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Greatest Cartotms

As Selected by 1,000 Animation Professionals


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$41 95 (Canada)

The

S Greatest Cartoons

;)

As Selected by 1,000 Animation Professionals

More

than three hundred illustrations

two-thirds in
fifty

full

color

showcase

greatest cartoons of

all

the

time, selected by

panel of more than 1,000 cartoon historians and

animation professionals.

The

result

is a

fascinating

range of classic animated entertainment. Here are old


favorite characters

from Disney and Warner Bros., the

imaginatively offbeat creations of the Fleischer studio,

pioneering efforts from early masters

like

McCay and Otto Messmer, and many

Winsor

more, including

MGM, and others.


A portrait of each winning cartoon includes

Walter Lantz,

plot

summary, the production

history,

and

a critical

analysis that explores the unique qualities that have

earned the cartoon

place in film history. Also included

with the actual

are interviews

artists, as well as

sidebars

throughout the book that focus on individual characters,


animators, directors, and studios. In addition, major
writers in the field of animation

Leonard Maltin.John

Canemaker, Joe Adamson, Steve Schneider, Charles


Solomon, and
favorite films.

Leslie

Cabarga

And hundreds

comment on

their

of illustrations culled

from private and public collections across America


display every stage of the animators'
first

art,

from the

pencil sketches to frame enlargements from the

finished work.

For
a

many

readers, The Fifty Greatest Cartoons

is

long-overdue acknowledgment of an overlooked

art

form.

Brimming with

this is a nostalgic

look

lively text

and vivid images,

at old friends

and childhood

pleasures.

Turner Publishing, Inc.


ATLANTA

Greatest Carto
As Selected by 1,000 Animation Professionals
Edited by Jerry Beck

Copyright

1994 Lavla Productions. In; and Sammis Publishing Corp All rights

No pin

international copyright conventions


in

of the contents of this hook

may

reserv ed

COVER ARTWORK CHARACTER KEY

under

he reproduced or utilized

any form or bv any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any

Unicorn

Warner Bros

Loonev Tunes,

Inc

all

names

character

and related slogans arc Trademarks of Warner Bros Inc

Superman
The

144-51; 156-57. I70-7JI >78 -79. '8*-*3

Subsidiary of Turner Broadcasting System. Inc

1050 Tcchwood Drive,

Squirrels (Peace on Earth)

Emenainmeni Company 56

-59.

68-71. 8a -8 j, 108-11. 116-19, '5 8 "59' 161-165. Frame

98765432

10

enlargements on the following pages

arc '?

1994 The

Vuaphone Corp Renewed 1971 United


Inc

Fifty

Greatest Cartoons

Professionals

As

Selected by

United Staces-

TK.ng

Features Inc

all

character

names and

Catalogs

Red

94-IOI; 14 41- '3* 5!

Mouse and Canary


Michigan

? Universal Pictures, Inc

all

character

names and

related

slogans arc Trademarks of Universal Piciures. Inc

Tom

J.

(Kjng Size Canary)

Frog (One Froggy Evening)

and Jerry (The Cat Concerto)

Koko
Illustrations

on pages 168-169

" c eourccsty

of

Canadian

Clown and Bimbo(Snou

the

V/hite)

Red (Red Hot Riding Hood)

BroadcHU'fte Sv stem

Boop (Minnie

Betty

the MoocfjerJ

Andrew s and McMcel

A Unucrsjf

Press Syndicate

4900 Main

Street

Company

Illustrations

on pages 184-85

Productions. Inc
are

City, Missouri

64

all

arc

character

''

Pudgy (Betty Boop's dog)

Fein the Cat

names and

related slogans

Trademarks of Fein the Cat Productions,

Inc

Woody Woodpecker

images

TM 1>

1994

hv

Walter

Productions. Inc All rights reserved Courtesv of

An
An

MCA

Publishing Rights, a Division of

Walsh and Karen Smith

MCA

"The Rabbit

of Seville" song (from

The Rabht

of Seville "\

(Lyncs hv Michael Maltese, Music by Carl Stalling)

Warner Bros.

Inc

(Renewed)

All

Woody- Woodpecker
(The Barber of Seville)

The Cat Came Back

Inc

coordination by Pec Espy

U SA

Grandma and Wolf

(Red Hot Riding Hood)

Lam;

direction by Michael

Red.

Produced hv Lavla Productions. Inc and Sammis Publishing Corp

in the

Dwarfs)

166-67

94 20780

CIP

Printed

Seifcen

(Litdt Red Riding Rabbit)

Beck, Jerry

Kansas

cfe

related slo

cans are Trademarks of King Features, Inc 88 -91

Characters and illustrations on the following pages arc

NC1766.U5F54 1994
79 4?'?

Distributed by

Rural Riding Hood)

Coal Black (and

edited by ferry Beck

films

(Little

Charactcrs and illustrations on the following pages are

Includes index

Animated

Quackadero

Red (Red Hot Riding Hood)


Red

.000 Animation

ai the

Artists Television

84-87. 101-105. 156-157. 170-73. '78-79.

ISBN i-87868 5 -49-X


1

Quasi

Dora and The Dover Boys

Library of Congress CatalogingtnPublication Data

The

Planted Trees

(The Ttll-Talc Heart)

MCM cartoon characters and illustrations on the following


pages are '.Turner

Atlanta. Georgia

First Edition

Man Who

Man

NW

Garden

Bambi Meets Godzilla

50-40.44-51.60-65,74-77, 84-87: 101-05. >l*~17-

Published bv Turner Publishing, Inc

in ihc

Characters and illustrations on [he following pages are


C'

information storage and retrieval system, without the written consent of the publisher

1950

nghts reserved Used by

Bad luck

Blackie

and White Kitry

Sylvester (The Scarlet Pumpernickel)

Wolf Cousins

Rural Ridmg Hood)

(little

permission

Goofy (Clock Cleaners)


"Return

Mv Love" song

(from "What's Opera. Doc'")

Mickey Mouse (Brave

Lntle Tailor)

Minnie Mouse (Brave

Little Tailor)

(Lvncs hv Michael Maltese. Music hv Richard Wagner)

0 1957 Warner

Bros

Used hv permission

Inc

(Renewed)

All

nghts reserved

Donald Duck (The Band Concert)


Pluto
Felix the

Wolf

Cat (Tela

in

Hollywood)

Hounded

(Nortrruest

Police)

Droopy (Northwest Hounded

Police)

Pluto
(Popeye the Sailor Meets Sindbad the Sailor)

Wimpy
(Popeye the Sailor Meets Sindbad the Sailor)

Popeye
(Popeye the Sailor Meets Sindbad the Sailor)

Olive Oyl
(Popeye the Sailor Meets Sindbad the Sailor)

Mark Anthony and Pussyfoot


(Feed the Kjtty)

The Big Smt


Gerald McBoing

Bomg

Rooty Toot Toot

Bugs Bunny (Rabbit


Daffy

of Seville)

Duck (Duck Amuck)

Elmer Fudd (What's Opera. Doc?)

Porky Pig
(Duck Dodgers

Marvin the

in the

24

i/2tfi

Century)

24

i/2tfc

Century)

Maman

(Duck Dodgcn

in the

Gertie the Dinosaur

Contents
Editor's note

A Brief History of Animation


An Animation Time

1.

z.

9
12

Line

Animation Hall of Fame

22

A Gallery oi Cartoon Stars

23

What Makes a Cartoon Great?

26

The

29

Fifty Greatest

Cartoons

What s Opera, Doc?


Duck Amuck

20

20 Brave

*6

27

Clock Cleaners

The Band Concert

A.O
u

28

Northwest Hounded

AA

Tt
48

2Q

Toot, Whistle,

Rabbit Seasoning

132

j31

The

136

Duck Dodgers

in the

T-

z^T/zth Century.

