The OFDM communication is very much inspired from the channel frequencies over the network. In such network some kind of orthogonal distortion occur over the channel called Inter carrier Interference. Here we will improve the ICI using Kalman Filtering improved by using repetitive slot and correlated channel tap. The Kalman Filter is been improved by implementing the two stage kalman filter. In first stage the Kalman based statistical analysis is performed to estimate the PAPR and the respective Phase variated PAPR reduction is performed. In second stage the ICI reduction is performed by implementing the Kalman filter based carrirer offset values.
The proposed work of this paper is when data travel over some channel it suffers from the problem of interference. The interference results the high signal to noise ratio as well as high bit error rate. The proposed system will improved the signal by removing the different kind of impurities over the signal. These impurities includes the ICI, PAPR and the noise over the signal. The signal will be more effective than standard OFDM. So we needn't many pilot symbols in practice, still can ensure the algorithm performance and reduce the time- delay and complexity of this algorithm.

© All Rights Reserved

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The OFDM communication is very much inspired from the channel frequencies over the network. In such network some kind of orthogonal distortion occur over the channel called Inter carrier Interference. Here we will improve the ICI using Kalman Filtering improved by using repetitive slot and correlated channel tap. The Kalman Filter is been improved by implementing the two stage kalman filter. In first stage the Kalman based statistical analysis is performed to estimate the PAPR and the respective Phase variated PAPR reduction is performed. In second stage the ICI reduction is performed by implementing the Kalman filter based carrirer offset values.
The proposed work of this paper is when data travel over some channel it suffers from the problem of interference. The interference results the high signal to noise ratio as well as high bit error rate. The proposed system will improved the signal by removing the different kind of impurities over the signal. These impurities includes the ICI, PAPR and the noise over the signal. The signal will be more effective than standard OFDM. So we needn't many pilot symbols in practice, still can ensure the algorithm performance and reduce the time- delay and complexity of this algorithm.

© All Rights Reserved

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Volume: 1 Issue: 12

ISSN: 2321-8169

923 997

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OFDM Channel

Abhishek Tiwari[1], Devendra Singh[2]

Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering.

Sobhasaria Engineering College, Sikar.

[1]

er.tiwari03@gmail.com, [2] devendra1768@gmail.com

Abstract- The OFDM communication is very much inspired from the channel frequencies over the network. In such network some kind of

orthogonal distortion occur over the channel called Inter carrier Interference. Here we will improve the ICI using Kalman Filtering improved by

using repetitive slot and correlated channel tap. The Kalman Filter is been improved by implementing the two stage kalman filter. In first stage

the Kalman based statistical analysis is performed to estimate the PAPR and the respective Phase variated PAPR reduction is performed. In

second stage the ICI reduction is performed by implementing the Kalman filter based carrirer offset values.

The proposed work of this paper is when data travel over some channel it suffers from the problem of interference. The interference results the

high signal to noise ratio as well as high bit error rate. The proposed system will improved the signal by removing the different kind of

impurities over the signal. These impurities includes the ICI, PAPR and the noise over the signal. The signal will be more effective than standard

OFDM. So we needn't many pilot symbols in practice, still can ensure the algorithm performance and reduce the time- delay and complexity of

this algorithm.

Keywords-- Inter Channel Interference, Kalaman Filter, ANN, MIMO, OFDM, PAPR techniques.

__________________________________________________*****_________________________________________________

I.

Orthogonal

INTRODUCTION

frequency

division

multiplexing

system

could

face

serious

restriction

for

practical

cumulative

distribution

function

(CCDF).

In

this

increase greatly and become far higher than the mean power

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ISSN: 2321-8169

923 997

_______________________________________________________________________________________________

frequency guard bands between the frequencies so that they

Y = HX + G

reduced.

(1)

and G are the channel matrix and noise vector, respectively.

H = h 21 h 22 h 23

h 31 h 32 h 33

amplitude, or both. In the most basic form, a tone may be

present or disabled to indicate a one or zero bit of

information; however, either phase shift keying (PSK) or

quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) is typically

III

it into N parallel data streams, each at a rate 1/N of the

[1]

N 1

b t Ai cos it i

i 1

waveform to be transmitted.

system the channel modeling is the key area and needs great

s t 2b t cos ct

II

then we extract formula which represents the channel and to

determine the impact of the propagation parameters on the

capacity of the channel.

Good channel modeling clearly put the following

N 1

2 Ai cos it i cos c

i o

N 1

Ai cos c i t i cos c i t i

i 0

points:

channel.

