evening?
W hen are we going to see each other?
Now, how are you? W hat did th e doctor say?
W here do we go from here?
W hy d id n t you say so before?
How did you get here?
How did you find it all out?
W hat
are you w aiting for?
W hat is it th a t you wish of me?
I w ant to know. W hy dont you w ant to tell me?
We dont see enough of you. W hen are you com ing to
see us?
W hy are you tellin g me all this?
W hat
do you w ant m e to tell
you?
W hen can I see you?
W hat more can he w ant, 1 should like to know?
W hat
do I have to do?
How was your day? (How did you spend th e day?)
W hat do you w ant me to do?
W hat m akes you th in k you would be su itab le for such a
job?
How did school go today? (A question from your m other.)
51

111.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.

WHAT SITUATIONS OR PROBLEMS W ERE DISCUSSED


BY THE PEOPLE WHO USED THESE SENTENCES?

T heres no tim e to lose.^


I see th a t th is is news to you.
D id you have a nice time?
D ont w rite any m ore letters.
You h av en t had my experience of life.
H ave you seen a doctor?
I have absolutely no knowledge on th a t point.
Can we m eet tomorrow?
You dont know w hat you are saying.
This is som ething you m ust decide for yourself.
How difficult it was to know w hat to do!
Do th is and then you m ay rest.
Are there m any who th in k th e same as you?
Isn t it tim e we ate?
He never did things like th at.
Do you like coming to see me?
Perhaps you can tell me why I ve been asked.
Could you ring me up at th is num ber about eleven on
Sunday m orning?
Is he a great friend of yours?
I sim ply did not know w hat to say next.
I had no idea which floor he lived on.
T h at is som ething q uite different.
T heres only one way out of th is thing.
If you w ant to speak to me, you will ring
me up.
I hope youll like it here.
A tru e friend is the one who tells you th e
tru th abo
yourself.
So now we understand each other.

^ Each situation or problem can be explained or described in different


ways; e. g. Sentence No 1. Some people had to go somewhere by
train, and one of them said, Theres no time to lose or They were
going to another town by plane and it was already late. Sentence
No 2. The speaker saw that his Friend didnt understand w hat he
was talking about or The speaker saw that what he had said was
new to his listeners. Now he had to give the details. Sentence No 3
(and perhaps many other sentences) may require a very short answer:
They were discussfng holidays , or The speakers friend had just
come back from the South. '
Think how to give your own answers,
52

IV.

DESCRIBE THESE SITUATIONS


USING THE QUESTIONS TO HELP YOU

1. There w asnt a second to lose.


W hy was it very im portant not to lose even a second?
W h at m ight happen?
2. E veryone was talk ing at once.
W hat kind of people were they? W here were they? Why
d id n t they ta lk one after another? W hat m ade them
begin talk in g all at once?
3. She looked at herself in th e w all m irror.
W hat kind of room was it? W hat was she going to do
after looking at herself in th e w all m irror?
4. T h e children ran from side to side of th e carriage, look
ing first out of one w indow and then out of another.
W as th e carriage in a local tra in (electric tra in ) or in
a fast train? W hat could the children see out of th e
windows?
6. B etter not talk on th e phone.
W hy do you th in k th e person who said these words w ant
ed to speak in person, not by telephone? W ho w ere the
speakers?
6. They looked at each other as if ? they were seeing each
o th er for th e first tim e.
W here did th a t m eeting tak e place? W hy d id n t they
look at each other as persons do who know each other?
7. There were a hundred things to do.
Nam e some of the things. W ho had to do them ? W hy?
8. She in stinctively covered w ith her hand th e page of the
le tte r she was w riting.
W hom was she w riting th e letter? W ho cam e near her?
W hy did she cover w ith her hand th e page of th e letter?
D id somebody w ant to see w hat she was w riting? Why?
9. They w ent about everyw here together.
W hy d id they go together? W ere they friends? W here did
they go in p articular?
10. W e sat th ere w ithout speaking.
W hy d id n t th ey speak? W hat were they th in k in g about?
11,. H e returned from telephoning.
How long was h e absent? W hom did he telephone? W hat
did he say when he returned?
^ at once
* as if
63

12.

I dressed in th e best s u it I had.


W hat kind of suit was th e m ans best suit? W hy did he
dress in his best suit? W as it an im portant day for him ?
How were other people dressed on th a t day?
More Questions About Situations

1. W hen you come to a strange town, you m ay have to ask


th e way every five m inutes.
W hat kind of questions will you ask?
2. W hen you are doing som ething your m other doesnt
w ant you to do, how often m ust she say D ont before
you stop?
3. Seeing th a t you have done little or nothing, th e teacher
m ay w alk up to your desk and repeat to you w hat she
has already said to th e whole group.
W hat will she say?
4. W hen you come home from school, your parents m ay
have some questions to ask you.
W hat questions can you expect?
5. It is never too late to start on som ething really im por
ta n t.
So com plete th e following: I to ld m yself th a t th ere is
no too late for...
6. Your fath er shows you a letter from a person whom he
had known since his schooldays.
W hat questions will you ask?
V.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
4

EXPLAIN THE SITUATIONS WHICH


THESE SENTENCES W ERE USED

Be a good boy, and I m ay bring som ething back for you.


He received the news w ithout enthusiasm .
I t s such a long tim e since I saw you.
You dont know w hat youre doing.
I dont know whether or not you know it.
Please, th eres no reason to thank me.
Take care of yourself.
I ll w rite down his address for you before we go.
Please, let me talk to you.
He was asked to give reasons for his decision.
W ill you let me know if th eres any news?
Go and lie down. T ake an aspirin.

13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.

Please dont th in k badly of me.


There was nothing to ta lk about, nothing to say.
I listened to him w ith growing interest.
This is certainly a surprise!
I thanked him for all his help and advice.
Do you know w hat you are doing?
Tell me all th e news.
I d id n t know w hat to say.
My father took me to th e sta tio n and put me on th e train .
1 do not know. I only know w hat I have said.
Best wishes for a successful trip!
W hat a pleasant surprise!
You d id n t ask me.
I dont th in k th is is going to be easy.
M aybe t h a t s news to you.
T hank you for all youve done.

PART TWO

1. MUSEUMS OF G LO R IO U S H ISTO R Y
A museum is a building w here objects of interest and
works of art are preserved and exhibited. Some m useums
show objects of scientific interest; others show the develop
m ent of arts and sciences; others show how people lived in
th e past.
Today you will read about a special^kind of m useum.
Museums of th is kind are popular a 1 over th e Soviet Union
and th eir educational value is very great.
E very p art of our country has its own exciting story to
tell of how Soviet power was established there, following
th e victory of th e workers and peasants in P etrograd in No
vem ber 1917.
So in every town museum you will find th e p o rtraits of
Bolsheviks, who were sent from P etrograd and other cities
to lead th e R evolution to success in th a t part of the country.
These men and women soon became honoured local c iti
zens.
This is not museum history, but real life for local stu
dents and schoolchildren; m any of th eir grandparents tell
how th eir fathers, the young peoples great grandparents,
particip ated in these events and how they fought during
the foreign intervention and Civil W ar.
Young people also hear m any interesting things about
the heroic deeds of more recent periods of historyth e col
lectivization of agriculture, industrialization, th e first fiveyear plans, th e war years.
Much new inform ation is collected and recorded by school
children who seek out ? and interview veterans of those
days. They often discover relics and docum ents which are
placed on exhibition at schools and libraries.

1 io participate [pa'tisipeit] to take part in something

^ to seek o u tad.
56

I. TH IN K IN G OUT ANSWERS

1. Tens of m illions of workers and peasants have b uilt


socialism in our country. Tens of m illions have m ade the
history of our tim es.
W hat can eye-witnesses and particip an ts ^ in these events
te ll young people?
2. There are Heroes Room s in m any of our schools. They
help pupils to learn more about th e heroes of our country
and th eir deeds.
W hy are Heroes Rooms not m useum history, but real
life for m any young people?
II. SUBJECTS TO TA LK ABOUT
1. The difference between your local m useum and others
th a t you have seen.
2. W hy people h u rry to v isit a recently opened show (a
flower show, a fine arts ^ exhibition).
3. T he work of a museum a tte n d a n t (guide) and th e kind
of m useum which you would like to be a guide in.
4. How to learn to discuss pictures or different tr e n d s
in pain tin g .
5. T he im portance and usefulness of a school p ictu re gallerv.
III. TA LKIN G TOGETHER
1. Tell your partner w hat historical details a guide is
expected to know and w hat kind of unexpected questions
m ay arise during an excursion. He m ay have som ething to
say on th e subject too.
2. The w orlds first ski m useum was opened in Norway.
Ask your partner w hether he knows any o th er unusual
museum s. W hat is unusual about them ?
3. In museums you w ill find requests to th e public not
to touch th e exhibits.
Discuss th e reason for such requests.
* eye-witness I'aiw itnis)a person who has himself seen
happen; participant a person who participates
- tlie fine artspainting, drawing, sculpture, architecture
3 irend a direction

something

67

Word List
arise [a'raiz] v , no
establish [is'taeblijj v ,

exliibit (ig'zibitj n ( );
preserve [pri'zav] v

recent ('rfcsant] a
record [ri'kxd] t , pc
relic ['relii<] n
request [n'kw est] n
show n , ,

2. CELEBRATING A N N IVERSA RIES


Anniversaries are celebrated on various occasions. Some
of them are very im portant, they are state holidays; others
are just fam ily celebrations.
T he anniversary of the G reat O ctober Socialist R evolu
tion, a national holiday in the Soviet Union, is observed in
m any other countries, too. It is celebrated by workers and
progressives all over the world. And the anniversary of the
October R evolution is at the same tim e a fam ily celebration.
In 1941, when th e distance from Moscow to th e front
line was less th an an hours ride in a car, th e anniversary of
the O ctober R evolution was celebrated in Red Square as
usual. But the troops th a t paraded th a t day did not return
to their barracks, they went straig h t to the front.
A nother great anniversary comes on May 9. T hat spring
day in 1945 has gone down in the history of our country as
Victory Day. V ictory Day is m arked in Moscow, in all th e
hero cities of the country and in the capitals of th e union
republics by trad itio n al gun salutes.
In peace tim e the anniversary celebrations are always
gay and festive. From early m orning th e streets are full of
people. D em onstrations are held in all cities, towns and
villages. People m arch past, carrying banners and slogans,
flowers and flags. Music and songs are heard everywhere.
I. TH IN KIN G OUT ANSWERS
1. W hat can be done by school stu d en ts in honour of an
anniversary?
2. W hat kind of a social would you like to have on your
schools anniversary?
3. How do you imagine an anniversary issue of your wall
newspaper?
58

I I. SUBJECTS TO TALK ABOUT

1. How all Soviet people dem onstrate th eir support for


th e policy of th eir P a rty and G overnm ent when they cele
b ra te th e anniversary of th e date th e Soviet Union was
founded.
2. F am ily celebrations include birthdays, which are a
source of joy and m errim ent to both grown-ups and children.
W hat is especially pleasant and joyous in birthday celebra
tions?
3. New trad itio n s and new anniversaries of equal interest
to th e fam ily and to society in general.^
H I. TA LKIN G TOGETHER
A part from ? th e public holidays there are a num ber of
specialized Days. These days are m arked by festivities
and th e aw ard of titles, orders and m edals. Special TV pro
gramm es about the workers of a p articu lar industry or pro
fession are shown and concerts are held.
1. Tell your p artn er w hat you know about International
W om ens Day, C hildrens Day (Ju n e 1) and T eachers Day.
As your p artn er knows very well w hat is done on these
days in your school, tell him how these days are celebrated
out of school.
2. Ask your p artner about R ailw ay W orkers Day, M in
e rs D ay, B uilding W orkers Day. Let him tell you how
im po rtan t the work of railw aym en, m iners and building
workers is. You may also find out w hether he knows more
than you about th e kind of festivities these days are m arked
by.
Many railw ay workers, m iners and building workers,
Hke representatives of other trades and professions, are
awarded orders and titles on th eir special days. How do they
show a com m unist a ttitu d e tow ards th eir work?

Word List
barracks ['baeraks] n pi
date n ,
gay a

gun n ,
honour ['] n
issue ['isju:] n ,

* in general ,
* apart from ,
50

mark V
observe [ab'zav] v

ride v ( )
source [so;sJ n
title ['ta itlj n
troops [tru;ps] n pi

3. W H E R E BOOKS A R E K E P T FO R USE
Soviet people are th e greatest readers in th e world. There
are 350 thousand libraries in th e Soviet U nion, and over
two hundred m illion people use th e books kept there.
There are different kinds of libraries: public libraries
(public m eans for everybody), childrens libraries, school
libraries, personal libraries, scientific libraries and even
travelling libraries.!
If you w ant to borrow books from a library, you sub
scribe to it.? B ut first you m ust learn the rules of th e library.
W hen you en ter a library you can see long rows of
shelves, and in m any libraries readers can go round and
choose w hat they w ant.
W e usually keep a book for a week, or perhaps two (a
fortnight), before tak in g it back. If, at th e end of the fort
night, you have not finished reading a book, you may tak e
it out again for another fortnight. If th e book you w ant is
out, you m ay leave an order for it. The librarian will send
you a postcard which tells you th a t the book is in and is
ready for you.
Most public libraries also have a reading room and a
reference library.* In the reading room th ere are tables at
which you can sit and read books, new spapers and m aga
zines. In the reference library there are encyclopedias, dic
tionaries, atlases, and m any other books of reference. Thes*
may not be tak en out.
Secondary school pupils who are interested in foreign lan
guages v isit libraries to get books in E nglish, French or G er
man. They will find stories and books retold in easy language
for each special class and also books in th e original.
*
!
*
*

travelling library
to subscribe [ssb'skraib] to a library
to go round
reference I'refrans] library (
)

60

I. THINKING OUT ANSWERS

1. W hat m ust you do if you w ant to borrow books from a


library?
2. How m any books can be tak en out at a tim e at your
local (school, ch ild ren s) library?
3. How long can books from your library be kept?
4. W hat can you find in a reference library?
5. W hat is the purpose of a trav ellin g library?
II. EXPRESS YOUR OPINION

1. People begin using libraries as soon as they learn to


read. Some lib rarian s say th a t a child should be taken to
a lib rary even before he learns to read, ju st to see th e pic
tures.
W hat is your opinion?
2. How does a lib rarian influences th e reading h ab its of
a child?
3. Som etim es a pupil finds it difficult to rem em ber dates
from a textbook of history because they are not closely asso
ciated w ith people and event. A historical novel will supply
associations and help th e reader to rem em ber the m aterial.
W hat about geography and other subjects? Give some
exam ples of how books can help.
III . TALKING TOGETHER

Im agine th a t th e school year is over. You have no home


work to do and your m other says: Now th a t the holidays
have started you will have
plenty of tim e for reading
w hat you w ant when you
w an t.
T ogether m ake a selec
tion of books you would like
to read in your leisure tim e
during th e holidays.
Discuss why you have
chosen one or another book.
W hat about a latest edition of
Shakespeare?
Is he still writing?
* at a time
61

Questions:
1. W hat can you say about the w om ans knowledge of
literatu re and authors?
2. W ill her son become a w ell-read person? ^

Word List
associate [a'soujieit] v ;

borrow ['] V
French
German ['dsatman]

habit ['haebit]
novel ['noval]

order n
over ['ouva] prep ,
perhaps [pa'haeps] adv ,

purpose ['p9:pas]
shelf
supply [sa'plai] ,
use [ju:s]

4. THE SOVIET PRESS


E very year on May 5 the Soviet people celebrate Press
Day. It is a big occasion not only for journalists, publishers
and p rin tin g workers. All the w orking people of the country
in fact th e en tire Soviet people observe Press Day. In th is
way they show th eir love for Soviet newspapers, m agazines
and journals.? A Soviet fam ily reads on an average ^ four
newspapers and m agazines or journals. The Soviet U nion
is a country of m any n ationalities, and therefore newspapers
and m agazines are printed in m any languages. Soviet news
papers are printed in fifty-six n ational languages and m aga
zines in forty-four.
The Soviet press also publishes a num ber of m agazines
and new spapers in foreign languages. The weekly paper,
Moscow News, can be obtained in English, French, Spanish
and Arabic. It is read in more than one hundred and th irty
countries. It is published by the U nion of Soviet Societies
of F riendship and C ultural R elations w ith Foreign Coun
tries.^
Our new spapers tell about all th e changes in our life. They
tell us about our factories and plants, about com m unist
construction works, about the collective and state farm s.
^ a well-read [red] person is a person who has read much
2 a journal a scientific magazine
^ on an average ['aevaridsJ
^

62

From th e newspapers, m agazines and scientific journals


we can learn w hat is going on in all parts of our great land.
In every new spaper or m agazine we can read about out
stand in g workers, about deeds of courage and m any other
interesting and im portant things. In m agazines th ere are
also stories and p ictures.
Our daily papers also give us th e news from foreign coun
tries, from th e socialist countries and from cap italist coun
tries. The Soviet press expresses th e m ost progressive ideas
of our tim e.
The profession of jo u rn alist in our country is interesting
and esteemed. To tell people th e tru th , to w rite about the
deeds and th e hopes of th e Soviet people, the builders of
Com munism th is is the role of th e journalist. O ur jo u r
n alists serve th e people.
I. TH INKIN G OUT ANSWERS
1. Some m agazines are not available on the news-stand
b u t are sold by subscription only.
G ive some of th e title s of such m agazines and explain
th eir p o p ularity.
2. M urzilka is a m agazine for children, Ogonyok is
a weekly m agazine.
G ive short descriptions of some other publications.
3. Some new s-stands sell m agazines and new spapers in
foreign languages.
W hich of these publications can be read by n in th form
ers? For w hat purposes?
4. There is a new s-stand near your school (house, bus stop).
Describe w hat you can see inside it.
II. SUBJECTS TO TALK ABOUT
1. W hether the vay subscriptions to newspapers are tak
en* in your class should be im proved.
2. Why mem bers of your fam ily subscribe to certain
periodicals (newspapers and m agazines).
3. The kind of periodicals which are sold at kiosks and
Soyuzpechat autom ats in city streets, at railw ay stations,
airports and hotels.
4. W hat you can read in Pionerskaya P ravda and in
Komsomolskaya P rav d a.
^ to take subscriptions ( )
63

H I. TALKING TOGETHER

1. Tell your p artner w hat you read, ap art from th e news.


In th e daily papers.
2. Ask your p artn er w hat he can buy at a new s-stall.
3. Discuss w hat can be read in a m agazine for children,
in an evening paper, in a wall newspaper.

tr-

Question:
How can you explain the lib ra ria n s way of inform ing
the readers th a t th ere is a fire?