One Froggy Evening


Gertie the

Dinosaur

Red Hot Riding Hood


Porky in

Wackyland

60

Gerald McBoing Boing


10. King-Size

.64

68

Canary

33

Little Tailor

124
Police

Plunk and Boom

Scarlet Pumpernickel

138

140

34 You Ought to Be
35 Ali Baba Bunny

in Pictures

12.

Rabhit of Seville

74

13

Steamboat Willie

78

37 Bimbo s Initiation
38 Bambi Meets Godzilla

14 The Old Mill


15

Bad Luck

l6

The Great Piggy Bank Robbery

17

Popeye the Sailor Meets Sindbad the Sailor

18

The Skeleton Dance

20 Minnie
21

the

Moocher

Coal Black and de Sebben Dwarfs

23

Little

*4 The
25

Tell-Tale

Heart

The Big Suit

152
1

54

82

40

Peace on Earth

158

84

Rooty Toot Toot

160
162

Red Riding Rabbit

88

42

Cat Concerto

9*

156

166

43

The Barber of Seville

94

44

The

98

45 Book Revue

170

102

46 Quasi

174

Man Who

Planted Trees

at the Skiackadero

Corny Concerto

47
48

112

49

The Dover Boys

116

Felix in

Unicom

in the

Hollywood

Illustrations

187

How to Find the Fifty Greatest Cartoons

188

Animation Art Sources and ASIFA

189

Index

190

and Contributor

192
credits

180
182

186

Acknowledgments

168

178
Garden

Other Great Cartoons

Illustration

50

39

108

Rural Riding Hood.

Little

106

22

Feed the Kitty

80

Blackie

9 Snow White

144
148

36

Little

130

Superman

72

Three

126

TIk Cat Came Back

Pigs

ii

20

192

84

Editor's

This

volume

elaborate

toon

The

is

Note

program

members

of

those polled are

of the

New York,

think everyone reading this

book

will find at least

book

for the car-

Hollywood, Portland, and

two absences that they con-

my dreams.

San Francisco chapters

sider inexplicable,

cartoons show-

fiitv

survey

ol

more than one

thousand ammators, cartoon


historians,

and animation

protcssionals.

Their

sions turned into

deci-

mv plea-

got to rescreen

all

ASIFA

ot

even wonder

(Association

two

Internationale du Film

D Animation
tor

see page

more information),

societv

made up

of

tors, film students,

toon

buffs. Ballots

sent to

members

inclusion.

89

also

styles

and

which

did not

the final cut. But to


delight, this

make

my

an extraordi-

is

is lull mI

popular

Bros, films,

it

also includes

cartoons by Walter Lanrz,


the Fleischer Studios,

UPA,

classic or
eligible,

The

was

it

short (less than thirty min-

and

utes)

eel

animated

cartoon?

special exception

to a

weighing each choice with

neering efforts

its

Dinosaur and the work of

ballot

was

tallied

But the onlv true way to

chosen

and

col-

galleries located

over the world.

We've

used frame enlargerare 3

5mm

seldom-seen advertising
material to illustrate selected

cartoons. Artist and

there are probably a few

Fleischer historian Leslie

hundred more

Cabarga provided us with

have

listed the

two

the end of the

list

Initiation);

animation director Dan'U

of fifty',

but even that docs not

Van

cover even' worthy cartoon.

trate King-Size Canary,

it

you

Car-

or by purchasing videotapes

and

laser discs.

you

to seek out the

encourage

greatest cartoons
all

the fuss

You'll

have

doing

it. I

fifty

and see

is

about.

manellous time

did!

Jerry

Beck

Hollywood, California

original paintings (Sncat-

White and Bimbo's

runners-up

them

of

Channel, and Nickelodeon),

what
and

Ot

we

television (you can

many

The

ranking.

have made the grade;

on

festi-

The Disney

ments from

that could

them-at animation

catch

to

is

toon Network,

of origi-

prints, pencil sketches,

the thousands of car-

see

vals,

Cartoons

toons produced since 1908,

at

is.

appreciate these films

glue yourself to

also

by

tribute to

is a

very special cartoons.

with prime examples

all

paper).

This book
fifty'

celebrates these cartoons

lections

which

their credits.)

Is this a

Fifty Greatest

thank

ments, insights, and wisdom

but the

from the greatest private

was made

for Gertie the Dinosaur,

was animated with

a distin-

with us. (See page 192 for

The answer

nal animation art,

(a

The

artists.

classic

contemporary,

so Ions as

of Canada, as well as pio-

contemporary

simple question:

or domes-

and the National Film Board

like Gertie the

criteria,

came down

of course, yes!

was

MGM, and Warner

own

toons from numbers 150;

tic,

it

voluminous

for even' cartoon included

tion ot classic animation.

Disney,

film critics

were asked

film, foreign

criti-

these critics lor sharing com-

to rank their favorite car-

narily well-rounded collec-

\\ hile

car-

notes. Even' voter used his

more than one hundred

any

given a

from

cal appraisal

artistry, qualifying

their lists with

of the

decision

favorites

of those

is

and
were

or her

at

each cartoon

I'd like to especially

and

periodicals. All

and production information,

or

toons of vastly different

hundred anima-

many

full credits,

had trouble comparing

car-

tion studios,

All of us,

In addition to a concise

plot synopsis,

anima-

Studies, one

fiftv films.

Many

Scarlet

Pumpernickel.

guished animation pundit.

consensus.

mvsell included, have

why one

Amuck, and The

polled remarked that they

a film

Society for Animation

No single person picked

and might

those present merit

of

the films to confirm their

these

one or

festival ot

cased here were chosen in a

sure

Man\

an

Cittcrs helped us illus-

Duck

1994

first

list

of the
is

superb gathering

it is.

eighty-odd years of this

this

wonderful, youthful craft

fifty

what

greatest cartoons

believe that

amazing overview of the

impression

on reading

do

alphabetically.

blindly shuffle the entire

last

down

random order and

would

in every case

matter

how often

and

would

still

be

delighted and honored to

pack of cartoons several

in

What's Opera,

Doc? would probably be

you could

times and put them

oi

them down

ours. If you put

be there.
to Jerry

it

no

A special hosanna

Beck

lor providing

this star-spangled tribute

to animation

the shuffle

represent a great and

craft indeed.

a worth)'

A Brief History of Animation

0 Jht Walt

Dunn Company

Bncf Hision of Animation

he history

animation

ol

encompasses
Like

several stories.

histories,

all

begins

it

with individuals, in this case

and inventive people

creative

w hose

talent, ingenuity,

vision allow ed

them

beyond an

form

found

it.

as they'd

Because animation

combines
nology,

art

and

to go

integral part of animation

and tech-

artistry

history.

book, you

history also

its

techniques and procedures

sidebars. In this chapter,

we

which

will

varied from simple

setups.

group of friends

in a

New York

who was

in

kinetescope.

By looking

through

machine, view-

this

ers could see a flickering,

Trie earliest attempts

at

ated against the backdrop of

cave drawings of animals

drawn with

Hollywood; the

Edison,

inspired to invent the

cohesive chronology.

the complex studio system

in

minute-long motion picture.

The movie

industry had

been bom.

Animated

legs in several

films

began

as

positions to imitate motion.

an offshoot of trick photog-

these studios are another

Trie effort to analyze motion

raphy movies, or "trick

element

on

films," popular in the early

ol

stories of

animation histo-

culminated in an

film

ry, as is

the development of

experiment by photographer

1 900s. In

unique

artistic styles associ-

Edward Muvbndge. To

the novelty of an animated

finally,

them

animation can be found

ated with these studios.

restaurant.

attempt to unite

these innov ations were cre-

Above,

act,

Many of

Below: Muybridge's experiment.

Gertie for

Thomas

these

will find

in

ol

duction to his vaudeville

images and showed them to

components highlighted

computer

Winsor McCay drew

project these animated

this

involves the development of

paper cutouts to elaborate

right: In a filmed intro-

Throughout

And

tle a

bet

set-

made with Leland

Stanford (then governor of

the characters created

by mere mortals often took

California) as to

on immortal and

four feet of a racehorse were

lives of their

fantastic

own, and

time,

all

to cap-

who were

getting used to seeing


action

moving

live-

pictures.

