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Gas Dynamics Introduction

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You are on page 1of 17

For EME Students

Adel A. Abdel-Rahman

Mech. Eng. Dept.,

Alexandria University

2012/2013

Contents

Topic

Page

17

32

48

58

70

90

96

References

1. A. H. Shapiro (1953): The dynamics and Thermodynamics of

Compressible Fluid Flow, Volume I., New York: Ronald Press.

2. P. H. Oosthuizen and W. E. Carscallen (1997): Compressible

Fluid Flow. McGraw-Hill International Edition.

3. B. R. Munson, D. F. Young and T. H. Okishi (1994):

Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics (Chapter 11), 2nd edition,

John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

4. B. K. Hodge and K. Koenig (1995): Compressible Fluid

Dynamics with Personal Computer Applications, New Jersy:

Prentice Hall.

5. M. A. Saad: Compressible Fluid Flow, Englewood Cliffs, New

Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Introduction

Gas Dynamics:

???

& temperature - Compressors and many others.

application of a shear stress (what about a solid ??)

the study of any system in which a fluid is used such as;

1) Aircraft

2) Automobiles

3) Submarines

4) Rockets

5) Flow around buildings (sky scrapers ??.)

6) Shopping malls

7) All kinds of sports

8) Fluid machines; pumps, compressors, fans

9) Pipelines

10) Medical .. heart , respiratory system,

Basic Equations:

Analysis of any system of compressible flow starts with the basic

laws of fluid motion;

1) Conservation of mass

2) Newton's 2nd law of motion

3) Principle of angular momentum

4) 1st law of thermodynamics

5) 2nd law of thermodynamics

In addition,

- Relation between shear stress and rate of

deformation of a fluid

- Fourier law of heat conduction

Concept of a Continuum:

Matter

Microscopic

Macroscopic

Molecular structure

gross behavior as a continuous

material

set equations for

(Kinetic theory or statistical

mechanics)

Continuum

Methods of Analysis:

Define the system to be solved; System or Control Volume

System: it is a fixed identifiable quantity of mass: boundaries

(fixed or movable) surrounding Lagrangian Motion

C.V.: it is an arbitrary volume in space through which fluid

flows: C.V., boundaries (C.S.; fixed, movable, real, imaginary,

at rest, or in motion) Eulerian Motion

control-volume analysis

i.e; we need to relate the time derivative of a property of a system to

the rate of change of that property within a certain region (C.V.)

(note that all are extensive properties).

intensive value for a small portion of the fluid is :

dB

dm

BCV

i.e;

dBsys

dt

dBsys

dt

dB

dV

dm

CV

with

d dB

dm dV

dt CV

5

dBCV

dt

dBsys

dt

dB

dB

dV

(V.dA)

t CV dm

dm

CS

Now, if we let:

(1) B = m, we get mass conservation equation;

dmsys

dt

dV (V.dA)

t CV

CS

conserved(dmsys/dt = 0), then:

dV (V.dA) 0.0

t CV

CS

d(mV )

V dV V (V.dA)

dt

t CV

CS

F t V dV V (V.dA)

CV

CS

dE

e dV e (V.dA) ,

dt t CV

CS

dE

dm

d(mV )

dt

Example:

Water is being added to a storage tank at a rate of 200 liters/min. At the

same time, water flows out the bottom through a 5 cm inside diameter

pipe, with an average velocity of 18 m/s. The storage tank has an inside

diameter of 3 m. Find the rate at which the water level rises or falls.

Solution:

Qi=200lit/mi

n18m/s

V

h

AT

e

Ve=18m/s

0.0

dV (V.dA)

t CV

CS

dV

w Ve Ae w Vi Ai 0.0

dt

dV

Vi A i Ve A e Qi Ve A e

dt

, V AT h

dV

dh

AT

dt

dt

dh Q Ve A e

i

0.0045m / s 4.5 mm/s

dt

AT

7

Example:

The figure shown below is a schematic of a rocket engine mounted on a

test stand in standard atmospheric conditions. The area of the nozzle exit

plane is 225 cm2, the velocity of exhaust gases is 1780 m/s and the mass

flow rate is 1 kg/s. If the pressure at the nozzle exit plane is 180 kPa, find

the thrust force of the rocket engine. Assume steady state, and uniform

(average or one-dimensional) flow conditions at the exit plane.

Rocket

Thrust force (F)

Exhaust gases

Test stand

e

Solution:

Ve=1780 m/s

F

Ae = 225 cm2

Pe = 180 kPa

equation is:

F t V dV V (V.dA)

CV

CS

This equation for steady state (where the rate of change of momentum

within the control volume is zero) and average values for velocities and

densities simplifies to:

8

F 0.0 V (V A) e V (V A) i

(Ve Vi ) , Vi 0.0

F - (pe pa )Ae m

Ve

F - (pe pa )Ae m

225

F - (180 100) 103 4 1 1780

10

F 3580 N

i.e; the thrust of the rocket engine is equal to 3580 N to the right

direction, opposite to what is shown in the previous figure.

R

, where

M

R is the universal gas constant, 8314 m 2 / s 2 K 8314 J/kg K,

R is the gas constant &

M is the gas molecular weight

R

p

,

RT

Gas constant : R cp - c v const.,

Perfect gas law :

cp

const.

cv

R

Specific heat at constant volume : c v

,

k 1

kR

Specific heat at constant pressure: c p

k 1

For air:

M = 28.97, k = 1.4 , R = 287 m2/s2K ,

c v 718 m 2 / s 2K & cp 1005 m2 / s 2K

represented by the following equations:

T2

p

Rln 2

T1

p1

T

p

For isentropic flow (s1 s 2 ), equation s 2 s1 c pln 2 Rln 2 leads to :

T1

p1

du c vdT ,

dh c pdT ,

s 2 s1 c pln

k

k 1

p 2 T2

p1 T1

11

Speed of Sound ?

P P

T T

P P

T T

V=0.0

C

c

x

Moving pulse

C-V

Stationary pulse

dV (V.A) 0.0

t CV

CS

Conservation of mass for one - dimensiona l flow :

AC ( )A(C V)

V C

(1)

(Vout Vin )

F m

PA (P P)A AC (C V C)

P CV

C2

p

1

, and as 0

p

C2 a 2

S

11

(2)

p

const

k

dp

d

p

p

k

k

p

S

, for a perfect gas,

p

p

a k kRT

S

For air (where k = 1.4 and R = 287 J/kg K)

= 340.26 m/s for T=15C (288 K)

Speed of Sound of liquids & solids

For liquids and solids, the bulk modulus of the material is defined as:

dp

dp

dV

d

dp

d

-V

2 109

a

1414m / s , which is around 4 times the speed of

103

m/s, which is around 4 times the speed of sound in water.

12

Subsonic (u < a)

3at

2at

at

Motion of

Point source

ut ut ut

pressure waves moving out from around it

13

Supersonic (u > a)

Mach Cone

3at

Zone of Silence

Zone of

action

2at

at

d

c

ut

ut

ut

3at a 1

3ut u M

, is called the Mach angle

Sin

moving away and behind the airplane

14

Incompressible (u 0.0)

3at

2at

at

Mach angel () = ??

15

Sonic (u = a)

3at

2at

at

c

d

ut

b

ut

ut

building up at the airplanes nose to form a shock wave

16

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