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# Lecture Notes on:

## Gas Dynamics (EME415)

For EME Students

Adel A. Abdel-Rahman
Mech. Eng. Dept.,

Alexandria University
2012/2013

Contents

Topic

Page

17

32

48

58

70

90

## (8) Worked Problems

96

References
1. A. H. Shapiro (1953): The dynamics and Thermodynamics of
Compressible Fluid Flow, Volume I., New York: Ronald Press.
2. P. H. Oosthuizen and W. E. Carscallen (1997): Compressible
Fluid Flow. McGraw-Hill International Edition.
3. B. R. Munson, D. F. Young and T. H. Okishi (1994):
Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics (Chapter 11), 2nd edition,
John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
4. B. K. Hodge and K. Koenig (1995): Compressible Fluid
Dynamics with Personal Computer Applications, New Jersy:
Prentice Hall.
5. M. A. Saad: Compressible Fluid Flow, Englewood Cliffs, New
Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Introduction
Gas Dynamics:

???

## Example Applications: Aircraft - Gas pipeline at high pressure

& temperature - Compressors and many others.

## A Fluid: Is a substance that deforms CONTINUOUSLY under the

application of a shear stress (what about a solid ??)

## Scope of Fluid Mechanics: Fluid Mechanics is concerned with

the study of any system in which a fluid is used such as;
1) Aircraft
2) Automobiles
3) Submarines
4) Rockets
5) Flow around buildings (sky scrapers ??.)
6) Shopping malls
7) All kinds of sports
8) Fluid machines; pumps, compressors, fans
9) Pipelines
10) Medical .. heart , respiratory system,

## If Fluid is compressible, it is Gas Dynamics

Basic Equations:
Analysis of any system of compressible flow starts with the basic
laws of fluid motion;
1) Conservation of mass
2) Newton's 2nd law of motion
3) Principle of angular momentum
4) 1st law of thermodynamics
5) 2nd law of thermodynamics
In addition,

## - Equation of state of a perfect gas

- Relation between shear stress and rate of
deformation of a fluid
- Fourier law of heat conduction

Concept of a Continuum:
Matter

Microscopic

Macroscopic

Molecular structure

## In engineering life, interest is in

gross behavior as a continuous
material

## Trace each individual molecule &

set equations for
(Kinetic theory or statistical
mechanics)

Continuum

Methods of Analysis:
Define the system to be solved; System or Control Volume
System: it is a fixed identifiable quantity of mass: boundaries
(fixed or movable) surrounding Lagrangian Motion
C.V.: it is an arbitrary volume in space through which fluid
flows: C.V., boundaries (C.S.; fixed, movable, real, imaginary,
at rest, or in motion) Eulerian Motion

## It is the technique used to reformulate the system analysis to the

control-volume analysis
i.e; we need to relate the time derivative of a property of a system to
the rate of change of that property within a certain region (C.V.)

## If B is any property of the fluid like mass, energy, momentum,

(note that all are extensive properties).
intensive value for a small portion of the fluid is :
dB
dm

BCV

## RTT wants to relate

i.e;

dBsys
dt

dBsys
dt

dB
dV
dm
CV

with

d dB
dm dV
dt CV
5

dBCV
dt

dBsys
dt

dB
dB
dV
(V.dA)

t CV dm
dm
CS

Now, if we let:
(1) B = m, we get mass conservation equation;
dmsys
dt

dV (V.dA)
t CV
CS

## Since the mass within a fixed-mass system must necessarily be

conserved(dmsys/dt = 0), then:

dV (V.dA) 0.0
t CV
CS

d(mV )

V dV V (V.dA)
dt
t CV
CS

## Then, linear momentum equation for a control volume is:

F t V dV V (V.dA)
CV

CS

## (3) B = E, we get Energy equation;

dE

e dV e (V.dA) ,
dt t CV
CS

dE
dm

d(mV )
dt

Example:
Water is being added to a storage tank at a rate of 200 liters/min. At the
same time, water flows out the bottom through a 5 cm inside diameter
pipe, with an average velocity of 18 m/s. The storage tank has an inside
diameter of 3 m. Find the rate at which the water level rises or falls.

