You are on page 1of 17

Lecture Notes on:

Gas Dynamics (EME415)


For EME Students

Adel A. Abdel-Rahman
Mech. Eng. Dept.,

Alexandria University
2012/2013

Contents

Topic

Page

(1) Introduction & Concepts to Compressible Flow

(2) Isentropic Flow

17

(3) Normal Shock Waves

32

(4) Supersonic Wind Tunnels

48

(5) Supersonic Inlets

58

(6) Flow in Ducts with Frictional Effects

70

(7) Propulsion Engine Systems

90

(8) Worked Problems

96

References
1. A. H. Shapiro (1953): The dynamics and Thermodynamics of
Compressible Fluid Flow, Volume I., New York: Ronald Press.
2. P. H. Oosthuizen and W. E. Carscallen (1997): Compressible
Fluid Flow. McGraw-Hill International Edition.
3. B. R. Munson, D. F. Young and T. H. Okishi (1994):
Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics (Chapter 11), 2nd edition,
John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
4. B. K. Hodge and K. Koenig (1995): Compressible Fluid
Dynamics with Personal Computer Applications, New Jersy:
Prentice Hall.
5. M. A. Saad: Compressible Fluid Flow, Englewood Cliffs, New
Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Introduction
Gas Dynamics:

Dynamics of Compressible Fluid Flow


???

Density Changes are Large ( > 5%)

Example Applications: Aircraft - Gas pipeline at high pressure


& temperature - Compressors and many others.

A Fluid: Is a substance that deforms CONTINUOUSLY under the


application of a shear stress (what about a solid ??)

Scope of Fluid Mechanics: Fluid Mechanics is concerned with


the study of any system in which a fluid is used such as;
1) Aircraft
2) Automobiles
3) Submarines
4) Rockets
5) Flow around buildings (sky scrapers ??.)
6) Shopping malls
7) All kinds of sports
8) Fluid machines; pumps, compressors, fans
9) Pipelines
10) Medical .. heart , respiratory system,

If Fluid is compressible, it is Gas Dynamics

Basic Equations:
Analysis of any system of compressible flow starts with the basic
laws of fluid motion;
1) Conservation of mass
2) Newton's 2nd law of motion
3) Principle of angular momentum
4) 1st law of thermodynamics
5) 2nd law of thermodynamics
In addition,

- Equation of state of a perfect gas


- Relation between shear stress and rate of
deformation of a fluid
- Fourier law of heat conduction

Concept of a Continuum:
Matter

Microscopic

Macroscopic

Molecular structure

In engineering life, interest is in


gross behavior as a continuous
material

Trace each individual molecule &


set equations for
(Kinetic theory or statistical
mechanics)

Continuum

Methods of Analysis:
Define the system to be solved; System or Control Volume
System: it is a fixed identifiable quantity of mass: boundaries
(fixed or movable) surrounding Lagrangian Motion
C.V.: it is an arbitrary volume in space through which fluid
flows: C.V., boundaries (C.S.; fixed, movable, real, imaginary,
at rest, or in motion) Eulerian Motion

Reynolds Transport Theory

It is the technique used to reformulate the system analysis to the


control-volume analysis
i.e; we need to relate the time derivative of a property of a system to
the rate of change of that property within a certain region (C.V.)

If B is any property of the fluid like mass, energy, momentum,


(note that all are extensive properties).
intensive value for a small portion of the fluid is :
dB
dm

the total amount of B in the control volume is BCV, where:


BCV

RTT wants to relate

i.e;

dBsys
dt

dBsys
dt

dB
dV
dm
CV

with

d dB
dm dV
dt CV
5

dBCV
dt

dBsys
dt

dB
dB
dV
(V.dA)

t CV dm
dm
CS

Now, if we let:
(1) B = m, we get mass conservation equation;
dmsys
dt

dV (V.dA)
t CV
CS

Since the mass within a fixed-mass system must necessarily be


conserved(dmsys/dt = 0), then:

dV (V.dA) 0.0
t CV
CS

(2) B = mV, we get linear momentum equation;


d(mV )

V dV V (V.dA)
dt
t CV
CS

And since Newton's second law of motion states:

Then, linear momentum equation for a control volume is:

F t V dV V (V.dA)
CV

CS

(3) B = E, we get Energy equation;


dE

e dV e (V.dA) ,
dt t CV
CS

dE
dm

d(mV )
dt

Example:
Water is being added to a storage tank at a rate of 200 liters/min. At the
same time, water flows out the bottom through a 5 cm inside diameter
pipe, with an average velocity of 18 m/s. The storage tank has an inside
diameter of 3 m. Find the rate at which the water level rises or falls.

