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For other uses, see Nepal (disambiguation).
ससससस सससससससससससस सससससससस ससससस
Sanghiya Loktāntrik Ganatantra Nepāl
Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal

Flag Emblem

Motto: जननी जनमभूिमश सवगादिप गरीयसी(Devanāgarī)

"Mother and Motherland are Greater than Heaven"

Anthem: "Sayaun Thunga Phool Ka"

Capital Kathmandu (Nepali: काठमाडौ)

(and largest city) 27°42′N 85°19′E / 27.7°N 85.317°E
Official languages Nepali[1]
Maithili, Nepal Bhasa, Bhojpuri,
Tharu, Gurung, Tamang, Magar,
Awadhi, Sherpa, Kiranti, Limbu and
regional languages
other 100 different indigenous
Demonym Nepali
Government Republic
- President Ram Baran Yadav
- Vice President Parmanand Jha
- Prime Minister Madhav Kumar Nepal
- December 21, 1768
- State declared January 15, 2007
- May 28, 2008
147,181 km2 (93rd)
- Total
56,827 sq mi
- Water (%) 2.8
- 2009 estimate 29,331,000[2] (40th)
- 2007 census 28,875,140
199.3/km2 (56th)
- Density
518.1/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2008 estimate
- Total $31.634 billion[3]
- Per capita $1,144[3]
GDP (nominal) 2008 estimate
- Total $12.283 billion[3]
- Per capita $444[3]
Gini (2003–04) 47.2 (high)
HDI (2007) ▲ 0.553[4] (medium) (144th)
Currency Rupee (NPR)
Time zone NPT (UTC+5:45)
- Summer (DST) not observed (UTC+5:45)
Drives on the left
Internet TLD .np
Calling code 977

Nepal (Nepali: नेपाल [neˈpaːl] (help·info)), officially the Federal Democratic Republic
of Nepal, is a landlocked country in South Asia and the world's youngest republic. It is
bordered to the north by the People's Republic of China, and to the south, east, and west
by the Republic of India. With an area of 147,181 square kilometres (56,827 sq mi) and a
population of approximately 30 million, Nepal is the world's 93rd largest country by land
mass[5] and the 41st most populous country. Kathmandu is the nation's capital and the
country's largest metropolitan city.

Nepal is a country of highly diverse and rich geography, culture, and religions. The
mountainous north has eight of the world's ten highest mountains, including the highest,
Mount Everest. The fertile and humid south is heavily urbanized. By some measures,
Hinduism is practiced by a greater majority of people in Nepal than in any other nation.[6]
Buddhism, though a minority faith in the country, is linked historically with Nepal as the
birthplace of Siddhartha Gautama, who as the Buddha Gautama gave birth to the
Buddhist tradition. About half of the population live below the international poverty line
of US$1.25 a day.[7]

A monarchy throughout most of its history, Nepal was ruled by the Shah dynasty of kings
from 1768, when Prithvi Narayan Shah unified its many small kingdoms. However, a
decade-long People's Revolution by the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) along with
several weeks of mass protests by all major political parties of Nepal in 2006, culminated
in a peace accord and the ensuing elections for the constituent assembly voted
overwhelmingly in favor of the abdication of the last Nepali monarch Gyanendra Shah
and the establishment of a federal democratic republic in May 28, 2008.[8] The first
President of Nepal, Ram Baran Yadav, was sworn in on 23 July 2008.


Nepal's diverse linguistic heritage evolved from four major language groups: Indo-Aryan,
Tibeto-Burman, Mongolian and various indigenous language isolates. The major
languages of Nepal (percent spoken as mother tongue) are Nepali (48.61%), Maithili
(12.30%), Bhojpuri (7.53%), Tharu (5.86%), Tamang (5.19%), Newari/Nepal Bhasa
(3.63%), Magar (3.39%), Awadhi (2.47%), Rai (2.79%), Limbu (1.47%), and Bajjika

Derived from Sanskrit, Nepali has roots in Sanskrit and is written in Devanagari script.
Nepali is the official national language and serves as lingua franca among Nepalis of
different ethnolinguistic groups. Hindi and related regional dialects Awadhi, Bhojpuri
and Maithili are spoken in the southern Terai Region. Hindi is also widely understood by
the many Nepalis who have lived in India. Many Nepalis in government and business
speak English as well. In the capital Kathmandu, Nepali, Nepal Bhasa (the Newar
language) and English are the most widely understood languages. Dialects of Tibetan are
spoken in and north of the higher Himalaya where standard literary Tibetan is widely
understood by those with religious education. Local dialects in the Terai and hills are
mostly unwritten with efforts underway to develop systems for writing many in
Devanagari or the Roman alphabet.

Kathmandu Valley

Neolithic tools found in the Kathmandu Valley indicate that people have been living in
the Himalayan region for at least 9,000 years. It appears that Kirant ethnicity people were
the first people to settle in Nepal and ruled Nepal for about 2,500 years.[16]


Terai News writes, "Nepal has been highlighted for the last several centuries in Indian
Sanskrit literature like ‘Skand Purana’. ‘Skanda Purana’ has a separate volume known
as ‘Nepal Mahatmya’, which explains in more details about the beauty and power of
Nepal."[17] Nepal is also mentioned in Hindu scriptures such as the Narayana Puja[18] and
the Atharva Siras (800-600 BC).[18] Around 1000 BC, small kingdoms and confederations
of clans arose in the region. From one of these, the Shakya confederation, arose a prince
named Siddharta Gautama (563–483 BC), who later renounced his royalty to lead an
ascetic life and came to be known as the Buddha ("the enlightened one"). The 7th Kirata
king, Jitedasti, was on the throne in the Nepal valley at the time. By 250 BC, the region
came under the influence of the Mauryan Empire of northern India, and later became a
vassal state under the Gupta Empire in the fourth century AD. In the fifth century, rulers
called the Licchavis governed the majority of its area. There is a good and quite detailed
description of the kingdom of Nepal in the account of the renowned Chinese Buddhist
pilgrim monk Xuanzang, dating from c. 645 AD.[19][20]

The Licchavi dynasty went into decline in the late eighth century and was followed by a
Newari era, from 879, although the extent of their control over the entire country is
uncertain. By the late 11th century, southern Nepal came under the influence of the
Chalukaya Empire of southern India. Under the Chalukayas, Nepal's religious
establishment changed as the kings patronised Hinduism instead of the prevailing