Word List
Arabic ['aerabik] n
available [a'veiiabi] a
D <^
esteem j(is'ti;inJ v ,

ire ['faisl n

news-stand n
obtain (ab'teinj v
print V
Spanish ('spaenij) n

therefore ['01;) adv

5. SUBBOTNIK LABOUR SATURDAY


You know, of course, th a t th e term subbotnik, m eaning
a day of voluntary labour, was first introduced in th e dif
ficult days of 1919. R ailway workers in a Moscow repair
yard 1 re b u ilt three locomotives th a t day w ithout pay.
And here is a press report about another subbotnik w hich
was held fifty years later, in I960.
repair [ri'peaj yard
64

Workers Still Follow the Examole of Yakov


M illions of Soviet citizens yesterday worked a day on th e
tra d itio n a l subbotnik, which is held every year on th e an n i
versary of the b irth of V ladim ir Ilyich Lenin.
The subbotnik had its b irth in April 1919, at a Moscow
repair yard when in response to L enins call, railw ay w orkers
worked all night w ithout pay to repair locom otives to carry
arms to the Red Army.
Y esterday, at th e sam e rep air yard, a veteran of th a t
first subbotnik, Y akov K ondratyev, stood on th e platform
of one of th e rem aining locom otives he had helped to re p air,
and greeted those who had come to carry on th e great tr a
dition.
At th e ca p ita ls M oskvich factory 560 cars were produced
yesterday as a gift to th e country and at th e Likhachev p la n t
600 lorries came off th e conveyor lin e.2
I. EXPRESS YOUR OPINION
as to:
L W hy Soviet people work on Com m unist S ub b o tn ik s
w ith great enthusiasm .
2. How workers economize m aterial in order to produce
m ore goods for th e country on subbotniks.
3. W hat is done w ith th e m oney raised * at a su b b o tn ik
and contributed to the n atio n al economy.^
4. How school students can work on a subbotnik.
II. SUBJECTS TO TA LK ABOUT
1. The role of v oluntary labour in th e C om m unist edu
cation of th e working people.
2. How subbotniks were first introduced in our country.
3. W hy trad itio n al subbotniks are held on the an n iv er
sary of L enins b irth .
4. How th e great tra d itio n of th e first subbotniks is ca r
ried on.
1
*
*
*

to carry on
came off tlie conveyor line.
to raise moneyad.
national economy

6931

65

I I I . TALKING TOGETHER

1. Tell your partner how the exam ple of the veterans of


th e first subbotniks is followed nowadays.
2. Ask your p artner how school students can work on a
subbotnik and contribute to th e national economy.
3. Discuss w hat school students can do on a subbotnik
apart from producing goods as workers do.

Word List
arms n pi ,
rebuild ['rL'bildJ v call n

contribute [k9n'tnbju:t] v response [ns'pDns] n

term n .
economize [L'konamaiz] v - voluntary
('vDlantari] a

gift n ,
6. RESPECT A MAN, H E W IL L DO THE M ORE
The title of this tex t is an English proverb which first
appeared in a book published in 1659.
People have always thought about respect for m an, so
i t s in teresting to discuss th e subject.
Respect for m an is an old problem , but only socialism
has created conditions for a tru ly deep respect for m an.
E xploiters cannot have respect for th e people they exploit.
We have neither ex p loitation nor inequality in our country.
C onditions for co-operation and confidence among people
are developing more and more.
Soviet people have th e greatest respect for those who tak e
an active p art in com m unist construction. Such people de
serve everyones respect for th eir selfless work.
One of th e Rules of School B ehaviour says th a t each
pupil should show respect for th e head of th e school and th e
teachers.
It is clear th a t respect is shown by deeds, not by words.
If you w ant to be treated w ith respect, you m ust deserve
it. You should m aster knowledge in order to be useful to
your M otherland. You should tak e an active part in the
social life of your school. You should take care of school
property.
In th is case only, will you be respected by everybody.
Respect comes to those who deserve it.
66

I. SAY WHAT YOU CAN

1. There is, of course, som ebody for whose work you have
great respect. W ho is th a t person, and w hat is his work?
2. W hy do school stu d ents respect th eir teach ers opinion?
3. W hat is the best way to teach children respect for
labour?
4. We all respect him for his fairness. W hat else do we
respect people for?
5. There are some people who are treated w ith little re
spect. Why is it so?
II. SUBJECTS TO TA LK ABOUT
1. The M oral Code of th e B uilder of Com munism says
th a t m an to m an is a friend, brother and comrade.
How do you understand th is statem ent?
2. C o-operation am ong people in socialist society.
3. T he behaviour of a person who wishes to enjoy other
peoples confidence.
4. Selfless work in com m unist construction.
III. TA LKIN G TOGETHER
1. Tell your partn er how children should show respect
to th eir parents.
2. Ask your p artn er to describe the character of people
he respects very much.
3. Discuss how im p o rtant it is for a young person to be
respected by everybody.

Word List
behaviour [bi'heivja] n

inequality [,ini:'l<wolili]

code n
confidence ['konfidans] n
deserve [di'zoiv] v ,
-
fair a ,
farther adv ,

respect [ns'pekt] n
selfless a
social ['soufal] a
treat v , ;
-

7.

n -

T A L K IN G ACROSS OCEANS

T hroughout most of his history, m an has not had any way


of m aking his voice carry a long distance.
3*

T his does not m ean th a t there was no way of sending m es


sages quickly over a distance. There were m any m ethods,
b u t only very sim ple messages could be sent. E arly m en used,
for exam ple, tom -tom s to send signals th a t could be heard
by people q u ite a long distance away, as Africans used th is
m ethod for hundreds of years. O ther people used smoke
signals and bonfires. For m any years different coloured
flags were used to send inform ation or orders from one ship
at sea to another.
B ut if messages are to be exact, they m ust be put into
words. U ntil early in th e 19th century, alm ost th e only way
of sending w ritten messages- quickly was to use carrier pi
geons,^ which always fly back to th e place where they live,
which of course was the place w here th e message had to go.
Today telephone com m unications enable ? people to
ta lk to their friends and acquaintances over great distances,
even across seas and oceans. The telephone is of very great
im portance in business, in ad m in istrativ e relations, and in
th e national economy as a whole.
Progress in telephone com m unication is equal to progress
in telegraph com m unication. Today th e old Morse telegraph,
which could not send and receive words quickly, is alm ost
a th in g of the past. In its place we have teleprinters, which
tran sm it messages at very high speed * and in the letters of
the alphabet.
I. THINKING OUT ANSWERS

1. For w hat purposes is th e telephone used daily in of


fices, factories and m any homes?
2. How do you telephone to people who live far away
from your home? Must you use a public telephone, or can you
use your oWn phone?
3. In the evening on th e radio (First Program m e, '20.50
Moscow Time) you can hear foreign news from the T ele p rin t
er (Teletype) Room.
W hat is th e news about?
* carrier pigeon {'pidsin] a kind of pigeon () used for carrying
messages, because it can find its way home from any place even a
long distance away
* to enable to make (somebody) able
Morse [mD;s] telegraph
* at high speed very quickly
68

II

SUBJECTS TO TALK ABOUT

1. The kind of telegraph messages people send each other.


2. The* advantages of com m unication by telegraph.
3. How telephone com m unication is used in the national economy.
I II. TALKIN G TOGETHER
1. In big cities, there are no poles for holding telegraph
and telephone lines.
Ask your p artn er where
these lines are.
2. Tell your p artn er w hat
you know about the con
ten ts ^ of telegraph messages
sent and received by people.
3. Discuss th e im por
tance of th e job of th e person
who delivers telegram s.
I suppose it*s better than noth
ing, but rd still rather have
a telephone.
Questions:
1. W hat kind of message w ill th e pigeon carry? W hat do
you think?
2. In w hat way w ill th e m an use a telephone when he has
one?

Word List
almost ['o'.lmoust] adv
bonfire ['bon,fai9] n
communicate [ka'mja-nikeit] v
( )
deliver [di'liva] v
message ['mesids] n
pole

rather ['] adv , ;

smoke n
teleprinter n
tom-tom ['tomtom] n - (
)

transmit [tr?nz'mit] v
until [an'til] cj

^ contents the things contained in something {here what is written in

telegraph messages)

G9

8. BRITISH HOMES
The m ajority of the B ritish population live in small
houses b u ilt close together. A typical house of thi^ kind is
built w ith two floors. The front door, which faces the street,
opens into a h a ll. Then there are two rooms; one is the din
ing-room; the other may be called th e drawing-room,? the
parlour, the sitting-room or the living-room . It depend;
on how the people who live in the house call it. The m ost
m odern nam e for th is room is the lounge.
The kitchen is at the far end of the hall.
The stairs which lead to th e bedrooms are in th e hall.
There are usually two or three bedrooms, one for th e parents,
th e others for th e children. The rooms upstairs are often
very sm all.
Often th e dining-room is th e most com fortable room in
the house, and th e one th a t is used all the tim e. The children
do th eir homework at the big table, th e m other sews there;
the other mem bers of th e fam ily bring th eir hobbies and
g am es.to th e table. B ut when the television set is sw itched
on, no one can do anything in th e dining-room .
Very m any houses of th is ty p e were built in B ritish
cities in th e 19th and early 20th centuries. Today th e land
on which they stand has become v.ery valuable and th e owners
either sell it or pull down th e old houses and build large
m any-storeyed houses with separate flats. In th is way the
owners m ake more money.
In m any cities th e city council has b u ilt houses w ith flats
for w orkers fam ilies. These buildings are called council
houses. T he people who live in th e flats pay rent to th e city
council, not to a p riv ate owner.
B ut th e m ajority of English w orking people prefer to
live in separate houses not flats, so in m any places th e city
council builds small two-storeyed houses (low-rise houses),
not m any-storeyed buildings w ith a large num ber of flats
(high-rise houses) as it did ten or fifteen years ago. M any
private house-owners do the same.
I. TH INKING OUT ANSWERS
1. You are at th e entrance to a ty )ical house in your tow n.
W hat could you see if you entered a flat in th is house?
hall that part of a iiouse from whicii doors open into other rooms
* drawing-room a room in which guests are received
* to pull down ()
70

2.
W hen do you move all th e sm aller furniture from on
room to another and cover th e rest of th e furniture witli large
sheets?
I I. SAY WHAT YOU CAN

1. Your parents have bought new furniture for your flat.


W hat is your idea of w here to put all th e pieces ^ of this
set of furniture?
2. W hen do people like to sav East or W est, home is
b est?
3. W hat can m ake a home com fortable?
4. In w hat way is a m odern flat w ith various labour sav
ing devices 5 b etter th an a larger house in the country? In
w hat way is it not so good?
I I I . TALKING TOGETHER

1. Tell your p artn er w hether you like everything about


your flat (house).
W hat would you like to im prove or change?
2. Let your partn er describe th e position of th e house
he lives in.
3. Discuss;
a) w hat conveniences you
could not have if you did
not have electricity in your
home;
b) some jobs about the
house th a t a boy or girl
from six to tw elve years old
can do;
c) w hat noises in your
hom e you dont like.
I tell you I havent seen the
parrot since I vacuumed the
cage.

Questions:
1. W here do you th in k th e parrot is?
2. W hat things in a flat should not be vacuumed?
all the pieces ['p!:siz] all parts
* labour saving devices [di'vaisiz] ,

71

Word L ist
cage n
convenience [kan'vfcnjans] n
cover ('] v
face V ( , )
move [mu:v] v ,

rest n
sheet
stair [stea] n pi
storey ['stori] n
switch v
vacuum ['vaelijuam] v

9. PRACTICE IN HOUSEKEEPING
The dom estic science ^ course at schools is a useful sub
ject, of course. The girls learn som ething about cooking and
sewing, but they do not get very m uch practice at school.
Housekeeping is the everyday practice of dom estic science
in the home. It is the m anagem ent of a home and the af
fairs of a home and fam ily. It is w hat someone in your fam
ily has to do in spite of all the m odern conveniences th a t
townspeople have today.
Life in the countryside, however, requires much more
tim e and effort. Somebody has to chop wood and bring w ater
for cooking and washing. You may have a vegetable garden,
too, where you grow vegetables for th e table. You m ay keep
chickens and other dom estic anim als. Somebody m ust take
care of these.
Dom estic duties ? m ay tak e m uch of your tim e, but if
all th e mem bers of the fam ily help, if each one has his spe
cial duties, keeping house w ont be so difficult.
Children help their parents in different ways. They can
clean the house, m ake th eir beds, bring in dry things from
th e clothes-lines, do the ironing and even cook sim ple m eals.
Ju n io r schoolchildren lay th e tab le and help w ith the wash
ing-up.* If th e fam ily is large, the older children help to
look after th e little ones, and th a t is a great help to the
m other.
In th is way children learn to do things for them selves,
and get practice in housekeeping.
* domestic science
duty a thing that a person must do; ones wori<
ctothes-line
* to wash up
72

I. THIN K IN G OUT ANSWERS

1. W hat do you know about housekeeping? W hat are


your dom estic duties? How m uch do they tak e of your tim e?
2. W hat would you like to introduce into th e dom estic
science course at school? W hat does it not teach now?
3. Can you nam e some ch ild ren s home duties not m en
tioned in th e tex t?
II. SUBJECTS TO TALK ABOUT

1. The work about the house th a t you d.o every day and
w hat is done once in a season.
2. W hether your fam ily does repairing itself or w hether
you prefer to have it done by som ebody else.
3. How you pay your ren t, how you pay for w ater, gas,
and central heating if you live in a flat.
4. W hether you can m anage your dom estic duties well.
5. W hat is pleasant (unpleasant) about housework.
III. TALKING TOGETHER

1. Ask your p artn er w hat he (or another m em ber of the


fam ily) will do after bringing in dry clothes from th e clothes
lines.
2. Tell your p artner
w hich m em ber of your fam
ily is th e m ost active in
th e m anagem ent of the
household and why.
3. Discuss dom estic du
ties in th e countryside.

Spring cleanings all very well,


but this is ridiculous.

Questions:
1. Do you th in k th a t wom an was wrong in choosing ways
to keep th e parrot clean?
2. W hat are th e other ways to tak e care of pets?
73

Word List
chop V
clean V ,
dry [drai] a
ironing ['aiamg] n ,
junior ['d3u:nj9] o.

manage ['msenids] v
mention ['menjan] v
once [wAns] adv
repair ['] v
ridiculous [ri'dikjubs] a ,

wrong [1]] a ,

10. TIDINESS
School R ules for junior schoolchildren say th a t every
pupil should come to school clean, tid y and n eatly dressed.
He should keep his place in the classroom neat and tid y .
T idiness is an im p o rtant th in g in school life as well as *
at home. A tid ily dressed pupil is a good exam ple to others.
His personal cleanliness ? as well as his tidiness is always
pleasing. Tidy copy-books and books are especially pleasing.
B ut school is not th e only place where things and people
m ust be tid y . D ont you try to keep the rooms in your home
clean, and keep your clothes, shoes and bed in order? You
tid y your room , you also tid y th e papers on your desk and
you keep th e garden tid y if you have one. After a m eal every
th in g is tid ied away from the tab le and after you finish
drink in g tea th e cups are washed and put away * tid ily .
From tim e to tim e your fam ily do th e rooms. The furni
tu re and everything else is dusted, th e flowers are w atered and
th e floors are either washed or swept and polished.
L e ts hope th a t a great part of th is work is done by you.
If th is is tru e, your m other has a good assistant.
I. EXPRESS YOUR OPINION
1. Some parents say th a t th eir children do little to help
them at home.
How can you explain this?
2. Once a week or even more often your flat gets a good
cleaning. W hat is your part of th e work?
3. W hat can be done by a school student to help in the
home?
* as well as

* cleanliness ['klenlinis]

3 to put something away -


74

II. SUBJECTS TO TA LK ABOUT


1. The advantages of vacuum ing th e floor over sweeping it.
2. D ifficulties in dusting th e furniture, polishing th e
floor, ironing clothes, w ashing dishes.
3. The tim e and effort a m other spends in caring for her
fam ily (their h ealth , cooking, cleaning th e house, washing
and m ending clothes).
III. TALKIN G TOGETHER
1. Discuss th e following English saying:
If each would sweep before his own door, we should have
a clean stre e t.
2. Say w hether you
th in k th ere are pupils who
forget about tidiness. W hat
does a tid y appearance tell
you about a person?
3. Let your p artn er tell
you w hat b e th in k s he ought
to do in order to keep his
room tid y and so help his
m other.