Solution:

Qi=200lit/mi
n18m/s

V
h

AT

e
Ve=18m/s

## Mass conservation equation is

0.0

dV (V.dA)
t CV
CS

dV
w Ve Ae w Vi Ai 0.0
dt

dV
Vi A i Ve A e Qi Ve A e
dt

, V AT h
dV
dh
AT
dt
dt
dh Q Ve A e
i
0.0045m / s 4.5 mm/s
dt
AT

## The water level is falling by 4.5 mm/s

7

Example:
The figure shown below is a schematic of a rocket engine mounted on a
test stand in standard atmospheric conditions. The area of the nozzle exit
plane is 225 cm2, the velocity of exhaust gases is 1780 m/s and the mass
flow rate is 1 kg/s. If the pressure at the nozzle exit plane is 180 kPa, find
the thrust force of the rocket engine. Assume steady state, and uniform
(average or one-dimensional) flow conditions at the exit plane.
Rocket
Thrust force (F)

Exhaust gases

Test stand
e

Solution:

Ve=1780 m/s
F
Ae = 225 cm2
Pe = 180 kPa

## Considering the rocket as a control volume, the linear momentum

equation is:

F t V dV V (V.dA)
CV

CS

This equation for steady state (where the rate of change of momentum
within the control volume is zero) and average values for velocities and
densities simplifies to:
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F 0.0 V (V A) e V (V A) i
(Ve Vi ) , Vi 0.0
F - (pe pa )Ae m
Ve
F - (pe pa )Ae m

225
F - (180 100) 103 4 1 1780
10
F 3580 N

i.e; the thrust of the rocket engine is equal to 3580 N to the right
direction, opposite to what is shown in the previous figure.

## Review of Perfect Gases

R
, where
M
R is the universal gas constant, 8314 m 2 / s 2 K 8314 J/kg K,
R is the gas constant &
M is the gas molecular weight
R

p
,
RT
Gas constant : R cp - c v const.,
Perfect gas law :

## Specific heat ratio : k

cp

const.
cv
R
Specific heat at constant volume : c v
,
k 1
kR
Specific heat at constant pressure: c p
k 1

For air:
M = 28.97, k = 1.4 , R = 287 m2/s2K ,
c v 718 m 2 / s 2K & cp 1005 m2 / s 2K

## Internal energy, enthalpy and entropy of a perfect gas may be

represented by the following equations:
T2
p
Rln 2
T1
p1
T
p
For isentropic flow (s1 s 2 ), equation s 2 s1 c pln 2 Rln 2 leads to :
T1
p1

du c vdT ,

dh c pdT ,

s 2 s1 c pln

k
k 1

p 2 T2

p1 T1

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Speed of Sound ?

P P

T T

P P

T T

V=0.0

C
c
x

Moving pulse

C-V

Stationary pulse

## Conservation of mass for CV is:

dV (V.A) 0.0
t CV
CS
Conservation of mass for one - dimensiona l flow :
AC ( )A(C V)

V C

(1)

## Momentum equation for one - dimensiona l flow :

(Vout Vin )
F m
PA (P P)A AC (C V C)
P CV

C2

p
1

, and as 0
p
C2 a 2
S

11

(2)

p
const
k

## for isentropic process

dp
d
p
p
k
k
p

S
, for a perfect gas,

p
p
a k kRT

S
For air (where k = 1.4 and R = 287 J/kg K)

## a (1.4) (287) T 20.05 T m/s

= 340.26 m/s for T=15C (288 K)
Speed of Sound of liquids & solids
For liquids and solids, the bulk modulus of the material is defined as:

dp
dp

dV
d
dp

d
-V

## For water, bulk modulus of elasticity = 2x109 N/m2 at 15C.

2 109
a
1414m / s , which is around 4 times the speed of
103

## At same temperature, sound travels through steel at 6000

m/s, which is around 4 times the speed of sound in water.
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Subsonic (u < a)
3at
2at
at

Motion of
Point source

ut ut ut

## Airplane flying slower than the speed of sound with

pressure waves moving out from around it

13

Supersonic (u > a)

Mach Cone

3at

Zone of Silence

Zone of
action

2at
at
d

c
ut

ut

ut

3at a 1

3ut u M
, is called the Mach angle

Sin

## Airplane flying at supersonic speed with shock waves

moving away and behind the airplane

14

Incompressible (u 0.0)

3at
2at

at

Mach angel () = ??

15

Sonic (u = a)
3at
2at
at
c

d
ut

b
ut

ut

## Airplane flying at the speed of sound with pressure waves

building up at the airplanes nose to form a shock wave

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