As

the

same

audiences gained sophistica-

set

up

tion,

trip-

the public's attention with

wires; as a horse passed each

one, a photograph

snapped.

was

By looking at

able to see that at

all

one point

of the horse's hooves

were touching the around.

Muvbridge found

cartoon makers kept

broader humor, appealing


characters,

twelve pictures, Stanford was

10

audiences

tivate

at

ground

twelve cameras with

none

drawing was enough

Muvbndge

off the

their

biographies are another

whether

the beginning, just

way

to

ings.

and better draw-

Two early experimenters

werej. Stuart Blackton, with


his

Humorous Phases of Funny

Faces (1906), in

which an

unseen hand draws words

and

pictures,

and French

nHOW A CARTOON

IS

Many

Brief History of Animation

MADE
people are amazed

cartoon.

when

they leam

Thousands of drawings and

musical score, special


dio followed

its

own

effects,

how much

and voices

skill, effort,

and labor

are involved in the

and dozens of finished background paintings

eels,

making of a

plus a script,

seven-minute short. Every animation

are required for each

stu-

production procedures, but most followed the same general plan.

In most studios, ideas were fleshed out on storyboards, where gags were plotted and refined. Usually,
dialogue

the words being spoken.

Once

was recorded before the drawing commenced, so

the story was finalized, the

work was

divided up; in

most

that animators could time their sequences to


cases, several

animators worked on every

car-

toon. For every second of film time, between twelve and twenty-four drawings were created, each only slightly different than the preced-

ing one.

The master

the rest.

These drawings were then traced onto

animators drew the main poses for each character, expertly capturing motion and expression; "in-betweeners" drew
celluloid

age short film, about four thousand animation drawings

At

by inkers; the back of the

and

eels

eels

the same time, background paintings were prepared by layout and background

grounds, shooting each

added to the finished

Two

eel against the

were painted

to exact specifications.

artists.

Cameramen combined

aver-

the eels and back-

proper background in continuity, frame by frame. Musical scores and special effects were then

film.

important stages in the creation of animation: Above: Animation drawings from Northwest Hounded

animation drawings are produced, each slightly advancing the motion. Below: Cel and
in the

For the

were required.

z^'l^ Century. Animation drawings were traced onto

the eels with the proper backgrounds and shot

them

celluloid;

in sequence.

II

eel

Police.

Thousands of

with background from Ducfc Dodgers

backgrounds were painted

separately.

Cameramen combined

Brief Hiitorv of Animation

Emil Cohl,

artist

who made

cries

and

even today Gertie

Dinosaur

considered

Fantasma^one (1908), in

the

which

one of the greatest animated

stick figures meta-

morphosize against

films ever

hlack

number

background.

as

an

credited to

toonist

art is often

newspaper

produced

si.\

in this

car-

Winsor McCav, who

produced more than four

(191

1).

His second

tween

drunken man and

mosquito. In his third

was

toon, he

leap torward

It

that

bv imbuing

into

With

The

mischievous Gertie

eats, breathes, laughs,

and

the basic
still

method of eel
practiced

ened production schedules

did not go unno-

draw everything

was so success-

made people

forget

films that pre-

even McCay's. For

impact,

it

had to

in the pic-

ture, over

and over on paper,

with onlv

slight

changes

in

might

The

use of eels short-

and made possible the massproduction of animation.

Max

Fleischer invented

each drawing to create the

the rotoscope in 1918 as

illusion of movement.

another method of speeding

J.

animated cartoon.

all its

artist

Pioneer cartoonist producer

been

R. Brav

first

patented the

up cartoon production. This


device enables an animator

use of celluloid sheets in

to trace live action photogra-

1 9 14 to paint the

phy one frame

background.

as well have been."

characters,

a personality.

animation

background

today.

in film histories as

first

animated cartoons,

static

McCay, the

his character, Gertie the

Dinosaur, with

and photographing them

major

first

such as those of Winsor

it

it,

named
the

made another giant

characters from paper to eels

The

his greatest achieve-

years, Gertie has

car-

life

Of

an inanimate character, and

ceded

and the images more spectacular.

art

the animated

portravs an encounter be-

transferring the animated

celluloid overlays. In the ear-

ful

The Story of a Mosquito,

of eels later the same year,

finished films look better,

liest

ment.

film.

their laborious job easier, the

McCay breathed

ticed. Gertie

Nemo

Hurd patented the use

Mice and Magic, "Winsor

drawn pictures

Little

Earl

over the

this

for his first

As

make

innovation was the use of

thousand meticulously

animated cartoon.

(it is

book).

Leonard Maltin wrote in

But the creation of ani-

mation

is

nical innovations to

static

The moving

still

drawn and

at a

time for

animation purposes; actors

were filmed simulating the

TECHNOLOGY

animated on paper, were

Throughout the

shot through the clear por-

mators could see and cap-

tion of the eel overlay. Artist

ture the

years, ani-

mators have embraced tech-

desired action, so that ani-

movement

First (limited)

of actual

animation comic strips

appear as supplement in newsreels:

he following
time line does

not purport to

be an all-inclusive history
of animation. Listed in the

time line are notable highlights in chronological order,

including important films,

famous
cal

creators,

and techni-

achievements.

J. Stuart

Blackton

Humorous Phases of
- Funny Faces.

Winsor McCay animates


Little

Nemo.

The

Neu lyu'cds, Mutt and Jeff.

Colonel Hecza Liar.

']. R. Bray's earliest films released.

This

accompanied Fleischer

illustration

patent application for the rotoscope.

M. FLEISCHER.

HUHGO

Bncf History of Animation

Of PRODUCING MOVING NCTURf. CARTOONS.

1,242,674.

1'atenled

Oct

9, 1317.

bodies.

Though not

tical as

Max

as prac-

envisioned, the

rotoscope has become

but

it

was Walt Disney who

popularized sound cartoons

when he

introduced Mickey

r
r

t)

n
a

valuable tool in the specialeffects field

and has enhanced

Mouse

many animated

1^

features,

(1928) and put

trum
the

and Lord of the

Trees

Rings.

and CinemaScope,

all

to animation at the

same

with Flowers and

(1932).

Bringing visual depth to

animation had been an


ambition since the 1930s

when Ub Iwerks and Walt


Disney each developed sepa-

live-action subjects. Prints

rate multiplane systems,

survive oi hand-tinted

made during

Max

three-dimensional sets for

The

their cartoons.

ing McCay's

1950s brought on

Little

Nemo.

Heischer experimented

and

Fleischer's studio built

the silent-film days, includ-

Max

craze in

which

early

3-D

several stu-

with sound cartoons in

dios brought popular charac-

1924 with

ters (including

f/0t jestera series

of sing-

along DeForrest Phonofilms,

Kjazy Kat

J.

News

Pictorial.

R. Bray produces Paul Terry's

K0K0

introduces Gerric

the

Dinosaur

First

Max

Bugs Bunny,

Woody Woodpecker,

Fleischer

the Clow n, released.

in Feline Follies.

Cat

Van

Beuren's Aesop

Film Fables begin, with

Paul Terr)' and John Foster as directors.

The Katzenjammer Kids series begins

to vaudeville audiences.

Hurd

Max

First appearance of Felix the

Farmer Al Falfa cartoons.


>

First

Popeye,

Out of the Inkwell cartoons, w ith

series begins in

Hearst Vitagraph

J. R. Bray and Earl

spec-

ed these advancements for

color cartoons

McCay

lull

Technicolor on

time that Hollywood adopt-

still

tnama

came

3-strip

map

including Gulliver's Travels

Color and sound, 3-D

Steamboat Willie

?!

<-

tfajr

in

Fleischer rotoscope experiments released.