-------------------------------------------------But
you told me to wash behind my ears...

Questions:
1. W hat is wrong about th e way th e boy washed?
2. W hat did his m other m ean when she sent him to wash?

Word List
neat a
order n
pleasing ['pli:zig] a (
)

polish V ()
sweep (swept) v ,
tidy [4aidi] a ,

. THE W EEKLY W ASHING


Everybody knows how pleasant and necessary it is to
have clean clothes and clean bed-linen. The fam ily washing
is one of the m ost im portant dom estic duties. Sm all things
75

can be washed in soap and w ater, but m ost people today use
detergent (washing powder), instead of soap. Even young
children can wash small things very nicely in w ater and
washing powder. Today school students often do th eir own
lau n d ry .i W ith a good detergent and an electric iron it doesnt
tak e very long.
Many fam ilies do all their laundry at home. They have a
w ashing-m achine and say th a t th e work is not very difficult.
They do one big (or not so big) washing each week when th e
bed-linen, the towels and the clothes are washed. If there is
a yard where th ere are wash-lines,^ and it 's a fine day, it
is good to hang th e wet clothes out in th e fresh air and sun
shine. They smell so pleasant when they are dry.
But if you dont like to wash things at home either by
hand or w ith th e help of a w ashing-m achine, you can take
your w ashing to th e public laundry and fetch it as soon as
it is ready. E very th in g will be washed, starched and pressed,
and your tim e will be saved.
I. EXPRESS YOUR OPINION
1. Some people never send th eir w ashing to the laundry.
They dont believe th a t linen is washed as carefully at the
laundry as it is at home. W hat is your opinion on th is ques
tion?
2. Why is rain w ater the best kind of w ater to wash things
in?
II. SUfiJECTS TO TA LK ABOUT
1. The reason why m any fam ilies prefer to do th eir own
laundry.
2. The way a w ashing-m achine can help.
3. Your p art in a fam ily wash.
4. The best yard for w ash-lines.
H I. TA LK IN G TOGETHER

1.
Tell your p artner how a person can save tim e for us
ful activities by using labour-saving devices in th e home.
* laundry ['b in d ri] a place where clothes are washed; to do ones
laundry to wash ones clothes
* wash-line a rope on which clothes are hung to dry after being washed
70

2. Let your p artn er tell


you who hangs out the
w ashing in his fam ily and
who brings in th e washing
from th e lines.
3. Discuss whose job it
should be to do w ashing and
pressing in a fam ily.
My mum washes the clothes
properly in a machine.
Questions:
1. W hat does th e little girl th in k th e woman is doing?
2. W hy is th is w ashing not proper?

Word List
detergent [di'to-dsant] n

fetch V
linen ['linm] n
powder ['paud^J n

properly ['propali] adv ,

save V
smell V
starch [stoitj*] V
sunshine n

12. W A SH IN G -U P
W ashing-up is the w ashing of th e dishes and other things
used at table. W ashing-up is done after each m eal.
Some people say th a t washing-up isnt pleasant because
you have to wash d irty dishes. O thers like it. There is even
an opinion th a t scientists should wash up as th is occupa
tion removes tension and gives th e m ind a rest.
At any r a t e / w ashing-up is a necessary dom estic duty; it
had to be done by all m em bers of th e fam ily.
Do you know how to do the washing-up?
F irst you m ust clear away th e dishes from th e dining-table
and pile everything up tid ily near th e sink. Then you tak e the
dish-cloth? and wash th e glasses, th e knives, forks and spoons,
then the plates and last of all th e greasy dishes. You m ust,
of course, have plenty of hot w ater.
1 at any rate
2 dish>cloth a cloth used for washing dishe
77

After th a t you take the tea towel and wipe everything.


If you have a p la te -ra c k / you can put the plates and cups
in th e rack to dry. You do nt need to wipe them .
Now th a t you know everything about w ashing-up we wish
you success when your tu rn comes.
A Different Thing
A dish is, of course, a kind of p late in which food is
served, b ut th e word may also m ean th e food served in a
dish, as a m eat dish, or a vegetable dish.
You m ay like a m eat dish, a fish dish, a cold or hot dish
and certainly an appetizing dish.
I. EXPRESS YOUR OPINION
1. N ational dishes are always interesting to foreigners.
Is th is only because they are unusual and have a different
ta ste or because they are part of a n a tio n s history, culture,
trad itio n s and customs?
Give your reasons.
2. W hich is more interestingto cook a dish and ta ste it
as you m ake it or to eat an appetizing dish your m other has
cooked?
W hat dishes do you prefer? W hat w ould you like to choose
for a meal?
II. SUBJECTS TO TA LK ABOUT
1. The necessity for w ashing-up from different points of
view.^
2. Recom m ended ways of w ashing-up (what should be
washed first, etc.) and reasons for using them .
3. D rying th e dishes.
4. H ygienic conditions for washing-up.
I II . TALKIN G TOGETHER

1.
Tell your p artn er to whom it is usually left to clear u
and wash th e breakfast (dinner, supper) things in your fam i
ly^
plate-rack
* to serve to give food to someone at a meal
point of view
78

2.
"She went to the kitchen sink and started washing-up.
Let your p artner say w hat she had already done and what
she was going to do.
5.
Discuss w hether washing-up is generally a popula
occupation in a fam ily.
IV. SAY WHAT YOU
TH IN K
Suppose you had a dish
w asher a m achine to wash
th e dishes in your home.
W hat
will you
still
have to do after th e dishes
have been
washed and
rinsed?
No, thank you I wash my
own handsi
Questions:
1. Does th e wom an th in k th a t she needs to go to a laundry
to have her hands washed? W hy not?
2. W hat is th e m an advertising? W hat does the woman
th in k a hand laundry is? How are clothes washed at a hand
laundry?

Word List
appetizing ['aepitaizig] a

custom ['kAstam] n
greasy ['gri:zi] a
hygienic [hai'd5l:nik] a

mind n

13.

pile v
remove [ri'mu:v] v ,

sink n

tension ['tenjan] n
taste V
turn n ,
wipe V

EVERYDAY SERVICES FOR ALL

Personal service establishm ents ^ are very useful; many


people v isit them every day. If your h air needs cutting, you
^ personal service establishment
79

go either to a b arb ers shop (the b a rb e rs) or to a ladies hairdre-ssing establishm ent (the la d ie s hairdresser).^ If your
shoes need m ending, you go to a shoe repair shop (the shoe
m ak ers). If you w ant to be photographed, you are welcome
at th e p h o tographers. There are also TV repair and service
shops,? laundries, tailo rin g and dressm aking establishm ents.
A ta ilo r m akes m ens suits and overcoats, a ladies tailo r
m akes w om ens out-door clothes.
T oday, however, you will learn w hat to say at th e shoem ak
e rs and at th e photographers.
W hen your shoes are ra th e r worn, you tak e them to th e
shoem akers and say th a t they need repairing. The shoem aker
looks at them and tells you w hat can be repaired.
You ask when th e shoes w ill be ready and are given a re
ceipt.
W hen you need a photograph of yourself you go to the
p hotographers. You tell th e photographer how you would
like to be taken,* w hether you wish to stand or sit.
If th e photograph is for your passport, you say so and you
are given a receipt for the m oney you m ust pay. Then you
go into th e studio and sit down. The photographer tells you to
move your head a little to th e rig h t or to the left, then he
says, Keep still, now, please. You keep still and in a m om ent
the photographer says, T h a ts all, th an k you. You say
T hank you and get up. Your picture is taken.
I. THINKING OUT ANSWERS

W hat kind of questions and answers m ay be heard at the


photographers, at the ta ilo rs, at th e shoem akers, at a w atch
repair shop (the w atchm akers)?
I I. SUBJECTS TO TALK ABOUT

1. Personal service establishm ents in your home tow n,


district. W hich of them are visited by grown-ups only? By
grown-up people and by children?
2. The m ost frequently visited personal service establish
m ent. W hy is it so popular?
A barber shaves men and cuts the hair of men and boys; a hairdresser cuts and dresses (, ) hair.
* TV repair and service shop
to be taken to be photographed
80

3 The influence oT personal service establishm ents on


people's moods.
4. Occasion for being photographed al the photographers.
5. V isiting a tailo rin g or a dressm aking establishm ent
for a m ade-to-order su it or dress.
III. TALKING TOGETHER

1. E xplain to your p artn er why a shoemaker (photogra


pher, etc.) gives you a receipt.
2. Ask your p artner w hether he would agree to go to the
ta ilo rs alone, w ithout his parents.
W hat are his reasons for his opinion?
3. The q u ality of watches produced by watch factories is
constantly im proving. Yet you can always see people at the
w atchm akers bringing w atches for repair.
Discuss th e causes of this.
IV. A JOKE

When Did He Have His H air Cut?

B oy with l o n g hai r :
Are you the barber who cut
my h air last?
B a r b e r : C ouldnt be. I ve
been here for only six m onths.
Question: Why is the boy in
terested in w earing long hair?

Same as last year, please!

Questions:
1. When did the young m an get his hair cut last?
2. Why d id n t he come to the b arb ers shop earlier?

Word List
frequent ['friikwant] a
mood n
overcoat n
quality ('kwoliti] n

receipt (ri'si:t] n
shave v
shoemaker ['Ju:,meikj
wear [wea] v
worn a

ai

I'l. TAILORS IN PROVERBS AND IN TAILOR


SHOPS
A tailo r is a m an whose occupation is the m aking of out
door clothes. A tailoress is a woman tailor.
T ailoring is a very useful trade. P erhaps th a t is why there
is a num ber of proverbs about tailors and th eir business. One
of them says; The tailo r m akes the m an, second says th a t
tailors must m ind th e fashion and another one is a little bit^
humorous; The ta ilo rs child is worst clad.?
Tailors m ake coats and suits. There are gentlem ens
tailors and lad ies tailors and if you w ant a suit or a coat m ade
to order, you should go to a tailoring establishm ent.
W hen you go to the ta ilo rs you say th a t you wish to have
a new suit. You choose the m aterial and the style. Then your
measures are taken and you ask when your suit w ill be ready.
The tailo r tells you when p u will have it, but he says
you must come some days earlier to try it on.*
Now here are some questions and statem ents which may be
heard at the ta ilo rs (dressm akers);
Can 1 order a su it here (at your establishm ent)?
Please show me the latest styles.
Look at yourself in the m irror.
W hen shall I come to try it on?
W hen will it be finished?
I. THINKING OUT ANSWERS

1. At the ta ilo rs you are given a m agazine showing the


latest styles in ladies coats and suits.
On w hat principle will you choose a style?
2. Some people prefer to buy the m aterial for a new suit
in a shop. O thers would like to see w hat th e tailo r has.
W hat are th eir reasons?
II. SUBJECTS TO TALK ABOUT

1. T ailoring as a useful occupation.


2. W hat a tailo r m ust know to be able to m ind the fash
ion.
* a little bit
* Compare: , a .
to try o il
82

3. How th e proverb about th e ta ilo rs child developed.


4. Whose advice is im portant when you w ant to order a
suit at th e ta ilo rs.
m . TALKING TOGETHER

1. You w ant to have a new suit (dress). Discuss w ith your


p artn er your ta ste and his as to th e colour of the m aterial.
2. Ask your partn er w hether he will be guided by a fashion
m agazine when he goes to the ta ilo rs to order som ething new.
W ill it be th e latest m agazine?
3. Discuss w hether young people should choose w hat is
recom m ended by th e latest fashion m agazines or w hat suits
them better.
IV. HEAD WORK

1. W hen you dress to


go outdoors, w hat do you
put on last?
2. W hy m ay clothes
which once fitte d you well
become too tig h t for you?

I may be an Australian, but I


dont want a pouch for a young
kangaroo.

Questions:
1. W hy have A ustralia and a kangaroo been m entioned?
2. W hat will th e tailo r do next?

Word List
Australian [D:s'treiljan] n
fit V ,
be guided (by) v

mind t;

once adv , -
pouch [pautj] n (
)
suit [sju:t] V ,

tight [tait] a

15. T H E K IT C H E N IS AN IM PORTANT PLACE


The kitchen is th e p art of a house where food is cooked,
and where dishes are washed. In m any m odern houses the
83

kitchen is also used as a dining-room when there are no


guests.
Your kitchen m ay be bright, big or little and. of course,
it m ust be clean.
In England, th e kitchen is generally at th e back of the
house, and the back door opens out of it into th e garden or
the passage which runs round the side of th e house.
In the old houses of the 19th century, the kitchens were
often large places. The m odern kitchen is not too good. Most
of the sm aller houses b u ilt during this century have tin y
kitchens.
Cupboards, and units'* consisting of a sink and cupboards,
in the m odern com pact m anner, have helped to m ake these
kitchens a little easier to work in, but sm all kitchens are still
b u ilt.
I. SAY WHAT YOU CAN

1. Add to th e following description:


The kitchen is clean and tid y . There are bright curtains
on the window and th ere are cupboards on th e walls.
2. On Sundays when all th e fam ily are at home, they can
have th eir m eals together. B ut your m other m ay be angry if
you dont come home in tim e and th e dinner gets cold. W hat
m ight she say?
II. TALKING TOGETHER

1. W hen M asha was w orking in th e kitchen, tears came in


to her eyes, b ut she was not crying and did not feel sad.
E xplain to your partner why tears came into M ashas
eyes.
2. Ask your p artn er how often he goes to th e kitchen dur
ing the day and why.
3. Discuss the usefulness of the kitchen table.

Word List
description [dis'l<ripj3n] n
passage ['p<ESid5 ] n .

tiny ('tainij a ,

back door the door at the bacli of a house


* u n it ad.
84

16. DONT FORGET YOUR MANNERS


Manner is the way in which a thing is done or happens.
On the other h an d , it is behaviour: a persons style of speak
ing, reading, eating and doing other things.
Manners can be good and, unfortunately, bad. It is bad
m anners to speak loud, to stare at people, and we dont like
the m anner which some people have of interrupting a conver
sation We often say th a t a person who has bad m anners has
no manners. Those who have no m anners m ust learn how to
behave.
Let us take, for example, tab le m anners, because even
little children should know how to behave at table.
All the rules of tab le m anners are m ade to avoid ugliness.?
To let anyone see w hat you have in your m outh, or to m ake a
noise when you are drinking is unpleasant. If you have put
some food in your m outh, you m ust swallow it.
It is not good m anners to put your elbows on the table
during a meal or to put your left arm round your plate w'hen
you are eating w ith your right.
Dont push away your plate when you have finished.
Let it rem ain exactly where it is until it is removed.
If there is no spoon in the salt-cellar,* use th e tip of a
clean knife, not your fingers.

I. THINKING OUT ANSWERS

Jo n ath an Sw ift, who w rote G ullivers Travels and m any


other books, is the author of the following quotation: Good
m anners is the art of m aking those people easy w ith whom we
converse. W hoever makes th e fewest persons uneasy,S is the
best bred* in the com pany.
W hat did Jo n ath an Swift mean?
^ on the other hand
ugliness ['AglinisJ. ; ;

to push away
* salt-cellar ['soilt^sela] a small pot or dish for salt, placed on the
dining-table at meals
uneasy uncomfortable
well bred
85

II. SUBJECTS TO TALK ABOUT

1. The best m anner of speaking.


2. W hy you d ont like some classm ates m anner of in ter
rupting a conversation (if there are such pupils in your class).
3. Why some little children have very bad m anners.
III. TALKING TOGETHER

1.
ought
2.
loud.
3.

Describe to your partner a person, who in your opinion,


to be tau g h t m anners.
Let your p artn er explain why it is bad m anner to speak
Many children have good tab le m anners.
Always Polite

Excuse me, I didnt know that


people drove on the right in
your tow n...

Questions:
1. W hat answer do you expect from th e other m an?
2. W hich of two men deserves respect? W hich doesnt
deserve?

Word List
avoid [a'vDid] v
converge [k9n'va:s] v
,
elbow ['elbou] n
interrupt [,int 0'rApt] V ,

manner ['maena] n .