In MIMO systems, a transmitter sends multiple

streams by multiple transmit antennas. The transmit streams

go through a matrix channel which consists of multiple

paths between multiple transmit antennas at the transmitter

and multiple receive antennas at the receiver. Then, the

N 1

s t Ai cos c i t i

i 0

of frequency errors is presented. The maximum Doppler

shift occurs when the two mobile nodes move toward each

other, given by [6]

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ISSN: 2321-8169

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fd

vf c

c

The Doppler shift also affects the symbol rate and the time

synchronization.

Design Of An OFDM System :

different frequencies. The amount of Doppler shift affecting

system design. Usually, the input parameters to the design

f c fi

1 fc fi

are the bit rate, available bandwidth and the maximum delay

calculation of symbol duration, guard time, number of sub-

others.

fd v

cos

f c

1 fc fi 1 fc 1 fi

Which demonstrates that the Doppler frequency

shift affects the carrier frequency and the sub-carrier

frequencies by the same percentage . The Doppler shift of

the carrier frequency can be calculated as

f dc

Bandwidth

Occupied bandwidth is of course directly related to the data

vf c

cos

c

minimum bandwidth to take in order to obtain enough

diversity and avoid the loss off the entire signal in frequency

selective fading environments. On the other hand much

f di

vfi

cos

c

Channel simulations and field test trials find that optimal

signal with Doppler shift can be written as

is a good compromise for the type of propagation conditions

N 1

s t Ai cos 1 c i t i

that apply.

i 0

N 1

i 0

The tradeoff of guard interval is to set it large enough to

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Volume: 1 Issue: 12

ISSN: 2321-8169

923 997

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small as possible as it carries no information and can be seen

as a spoil of bandwidth.

In wireless systems, a guard interval of 25% of symbol

period is often met and seems to be a good compromise.

That is the value taken for DAB, it allows a maximum

distance of about 80 kilometers between transmitters.

As said previously, the guard time is made longer than the

maximum delay spread introduced by the channel. But the

guard time cannot be made very large since no information

bits are transmitted during the guard time. As a rule of

thumb, the guard time should be atleast 2-4 times the rootmean-squared delay spread.

The symbol duration must be fixed in such a way that the

overhead associated with the guard time is minimal. This

can be achieved by making the symbol duration much

longer than the guard time. However large symbol duration

means more number of sub-carriers and thus causes

implementation complexities and increased peak-to-average

power problems. Thus a practical design choice for the

V. SIMULATION RESULTS

In this section, we verify the theory by simulation

and we Test the performance of the iterative algorithm.

In figure, comparative analysis of PAPR reduction

is shown using Kalman Filter. In this work we have

implemented a two stage Kalman Filter. The first stage is

about to reduce the PAPR. The results shows that the

presented approach is more effective with less SNR over the

signal.

Fig. 2 Block Diagram of OFDM Receiver

IV.

KALMAN FILTER

solution to the common problem. It is about to estimate the

state of discrete time controlled process by using the basic

concept of differential equations. The basic equation

followed by Kalman Filter is given as Indeed the final

estimation algorithm

Fig. 4 Comparison graph of OFDM Techniques

926

IJRITCC | December 2013, Available @ http://www.ijritcc.org

_______________________________________________________________________________________

Volume: 1 Issue: 12

ISSN: 2321-8169

923 997

_______________________________________________________________________________________________

When data travel over some channel it suffers from

[3]

2003.

different kind of impurities over the signal. These impurities

[4]

Borieisson.

[5]

includes the ICI, PAPR and the noise over the signal. The

OFDM System National Institute of technology Rourkela,

May 2009.

[6]

Interference Cancellation for OFDM Systems, ACTA

ELECTRONTECHNICA, Volume 50, Number 3, 2009.

[7]

impaired by carrier frequency offset in multipath fading

channels, IEEE Transactions on wireless Communication,

vol.4, No.5,September 2005.

[8]

reducing intercarrier interference due to carrier frequency

offset in OFDM, IEEE Transactions on Communications,

VI.

CONCLUSION

[9]

and the receiver has been studied in terms of the Carrier-to-

[10]

science Council of republic of China.

OFDM system.

One method is explored in this project for

mitigation of the ICI i.e. ICI self-cancellation (SC). By

using this method the BER is improved in comparison to

simple OFDM system.

In this project, the simulations were performed in

an AWGN channel. This model can be easily adapted to a

flat-fading channel

with

perfect channel

estimation.

this ICI cancellation schemes in multipath fading channels

without perfect channel information at the receiver can do

further work.

REFERENCES

[1]

[2]

Eric

phillip,

Adaptive

techniques

for

Multiuser

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IJRITCC | December 2013, Available @ http://www.ijritcc.org

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