Winsor McCay's

Alice comedies

Sinking of the Lusitania released.

begin.

apply for

patents to simplify cartoon production

techniques by using

Walt Disney's

eels.

*3

A WAIT MSNIT COMC


OtSTHISUTO* H

T.

Brief History

o/Animjtion

Donald Duck, and Casper) to


the fore, with the help

of irri-

tating glasses.

Wide-screen CinemaScope has been used

manv

shorts (especially ones

featuring

and

for

UPA's Mr. Magoo

MGM's Tom and jerry)

and feature-length films


(Ladv and

the

Tramp and

designed for horizontal stag-

try

norm during the

1960s.

pletely eliminated the use of

manv

This speeded production

eels in

peripheral nsion; the tech-

and was championed by

sion shows. Tightly cleaned-

nique was used to great

TV animation producers,

ing in an effort to

fill

effect, particularly in

Disnev shorts

our

though surprisingly

the

Toot. Whistle,

made use

Grand Canyonscope (1954).

The

CinemaScope cartoons look

phy has many

on

large

was

the Disney Studio that

Plunk and Boom (1953) and

best in big theaters

it

first

of the procedure.

scratchy line of xerografans

ing the lost art

of

screens
of tiny

up animation drawings can


be scanned directlv into the

computer and colored, with


the

finished frames out-

final

35mm nega-

put directly to

Scope backgrounds are

and home-udeo screens

harsh look of xerographed

wider, and lavouts are

making them hard

animation

inking. In recent vears, col-

ored inks have softened the

multiplex cinemas

to appre-

eels.

Todav, computer generat-

ciate todav.

The

televi-

mourn-

among others). Cinema-

ed ink-and-paint has com-

next major techno-

logical adv

and

hand

Raggedy Ann and Andy,

rare in these davs

films

ance was the

development of xerography

Xerox

in the late 1950s.

eliminating the inking

process

became

the indus-

Fleischer's Beery

Boop appears

and Barnacle

Dishes

Adventures of Prince
is first

Lone

Ub

hverks create

first

Dizzy

in

Bill.

Technicolor cartoon sequence by

Walter Lantz
Disney and

Looney

Sinkin' in the Bathtub, starring Bosko.

First

first

Tune, Hugh Harman and Rudolph Ising

duplication of pencil art onto


eels

Leon Schlesinger produces

in

King of Jazz.

three

Mickey Mouse cartoons: Plane Crazy.

Achmcd

The Gallopin' Gaucho. and Steamboat Willie.

animated feature, by

Reiniger, produced in

Germany.

Disney's Oswald the

Lucky Rabbit

Max

series debuts.

First Silly

Symphonies cartoon.

The Skeleton Dance, released.

Ub

Dick Huemor creates Scrappy cartoons

Fleischer releases experi-

for

mental sound Song Cartoons

and begins
Ball

series of

Bouncing

cartoons for Bray.

Iwerks's Flip the Frog debuts.

Columbia

Van Beuren

Pictures.

Tom

and Jerry

cartoons begin.

First

Merrie Melodies cartoon released.

Lady Play Your Mandolin, starring Foxy.

rives.

In addition, complex

computer-generated dimen-

background

tury have helped filmmakers

ducing

improve their

tion could be a profitable

craft

and

sig-

UPA thrived and innovat-

quantity of anima-

Thus

Brief History of Animation

and the quality of the

ed,

was

nificantly contributed to the

business.

surpassing the multiplane

continuing popularity of the

dios to create animated car-

sequences created by Disney

art form.

toons were founded in 191 3,

dios, the cartoonists,

and the

making

movie industry

were

sional

settings,

and Fleischer in the 1930s,


can easily be composited

THE STUDIO SYSTEM

into the scene.

Winsor McCay worked

But just

as in the

Winsor McCay
Bray,

it still

artist to

more than one

day of

andj. R.

ally

human

takes a

draw each character

one animated

hasn't changed and probably

never

will.

The

year, person-

tually

the Dinosaur.

technical

ists like J.

make just

Gmk

film like

Other cartoon-

located in

The

"Golden

first

itself

New York City.

cartoon series were

adapted from major newspaper comic strips

to the late 1950s, during

Jeff,

which even' major Holly-

jammer

studio released

tion studios

Warner

Bros.,

like

Mutt and

Kjrazy Kelt, The KatzenKids, etc.

or arose

from the pens of New York-

new

cartoons to theaters, anima-

R. Bray and Raoul

First color

peak.

In the beginning, the stu-

studio system even-

produced

at a

Age," the period from 1930

wood

Barre realized that mass pro-

innovations of the past cen-

films

stu-

possible the creation

The

drawing twenty-four

screen time, to

first

of a volume of animation.

frames tor each second of

movement by hand. That

the

based print cartoonists

like

Gregory LaCava, Pat

Disney,

MCM, and

Sullivan,

and Paul Terry.

Merrie Melodies

cartoon. Honeymoon Hotel.

Donald Duck debuts


The Wise

Little

in

Hen.

Fleischer uses three-dimensional


sets in

Color Classics cartoons.

Harman and

Ising begin

Harmonies

for

Carl Stalling begins music

supervision at

Happy

MGM.

Van Beuren

Warner

Bros.

studio closes.

Popeye the Sailor Meets Sindbad the


Sailor is first extra-length short cartoon

released by Heischer.

1936
J

*934

937

*935

Fleischer begins

Popeye the Sailor cartoons.

First 3-strip

Technicolor

cartoon Flow ers and Trees wins


first

Oscar

for animation.

Disney's Three

becomes

cartoon

Little Pigs

national sensation.

Porky Pig debuts

>

in

Merrie Melodies

starts

Porkv's

Haven't Cot a Hat.

Tex Avery joins Warner


and

Snoii White and tin Seven Ehi

Termite Terrace

unit.

Bob Clampett
Porky

Bros, studio

premieres.

Daffy Duck.

directs first cartoon.

Badtimc

Story.

Mel Blanc begins cartoon voice

Multiplane camera

!5

arfs

Duck Hunt introduces

first

used in

77ie

career.

Old

Mill.

Brief History of Aninwuon

One

of the earliest

known photographs

of Walt Disney.

Though

still

forerunners

prized as the
of

modem car-

toons, these cartoons

played litde of the


artistry of

dis-

and

skill

the 1920s were remarkably

compete with and better

well crafted as well as funny.

rivals led to his

The

synchronized-sound

Fleischer studio

was

modern cartoons

advances

in

the 1930s, the Disney stu-

both animation

dio dominated the field in

berated his colleagues at a

ment. But the cartoon as we

innovation and direction;

testimonial dinner, "Anima-

know it today was developed

was Walt Disney who

tion should he an art

by one man, and that man

brought

was Walt Disnev.

"trade" of animation, provid-

ot

what vou
is

[make]

fellows have
it

hut

done

A relative youngster to

into a trade."

Quality returned

when Otto

Messmcr breathed

life

the field

and

Cat,

whose adventures

when he

mined

match

to

mation studios

in

entered

Disney was

in 1923,

personality into Felix the

port for their work.

Chuck Jones

By

,unWS

up and

took notice of the cartoon.

He

^*7T

could flourish and

artist

Tweety and Beaky Buzzard

studio to

(Pinocchio) are released.

Bros;

Looney Tunes and Merrie

Paramount Pictures ousts the Fleischer

brothers,

cartoon

sells his

Warner

Melodies produced in color

Disney releases Bambi.

Schlesinger

are

introduced by Bob Clampett.

and Disney

bled for a ground where the

on

Mouse of Tomorrow (Mighty Mouse).

prepared, fought, and

Terrytoons debuts the

introduced.

Travels)

"Because
sat

1927, his Hollywood studio

Feature films by Fleischer


s

As

was producing the most

Elmer Fudd (voiced by Arthur

(Gulliver

said,

Disney people

of

the screen. His desire to

nicnrKjnr

the

and appreciation and sup-

it

his rival ani-

in quality.

fine artistry to

it

ing training for his artists

deter-

sophisticated cartoons

is

car-

technique and plot develop-

or

Q. Bryan)

popularizing

toons in 1928. Throughout

responsible for further

Winsor McCay. McCay

his

from

and establishes Famous Studios.