86

stare [stea] v
swallow ['swdIou] v
tip n
unfortunately [An'fort/nitli] adv

whoever [hui'eva] pron

17. PAYING A VISIT


The words to pay and a v isit are both known to you;
you have used them separately for a long tim e in different
situations.
You have spoken about paying (giving money) for various
tickets, for food and for other things and you have described
visits to a plan t, to a m useum , to a collective farm and soon.
But the two words can also be used together as in the title
of th is tex t. To pay a v is it isnt connected w ith giving
money, of course. If you pay a v isit to somebody, you sim ply
go to see th a t person. Most probably th a t person is your friend
and he or she will retu rn your v isit by coming to see you at
your place.!
P aying a visit can be very interesting. F irst of all you ex
change and discuss news w ith your friend. Then you can join
your friend in a hobby even if it isnt your own. After all it
may be in teresting to learn som ething about other peoples
favourite pursuits.
B ut before your v isit becomes too long, remem ber to say
I t s tim e for me to go.
Now it will be your frien d s tu rn to pay you a v isit. Try
to m ake it interesting.
I. THINKING OUT ANSWERS

1. An E nglish proverb says th a t An unbidden guest knows


not where to sit.
W hy doesnt he know?
2. One of W. Shakespeares characters said;
U nbidden guests
Are often welcomest when they are gone.
W hat do th e words mean?
II. SUBJECTS TO TALK ABOUT

1. P ay in g a visit to a friend who is ill.


2. Sunday visitors.
3. W hich of these are suitable or u nsuitable questions to
ask a guest:
a) Do you like cold days like today?
b) W hat is th a t m ark on your face?
1 place here it means house, home
37

c) W hich team do you th in k is going to win?


d) Are your teeth all your own?
e) W hat pets did you have when you were a child?
I I I . TALKING TOGETHER

Your parents dropped in * to see th e Pavlov (or Ivanov,


or...) family one evening. O h , said your m other, you are
g etting ready to go out
w ith th e children. W ell
come some other tim e.
Discuss how your m oth
er knew th e Pavlovs were
going out.

Henry!.. Mrs Williams wants


to say good-bye to you.

Questions:
1. W hat kind of guest is Mrs W illiam s?
2. W hat is rig h t and w hat is wrong about H enrys behav
iour?

Word List
mark n ,

pursuit (pa'sju;t] .
( )
unbidden ['An'bidan]

18. MEDICINES AND HEALTH


Medicines are not m eant to live on, an English proverb
says. Yes, t h a ts tru e and we m ay add th a t good h ealth is
b etter th a n th e best medicine. And if your health is good,
you are always in a good mood. You have A sound mind? in
a sound body, as th e old L atin saying goes. The E nglish prov
erb Sickness in the body brings sickness to the m ind ex
presses a sim ilar idea, but from a different point of view.
^ to drop in ( )
^ mind 3^.
sim ilar of Ihe same kind
88

Taking m edicines is an unpleasant thing, of course, and


if you w ant to avoid it, you should go in for sports and i<eep
yourself fit. Physical exercise is necessary and very im portant.
As doctors say, if a grown-up person doesnt take exercise,
he can easily catch an illness.
P hysically inactive people get old earlier than those who
have plenty of exercise. If you do daily exercises, you feel
re fre s h e d ,y o u have a good posture, and th a t makes you feel
good. So pay atten tio n to th e way you stand, walk and sit.
Here are some of th e rules for health:
Take long walks in the open air as often as you can.
Keep your body clean.
Keep your teeth clean.
W ear clean clothes.
Sleep w ith your window open.
W hen you are reading or w riting, let the light come from
behind your left shoulder.
I. THINKING OUT ANSWERS

If th e worst comes to the w o rs t and you have to take


m edicine, you should know some rules. P robably you know
them , b u t here are some questions to test your knowledge.
1. W hy m ust you wash your hands before you tak e m edi
cine? How can you catch an infection?
2. W hy m ust you keep m edicines in a place where small
children c a n t get them ? Is it because they m ay m ake sm all
children ill?
3. Is it advisable not to keep m edicines in a warm place?
W here should they be kept?
I I. SUBJECTS TO TALK ABOUT

1.
How ch ildrens health is protected in our country. I
one of th e m ain functions of the kindergarten to look after
th e ch ild s health? In the sum m er th e children are taken to
th e countryside, arent they? Do you know th a t a m onthly
m edical exam ination in th e kindergarten includes eyes, teeth
and general health? Do school pupils have a m edical exami^ inactive [in'aektiv] not active
^ to feel refreshed ()
3 if the worst comes to the worst
89

nation several tim es during th e year? Can a child be sent to a


sanatorium for treatm en t? W hat about pioneer camps?
2. W hat a person should do to keep in good health.
3. How not to miss lessons for reasons of health.

III.

TA^.KING TOGETHER

1. D escribe to your partner a person who is healthy in


body and m ind.
2. Ask your partn er on what occasions he has had to see
the doctor (go to the clinic).
3. Discuss w hat can be interesting in the professions of
nurse, doctor, radiographer.
You know, of course, th a t doctors trea t sick people, nurses
look after sick people, and radiographers photograph th e in
sides of people by m eans of X -rays (R ontgen rays).

IV.

A JOKE

A T ired Tongue
D o c t o r ; I ve exam ined you very carefully. I th in k all you
need is a good rest.
W Oman
patient:
B ut 1 still feel sick. Why
dont you look at my
tongue?
D o c t o r : It needs a rest
too.
Question: W hy does the
doctor say his p a tie n ts
tongue needs a rest?

Quick, doctor, youre just in


time shes beginning to get
better by herself 1

Questions:
1. How old do you th in k th e little sister was?
2. W hy did th e little girl w ant the doctor to be quick?
90

Word List
mean v
medicine ['medsin) n
patient
['peijant] n ,
011
posture ['postja] n
prevent [pri'vent]

saying n
sick a
sound [saund] a
radiographer [,rerdi'o rafa] n
tongue [tAq] n

19. A MOTOR TOUR


Many people like to spend part of th eir holiday on a m otor
tour. U sually they choose to go to interesting places they have
not been to before. If the w eather is fine, they th in k thiw
will have a very pleasant holiday.
'
A fast and com fortable car is a good thing, but first you
have to be tau g h t to drive. If you pass your driving te s t,' you
will tak e out a driving licence.^ But th a t means you are only
an am ateur driver. You m ust always rem em ber th a t it is nec
essary to drive carefully to avoid accidents on the roads.
W hen you decide to go for a drive somewhere, you check
th e air pressure in all th e tyres. Then you drive th e car out of
th e garage to see th a t n o th ing is wrong w ith the ignition system
and th a t th e brakes are in good order.'
If th ere is not enough p e tr o l in th e tan k , you drive up to
a filling statio n 5 for some more.
If you drive carefully, you will enjoy yourself and return
home w ithout an accident.
I. TH IN K IN G OUT ANSWERS

1. W hy is it so im portant for m otor-drivers to know all


th e rules of th e road?
2. W hy is a d riv ers licence so im portant?
3. W hat does a driver do w hen there is not enough petrol
In his tank?
4. W hat m ay happen if th e brakes are not in perfect or
der?
* driving test
driving licence ['laisans]
in good order
* petrol fuel used to drive motor-car engines
^ filling station,

91

5. W hat are the qualities a professional chauffeur fjo u 'fa ;!


must have?
6. On a highway we may see th e sign Steep H ill.
Do we see it as we travel up the hill or as we travel down
the hill? Why?
7. How can th e driver of a car see another car coming
close behind his car?
8. W hen a person driving a car sees the signs H ospital
or School in the street, are they there to tell him where to go?
Are the purposes of both signs th e same?
II. TALKING TOGETHER

1. Try to tell your p artner why it is usually easier for the


driver of a car to m ake a right tu rn th an to m ake a left turn.
2. Suppose your partner drove a taxi and took a passen
ger to an airport. W hy would he try to get a passenger on the
way back from the airport?
Ask him.
3. Discuss w hether you would like to tak e a train in g period
in m otor-driving and road safety* and get your d riv ers li
cence.
Will you drive a car when you leave school? Discuss the
way a course in car-driving for school students is conducted
in your school.
III. A JO K E

Quesiions:
1. W hat can you say about th e m otorist^
2. W hat can you say about th e dog?
* road safety ['seiftij
92

M isunderstanding
Policeman:

"W hy did you cross th e street when the


sign said D O N T W ALK?
B o y : I th o ught it was a bus advertisem ent.
Question: W hat did the boy thinlc a bus advertisem ent
would recom m end instead of wallting?

Word List
accident ['jeksidant] n

brake n
conduct (kan'dAkt] v
( )
course [k3:s]
hill ,

ignition [ig'nijon] n
misunderstanding
motor ('mouta] attr
motorist
steep
tyre ['taia]

20. WILL YOU GO THE ZOO?


A zoological garden is called a zoo. It is a collection of
wild anim als. Zoos are very popular w ith children, but it is
wrong to thini< th a t grown-ups are not interested in them .
You can see a lot of people of all ages at a zoo.
The life of th e w ild anim al is a constant struggle to survive.
However, anim als in a good zoo enjoy a long, com fortable
and easy life where all th eir w ants are cared for. The chief
danger to the zoo anim als comes from visitors. Anim als are
m ade ill or even killed by people who give them unsuitable
food.
Zoos are a good place to amuse children, but they serve
other useful purposes, too. Men of science can w atch w ild
anim als in the jungle or desert. B ut in particular they are
interested in th e way the h ab its and behaviour of w ild ani
m als change when they have lived a long tim e in c a p tiv ity .
B ut even for those who are not scientists, a l<nowledge of
th e anim al kingdom is a necessary p art of education. For
m ost people, this can only be gained by paying a v isit to a
zoo. Looking at pictures or even film s can never be the same
as w atching Ihe anim als them selves.
^ to care for
93

I. THIN K IN G OUT ANSWERS

1.
2.
differ
3.
4.

W here does a zoo get its anim als from?


In w hat way does the life of an anim al in ca p tiv ity
from th a t of an anim al in its n atu ral state?
W hat is the chief danger to anim als in a zoo, and why?
W hat useful purposes does a zoo serve?
II. SUlJJiiCTS TO TALK ABOUT

1. Exam ples showing th a t anim als can be in tellig en t.!


2. W hy m any w ild anim als are kept in zoos.
3. The difference between a zoo and a circus.

in.

TALKING TOGETHER

There are m any interesting stories about anim als in his


tory.
1. Tell your p artn er w'hat you know about how Rome was
saved by geese.
2. Ask your p artn er w hat he knows about H a n n ib a ls
elephants or about R obert the Bruce and the spider.
3. Each of you say w hat you know about th e ravens at the
Tower of London.
IV. A JOKE

Fishing for Cows?


C i t y m a n ; W hat do
you use th a t long rope for?
Cowboy;
T h a ts
for
catching cows.
C i t y m a n ; T h a ts in te r
esting. W hat do you use
for bait?
Question: On w hat occasion
do cowboys catch cows?

Ill wash and you dry."

Questions: 1. W hich is easier to wash or to dry an ele


phant?
! intelligent [in'telidsant]clever
94

2. How are elephants washed in India orBirma?


3. W hat anim als m ust be dried after washing them ?

Word List
amuse [s'mjuiz] v ;
bait n
captivity [lo p 'tiv iti] n
constant a
differ J'difa] v
geese [gis] pi goose ()

habit ('hzebit] n
raven ('reivan] n
spider ('spaidal n
state n
survive [ss'vaiv] v

EVERYDAY TOPICS
I.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.

COMPLETE THE FOLLOWING

I heard on TV th at . . .
I told you at the beginning
th a t . . .
If you w ant my advice . . .
Ten m inutes after breakfast was over . . .
From past experiences he l<new th a t . . .
I m w aiting for you to tell me . . .
My advice to you is . . .
The reason I m doing it is because . . .
As I have said . . .
I expect youve heard about . . .
The idea began when . . .
W hat I w anted to talk to you about was . . .
If I rem em ber rig h tly, . . .
All you need do is . . .
For various reasons he was unable to . . .
She was pleasantly surprised th a t . . .
A fter more thought, he decided . . .
Since when have you been interested in . . .?
He led th e conversation to the subject of . . .
W ell, I ll tell you everything I can, but it isnt much
because . . .
As I ve to ld you, . . .
T h a ts as you wish, of course, but . . .
The sun was only just rising above th e horizon, when . . .
W hen I first knew him , he was just old enough to . . .
B ut let it be added th a t . . .
95

26. I m ust honestly add th a t . . .


27. It seemed a hopeless task to try to . . .
28. How often have 1 told you how . . .?
II. HOW MANY D IFFER EN T ANSWERS CAN YOU G IV E TO
THESE QUESTIONS?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.

Is th a t your final answer?


A rent you hungry? Youve eaten nothing.
Is th ere anything else youd like to know?
Does your m other have to wake you up in th e m orning?
Shall I w ait for you or shall we m eet somewhere?
W hy are you so silent this morning?
W here are you calling (talking on the telephone) from?
Should I call a doctor?
Does th a t surprise you?
How are you? I hav en t seen you for several days.
W hen did you get th a t news?
W hy dont we sit down?
Could you give me some idea of how to begin?
Can I do anything more to help?
Is there anything else you would like?
W hy d id n t you say so before?
Did he say w hat he w anted to see me about?
How is your work going?
Is there anywhere where we can talk?
W hat are you going to do all day?
Did you have a good journey?
W hat do you w ant from me?
W hat am I to do now?
When are you coming to see me?
W hat tim e do you expect to be back?
Could you tell me w hat tim e it is, pleasL^
W hy ca n t I stay at home?
W hy did you stop so suddenly?
W hat do you suppose is th e m atter?
I II. WHAT QUESTIONS WOULD YOU ASK IF YOU
HEARD THE FOLLOW ING?

1. The m an explained his visit.


2. He wore dark glasses.
3. He looked through th e window at th e changing sc iery .
9G

4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.

We talk ed u n til very late.


For a m om ent he seemed to have difficulty in speaking.
B ut today I have other things to th in k about.
He was silent for a few seconds, as if collecting his
thoughts.
L et m e have your phone num ber, I ll call you.
W hen he entered they were w atching television in th e liv
ing-room.
There was a silence now between them .
No one looked at th e clock and we all forgot th e tim e.
I have a good mem ory for faces.
I have som ething very im portant to ask you.
This book w ill help you enjoy the rest of th e holiday.
The windows were all open because of the heat.
I w ant to go out and do some shopping.
W hy I agreed I h ardly know.
I ve got som ething im portant I w ant to ta lk over w ith you.
J u d y , I m always tellin g you not to do th at.
I ve ju st rem em bered one or two things I have to do.
I do n t w ant even to th in k about th atl
I ve had a th o u g h t.
Much has happened since th e last tim e he saw her.
They w alked in silence for a few m om ents.
D ont go on rem em bering it.
I t s news to me.
I just heard some bad news.
He could fin d nothing to say.
I do n t know a th in g about him .
IV .

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
4

G IV E SITUATIONS IN W HICH YOU WOULD SAY

T hanks for th e advice.


Do you see who it is?
You should explain things a little m ore clearly.
I ll follow your suggestions.
I shall be pleased to do w hat I can.
Is th a t all you w ant to say?
T hank you very m uch for telling us about it.
I was only joking.
I liked him im m ediately.
I dont know how to th an k you.
J u s t one m ore th in g before you go.
I ca n t say how pleased I am to m eet you.
Ni 6931

13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.

Dont m ake me laugh.


I have a telephone call to make.
I have no criticism s to make.
Shall I tell you?
T hank you so m uch for everything.
If y o u ve got a few m inutes, I d like to speak to you.
1 can let you into a little secret.
I hope yo u re tellin g me th e tru th .
I h av en t been here long.
I m not too sure I know w hat youre ta lk in g about.
You probably dont even know w hat youre saying!
I shall give the words he spoke as nearly as I can.
Come and sit down and tell us all about yourself.
Oh, th is has been a good day!
W hat would she th in k of me if I did th at?
I dont even know w hat you are talk in g about!
V.

DEVELOP SITUATIONS SUGGESTED


BY THESE STATEMENTS

How to do it. The statem ent, for exam ple, is A fter break
fast Nick was asked to help w ith th e cleaning-up.
You m ay say th a t he d id n t refuse. He cleared away ev
eryth in g from th e tab le and tid ied th e living-room . Then he
dusted th e fu rn itu re, w atered th e flowers and swept the
floors.
In th is way he helped to m ake th e rooms clean th a t day,
and his m other th anked him for his help.
There are, of course, other ways to develop the situ atio n
given above.
Each of th e statem ents th a t follow can be developed dif
ferently and interestingly. T hink and use your im agination!
In S itu atio n No 1 you m ay try to explain why everybody was
so hungry. In No 2 i t s necessary to decide who was ringing at
th e door and w hat th a t person said when th e door was an
swered. No 3 m ay require some im agination to explain who
those people were, why they saw very little of each other, and
w hat happened when they m et and so on.
Here are th e statem ents.
1. Everybody was too hungry to do m uch talking.
2. The bell rang and she went to answer (open) th e door.
3. They saw very little of each other.
98

4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.

It was the finishing bell (at school).


As 1 read my interest increased (grew).
She attended dom estic science classes.
W hile M ary was speaking before the class, the other ch il
dren sat still and kept th eir hands down.
N ina wiped the dishes.
The new girl was very keen (interested) to know all about
th e various teachers.
The traffic lights changed from W ait to Go.
The conversation tu rned to other topics.
W eve been together a long tim e.
I th ought to myself.
He came back full of inform ation.
He has been a hungry book-reader all of his life.
She looked as if her m ind held other thoughts.
It went in one ear and out th e other.
The little boy wiped his m outh w ith th e back of his hand.
She went to th e sink to run hot w ater for th e dishes.
The phone w ent dead (was silent) when she answered it.
I had a look round th e city.
The big tab le in the dining-room was decorated sim ply
b u t tastefu lly .
He gave us a friendly smile.
Please hear me out before you answer.
I th in k wed b etter join th e others.