Solution:

Qi=200lit/mi
n18m/s

V
h

AT

e
Ve=18m/s

Mass conservation equation is


0.0

dV (V.dA)
t CV
CS

dV
w Ve Ae w Vi Ai 0.0
dt

dV
Vi A i Ve A e Qi Ve A e
dt

, V AT h
dV
dh
AT
dt
dt
dh Q Ve A e
i
0.0045m / s 4.5 mm/s
dt
AT

The water level is falling by 4.5 mm/s


7

Example:
The figure shown below is a schematic of a rocket engine mounted on a
test stand in standard atmospheric conditions. The area of the nozzle exit
plane is 225 cm2, the velocity of exhaust gases is 1780 m/s and the mass
flow rate is 1 kg/s. If the pressure at the nozzle exit plane is 180 kPa, find
the thrust force of the rocket engine. Assume steady state, and uniform
(average or one-dimensional) flow conditions at the exit plane.
Rocket
Thrust force (F)

Exhaust gases

Test stand
e

Solution:

Ve=1780 m/s
F
Ae = 225 cm2
Pe = 180 kPa

Considering the rocket as a control volume, the linear momentum


equation is:

F t V dV V (V.dA)
CV

CS

This equation for steady state (where the rate of change of momentum
within the control volume is zero) and average values for velocities and
densities simplifies to:
8

F 0.0 V (V A) e V (V A) i
(Ve Vi ) , Vi 0.0
F - (pe pa )Ae m
Ve
F - (pe pa )Ae m

225
F - (180 100) 103 4 1 1780
10
F 3580 N

i.e; the thrust of the rocket engine is equal to 3580 N to the right
direction, opposite to what is shown in the previous figure.

Review of Perfect Gases


R
, where
M
R is the universal gas constant, 8314 m 2 / s 2 K 8314 J/kg K,
R is the gas constant &
M is the gas molecular weight
R

p
,
RT
Gas constant : R cp - c v const.,
Perfect gas law :

Specific heat ratio : k

cp

const.
cv
R
Specific heat at constant volume : c v
,
k 1
kR
Specific heat at constant pressure: c p
k 1

For air:
M = 28.97, k = 1.4 , R = 287 m2/s2K ,
c v 718 m 2 / s 2K & cp 1005 m2 / s 2K

Internal energy, enthalpy and entropy of a perfect gas may be


represented by the following equations:
T2
p
Rln 2
T1
p1
T
p
For isentropic flow (s1 s 2 ), equation s 2 s1 c pln 2 Rln 2 leads to :
T1
p1

du c vdT ,

dh c pdT ,

s 2 s1 c pln

k
k 1

p 2 T2

p1 T1

11

Speed of Sound ?

P P

T T

P P

T T

V=0.0

C
c
x

Moving pulse

C-V

Stationary pulse

Conservation of mass for CV is:

dV (V.A) 0.0
t CV
CS
Conservation of mass for one - dimensiona l flow :
AC ( )A(C V)

V C

(1)

Momentum equation for one - dimensiona l flow :

(Vout Vin )
F m
PA (P P)A AC (C V C)
P CV

Equations (1) and (2) lead to:


C2

p
1

, and as 0
p
C2 a 2
S

, a is called the speed of sound

but what about subscript s . ???

11

(2)

Speed of Sound of a perfect gas & isentropic process

p
const
k

for isentropic process

dp
d
p
p
k
k
p

S
, for a perfect gas,

p
p
a k kRT

S
For air (where k = 1.4 and R = 287 J/kg K)

a (1.4) (287) T 20.05 T m/s


= 340.26 m/s for T=15C (288 K)
Speed of Sound of liquids & solids
For liquids and solids, the bulk modulus of the material is defined as:

dp
dp

dV
d
dp

d
-V

For water, bulk modulus of elasticity = 2x109 N/m2 at 15C.

2 109
a
1414m / s , which is around 4 times the speed of
103

sound in air at the same temperature.

At same temperature, sound travels through steel at 6000


m/s, which is around 4 times the speed of sound in water.
12

Pressure Field Created by a Moving Point Disturbance


Subsonic (u < a)
3at
2at
at

Motion of
Point source

ut ut ut

Airplane flying slower than the speed of sound with


pressure waves moving out from around it

13

Supersonic (u > a)

Mach Cone

3at

Zone of Silence

Zone of
action

2at
at
d

c
ut

ut

ut

3at a 1

3ut u M
, is called the Mach angle

Sin

Airplane flying at supersonic speed with shock waves


moving away and behind the airplane

14

Incompressible (u 0.0)

3at
2at

at

Mach angel () = ??

15

Sonic (u = a)
3at
2at
at
c

d
ut

b
ut

ut

Mach angel () = 90o

Airplane flying at the speed of sound with pressure waves


building up at the airplanes nose to form a shock wave

16