At

this point on.

MGM, Jerry Mouse dances

with Gene Kelly in Anchors

Awcigb and Tex Avery

939

duces Scrcuy

[941

intro-

Squirrel.

[940

1938

Porkv's Hare

Hunt

1942

intro-

Fleischer begins

duces early Bugs Bunny.

Superman cartoons.

Disney releases Dumto.

1943

First

Chuck Jones

cartoon. The Night

Watchman.

Frank Tashlin creates The Fox and

Bugs Bunny

asks

in

Tex Avery's A Wild Hare

"What's up, Doc?


Lantz's

Crow

for

Columbia's Screen

Gems

the

studio.

for the first time.

Woody Woodpecker and

Hanna-Barbera's

Tom

Leon Schlesinger produces Pi

t.

Snafu

cartoons for the U.S. Army.

and Jerry debut.

16

Tex Avery

directs the first

Droopy cartoon

and Red Hot Riding Hood

for

MGM.

Bncf History of Animation

Opening

where

new art form

not

grow
dio,

only

could

at his stu-

but throughout the

Every other studio began

on

Where Disney

Disney's lead:

had

Silly

the early Fleischer cartoons

By the time

sophistication; because they

late

1937, the other

crown

els,

to

Uncle Walt.

rival

But they too suc-

during

cumbed

to the pressure of

wore on, the Fleischer car-

was

toons. Fairy tales and fables

were adapted

vidual identity that other

in color car-

toons, and happy-go-lucky

indi-

SCREEN SEMS

decided to ignore the beauty

standard.
car-

tial

animated shorts of the

1940s. Tex Aver)' and the

and polish
Disney

ol

style

MARCUS 4

JOE OE MAT

the emerging

and concentrate

on something Walt and

his

followers were leaving

studios lacked. Despite the

\4-

Famous Studios introduces


Casper the Friendly Ghost.

Friz Freleng introduces

Sylvester

3-D

Woody Woodpecker

and Donald Duck

and Yosemite Sam.

huck Jones introduces Pepe LePew.

Warner Bros, wins


first

cartoons released.

its

Academy Award

Road Runner and

Wile

for Tweetie Pie.

E.

Coyote make

Cinemascope

by Disney.

appearance in Fast and Furry-ous.


Crusader Rabbit
first

Robert
First

McKimson

Toot, Whistle,

Plunk and Boom released

first

is

TV cartoon produced.

directs first cartoon, Daffy Doodles.

appearance of Foghorn Leghorn

and Heckle and Jeckle

at

at

Warner Bros

UPA

begins releasing cartoons through Columbia Pictures.

UPA's

Gerald McBoing Boing wins

Academy Award, inaugurating

Terrytoons.

J7

UPA's new

h.itniiuT, 3w

INC.

more

toons were the most influen-

and provid-

b<j

zany Termite Terrace crew

The Warner Bros,

ed the cartoons with an

PT*^?

toons became cuter and

characteristic of the

New York studio

car-

The rough

&Y

SID

<X1V

Disneys, and as the thirties

but highly cartoony artwork

keeping up with the

and Popeye eventually sur-

Paramount presented Color

Rainbow Parade

they have become cult

classics.

Boop

PROOOCtO

CHILES Ml NTZ

many lev-

was

Fleischer studio

depth and

can be enjoyed on

ters in popularity.

in with

studios had granted the

passing the Disney charac-

RKO weighed

them

MUthTS

atmosphere

White in

Happy Harmonies; Columbia

and

a surreal

that gives

had Color Rhapsodies;

Classics;

contain

Disney premiered Snow

the 1930s, with Betty

MGM began

Color Rhapsody cartoon.

COLUMBIA PICTURES CORP.


in the black-and-

Disney's biggest

released

Looney Tunes and Merrie


Melodies;

danced

The

Symphonies,

Warner Bros,

crudeness of the artwork,

white releases.

world."

imitation series based

Mickey Mouse imitations

credits for a

graphic style.

A Bncf Hislorv

oj

Animation

behind: comedy. Aver)' and

comrades

his

Tashlin,

in

arms Frank

Boh Clampett,

Scnbner, Virgil Ross, Ben

toon with

that begat Droopy,

kevitow, and

Ken Champin) and

Frelcng dished out funnier

men

drawings, outrageous gags,

Maltese,

Tedd

Warren

Foster) were

bisrger

laughs

introduced us to
ol

and

menagerie

cartoon superstars more

before:

Bugs Bunny, Daffy

Duck, Porky

Pig, the

LePew, and

More than
fifty

dio

ol

this stu-

Blanc, and dozens

known

for its

never lacked

it

Hugh Harman

Mel

gave the studio

Zagreb, Yugo-

Based on limited animation

and

modem

graphic

art,

UPAs cartoons were popuwith the

critics

moved

to

Gerald

pioneer animators

community

were

a creative

who

inspired each other

toward greatness, and in


turn their best

work

contin-

animation today.

The

such

McBomg

personal styles of

cartoon directors

first

became prevalent

in the

1940s. Clampett, Jones, and

Avery emerged and

Tom

influ-

enced the way gag cartoons

were constructed. But


the

in

fifties

UPA

was the true

turning point.

It

proved that

individual animation design,


far

MGM

from the lush Disney

styles,

could be popular.

Chuck Jones and John

MGM from
in

and the

as the near-sighted Mister

Magoo and

Tex Avery (who

Wamer Bros,

The

form.

art

in

to

and Jerry, and earned seven

also gave

cartoon

turned cartoons into an

during the 1950s.

starring

Academy Awards.

The Hollywood

studios of the golden age

Hollywood

public, with characters

Hanna

leading; the wav.

ue to influence the best work

lar

duo ofjoseph

of

Pictures, that

and Rudoll king's Disney-

cat-and-mouse team,

ol great

a series

short subjects, released

style shorts in the 1930s.

directing

Boing

influenced every studio from

slavia,

Barbera and William

work. Musician Carl

Stalling, voice actor

by Columbia

The

evidence ot the talent

America began

endarv Warner directors.

results with

involved and the popularity


ot their

among

laughs after disappointing


the

cartoons in this volume

were produced by

United Productions of

MGM also went for the

many more.
one-third

and the eve-pop-

sty lish

is

Screwy

ping Red Hot Riding Hood.

and

Pierce,

in quality.

Runner, Tweety, Pepe

Squirrel,

car-

a series of films

the crew working lor the leg-

comedv, but

Road

story-

(including Michael

Tkeir work

popular todav than ever

chance to perfect the gag

Washam, Abe

Chuck Jones, and Fnz

and

Rod

animators (including

Huhlcv began using stylized

1942)

characters and abstract back-

"The Bugs Bunny

TV Show "

and

"The Flintstones" debut on prime-time


Kpighty Knight Bugs wins

television (both

Academy Award, Bugs

MGM closes cartoon unit.

Bunny's only Oscar.

ABC).

First use of Xerox process in


tion, in

Disney

s short,

anima-

Goliath

//.

*954

3-D Bugs Bunny and

Casper cartoon released.

First

appearance of

Tasmanian

Devil.

Paul Terry

dio,

sells his stu

Terrytoons, to CBS.

Hanna-Barbera

begins

TV animation

with "Ruff and

Reddy."

Disney closes cartoon


shorts unit.

I*

UPA

"Rocky and His Friends


feature,

1001 Arabian

debuts.

Nights, released.

grounds

World War
tors to

ism

in the early 1940s.


II

forced anima-

work faster on

ing films and leam

train-

as artists learned the

medium

could be used for

personal

artistic

how to

quicker with limited anima-

proved to be unlimited.

modem graphics.

at adults, it

UPA

featured classic

Since then, the diverse


styles ol

Aimed

car-

toons, clever bridsing


animate
tD

inventions.

communicate information

and

series.

tion,

animation have

and offbeat new shorts.