PART THREE

1. FROM TH E H ISTO R Y OF T H E KOMSOMOL


The first youth leagues appeared in R ussia in 1917, after
th e workers and peasants had overthrow n th e tsarist govern
m ent and tak en the destiny of th eir country into their own
hands.
The F irst A ll-R ussia Congress of Y outh Unions held to
wards th e end of 1918 is regarded as th e birth d ay of the Kom
somol. It was a very difficult tim e for our country. The peo
ple were fig h tin g on m any fronts of th e Civil W ar, defending
th e gains of th e O ctober R evolution and beating back foreign
interventionists.
The nam e of th e youth organization adopted by the Con
gressth e Komsomol (The Union of Com m unist Youth) was
suggested by Lenin.
Komsomol members fought along w ith Com m unists at
the num erous fronts in those years. The d istrict Komsomol
C om m ittee is closed. Everybody has left for th e front. Signs
like th is were often seen those days on th e doors of Komsomol
com m ittees.
Follow ing th e Civil W ar and the years of reh ab ilitatio n ,
the Komsomol mem bers were active in industrialization, in
collectivization of agriculture, in fulfilm ent of the first fiveyear p lan s.
Of the heroism of Komsomol mem bers in the G reat P a
trio tic W ar th ere are num erous exam ples, given by soldiers,
partisans, underground workers.* There are the famous nam es
of Alexander M atrosov, Zoya Kosm odem yanskaya, Liza
C haikina, and m any thousands of known and unknown pa
trio ts who perform ed wonders of heroism .
Three-and-a-half m illion Komsomol m embers were decorat
ed for m ilitary and labour valour in th e G reat P atrio tic
W ar. T he title of Hero of th e Soviet U nion was awarded to
11,000 people; 7,000 among them were Komsomol m em bers.
^ underground workers
100

I. SAY WHAT YOU CAN


1. After the Civil W ar m em bers of th e Komsomol took
th eir places on th e most difficult, th e m ost responsible and
decisive sectors of th e co untrys great work of re h ab ilitatio n
and construction.
W hat can you say about th e building of th e huge power
statio n on th e D nieper, th e erection of giant iron and steel
m ills in the U rals and of th e first buildings in the city of
Komsomolsk?
2. The Komsomol has six orders on its banner, m arking
th e six stages of th e glorious p ath it has covered.
W hat can you say about young peoples p artic ip a tio n
in th e Civil W ar, in re h ab ilitatio n of industry after th e Civ
il W ar in peace-tim e construction during th e first five-year
plans, in the G reat P a trio tic W ar and in post-w ar economic
reconstruction?
II. EXPRESS YOUR OPINION
1. In th e spring of 1954 thousands of young people volun
teered to work on th e virgin lands in the eastern p art of our
country.
W hat kind of people were th e volunteers who were giv
en Komsomol recom m endations to go to K azakhstan and
Siberia [sai'bw rial?
2. In w hat way can Komsomols tak e p art in the creation of
th e m aterial and technical basis of communism>
I II. CONVERSATION PRACTICE
1. In answer to your p artn e rs questions say w hat you know
about th e b u ilding of B ratsk (on th e Angara River), Divnogorsk (on the Enisei R iver), the Baikal-A m ur R ailw ay and
other hydroelectric or industrial projects.
2. In answer to your guestions let your partner tell you
how young people are taking p art in transform ing the non
black earth zones ? in the R ussian Federation.
3. The Komsomol has sent m illions of its m embers to
work on construction sites. They are skilled, educated people
who have studied for difficult professions.
Discuss w hat you should do to be well suited for a job on
a construction site.
^ iron and steel mill
* non-black earth zones
construction site ,

JOl

Word L ist
beat V
decisive [di'saisiv] a
decorate v
destiny ['destini] n
erect [I'rekt]
hold V . (, )
huge [hjads]

perform v
post-war a
rehabilitation ['rfch8,bili'teij'3n] n

responsible [ris'ponsabl] a
stage . ,
valour ['vaela]
volunteer [,v3bn'tra]

2. VOTING FO R TH E COMMUNIST AND NONPA RTY BLOC


According to the Soviet C onstitution, th e highest body of
state au th o rity of th e USSR is th e Suprem e Soviet of th e
USSR, th e Soviet parliam ent. It is elected every four years.
All citizens of th e USSR who have reached the age of eighteen
have the rig h t to vote. B ut to be elected to th e Suprem e So
viet of the USSR, a citizen of th e USSR m ust be tw enty-one.
B oth p arty and non-party candidates can be nom inated by
the C om m unist P arty , by trade-union organizations, by Kom
somol organizations, by various cultural unions, or by any
factory, p lan t, state farm and collective farm .
T he candidate is selected at a special selection meeting*
which is attended by representatives of the organizations
th a t nom inate th e candidates.
Before th e elections everyone who has th e right to vote
receives a card statin g when and where he should cast his
vote.?
W hen E lection Day comes (it is usually a Sunday), th e
Soviet people go to th e polls to elect th eir deputies to th e
Suprem e Soviet.
A voter gives his name, receives his ballot-paper * and m ay
go to a cubicle to vote. V oting is secret. Then he places his
ballot-paper in th e ballot-box.S
^
*
*
*
i

selection meeting
to cast a vote ( -)
to go to the polls [poulzj ,
ballot-paper
ballot-box the box into which ballot-papers are dropped by voters

102

E lections in our country are an im portant political cam


paign which dem onstrates th e unbreakable unity between
th e P a rty and the people. E lection D ay is a trium ph of So
viet Democracy.
I. SAY WHAT YOU CAN
1. In December 1937, elections to th e Suprem e Soviet of
th e USSR were held on th e basis of th e C onstitution introdu
ced in 1936.
In w hat way did these elections dem onstrate th e strength
of socialist dem ocracy and th e Soviet peoples support for
th e P arty ?
2. W hat are the advantages of our Soviet C onstitution?
3. W hy are elections in our country th e most dem ocratic
in th e world? W ho are en titled to tak e p art in th e elections?
II. EXPRESS YOUR OPINION
as to:
1. The kind of people who are nom inated as candidates.
2. W hat a deputy does as a servant of th e people.
3. How young people help in the election campaign.
III. CONVERSATION PRACTICE
1. Let your partn er ask you w hether you will have the
right to vote in the next election.
2. Ask your p artn er if he knows when th e election to the
Suprem e Soviet of the USSR (your republic) will be held.
Does he know anything about th e coming election to the
local Soviet?
3. Discuss why Election Day in the USSR is a triu m ph of
Soviet Democracy.

Word List
authority [o:'6oriti] n
cubicle ['kju;biklj n

nominate v
( )

non-party a
triumph ['traiamf] n ,

103

3. FOREIGN LANGUAGES? THATS GOODI


All children in the USSR study foreign languages, school
pupils are required to learn one foreign language. This is m ost
commonly English, Germ an, French or Spanish.
Languages are m eant to be spoken, not sim ply to be con
jugated or analysed. T h a ts why it is interesting to leam to
understand English and speak it.
W hen a child learns its own language, it learns to under
stan d w hat others say and to talk , long before it learns to
read and w rite.
B ut as schoolchildren begin to study a second language
much later, they canriot learn it as they learned their own lan
guage. However, if you hear a lot of E nglish and understand
w hat you hear, you will soon learn to speak easily. Then if
you recognize th e words when you see them on paper, you will
have little difficulty in reading or w riting.
Some of you do not w ant to read m uch in another language,
and do not w ant to pass language exam inations, but every
body likes to be able to talk . In th a t case it is a good th in g to
join a conversation circle whose aim is th e use of th e language
in everyday situations. O rdinary English lessons and con
versation circle m eetings will help you to learn to express your
opinions and feelings, to give and receive inform ation, to
say w hat you w ant to say.
It is im portant th a t you tak e a very active part in the
process of learning. You should often work together in pairs.
You should also feel th a t you are m aking constant progress in
your studies.
L e ts hope th a t you find th is book an effective way to learn
and use th e English language. In after life you will be grateful
for w hat you learned during your school days. It is very nec
essary th a t you should realize this.

L TH IN KIN G OUT ANSWERS


1. A fter leaving school you may need to speak English:
a) in everyday situations;
b) to describe life in your own country.
W here else?
2. If your parents speak a foreign language, why would
It be a good idea for you to learn th is language from them ?
104

. SHARE YOUB IDEAS

as to:
1. The purposes of those school students who join English
conversation clubs.
2. How a foreign language can be used not only in class,
but in school life, too.
3. W hat you would like to do at th e E nglish conversation
club.
III. CONVERSATION PRACTICE

1. If pupils want to learn to speak a language, then they


must have practice in speaking it.
Tell your p artner what you would like to talk about.
2. If pupils are to learn English, then they m ust hear as
much English as possible in and out of th e classroom.
Ask your p artner w hat he would like to hear most of all
(stories read over the radio, poetry, the results of some sports
event, etc.).
3. Discuss som ething you can both talk about.
IV. A JOKE
A Second Language
M other Mouse was tak ing her children for a walk. Sudden
ly a large cat appeared in th eir path. Bow, wow, wow! *
Mother Mouse shouted.
m
~
Very frightened, the cat
ir
ran away. You see, my chil
dren, M other Mouse exjlained, it is im portant to
earn a second language.

"Now well see whether that


expensive French Course on gra
mophone records was worth'' the
money or not, George^J

Questions:
1. W hat do you th in k will happen to th e English m otorist?
2. W hat is th e m ain th in g th a t Georges wife ought to
think about in th is situation?
^ bow [bau], wow (wau] -
* to be worth
105

W ord L ist
conjugate ['kondsugeit] v
frightened ('fraitnd] a

mouse [maus] n

4. THE CITY OF WASHINGTON


If you ask anybody who has visited various cities in th e
U nited S tates, w hat is th e most beautiful city he has seen in
th e eastern p art of the country, th e answer will undoubtedly
be: W ashington.
The city sprang out of a m arshy wilderness. It has been
th e seat of the American governm ent since 1800.
W hen in 1900 the 100th anniversary of th e removal of the
seat of governm ent to W ashington was celebrated in th e city,
th e population was 278,718. Now it is a city of nearly one
m illion inh ab itan ts. One can hardly find a park, a square or an
open area there w ithout a m onum ent or a m em orial. The
most im pressive and the best-know n ones are the Lincoln
Memoria and th e W ashington M onum ent.
Thousands of tourists v isit W ashington every day. People
from all p arts of th e U nited S tates come to see th eir capital
and th e m onum ents to those who in past centuries struggled
for the independence of th eir country.
W ashington is a city of paradoxes. It is th e least indus
trialized m e tro p o lis' in the world, yet it often rates as
dangerous on th e scale of air pollution. Its rivers are
polluted. The air is periodically to x ic from exhaust fumes.?
It has traffic jam s.
As a ty pical Am erican city, W ashington has very high
crim e and unem ploym ent rates. It is young people, black
people, workers and th e poor who are affected th e m ost.
W ashington is th e place for mass dem onstrations against
unem ploym ent and race discrim ination, for democracy and
civil rights.
I. TH IN K IN G OUT ANSWERS

1.
W hat can you say about W ashington as th e centre of th
political life of the U nited States?
* metropolis [mi'tropalisj the chief city of a country: a centre of pop
ulation, civilization, commerce, etc.
* exhaust Iig'zo:st] fumes

loe

2. Give th e nam es of those Americans who In past centu


ries played an im portant role in their countrys history.
3. W hat kind of political dem onstrations in W ashington
have you seen on TV?
II. SAY WHAT YOU CAN
1. T he crim e ra te in th e USA is th e highest in th e world
and probably in world history.
Speak about some of th e causes.
2, Large cities in ca p italist countries are full of social con
trasts.
In w hat way are cities in the socialist countries different
from those in th e ca p italist world?
III. CONVERSATION PRACTICE
1. Tell your partn er w hat you know about W ashington, New
York and other Am erican cities. Let him add som ething if
he can.
2. Ask your partner to give you w hat inform ation he can
about th e cap itals of four or five English-speaking countries.
Supply some additional facts you may know if your p a rt
ner fails to m ention them .

Word List
affect [a'fekt] v ,

impressive [im'presivj ;
jam ,
marsh [m aj] ,
pollute [pa'ljirt] V
rate ;

5.

removal [n'mirval] n

scale [skeil] ;
spring v . ;
toxic ['toksik]
undoubtedly [An'dautidli] ado
wilderness ['wildanis]

THE IN D U ST R IA L HEART OF ENGLAND

N early all th e chief towns of th e industrial M idlands are


close together. They lie in th e great undustrial area which
used to be called 2 th e B lack C ountry. Here we find num er
* Midlands areas In the middle of England
* used [ju:st] to be called ()
107

ous factories and coal mines. B irm ingham is th e most im por


ta n t town in th is district. Because of th e great variety of its
industries people call it The C ity of 1500 T rades.
All th e pins and needles in E nglish homes are probably
of B irm ingham m ake. The pens th a t people w rite w ith, the
spoons and forks they use for dinner, and the glasses which
they drink out of are m ostly products of B irm ingham indus
try . It is q u ite possible th a t m any of th e m otor-cars in E ng
land, th e bicycles, th e railw ay carriages and th e rails they run
on, th e radio and TV sets, etc., have come from B irm ingham .
The neighbouring city of C oventry is th e birth p lace of
th e m otor m anufacturing industry.
There is another great industrial d istrict around W olver
ham pton ['w ulvahaem ptanl. N orth of W olverham pton are the
P otteries. On knives and scissors one usually finds th e nam e
of Sheffield. To the north of B irm ingham you come to M an
chester, th e cotton centre. By m eans of a canal you can go
from M anchester to th e sea, to th e once great port of L iver
pool which is half dead now because air traffic has taken away
m uch of its im portance.
I. TH IN KIN G OUT ANSWERS
1. W hy do you th in k th e M idlands in G reat B ritain used
to be called th e Black C ountry?
2. The M idlands industrial area is a very big arm am ents
centre, too. W hat are the aim s of th e m anufacturers of arm a
m ents?
. SAY WHAT YOU CAN
1. O ne-third of the city of C oventry was destroyed by G er
man bombs during the last war.
Why are Coventry and Volgograd tw in cities? ^
2. How can you explain th e d istrib u tio n of industrial
enterprises in the B ritish Isles? W hat factors are always im por
tan t? (Try to include your knowledge of history and geography
into your answers.)
3. W hat is an arms race? 2 W hat m ay an arms race lead
to? W hy does th e Soviet Union, together w ith the progressive
people all over the world, support th e slogan, Stop th e Arms
Race?
* twin cities -
* arms race
108

III. CONVERSATION PRACTICE

1. Because coal and iron were together in great q u an titie s,


th e B lack C ountry became very im p o rtan t in th e 19th and
early 20th centuries.
Ask your p artn er questions about trad itio n ally im portant
industrial districts in our country.
2. M anchester is connected w ith th e port of Liverpool by
a canal.
Let your p artn er ask you questions about canals and im
portan t w ater-w ays b u ilt in th e Soviet Union.
3. Discuss which of th e Soviet cities can be called cities
of m any trades because of th e great v ariety of th e ir indus
tries.

List
armament ('am am antf n ,

enterprise ['entapraiz] n
mostly I'moustli] ado
needle n

neighbouring a
pottery I'potari] n
rail n .
scissors ['sizsz] n pi

6. AGRICULTURE IN BR ITA IN
The visito r who travels from Dover to London in spring
w ill pass through blossoming orchards of apple, pear and cher
ry trees, for it is not for nothing th a t K ent ^ is called the
G arden of E ngland. H ard fru its (apples and pears) grow
well in m any other parts of B rita in also. In th e W est farm ers
grow cider apples.? Soft fruits (such as plum s) are grown in
m any countries; th e area around P erth , in Scotland, is the
chief centre for raspberries.
W heat growing is confined m ainly to England. B arley
and oats are grown in the sam e areas together w ith sugar beet.
More th an half the crop is harvested m echanically. P otatoes
are grown m ainly in the E ast of E ngland, and in Lancashire,
while Scotland supplies seed-potatoes.
* K ent a county in the South-East of England
* cider ('saidej a drink made from apples ()
s seed-potatoes
109

D airy farm ing * is d istributed all over the country but is


characteristic of the West of England.
B ritain is an exporter of pedigree cattle,? sheep, pigs and
horses.
Sheep are found in hilly counties particularly. B ritain has
been famous for its wool for centuries. There is hardly a place
in the country w hich h asn t got some connection w ith the
wool trade. M any surnam es show a fam ilys past connection
w ith the wool trade. Shepherd and W eaver are th e best exam
ples.
M arket gardening centres * are usually situ ated near the
big towns. Glasshouses * are found m ainly in southern Eng
land.
I. G IV E CONCRETE ANSWERS
1. W hat are m any of th e apples grown in th e W est of Eng
land used for?
In what way are apples used in your region?
2. W hat are barley and oats used for?
3. In w hat regions of th e Soviet Union are sheep found?
4. Is our sugar beet crop harvested in th e sam e way as in
B ritain?
II. SHARE YOUR IDEAS
as to:
1. The im portance of m arket gardening centres.
2. Why m odern technical im provem ents, artificial fertili
zers and chem icals are so im portant in agriculture.
3. How agriculture depends on advice and inform ation
from research establishm ents.
III. CONVERSATION PRACTICE
1. Ask your p artn e r w hether or not he plans to enter an
agricultural in stitu te and w hat he knows about growing things.
2. Tell your p artn er how agriculture is developing in your
region and let him add w hat he knows on th is subject.
* dairy ['dean] farming
* pedigree ['pedigr!:] ca ttle ()
* market gardening centres

* glasshouse building with sides and roof made of glass, and often
heated; used for growing flowers and plants that need warmth

110

3.
Discuss how a high degree of m echanization can Increa
aericultural production, how agricultural m achinery helps.

if

' l 4 --------

" /

I always thought wheat was yellow and about this height.

Questions:
1. W hy is th e farm er so angry w ith the m otorist?
2. W hat do you know about wheat?

Word List
barley ['ball] n
beet n
blossom ['bbs9m] v ,
( )
chemical ['kemikal]
confine [kan'fain] v
()

county ['kaunti] n (

height [halt]
mainly adv
pig
plum
raspberry ['razbari]
shepherd ['Jepad]
surname ['someim]
weave [wl:v] v

7. AN ISLA ND IN A STORMY SEA


If you drew two parallel lines around the world, one touch
ing the northern tip of Ireland and the other the southern tip,
they would pass through or near such places as Moscow, our
capital, Novosibirsk in Siberia and part of Hudson Bay in Can
ada. However, Ireland is not very cold in w inter because in
its position as the most western land of Europe, it is the first
to meet the warm w aters of the Gulf Stream .
Ill

Ireland is often called the Em erald Isle because of its beau


tiful green fields.
in ancient tim es the chief occupation of the people in
Ireland was cattle-raising. They grew few crops. T heir homes
were built across the countryside, and there were no towns or
villages. Even now th e o n ly really large cities, where th e pop
ulatio n is concentrated, are D ublin and B elfast. There are few
other big towns in Ireland. Only tw enty-tw o have popula
tions over 10,000 each. The sm all town w ith a population
under 5,000 is the rule.
The history of Ireland has been rarely peaceful, as th e Irish
people had continually to fight for th e ir land against foreign
invaders.
In 1171 King Henry II of England landed in D ublin.
He divided the island among some of his supporters, and the
E nglish rulers decided to m ake p lan tatio n s of Englishm en
in Ireland. But the local Irish people did not w ant to give
up th eir land, and from the hills, where they were forced to
live, they persistently raided the English settlem ents.
Ireland was under B ritish rule for m any centuries. It
was only in 1921 th a t th e Irish Free S ta te was set up as a
B ritish dom inion w ith D ublin as its capital. In 1949 Ireland
declared itself an independent republic. N orthern Ireland
rem ained p art of th e U nited K ingdom of G reat B ritain . This
p art of the country is called U lster, its capital is B elfast.
B oth Irish and E nglish are spoken in Ireland. English
however, is the language in common use today.
The people of U lster are fighting against B ritish rule.
The people of th e Em erald Isle hope for success in th e struggle
for a united Ireland.
I. TH IN K IN G OUT ANSWERS
1. There is an old Irish saying th a t Ireland m ust be the
cleanest place in th e world, because rain washes it every day.
In w hat way does the A tlantic Ocean influence the cli
m atic conditions of Ireland?
2. P eat is a useful fuel in a country w ith few forests and
coal mines.
H ave you read, heard or seen anything on TV about the
economic geography of Ireland?
Can you say, for exam ple, th a t peat has become a m ajor
source of in d ustrial power in Ireland?
112

II. SAY WHAT YOU CAN


The 1641 rebellion of the Irish against the En.^lish was
cruelly suppressed. The population of entire Irish towns was
killed or sent to the W est Indies where they were sold as
slaves.
W hat other exam ples of how colonialists have suppressed
or suppress th e n atio n al-lib eratio n struggle do you know?
I II . CONVERSATION PRACTICE
1. Since 1921 th e Irish governm ent has encouraged the
use of th e n ativ e tongue in different ways. M any radio pro
gramm es, for exam ple, are broadcast in Irish.
Tell your p artn er w hat other ways there m ight be of en
couraging th e use of the n ativ e tongue in Ireland.
2. D ublin is a very interesting city. W ith its galleries,
churches, museums, and theatres, it is a centre of literature,
learning, and art.
B elfast is a city on Irelan d s north-east coast. Most of the
buildings here are of red brick, as there is no good local build
ing stone. T he m ost ex citing p art of B elfast is th e port.
Ask your p artn er to com pare two cities (in our country
or in a foreign country) w hich he knows well.
3. Discuss w hat th e press, radio and TV say about the
situ atio n in N orthern Ireland.

Word List
ancient ('e in j 9nt] a ,

church n
emerald ['emsrald] n
encourage ['^] v
invade (m'veid] v
Irish ('a isrij] a
m ajor I'meidss] a

native ('neitiv] a ()
Norman [':] a
peat n
raid v -
rebellion [n'b eljen j n
slave n pa<5
suppress [ss'pres] v

8. AN UPSIDE-DO W N WORLD
W hat will you find if you go to A ustralia? It will seem
to you ra th e r an upside-dow n world. New Year is at m idsum
m er, m idw inter is in Ju n e . H ot winds blow from th e north;
cold winds blow from th e south. T he farth er north we go,
5

6931

113

Ihe h o tter it gets. The trees look strange; it w ill seem odd to
you th a t they never lose th eir leaves, and you will miss th e
bare branches in w inter.
A u stralia is a land of strange birds and beasts such as
th e kangaroo, koala, echidna le'kidnal, dingo.
W hat about th e clim ate? A ustralians boast th a t they can
sleep out-of-doors all th e year round. The sun shines in w inter
and in sum m er. Snow and ice are rare, except in th e high
m ountains. There is not m uch rain, and drought is a constant
anxiety. In bad tim es, and in the driest parts, m any anim als
m ay die for w ant of w ater.
History
O riginally discovered by th e D utch, A u stralia was not set
tled till C aptain Cook discovered th e east coast in 1770; it
was th en first used as a colony for convicts.
O ther settlem ents, surrounded by th e houses and sheepruns ^ of a few free settlers, began to appear. Of these settle
m ents Sydney was th e most im portant; b u t o th er sm aller sta
tions for convicts h ad been established in T asm ania, at B ris
bane, and on th e Swan R iver in W estern A ustralia.
The early settlers were very cruel to th e n ativ e black peo
ple of A ustralia, th e Aborigines. They were killed for no
reason at all or driven away from th e ir lands.
The discovery of gold in 1851 drew crowds of men to Aus
tra lia and th e character of the colony began to change. B ut
still, agriculture and the raising of sheep and c a ttle rem ained
for a long tim e th e economic basis of th e country.
Towards th e end of th e 19th century, th e A ustralian col
onies began to desire some form of union. They formed a
federation. The new co n stitution came into force on January
1, 1901; and th e b irth of the new n atio n was celebrated.

1 TH IN KIN G OUT ANSWERS

1. The A ustralian clim ate is very healthy.


Is it only because it is so dry? W hat else m akes it healthy?
2. A ustralians are m uch interested in horse-racing.
W hat other sports are popular and represented by A ustral
ian ath letes a t th e O lym pic Games?
* sh c ^ -ru n land on which sheep are kept
114

3.
A u stralian s are accustom ed to an out-of-door life an
to plenty of sun and air.
W hat do th ey do out-of-doors?
Why does th e hot w ind blow from the north in A ustralia?
II. SAY WHAT YOU CAN

1. You have read th a t A ustralians boast th a t they can


sleep out-of-doors all the year round.
Now choose another English-speaking country and say
w hat its population can boast of.
2. W hat is strange about A ustralian birds and beasts?
III. CONVERSATION PRACTICE

1. Tell your p artn er how the A ustralian continent was dis


covered and w hat happened to the Aborigines.
2. Let your p artn er express his opinion as to why the B rit
ish governm ent first used A ustralia as a convict settlem ent.
3. Discuss th e m eaning of the following joke from Aus
tralia.
A stranger goes out to a sheep station. And he hears about
the famous G ray brothers cham pion builders of fences.
He is told they always take three days food w ith them
when th ey set out for a days work at the fences.
W hy do th ey take three days food w ith them if th e y re
only going out for th e day? he asks.
And th e answer is:
Because every tim e they do a days fencing, they work so
fast it takes them tw o days to get back.

Word List
accustomed [a'kAstamd] a
anxiety [aeij'zaiati] n ,
bare a ,
boast V ,
convict ('ionviitt]
desire [di'zai3( v ,

drought [draut] n
fence n ,
odd a ,
surround [sa'raund| v
upside-down a

to set out ,
5*

115

9. Y U R I GAGARIN ABOUT HIMSELF


The Soviet U nion placed h isto ry s first m anned spaceship,
V ostok, piloted by Y uri Alexeyevich G agarin, into orbit
round the E arth on April 12, 1961.
Yuri G agarins nam e, the nam e of th e first space pilot
in history, has become known throughout th e w orld.
W ho
was th is m an who tu rn ed over a new page in th e history of
world civilization?
Here are some questions and answers from an' interview
given by Yuri G agarin ju st after his historic flight.
Question: W hat were your thoughts during th e flight?
Answer: All my thoughts were concentrated on carrying
out th e flight program m e. I w anted to fulfil every single item
of m y task as perfectly as possible. There was a lot of work to
do and the whole flight was work.
Question: W hen did you first hear of Tsiolkovsky?
Answer: I first heard of Tsiolkovsky in school. W hen I
was a student at th e In d u strial School and at the Air Force
school, his nam e was very dear to us and we studied his works.
Question: W hat subjects did you like most at school?
Answer: I finished six classes at a G zhatsk secondary
school. Then I studied at a L yubertsy vocational school and
later at an indu strial school in S aratov. All those years my
favourite subjects were physics and m athem atics.
Question: W ho is your favourite hero in lite ratu re and your
favourite w riter?
Answer: I have m any favourite w riters, both Soviet au
thors and the classics. I like very m uch to read Chekhov, Tol
stoy, P ushkin, and Polevoi. My favourite literary hero from
childhood is the hero of Boris P olevois A S tory of a Real
M an.
Question: Do you go in for sports? W hat sports do you like
most?
Answer: I like sports and most of all I play basketball.
Besides, 1 like to ski, skate, and play badm inton.
Question: W hat is your favourite occupation?
Answer: Most of all I like to fly. Up till now I flew
planes. I liked th is flight into space very much.
Question: W hat was th e most im portant event in your life
before th is flight?
Answer: In th e sum m er of 1960 I joined th e P arty . T hat
was the greatest, th e m ost vivid event of my life up till this
116

flight into spacQ. I dedicated my flight to our P a rty , our Gov


ernm ent, to the whole people who are m arching in th e van
guard of m ankind and building up a new society.
I. TH IN KIN G OUT ANSWERS
1. W hy was Yuri G agarins flight the greatest achievem ent
of science and engineering of th e tim e, a trium ph of hum an
thought?
2. In w hat way were the genius of the Soviet people and
th e great power of socialism embodied in th is exploit?
n . SAY WHAT YOU CAN
1. Say why tsarist R ussia could not even dream of com
peting with more technically and economically advanced
countries,
2. E x p lain how our country turned into a m ighty social
ist power and achieved great heights in th e developm ent of
science and technology.
3. Give some exam ples of the rem arkable successes of So
viet science and engineering. Whose work are these successes
due to?
III. CONVERSATION PRACTICE

1. Ask and answer questions about Yuri G agarin.


2. Ask and answer questions about the heroes of the
recent space flights.
3. Discuss
th e
achievem ents and pros
pects of intern atio n al
co-operation in space
research.
Questions:
1.
D o people still
th in k it possible th a t
space trav ellers from
Mars m ay v isit th e
E arth ? G ive your reas
ons.
Why, theyre ordinary
people just like usl
117

2.
W hat do you know about th e spaceships w hich hav
been sent to Mars?

Word List
dvanced [ad'vttnst] a
dedicate v
embody fim'bodi] v
genius ['djtnjas) v

due [djir] predic ,


mankind n
vivid a

10. HO LDING A MEETING


W hen a num ber of people come together at a certain tim e
and place to discuss a problem , we say they hold a m eeting.
Schoolchildren m ay a tte n d a class m eeting or a m eeting of the
most active pupils of th e class. Komsomol m em bers m ay call
a m eeting, m em bers of th e CPSU hold p a rty m eetings and
there are also trad e-u n io n and parents m eetings.
A school Kom som ol m eeting is opened by th e secretary. He
says th a t th e m eeting is declared open and proposes th a t the
presidium [pri'sidjam ] of th e m eeting should be elected. He
says th a t the floor is open to nom inations.^
W hen nom inations are closed, th e list of th e pupils nom i
nated is p ut to th e vote.2 Those elected ta k e th eir places at
th e presidium ta b le and one of them becomes th e chairm an
and conducts th e m eeting.
The chairm an tells th e m eeting w hat questions are on
the proposed agenda and asks w hether th ere are any objections,
additions or am endm ents to the form ulation of th e questions.
"Has anyone a m otion to m ake? he asks.
A fter th e agenda is adopted, a tim e lim it is established for
the report and for each speaker in the following debate.
The report is followed by discussion. All who wish to
tak e p art, raise th e ir hands.
The chairm an invites all m em bers of th e Komsomol to
express th eir opinion. M any of them tak e an active p art in
th e debate. They criticize shortcom ings and speak about how
to im prove progress and discipline.
* Ihe floor is open to nom inationsad.
to put to the vote

118

Then one of th e Komsomols proposes th a t the m eeting


should adopt a resolution which he and others have drawn
up as they listened to th e debate. The resolution contains
a num ber of concrete m easures th a t m ust be tak en to improve
work in th e future. The resolution is put to th e vote and
passed.
As th ere are no fu rth er questions on th e agenda the chair
m an declares th e m eeting closed.
I.

GIVE THE ANSWERS

1. W hat was th e agenda of th e last m eeting of your class?


2. W ho m ade m otions concerning th e agenda of the
meeting? Was the agenda adopted w ith additions or am end
ments?
3. How m uch tim e were th e speakers allowed in the dis
cussion?
II.

SHARE YOUR IDEAS

1. Com ment on th is statem ent: W e only decide serious


things at our m eetings.
2. T hink of and discuss statem ents about a m eeting w hich
m ight be m ade by a person who
a) is present at a m eeting;
b) presides at a m eeting;
c) speaks at a m eeting:
d) addresses a m eeting;
e) is on th e way to a m eeting.
III.

CONVERSATION PRACTICE

1. Discuss w ith your partner w hat you and he would say


at a m eeting of th e m ost active students in your class about
m aking b etter progress.
2. Tell each other w hat you would speak about at your
Komsomol re-election meeting.^
3. Discuss th e best way of conducting a class m eeting.
re-election meeting -*
9

W ord L ist
amendment [a'mendmant] n no
concerning [')] prep
criticize ['kntisaiz] v
debate [di'beit] v
motion ['moujn] n
move V .

objection [^/] n
preside [pri'zaidj v
progress n ( )
propose [pra'pouz] v
shortcoming [Jo:t'kAmiQ] n

. EVERYTHING MUST BE BEA U TIFU L IN


A P E R S O N ...
The title of th is tex t m ust be fam iliar to you. It is the
beginning of the A nton C hekhovs famous quotation: E very
thing m ust be beautiful in a person face, clothing,
sp irit and m ind.
W hat is more im portant in a person his character or his
appearance? Most often you will hear th a t both should be taken
care of. Many people say th a t beauty is a harm onious com bi
nation of outw ard appearance and high moral qualities. O thers
th in k th a t character is th e m ain thing, and there is even a
saying which is a je m in d e r th a t appearances are often deceiv
ing. As an old E n g lish saying goes, Judge not according to
th e appearance. The im portance of character is also ex
pressed in th e following lines w ritten m any years ago:
W hen w ealth is lost, nothing is lost;
W hen health is lost, som ething is lost;
W hen character is lost, all is lost!
So you can judge for yourself which is more im portant and
w hether you should th in k more about character train in g or
outw ard appearance.
Do you th in k very m uch about your clothes? If you try
to follow the fashion (to wear th e kind of clothes th a t others
wear) i t s quite a n atu ral thing, but following th e fashion in
clothes is not the m ain th in g in life, you will agree. After all,
fashions change every year and fine clothes are never out of
fashion, as an E nglish saying goes.
As you m ay be interested in fashion, here are some facts
which, perhaps, you have never considered.
Changes in fashion rig ht up to th e beginning^ of th is cen
* right up to the beginning
120

tu ry were usually confined to the very rich, the royal courts


of Europe, and the n o b ility .
The sty le of clothing th a t ordinary people wore did not
change so rap id ly . They sim ply couldnt afford new clothes
very often. They bought or m ade new ones only when the old
ones were worn out.
Nowadays, fashions change more rapidly because people
can afford new clothes, and the clothing industry has become
highly developed. New m aterials are being produced. Styles
change often, and people feel obliged
get new clothes to
keep up w ith th e fashion.
I. TH IN K IN G OUT ANSWERS

1. A new girl has begun to attend a class. One of the mem


bers of th e class says: I m sure shes going to be a favourite
w ith all of us in no tim e!
W hat was her reason for saying this?
2. The class was very excited because they knew they
would have a new teacher and everyone was wondering w hat
he would be like. They know now, and th in k he is very nice.
W hat can be nice about a teacher?
3. M artin and Fred are boys, b u t not brothers. In w hat ways
do you th in k they m ay be alike? In w hat ways m ay they be
different?
II. SHARE YOUR IDEAS

1.
Say som ething about each of the persons m entioned i
these sentences and try to say why he or she acts in th a t way.
a) M ary showed no great pleasure on hearing th e news.
b) H enry was try in g to behave as if there was nothing on
his m ind.
c) Helen looked at him w ith wide-open eyes.
III. CONVERSATION PRACTICE

1.
Officers and m en (soldiers) cannot appear in publi
places in unpressed uniform s; th eir boots m ust be polished,
they m ust be shaved and th eir hair combed.
Ask your p artn er w hat he thinks people of various trades
and professions should look like when they appear in public
places.
12]

2. You notice th a t your teen-age sister has begun to use


m ake-up. You try to persuade her th a t she is still too young
for th is sort of thing.
Tell your p artn er w hat else you will tell your sister in
th is connection.
3. Discuss:
a) th e difference between clothes for w inter wear and
clothes for sum m er wear in your region;
b) how old will a child be
if he can dress him self com
pletely;
c) w hether m itten s can be m ore necessary (com fortable)
th an gloves.