(Actually, the

And

television

first

made-for-

animation

independent animation has

appeared

When UPA began making

provided a cornucopia of dif-

done by such master anima-

theatrical shorts after the

ferent styles

war, Stephen Busustow,

everywhere. Personal visions

1941 and Shamus Culhane

John Hubley, Boh Cannon,

have been realized in short

in 1947.

tion

and

their

crew used these

films

and

from

tors as

artists

full-length features,

in

commercials,

Otto Mcssmer

Another

in

early effort

was Jay Ward and Alex

economic methods to create

from the Pannonia Studio

stylish films that influenced

Hungary

animation around the world.

Studio of Yugoslavia, with

starting in 1956, a steady

UPA studio opened

works sponsored by such

stream of animation

institutions as the National

new and

classic

Film Board of Canada and

duced to

London's Channel

cartoon fans through this

The

the door to different tech-

From

niques and ideas.


simple line

art

the

of Gerald

to the

in

famed Zagreb

4.

McBomg Bcnng and Thurber's

Unicom

in the

Tcll-Talc Heart, a

new

In 1956, a

message went out to animation filmmakers.

A backlash

formed against Disney

cartoon series in 1949.) But

powerful

The

TELEVISION

the abstract renderings of

The

Anderson's Gmsader Rabbit

ANIMATION FOR

Garden to

both
was

intro-

new generation

new medium.

sion animation were comera in anima-

early television program-

Flintstones

boom

just as other

Ersatz,
is first

from Zagreb Studio,

Warner

limited animation techniques.

ming competed with movies

win Academy Award.

"A

Charlie

Brown

Christmas," prime-

TV series, debuts.

time special debuts.

Vullbr

\M

=J

<L"

i7

DePatie Freleng begins Pink Panther theatrical cartoon

Bob Clampett's "Beany and

Cecil" cartoons debut

on TV.

s first series

"Superman

debuts on Sunday morning.

first Japanese

"Astro Boy,

animated

Fihnation

Bros, animation

studio closes.

foreign animation to

and "Thejetsons

years of television animation, utilized

(top)

(above), created by Hanna-Barbera during the

of "The Boing Boing Show,"

network animated

"The

peting with their theatrical

counterparts

first

of

pioneers of televi-

tion began with the creation

the

real-

new

Brief History of Animation

series; first cartoon.

The Pink Phink wins Oscar.

"Jonny Quest

premieres.

Walt Disney

dies,

Chuck Jones
Clinch
Grinch

December

creates

"How
"How

15.

the
th

Stole Christmas.

Tcnytoons and

Paramount

close animation

studios.

Brief History of Animation

and radio programs

and

Hanna-Barbera's "The

needed to maintain

artistic

Flintstones" (i960), and

and Warren Foster, Hanna-

Sam

Bob Clampett's "Beany and

Barbera's television cartoons

Adventures of Pow-Wow"

Cecil" (1962) rank with the

became

(1957) "Bucky and Pepito"

narration, so their products

funniest television, live or

with

were closer to contemporary'

animated, ever produced.

like

quality. The early TV toonists relied

radio
cal

on dialogue and

shows than

cartoons.

to theatri-

The

artists

had

men

Other shows were geared

lor

Michael Maltese

like

national sensation

succession of stars

Huckleberry

(1958), Quick

youngsters, including

McGraw

Hound

Bear (1961). "The


Flintstones"

space adventures, animated

in

segments on "Bozo the

spawned

longer than the one-twellth

Clown" (1959), and "Tom

rime cartoons

of a second that

Terrific" (1957), created

since, for

budgetary

reasons, each of their drawings

was seen

for

much

is

standard

by

"The

for theatrical animation.

Gene Dietch

Much

Captain Kangaroo Show."

years

of the art in the early

was highly

result of

stylized, a

UPA influence and

tor

In 1957, William

Hanna

and Joseph Barbera, fresh

Tom

The

"The Alvin

Colonel"

Bullwinkle Show," "Beany

cessful (and

and

"The Boing Boing

TV

shows were aimed

at adults.

ol

Cecil,"

and "The

careers in television anima-

Famous Adventures

tion with the Rull and

Macroo"

Rcddy

series.

to

Using strong

Jay Ward's "Rocky and

character designers like

Bullvrinkle" (1959),

Benedict and veteran story-

Ed

the-

ing "Dick Tracy" (1961)

"The

MCM, began amazingly suc-

Like

Even

(1964) were joined by


evening showings

for lack of movement

Show," many early

matching live-action mouths

atrical

Bugs Bunnv Show," "The

still -vibrant)

the Syncro-Vox technique of

plunge, with

and Jem'

with

Angel" (1962), which used

(1962), and "Jonny Quest"

who needed to compensate

creative artwork.

Cambria Studio's "Clutch

i960); "Thejetsons"

from seventeen years

theatricals for

Ken Snyder and

Fred Cnppen's "Roger

to static drawings.

(all

the ingenuity ol cartoonists

ot

Cargo" (1959) and "Space

slot

slew of prime-

Show," "Top Cat," "Calvin


and

(1958) and "Courageous

Ramjet" (1965); and

i960 premiere

an 8:30 P.M. rime


a

"The

(i960);

(1959), and Yogi

"Colonel Bleep," Jack

demonstrate great visual

skill,

Singer's

as

Cat and Minute Mouse"

Draw

Schlehs highly stylized

to

ous productions, such

in

producers took the

UPA produc-

and "Mr. Magoo" (i960),


Terrytoons creating

"Deputy Dawg" (i960),

Paramount beginning "The

of Mr.

an escalating
o

ear-

New Casper Cartoon Show"


(1963), and Walter Lanrz

"The Woody

toon boom. Soon, ultra-low-

hosting

budget producers ollcred

Woodpecker Show." Imports

quirky and sometimes

from Japan ("Astroboy,"

hilari-

1963; "Gigantor," 1966),

morning, including Super-

England (Halas and

man, the Lone Ranger,

Batchelor's

"Do-Do

the Kid

Archie, and Spiderman.

Channel,

primarily adult audience.

The
By

future of made-for-

and

television animation

Bruf History of Animation

The

USA, MTV, and

Family Channel are

actively

producing

new car-

from Outer Space") and

the mid-eighties, these were

France ("Tin-Tin") rounded

replaced by merchandise-

driven action cartoon char-

brighter. In addition to pop-

animation.

ular feature-length films,

that the next generation of

new and

great animators will ply their

out the Golden

Age

of televi-

sion animation of the late

and

fifties

The

acters

such

as G.I.Joe

and

the Smurfs.

sixties.

next years saw a

CBS

Saturday-morning

replaced by highly acclaimed

series

and popular

The New Adventures"

specials,

encour-

aged by the success of "A

Brown Christmas"

(1965) and Dr. Suess's

forgotten.
this

Grinch Stole

Christmas" (1966).

Among

the best of these were

a fully

starring their
ters.

(1970), Richard

being pro-

network

for

television

991) and directly

home

famous charac-

Spent

Warner Bros, and Am-

How

My Vacation,"

1992).

Ted Turner launched an

Network

and the Public Broadcasting

Wardrobe" (1979). The

later

1960s

also

brought animated

on Saturday

October 1992,

its first

made-for-television animated
feature in 1993. Cable net-

satire

back to prime time and to

in

System produced

and

"The Simpsons" (1990)

forth a barrage of comic -strip

characters

international Cartoon

"Tiny

for afternoon viewing,

brought

dazzle our senses.

video market ("Tiny

Toons Adventures:

revived "wacky" cartoons

the

laugh, and

for the

Toon Adventures" (1989)

Melendez's

for

television

for cable

Carol," and

Bill

make us

on

1992; "Family

blin Entertainment's

Lion, the Witch, and

It is

is

The Animated

Williams's "A Christmas

"The

craft,

Television

Stimpy Show," Nickelodeon,

animated series

Who"

is

series.

networks ("The Ren and

for the better

Jones's "Horton Hears a

looked

diverse high-quality

Dog," CBS, 1993);

with "Duck Tales," (1987),

Chuck

now the primary market

Series," Fox,

sur-

humor,

Disney continued

change

has never

("Batman:

something animation had

"How the

toon

whole

duced

"Mighty Mouse:

prised everyone with

animation industry as

programming

In 1987, Ralph Bakshi's

decline in evening series,

Charlie

for the

works such

as

The Disney

"The Ren and Stimpy Show" premieres on Nickelodeon.