Word L ist
afford [a'fxd] v
mitten ['mitn] n , behave [bi'heiv]

beyond [bi'jond] prep (npe- nobility [nou'biliti]


n , )

court rt ()
persuade [pa'sweid] v
deceive [di'si:v] v
polish I'paliJ] v , judge |c^.\d3)
,
teen-ager ['ti:n,ei(]^9]
make-up ['meikApJ ti , uniform ['ju;nif3:mj n

,
wealth [vvelG]

12.

PERSO N A L IN T E R E S T S A R E NUM EROU S

Do you collect m atchbox tops ^ or stam ps, stones, flowers


or shells?
Are you interested in dancing? Everyone likes dancing of
some sort. Perhaps you are keen on ballet, classical or modern.
Or perhaps you like country and folk dancing. Or perhaps you
ju s t like m oving to the rhythm of popular records.
Do you like sightseeing in towns where there are old b u ild
ings: palaces, castles, churches and old houses of historical
in te r^ t?
T he author of an article in a Polish paper has counted 1019
personal interests and ways to spend ones free tim e. The
m ost popular hobbies are p h ilately [fi'lsetali], collecting view* matohbox top
122

cards,* coins,? and books. Some people are interested in


m odern architecture. They collect pictures showing the most
interesting arch itectu ral designs of our tim e.
O thers are interested in photography. They like taking
photos of historical buildings and relics of ancient culture,
they always tak e th e ir cam eras w ith them when they are on
holiday. They keep a photographic record of fam ily events.
A useful hobby is collecting tape recordings. You m ay have
recordings of operas, lig h t music, folk music and jazz idsaezl
concerts.
I t s im possible to describe all these 1019 hobbies known
in th e world. The m ain th in g is th a t they increase your knowl
edge in some p articu lar field and broaden* your outlook.
Hobbies in England
Almost every E nglishm an w ith any spare tim e has a hob
by, and it is alm ost im possible to guess from his profession
or appearance his personal interests. It m ay be stam p-collect
ing or carpentry, or digging up Rom an pottery, or sim ply
digging up his own potatoes. G ardening and th e cultivation
of flowers, especially roses, is th e most common hobby of
all among Englishm en.
I. THINKING OUT ANSWERS

1. Here are some questions about your special hobbyi


a) W hen did you first become interested in it?
b) W hat do you do when you are occupied w ith your
hobby?
c) Do you recom m end it to other school students?
2. My hobby is tropical fish. I have quite a large aquar
ium in my room. I love to . . .
II. SHARE YOUR IDEAS

1.
The Soviet U nion has thousands of places where schoo
children can spend th e ir free tim e Pioneer Palaces and
Clubs, centres for young n atu ra lists and ch ild ren s railw ays.
^ vicw-card a postcard with a view
^ coin a round piece of metal used as money
tape recording
^ to broaden make broader
123

W hat do you th in k m em bers of a Young S ailors Club


should do?
2.
In the Soviet U nion th ere are th o u san d s of clubs. Thej
arc collectives of people having sim ilar hobbies and interests.
There are clubs of scientific and technical workers, poets,
tourists, young factory workers, students and so on.
W hat do you th in k th e mem bers of a teen-agers club
should include in th e plan for their club?
III. CONVERSATION PRACTICE
1. Im agine th a t you are a m em ber of an am ateur dram atic
group in your school.
E xplain to your p artn er why your favourites are contem
porary plays (classical ones).
2. Ask your p artn er w hether he is fond of poetry.
Let him say why m any people like R ussian classic (con
tem porary) poetry very m uch.
3. Discuss th e following jokes about photography as
a hobby.
Enlargin{{ ^ Pictures
C u s t o m e r : Do you enlarge pictures to life-size?
P hoto-store
c l e r k : ? T h a ts our speciality.
C u s t o m e r ; Splendid! H eres a p ictu re I took of the Grand
Canyon.
A nother Joke
Small
b o y (ru n n in g into a studio): Quick! Help!
T heres bull ru n n in g after m y father!
P h o t o g r a p h e r (excitedly): W hat can I do?
Small
b o y : P u t a film in m y cam era, quick!
Question: W hat does the photographer th in k th e boy wants
him to do?

Word List
absorb [ab'sorbl v
bull [bul] n
carpentry ('kapm tri] n
castle I'kttsl] n

contemporary [kan'temparari] a

design [drzam ] n ;
dig v

^ to enlarge [m'lacfe] to make larger


* photo-store clerk
124

life-size fl
outlook
Roman [']

shell
spare

13. ART IS POWER


The title of th is te x t is an English proverb. A rt is indeed
a great power, especially if it appeals to the heart and m ind of
m an, to his feelings and ideals and if it proclaim s life. Art
is tru th fu l only when it serves life, only when the artist
hopes to arouse a warm response in th e heart of m an.
In developing th e ir art and literatu re th e people of the
Soviet U nion follow th e principles of socialist realism , which
requires th a t events be tru th fu lly depicted in th eir historical
context and revolutionary developm ent.
The Soviet a rtist is free in the choice of them e and artistic
form. However, society cannot rem ain indifferent to the ideas
expressed in a p ictu re or a novel. Soviet society rejects
and condemns works of art which contain propaganda of war,
racial and religious ideas, violence, etc.
W hen you go to a picture gallery or to an exhibition, you
are deeply im pressed by the works of those m asters who show
a tru th fu l relatio n sh ip between art and life. As a rule, th eir
pictures bring to th e m ind the strength of th e hum an spirit,
th e beauty of m an. Such art helps us to understand th e ou t
side world, it cu ltiv ates a persons a rtistic and aesthetic
taste.
On th e other hand, if an abstract p ain tin g isnt easy to
understand, you cannot say th a t it helps in th e a rtistic edu
cation of people. A rt of th is kind cannot be great because it
is not connected w ith th e life of people, th e ir interests and
ideals.
There are a lot of jokes about artists and art, and one of
them is about an ab stractionist who painted a p o rtra it of
a man. W hen th e gentlem an, whose p o rtra it it was, came and
asked the ab stractio n ist to alter the nose a little , the abstrac
tio n ist said th a t w hat th e gentlem an im agined to be th e nose
was q uite another detail of th e picture.
I. THINKING OUT ANSWERS

1.
C ritical realism in painting was represented in R uss
by P. Fedotov, I. R epin and m any other artists.
125

R om anticism played a considerable role in th e work of


K iprensky and I. Aivazovsky.
Can you give the nam e of a p ain ter whose works are ty p i
cal specimens of either critical realism or rom anticism ?
2. Do you know any p aintings which arent easy to under
sta n d w ithout a guides explanations?
Tell about one of them .
3. W hat kind of pictures is your atten tio n usually a t
trac ted by?

O.

II. SHARE YOL'R IDEAS

1. Speak about th e purposes true art should serve.


2. E x p lain how art can help us to understand th e outside
world.
3. Say how you understand th e idea of socialist realism in
pain tin g . In w hat way should an artist p ain t from life?
III. CONVERSATION PRACTICE

1.
Pen-friends who are interested in art, exchange album s
w ith reproductions of paintings and sculptures, picture post
cards w ith reproductions of well-known paintings and illus
tra te d m useum catalogues.
Tell your p artn er w hat you have of these and w hat you
would like to exchange for som ething else or w hat you would
like to add to your collection.
2. Let your p artn er tell you about his visit to a picture
gallery or a fine arts ^ m useum .
Ask him w hat th e gallery contained (specialized in) and
how th e section of Soviet pain tin g was represented.
3. Discuss w hat m akes good art.

IV. A JOKE

Very P opular
A wom an proudly ex
claim ed: My son is a great
artist. More people follow

Lets get out of here!


say we did it!
^ the fine arts
126

Theyll

his work th a n th e work of any other artist. He paints all the


arrows in th e subw ays.
Question:
How serious was th e woman?

Word List
alter [':] v
appeal ['1;1] v ,
arouse [a'rauz] v ;

arrow I'eerou]
artistic [a'tistik ] a
depict [di'pikt] v ,

indifferent [in'difrant] a
reject (ri'd^el<t] v
specimen ['spesiminj n ;
.
subway ['sAbweiJ n
theme (0im] n
violence ['vaialans] n

14. RADIO A N D TELEVISION IN BRITAIN


Most fam ilies in B ritain have a radio set, though they
often say th a t they dont listen to th e radio very often.
The three radio services for listeners in B ritain provide
a selection of program mes for people of different ages, in
terests and tastes.
Program m es are on th e air from six in th e m orning u ntil
tw elve oclock at night. Among th e program mes are comments
and discussions on current affairs, interview s w ith various
people, broadcasts for schools, and lays. The m ain news bul
letins ^ are followed by light m usic, short plays and sketches.
Another program m e consists m ainly of inform ative talks and
instructions in subjects such as foreign languages, gardening,
cooking and bringing up children. Listeners of a special pro
gram m e can hear scientific and cultural talk s, poetry read
ings, serious m usic.
Television (colloquially known as TV or the te lly )
is very popular in B ritain.
Viewers are able to w atch plays, live transm issions of
topical events, sports and athletics, news features, education
al program mes, interview s w ith prom inent people, th eatrical
and m usical perform ances and m any other item s. F ilm s are
^ news bulletin I'bulitin]
137

teievized; and some are m ade specially for television. Many


viewers are critical of the film s tran sm itte d , for th ey are usu
ally ra th e r old. A frequent criticism of TV program m es is
th a t they too often show violence and crime.
There are two television programmes and one com m ercial
program me. The com m ercial program me is financed largely
from advertisem ents.
I. THINKING OUT APTSWERS

1. W hile w atching television, did you ever wish it didnt


m ove so fast? Did you ever wish you could go back and hear
aiid th in k about som ething which came earlier? W hat was it?
2. Sasha, four years old, could not tell th e tim e by the
clock, b u t he did know when his favourite TV program m e
came on. How could he tell?
3. W hat could cause a person trav ellin g to say, This town
certainly has a lot of television sets?
4. W hile listening to a news broadcast ^ one evening,
your father said, I m sure our new spaper w ill have a big
story on this tom orrow . W hy did he say this?
II. SHARE YOUR IDEAS

1. How m uch tim e do you th in k a school stu d en t should


spend w atching TV? G ive your reasons.
2. Speak about th e usefulness of th e regular TV pro
gram m e about th e anim al kingdom . In w hat w ay does it
h elp you w ith your school subjects?
3. It is possible to hear a persons voice years after he has
died. Whose voices (of people who lived in the past) have
you listened to, or would you like to listen to? W hy?
I II . CONVERSATION PRACTICE

1. P aren ts generally let th eir children w atch TV only


after th e y ve done th eir homework properly.
Can you suggest any other arrangem ent? Discuss it w ith
your p artn er.
2. Discuss why some people are often ready to listen again
to a piece of m usic they have already heard m any tim es, or
see again a film or play th a t they have already seen m any
tim es.
* news broadcast
128

IV. JOKES

Radio Reception
R adio reception m ust be very bad to d ay .
W hy do you th in k so?
D ont you see how strong th e wind is? All the waves be
carried aw ay.
Question: W hat is th e cause of bad reception?
On TV?
T e a c h e r : C hildren, there is to be an eclipse of the moon
tonight.^ If your parents will let you, I d like you to stay up ?
and w atch it.
P u p i l : W hat channel?
Q uestion
Does th is pupil spend m uch or little tim e w atching TV?
How do you know?
How to Get One Good Mark
F a t h e r (after
they had a subject
Questions:
1. W hy does the
2. Does TV help

looking at his sons report card^): I wish


called TV.
father say th at?
people to learn better?

So th ats where the transistor


got tol

We brought this set with us


from A ustralia.

^ tonight the night of this day ( )


* to stay up
report card ()

12

Question:
W hat can you say about the sizes of m odern transistors?
Question:
Could the lady say in a sim ilar situ atio n th a t her set had
been brought from New Zealand? Give your reasons.

Word List
broadcast ('bnrdkast] n
channel ['t/aeni] n
colloquial [lo'loukwisl] a *
( )

eclipse [I'klips] n
prominent a
though (dou] cj
wave n

15. HAV ING FU N AT TH E CIRCUS


Circus perform ances usually take place in a huge ten t which
has the shape of a ring; in fact the actual circle in which the
clowns [klaunz] and anim als perform is called th e ring in
English. In L atin circus m eans circle or rin g . The Rom ans
built large, round or oval arenas ('1:] where they held
games and races, and these were nam ed circuses because of
th eir shape. Some tim e later the com pany of perform ers also
began to be called the circus.
Today a circus is the people, th e anim als, th e orchestra
and so on, and also the place in which they perform if it is
a perm anent building.
Circuses as we know them began in E urope about a hun
dred and fifty years ago.
The start of a circus show is usually announced by the
ringm aster. On the program m e are trapeze (trs'p i:z l artists,
cyclists, acrobats, conjurers, jugglers, rope-walkers, horse
riders, clowns, and perform ing anim als.
These are supported by program m e sellers, usherettes J
and ring boys.
Many performances are very good, and when you pay
a visit to th e circus you generally have an enjoyable tim e.
In a trapeze act you can see, for exam ple, a blindfold girl
doing a som ersault in th e air before she is caught by her p art
ner. Monkeys or other anim als jum p on horses and ride them
^ juggler a person who can throw several articles into the air one

after the other and catch them as they fall


* usherette [.Aja'retj

130

around th e ring. Lions jum p through burning hoops. Ele


phants stan d on sm all tubs and dance.
There are also circus shows on ice, w ith th e clowns and
the bears on skates doing all sorts of tricks.
I. THINKING OUT ANSWERS

1. W hy is it very difficult to become a circus performer?


2. W hat knowledge m ust you have to become a good
anim al trainer?
3. W hat q u alities m ust a clown have if he w ants to m ake
th e spectators laugh at him?
I I. SAY WHAT YOU CAN

1. E x p lain why some clowns are greeted by loud laughter


when th ey appear in the arena.
2. A clown is th e funny m an in th e circus. W hat is a m usi
cal clown?
3. W hy are anim al tra in
ers not afraid to enter the
w ild-anim al cage during a
performance?
III. CONVERSATION
PRACTICE

1. Tell each c ih e r w hat


conjuring tricks you know
or w hat conjuring trick s you
understand b u t cannot do.
2. Discuss th e role of
travellin g circuses in bring
ing people into contact
w ith art.
Here is the safety net I prom
ised you!"

Questions:
1. W hat kind of a safety net is necessary to m ake a tr a
peze act safe?
2. W hy do circus owners in ca p italist countries try to
include dangerous acts in each performance?

131

Word List
actual ['aektjusl) a
bear (beaj n
blindfold ('blaindfould) a
conjurer ('kAndsara]
hoop ,
monkey ['mAijki]

net n
permanent ('parmanant] a nocro
safety ['seifti)
somersault ['sAma,so:ltJ
trick ,
tub

16. W O N D E R OF TH E M ODERN W O R LD
One of the wonders of th is m odern world is th e art of m ak
ing m oving pictures. A little more th an eighty years ago there
was no such form of en tertainm ent.
In 1895 the L um iere brothers gave th e w orlds first real
cinem atograph show in P aris to an audience of 33 people.
The first film th e Lum iere brothers showed was The A rriv
al of a T rain at a S ta tio n . So exciting was th e experience,
th a t some m em bers of th e audience half expected th e tra in
to rush out at them from the screen.
Now, m illions of people go to th e cinem a each week; yet
very few th in k about th e great work and skill th a t goes into
th e m aking of a film .

I.