Bugs Bunny gets

star

on

Hollywood Walk of Fame.

XV animation producer
nrndnrer DIC
DTC
TV
enters the U.S. market with

Inspector Gadget.

Who

Beauty and

Snielhero- presents
nresenrs
Steven Spielberg

An American

Tale.

Ralph Bakshi's "Mighty

Mouse: The

New Adventures.

"The Simpsons" begins weekly

77ic Rescuers

Disney

airings.

Dcm>n Under, the

film

the Beast

nominated

for

an

Oscar in the Best Picture category.

Framed Roger Rabbit? opens.

first

completed with

computerized ink and paint.

The Turner Cartoon


Network

"Batman:

starts.

The Animated

Scries" debuts.

Steven Spielberg

presents Animaniacs.

Animation Hall of Fame


Winsor McCay

Walter Lantz

company and

Friz Freleng

Huckleberry Hound, Yogi

(1867- 1 9 34)

(1900-1994)

(1906-)

Popular American cartoonist

Creator of Woodv

Animator and

Woodpecker and

classic

and

illustrator

duced the

who

intro-

possibilities of ani-

mation with his milestone


films Little

Nemo,

Chillv

director of

Wamer Bros,

car-

many

Willy and veteran cartoon

toons. Freleng created

maker whose studio

characters, including Pork)'

launched the careers

Gertie the

ot

Tex

Pig, Sylvester,

Bear, the Hintstones, the

Jetsons, Jonny Quest,

Scooby Doo, and many,

many others.

Yosemite Sam,

and the Pink Panther, and

Clyde

creating

Chuckjones

Dinosaur, and The Sinking of

Aver\', Virgil Ross,

the Lusitania.

Geromini, Shamus Culhane,

was instrumental

and manv others. Lantz pro-

ing Bugs Bunny, Tweety,

duced

Speed)- Gonzales, and the

sible tor

Goofy Gophers. He won

toons and characters:

many Oscars,

Road Runner, Wile

Max

Fleischer

theatrical cartoon

(1884-19-2)

shorts longer than any other

Inventor of the rotoscope

studio,

more than

fifty

and he

won

innovative animation studio

Special

Achievement

of the 1920s and 1930s.

t-979-

and the head

of the

Fleischer pioneered

most

sets,

and

extra-length cartoons. His

studio also brought

ones for Tweetie

in

Pie (1947),

K0K0

Tex Avery

Jones contributed

(1908-1980)

cantly to the personality

Perhaps the most important

Animator and

figure in twentieth-century

responsible for the

animation. Creator of

Hollywood cartoon

made

in the 1920s,

he

later

Bugs Bunny

significant contribu-

for

wacky
style of
first

Duck and

Wamer

Bros, and created Droopy,

(1892-1983)

sound cartoons, personality

Screwy

Creator and animator of

animation, color, the multi-

Hot Riding Hood

the

first

animated

Bunny, and won Oscars

for

For Sccntimental Reasons

(1949), So

Much [or

So

Little

the

Line (1965).

and Red
for

MGM.

plane camera, and feature-

Bob Clampett
(1913-1984)

length animation.

also
tele-

vision commercial in 1941

William Hanna (191 1

Inspired director of classic

and Joseph Barbera (1905-)

Wamer Bros.

Codirecting duo for seven-

Tunes. Instrumental

teen years at

and pioneered the animated


billboard for the

Elmer Fudd, and Buss

(1949), and The Dot and

tions to the development of

Squirrel,

signifi-

development of Daffy Duck,

director

Otto Messmer

made

Dos

few of his creations.

(1900-1966)

cartoons of Daffy

Messmer

Coyote, Pepe LePew,

Walt Disney

the 1940s. Directed the

a star.

E.

Martian, and Charlie

Mouse

to

The

and The Pink Phink (1964).

Oswald Rabbit and Mickey

Felix the Cat, the first ani-

car-

Michigan J. Frog, Marvin

Popeye to the screen.

become

many classic

Kpighty Knight Bugs (1958),

the Clown, Bern' Boop, and

mated cartoon personality

(1912-)
Director and creator respon-

are but a

action with animation,

three-dimensional

an Oscar for

including

sound

cartoons, the combination of


live

years,

in develop-

Douglas

Leigh Corporation.

MGM, where

of

in the

Porky

Pig,

they produced the multi-

Daffy Duck, and Bugs

Academy Award-winning

Bunny. Created Tweety,

Tom

Beaky Buzzard, and Beany

and Jerry

series.

Beginning in 1957, they

rev-

olutionized animation for


television,

22

development

Looney

forming their

own

and

Cecil.

A Gallery of Cartoon Stars


KEY!
Felix the

Cat

(Principal creator/studio/year of debut)

Donald Duck

Popeye

Nash

(Otto Messmer/Pat

(E.

Sullivan/ 191 9)

Studios/1933)

Disney Studio/ 1934)

Created as

Clarence Nash's unique

Unlike his comic

strip con-

temporaries, Felix

was the

first

star of animated car-

toons

who was

created and

developed lor the screen.

Betty

Boop

(Grim Natwick/Fleischer

Otto Messmer's personality

Studios/1930)

animation gave the character

The

charm

that endeared

him

to silent film audiences,

he was the

first

and

cartoon star

to be mass-merchandised.

Mickey Mouse
(Walt Disney,

Iwerks/

of Betrv's cartoons are cult

The

always upbeat Mickey

Mouse, the
toon

star,

first

talking car-

became

a national

symbol of happy days ahead

the gruff-talking sailor

by Art Babbit and Dick

became

Huemor in The Wise

a star in the

comics

Paramount cartoon

take

today due to their

the

begin with, and their

on Popeye made him

most popular cartoon

character of the 1930s.

basis of
first

animated

Little

Hen, directed by Wilfred


Jackson. His hot-tempered
personalia'

was developed

in

subsequent cartoons and his


popularity soon eclipsed

Mickev Mouse

as the biggest

star of Disnev's short car-

toons.

innuendoes, and jazzy scores

by

Disney Studio/ 1 92.8)

Donald Duck,

tive to

outrageous humor, sexual

Ub

voice

were outrageous and inven-

Many

was the

(voice)/

"Thimble Theater" in 1929,

shorts. Fleischer's cartoons

"Boop-oop-a-doop"

singer Helen Kane.

classics

supporting

(Clarence

player ior the comic strip

in the

Fleis-

1930s cartoons was

take-off ol

and gained even more fame

sexy star of Max

cher's

C. Segar/Fleischer

talents

way and

such

as

Cab

Porky Pig

Callo-

Louis Armstrong.

The Motion

Freleng/Wamer

(Friz

Picture

Bros./

r 935)

Production Code of 1934

Created as part

forced the animators to

animal characters

of a cast of

in the

lengthen her skirt and end

mode

of the Depression. Mickey

her risque adventures with

included Porkv and Beans,

established the Disney stu-

K0K0

Ham and Ex. Ollie

during the darkest

moments

dio as a leader in animation,

and he

is

best

known

as the Sorcerer's

today

Apprentice

in Fantasia (1940)

and

the

Clown and Bimbo

in favor of much safer antics

with

Grampy and

etc.

for the

Owl.

Merrie

Melodies cartoon

Pudgy.