SAY WHAT YOU CAN

Give an ex p lan atio n of each of these statem ents about a


film th a t you would like to recommend to your friends.
The film is a m ust.
2. The film is worth a v isit (to the cinem a).
3. 1 urge you not to miss this film.
4. It is a film to see over and over again.
5. The film m akes you forget th a t you are at the cinem a.
6. It is a talen ted and original film.
7. The film deserves a m uch wider showing.
8. The film is p laying to full houses.
9. It is a strong and m oving docum entary.
10.
The film certain ly wont please everybody, but it wil
cause a lot of discussion.

i32

. SHARE YOUR IDEAS

1. W ould you like to go to a m ovie ^ tonight? T heres


som ething good playing at Sm ena.
W hat are probable answers to this question?
2. Most of th e scenes in the film are so fine th a t they make
up for w hat is bad.
W hat do you th in k was bad?
3. W illiam Shakespeares plays have received much a t
ten tio n from film -m akers ever since 1908, when the Tam ing
of the Shrew? was made.
E xplain film -m akers great interest in Shakespeares
works.
4. Of all the arts, for us the most im portant is the cin
em a. (L enin)
This q u o tation can be seen in very m any cinemas.
W hy did Lenin attach so much im portance * to th e cinema?
III.

CONVERSATION PRACTICE

1. Some film s are produced for young audiences.


Tell your partn er w hat is speciil about such films.
2. A ch ildrens film festival is not a rare occasion.
Ask your p artn er about the educational objectives of
such festivals.
3. As you were doing your homework you could hear scraps
of conversation from a TV
film coming from another
room.
Now both you and your
partn er try to develop w hat
you heard.
E x p lain w hat you th ink
th e situ atio n was and w hat
you th in k will be said
next.

Yes, our television sets out of


order, too>
^ to go to a movie (Amer.) to go to a cinema
* The Taming of the Shrew
to attach importance

133

Here are those scraps of conversation:


1. Let us change th e subject.
2. Tim e alone will tell.
3. My guess was rig h t.
4. M aybe t h a t s to th e good.
5. W hat h av e you got against it?
Questions:
1. W hy is cinem a-going still a favourite pastim e for m any
people?
2. W ill cinem a attendances fall because of th e popularity
of TV?

Word List
entertain [.enta'tein] v
experience n
objective [ob'dsektiv] n
pastime n ,

rush v
scrap n
screen n

17. P U B L IC H O L ID A Y S IN B R IT A IN
AND IN T H E USA
In England, C hristm as Day and Good F riday ^ have been
holidays (H oly D ays) for religious reasons since the estab
lishm ent of C h ristia n ity in th a t country. They are officially
recognized as w h at are known as B ank H olidays. The other
B ank H olidays are Boxing Day, E aster M onday, W hit Mon
day ? and the first M onday in August. T h at these days should
be public holidays was laid down in the B ank H olidays Act
of 1871. The act owes its nam e to th e fact th a t banks are clo
sed on these holidays.
Boxing Day is December 26th (or th e 27th if the 26th is
a Sunday). It tak es its nam e from th e old custom of giving
employees an annual present or C hristm as box on th a t day.
E aster M onday is generally considered th e beginning of
spring. In m any towns there are fairs w ith roundabouts and
* Good Friday the Friday before Easter Sunday;

* Whit [wit] Monday (the day after the seventh Sunday after Easter
)
* to lay down - formulate (a rule, course or principle); ,

134

other am usem ents. E aster Monday used to be th e day on which


th e ladies paraded in th e parks, w earing new dresses and hats.
The August B ank H oliday is probably th e most popular
one of th e year, p artly because it comes at a tim e when
schoolchildren are not at school. Very m any people try to
m ake this a long week-end, and go away to th e seaside or the
country.
You have seen from th e names th at most of the holidays
described in th e te x t were at first religious festivals. So great
is th e influence of the church and trad itio n th a t English
people still preserve the names, even if th e m ajority of the
people do not celebrate th e occasions as religious festivals.
In Ireland, S t. P a tric k s Day (March 17) is also a Bank
H oliday. S t. P atrick is the P atro n S aint of Ireland.^
The S cottish B ank H olidays are C hristm as Day and .New
Y ears Day (or the following Monday if either of these days
falls on a Sunday), Good F riday, the first M onday in May and
th e first M onday in August. New Y ears Eve is an occasion for
m uch joyous and noisy celebration. It is a S cottish trad itio n
th a t th e first person to cross the threshold of your house on
New Y ears Day should be darkhaired such a person brings
luck for th e coming year. In London, S cottish people gather
on th e steps of S t. P a u ls Cathedral and sing Auld Lang
Syne? at m idnight. There are also large crowds at Piccadilly
Circus and T rafalgar Square.

HOLIDAYS IN THE LISA


T he chief public holidays in the U nited S tates are New
Y ears D ay, W ashingtons B irthday (February 22), Inde
pendence Day (July 4), Labour Day (the first Monday in
Septem ber), E lection Day (the first Tuesday in November),
Thanksgiving Day (November 28) and C hristm as Day (De
cember 25).
Most states also celebrate Decoration Day or Memorial
Day (May 30) in mem ory of the soldiers who fell in the
Civil W ar.
1 St. Patrick [snt'paetrik] ; patron sain t
^ Auld Lang Syne (':11 laeg'sam] Scottish for the days of long ago.

135

I. THINKING OUT ANSWERS

1. W hat do you know about th e origin of annual public


holidays in th e Soviet Union?
2. This is a h oliday for all of us.
W hat holiday is m eant?
W hen do people like to go to Moscow for the holidays?
II. SAY WHAT YOU CAN

1. Describe th e best way to celebrate a holiday w ith friends.


2. Say how you can tell th a t people are in a holiday mood.
3. In w hat way can th e holiday appearance of a person
depend on the w eather?
III. CONVERSATION PRACTICE

1. Tell your p artn er w hat you do before a great holiday


and let him tell you w hat he does.
2. Let your p artn er tell you w hat was new to him in th e
te x t about public holidays in B ritain and the USA.
3. Discuss th e difference between national and in tern atio n
al holidays, giving exam ples of both.

Word List
act n , ()
Christianity [,l<ristraeniti] n
Christmas ['Icrismss] n
Easter ['irsta] n
employee [,emploi'i:] n
fair n

18.

holy ('houli] a
joy n
owe [ou]
partly adv
roundabout ['raundabaut] n
threshold ['0rejhould] n

G ETTIN G A LETTER TO YOUR DOOR

I t s always good to see th e postm an, isnt it? He is a wel


come sight in th e street though he can t always be bring
ing us an interesting letter or a surprise parcel.
If someone asked you when the postal service began, could
you answer?
From earliest tim es the peoples of th e world have tried to
com m unicate w ith each other. No one m ay claim th e origin

136

of th e postal system . In one form or another it existed in all


places on th e earth wherever there were people.
Before the days of railw ays or aeroplanes, people and let
ters trav elled by horse-drawn carriages. For long trips, it
was necessary to have fresh team s of horses w aiting at inter
vals along th e road. They would be tied to a post, all ready
to go and these changing-places came to be known as
posts.
Anyone living nearby ^ who had letters to send would
tak e them down to the post for th e next coach to pick up. In
other words, they posted their letters.
In Russia, a special duty, th a t of providing horse-drawn
carriages for princes messengers,* was introduced in the 10th
century. A special service for delivering w ritten messages
was organized in th e 13th century. The Postal D epartm ent
was set up in 1782. It was followed by th e creation of a great
num ber of postal stations where messengers could change
horses.
Now th e Soviet U nion has the greatest num ber of postoffices in th e world.
In E ngland you can buy stam ps at th e post-office or in
some places from a sm all autom atic m achine by the side of a
letter-box. Som etim es there is a sm all post-office in a shop.
On week-days th e post-offices open at half past eight in the
m orning and close at six. S aturday is a short day, and on
Sundays th e post-offices are closed.
You can send a letter by air m ail, but th is costs more.
A t th e post-office you can send telegram s. You can also buy
postal orders to send money by post.
I. THINKING OUT ANSWERS

1. T he poste restan te I'restcm t] counter keeps letters to


be received by th e addressee in person.
W hy is a poste restan te necessary?
2. How is a registered letter (a book or small parcel) sent?
II. SHARE YOUR IDEAS

1.
Say how m any daily m ail deliveries there are where yo
live. Do you th in k there should be more?
J- nearby near
* princes messenger ('prinsiz 'mesincfeaj
addressee (,aedre'si:] the person to whom the letter is addressed
137

Give your reasons.


2.
P h ila te lists usually rem ove interesting stam ps from e
velopes, so they dont like envelopes w ith printed postage
stam ps on them .
W hat kind of stam ps would you put on the envelope of a
le tte r you wish to send to a stam p-collecting friend?
III . CONVERSATION PRACTICE

1. Tell your p artn er w hat


you th in k when you see the
m an (woman) w ith the post
bag down your road (street).
2. Ask your p artn er w hat
he can say about autom ation
of postal services.
3. Discuss w hat it m eans
to get a letter brought to
your door on rainy or freez
ing cold days.

Sign here, please.

Questions:
1. W hat kind of lette r has the w eight-lifter received?
2. W hat can you say about the strength of the postwoman?

Word List
automation [prta'm eijan] n

claim V
coach [koutj] n ,

postal order n

post ,
weight-lifter

19. OVER T H E TE L E PH O N E
The telephone is w idespread nowadays, and more and more
people would like to have th at instrum ent in th eir homes.
Let us suppose you have a home telephone. In th a t case
you should know good telephone m anners, th a t is, how to be
polite over th e telephone.

13d

W hen you hear th e telephone ring, tu rn down the ratiio


or television before you go to th e phone. L ift th e receiver end
say distin ctly : Sergei speaking, or Sergei Voronov speak
ing.
W hen someone calls you to the phone, say: This is Misha,
or T h is is N in a .
If th e call is for som eone who is not a t home, say:
I m sorry, b ut F a th e r isn t in now. W ould you like to
leave a message??
W hen th e person calling does not give his name, ask: Who
is speaking, please?
At th e end of th e conversation you may say: Thank you
for calling (telephoning), and good-bye, before you hang
up.*
W hen necessary, th e m ilitia, the fire brigade * or the first
aid and am bulance service can be called by anybody from any
telephone. You have to dial only two figures. A subscriber
can also use th e telephone to send a telegram and he can
receive the words of a telegram over th e phone.
L et us hope, fin ally , th a t you dont spend too m uch tim e
talk in g over th e phone when you have m ore im portant things
to do.
I. THIN K IN G OUT ANSWERS

L W hat num ber m ust you dial to call th e fire brigade?


2.
A telephone directory is a book containing names
addresses and telephone num bers.
W hich is b etter to keep near your telephone a list of
num bers you call frequently or a directory? W hy?
II. SHARE YOUR IDEAS

1.
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)

E xplain why a person m ay say th e following:


It was nice of you to call.
I m ust hang up now.
Call me back in an hour or so.
Can you leave your phone num ber?
Hold on 5 a m inute, will you?

^ to turn down ()
2 to leave a message - ()
8 before you hang up before you put down the telephone receiver
^ fire brigade
? to hold on3^.
139

f) W here are you speaking from?


2. Here is an episode from a story:
He expected th e news any m om ent and he stayed at home
to answer the phone every tim e it rang.
Explain the situ atio n as you im agine it and say w hat kind
of news he expected.
3. I arranged th a t w ith him on the telephone.
E xplain w hat was arranged.
4. Complete th e sentence:
After Td hung up the receiver...
III.

CONVERSATION PRACTICE

1. I went out into the street to find a phone booth.


Tell your partner why you had
to look for a phone booth in the
street.
2.
A. picked up the receiver an
dialled N .s num ber.
Let your partner pretend to be
N. on the other end of the line and
let him tell you w hat he and A.
talked about on the phone.
If youre the wrong number, why did
you answer the phone?

Questions:
1. W hat answer would you give to such a question?
2. Is the m an po lite over th e telephone?
3. W hat should you say when you get a wrong num ber?

Word List
ambulance ['gembjubns] n

dial ['daialj v
distinct [dis'tigkt] a
finally ['fainali] adv

^ phone booth
140

pretend (pri'tendj v ,

receiver [ri'sLva] n .

subscriber [sab'skraiba]
widespread ('waidspred] a

20. HOW INTERESTING ARE YOUR LETTERS?


I t s always p leasant to see the postm an because he m ay
bring an interesting letter.
L etters have always played an im portant role in peoples
lives.
Very often a letter is m ore than a m eans of com m unica
tion. According to Sam uel Johnson, the famous English lexi
cographer, poet and critic of th e 18th century, In a m an s
letter his soul lies naked.
The art of w ritin g an interesting letter is ra th e r difficult,
such a letter requires thought and tim e. No wonder ^ B lais
Pascal, th e French philosopher, m athem atician [,mae0ima'tija n j, w riter and physicist of the 17th century, once added
the following sentence to one of his letters: I have m ade th is
letter longer th an usual because I lack th e tim e to m ake it
shorter.
P liny th e Younger, the Rom an author and statesm an,
was a great lette r w riter. His collected letters fill ten books.
From these letters we have learned a lot about life in ancient
Rome.
P lin y was interested both in w riting and in receiving let
ters. Perhaps th a t is why one of his friends received th e fol
lowing note from him one day: You say there is nothing to
w rite about. Then w rite th a t there is n othing to w rite about.
Now here are points to remem ber in letter-w riting to ad
dressees in E nglish-speaking countries.
T he most im p o rtan t thing is th a t on th e envelope th e nam e
of th e addressee comes first, then th e num ber, the street, the
town, th e country.
The d ate m ay be read December the sixteenth or the
sixteenth of December, but it will be w ritten December
16th or 16th Decem ber. People today also w rite December
16 as in th e newspapers.
N otice th a t there is a comma, not an exclam ation m ark
after the salu tatio n .
To a great friend of your own age, or to a younger person
you m ay w rite
My dear . . .,
b u t never to anyone older th an yourself.
For parents and other relations th e salu tatio n is
^ no wonder

141

Dear M other (Dear M ummy).


Dear F ather (Dear D addy),
D ear Aunt M argaret,
Dear Jam es (to a b ro ther or cousin).
A letter to an acquaintance begins Dear M r..., Dear
M rs..., or Dear M iss....
The conclusion:
Yours is less formal and more friendly th an Yours sin
cerely. Men nearly always use it for th eir friends, and women
often do.
W ith love or Love are often used by girls w riting to
th e ir friends or relatives. Close friends or relatives also use
Love.
A letter to an acquaintance concludes Yours sincerely,
or Yours very sincerely.
I. THINKING OUT ANSWERS

1. W hat do people w rite about in friendly letters?


2. W hat do you th in k th e whole letter will be about if it
has th e following beginning?
Dear N atasha,
It w ould be difficult for me to put into words w hat I felt
w hen I received your letter.
II. SHARE YOUR IDEAS

1. A letter m ust be divided into paragraphs according to


th e developm ent of th e idea.
G ive an exam ple of an idea developed in three paragraphs.
2. C om plete th e following:
I am sorry to have caused you so m uch trouble. I did not
w rite sim ply because... .
3. Here are some closing sentences from p riv ate letters.
Choose tw o or th ree th a t you would like to use and explain
your choice (why yo u ve decided to use one or other of them in
a letter):
H oping to hear from you soon. Do let me hear from you
soon, Do let me know how things are w ith you, Do w rite soon.
Please drop me a lin e, My best wishes to ..., Love and all good
wishes.
* to drop a line to send a message (letter) by post
112

III. CONVERSATION PRACTICE

1. Tell your p artn er w hat explanation you would give to


your pen-friend after beginning a letter in th e following way:
It m ust be ages and ages since I w rote you last.
2. Ask your p artn er w hat
he th in k s about the follow
ing statem en t m ade at the
end of a letter:
iW ith this Ill close. If
I dont w rite more often, it
doesnt m ean th a t I dont
th in k of you.
3.
Discuss w hether you
ought to learn more about
le tto -w ritin g .
Modernizing the Town Crier*
Q uestions:

1. The office of Town Crier dates back to th e 13th century


and still exists today in some towns.
How has his job changed in th e days after newspapers,
rad io and TV were invented?
2. W hat does th e Town Crier do w ith th e letters collected
during the day?

Word List
comma n
lack n ,
naked I'neikid] a

salutation (.saeljtu'teijanj
( )
sincere (sin'siaj a
statesman ('steitsman] n 01

* Town Crier a man whose job is to announce news of publio interest


in small English towns.

(II, 13)
(II, 3)
(, 17)
(1
9, 11)
(, 6)
(II, 1)

(III. ) ^
(I, 7)
(1, 9)
(I, 20)
(I, 8;
II, 20)
(I, 5; , 8, 15)
(II, 18)
{ , 2)

(III. 3)
(III,
13)
(III, 16)
(I, 6)
(I, 4; III, I)
(I* 5; III, 2)
(I, 14; III, 12)
011, 10)
(II, 5)
(II, 14)
(III, 20)


(II, 4)
(I, 13)
(I, 0)
( 15)
(I, 16)
(III, 9)
(I, 11)
(III, 15)
(1^
10, 12; II, 8; III, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8,
14, 17)
(III, 18)
, (II,

16)

(II, 2)
(I, 3)
(III, 5)
(I, 17)
(II,
19)
(I, 18)
(III, 14)
(III, 6)
(I, 12, 14)
(II, 7; III, 18, 19)
(II, 10, 12)
(I, 1)
(I, 19)

(I, 2)

20 .