Haien't

Her voice was provided by

Got a Hat, Porkv- became the

Mae

unlikelv star of a series of

Questel.

black-and-white Looney

as the original host

of

of "Our Gang," which

TVs "Mickey

Tunes and was

Mouse Club"

dev eloped

by

Tex Aver)', Bob Clampett.


and Frank Tashlin.

(I955-59)-

He

ulti-

matclv became the s\mbol


of

Warner

Bros, cartoons

with his closing signature


line,

Tht Walt Dunrv Company

23

"That's

all.

folks."

Gallery

of

Cartoon Stars

Woody Woodpecker

Mr. Magoo

(Walter Lantz/Walter Lantz

(John Hubley/

Productions/1940)

Based on Director Hubley's

Legend has

pecker disrupting the honey-

sighted Mr.

moon

most popular of UPA's

Barbera/MGM/ 1 940)

Grade, inspired

this batty

toon characters. Jim Backus

Mel Blanc

originated

provided the hilarious word-

cat

and mouse duo

bird.

we always

knew what was on

ol

Lantz and his

wife.

the voice and distinctive


laugh, writer

their

Hanna and Barbera

Ben "Bugs"

play,

mumbles, and

Pete

Bumess

cackles.

directed the

succeeded Blanc in voicing

Academy Award-winners

ing up with the funniest

the character. His theme,

When Magoo

"The Woody Woodpecker

and Magoo's Puddle jumper

Song," became

(i956).

to

make mayhem with

won

Oscars doing

seven

one

it.

hit record in

number-

Flav (1954)

1948.

The Road Runner and

(Tex Avery/Warner Bros./

Bugs Bunny

Wile

E.

Coyote

(Tex Avery /Warner Bros./

(Chuck Jones/Wamer

plete screwball in his earliest

1940)

Bros./ 1 949)

cartoons with costar Porkv

Avery directed A Wild Hare,

Pig.

He mellowed out by the

1950s into
cal toil for

a selfish egotisti-

Bugs Bunny and

Elmer Fudd. According

Chuck Jones, Mel

to

Blanc

based the voice characterization

on producer Leon

car-

spent seventeen years com-

the pair, and

Daffy started out as a com-

the

funniest episodes, including

ways

937)

Magoo was

Hardaway and Grace Lantz

minds.

bull-headed lather, the near-

(William Hanna, Joseph

rarely spoke, but

Duck

wood-

Tom and Jerry

This

Daffy

that a

it

UPA/1949)

the

lirst

Chuckjones based the

cartoon in which

Coyote's problems with

Mel Blanc asks "What's up,

Acme

Doc?"

his

in his

novv-tamous

bunny was

tion

most household

a collabora-

among Avery, Chuck

Jones,

Bob Clampett, Ben

Schlesinger's unique speech

Hardaway, Cal Dalton, and

pattern.

the rest of the

(Bob Clampett/Wamer

aim, whizzes by with a

Bros. 1 942)

"Beep-Beep," occasionally

"I

Tawt I Taw

Tweety's lamous phrase,

became the cartoon

usually heralding another

star of

WWII era, a streetwise

smart aleck

who

takes

assault

The

on

on

Puddy Tat"

Sylvester's senses.

innocent

little

any opponent and always

was responsible

comes out on

Academy Awards

top.

Wamer Bros.
usual,

ILL

for

canary

two

in the

camp.

Mel Blanc

As

originally

provided the voice.

*4

The

Road Runner,

is

Leon

tools.

Tweety

Schlesinger studio. Bugs

the

own inability to use

hammers, screwdrivers, and

Brooklyn/ Bronx accent, but


the

roadrunner traps on

object of his

stopping to hold up

a picket

sign with his intentions


spelled out lor us to read.

A speaking Wile E.
also appears with

Bunny

Coyote

Bugs

in a handful of hilari-

ous cartoons.

Rocky and Bullwinkle

Ward

The Simpsons

Pink Panther

and Alex

G&lltry of Ctirtoon Stars

(Friz Freleng/DcPatie

(Matt Groening/Gracie

Anderson/Ward

Freleng/ 1 964)

Films/ 1 990)

Productions/1959)

This cool

Crazy characters, limited

the animated opening

(Jay

cat

was created

for

titles

This popular dysfunctional


family began

its

animation, and hilarious dia-

in The Pink Panther, Blake

winning weekly

logue have sustained the

Edwards's

1990, but

popularity of the flying squir-

starting Peter Sellers.

rel

and the dimwitted moose

from Frostbite

character
that

Falls,

Minnesota, for more than


thirty years.

963

Tne

was so appealing

United Artists commis-

sioned a series

Pursued by

feature film

of

pantomime

theatrical shorts, the first of

won

first

Emmyseries in

appeared in

"The

short segments on

Tracey Ullman Show"


(1987). Trie stories revolve

around nuclear power plant


worker and donut

afficiona-

Homer Simpson; his

Russian spies Boris and

which, The Pink Phink,

Natasha, Rocky and

an Academy Award. Henry

housewife. Marge; and their

Bullwinkle were voiced by

Mancini composed the pop-

three kids, Bart, Lisa (w hose

June Foray and

ular

Bill Scott,

theme music.

do

favorite

TV shows are

"Krusty the Clown" and

respectively.

Itchv and Scratchy car-

Yogi Bear

Fred Flintstone

toons), and baby Maggie.

(Hanna-Barbera/1959)

(Hanna-Barbera/1960)

TV star Yogi began his

"Yabba-Dabba-Doo!" Fred

career as the middle cartoon

is

on "The Huckleberry

televisions

Hound Show,"

animated sitcom, "The

but became

so popular that he was spun


off into his
1 96 1.

own

series in

A freeloading inhabi-

the head of network

Nickelodeon/ 1 991)

prime-time

"Happy Happy, Joy Joy!" An

Flintstones." Originally

asthmatic Chihuahua and a


hairball-hurling cat

was featured along with


wife,

Park, and "smarter than the

Bamey and

first

(John Kricfalusi/

voiced by Alan Reed, Fred

tant ofjellystone National

average
bear," Yogi
to
o

Ren and Stimpy

unusual series of cartoons.

his

Wilma; neighbors

Yak-Shaving Day, the


History-Eraser Button, the

Betty Rubble;

is assist-

ed in his picnic-basket

Happy Helmet,

^3 "V^

Dino, in hundreds of

snatching by cub Boo-Boo

episodes, as well as their

and thwarted

animated

at ever)'

turn

by Ranger Smith. He starred

feature.

The

There,

It's

toy called

Log, and Powdered Toast

Man

first

Man

are

but

tew of the

nutty concepts that


this

Called Flintstone in 1966.

in a feature-length movie,

Hey

make an

show an

instant success

among children and

Yogi Bear, in

1964.

25

made

adults.

What Makes
The

fifty

short films

presented in this

volume share

humor or

its

drama, touched us with


beauty or

ol skill

and

its

art.

displav

its

Most

ol

Boys earned

Howard Hawks, but the

its

genre

is

accomplish what their

them

do with the

talent that set

the creation ot a

In

a single

brought

the ones that reached

memorable humor.

brilliant

it

comic

graphic style

the

beyond those bounds; they

fifty

They

aren't just

great cartoons, but

great films, period,

tiltv

on par

with any live-action counterparts.

And they prove

that

great animation can affect us

the

same way any

making

great film-

strip

ORIGINALITY
In

some

when

ol this

you can

Without ignoring

the finely

its

intrin-

when

recognize

w ould not be

as admired

prized today had

it

come

was

is

an

approach;

her emotion in

drawn

scene;

the rope on the mill


feel its

tension.

and

The

bird looks like a real

in

bird,

but more so

the middle of a long line of


it

feel

breaks, you

that Gertie the Dinosaur

essence

star-

new

the cartoon

scheme and gothic

color

the tone of the story and the

madman's thoughts.
Superman presents

a totally

dilfcrcnt type ol drawing;

more

and

literal

less car-

toony, with characters that

seem almost

real.

of

the bird

the

is

cap-

ANIMATION
Animation drawings

on paper; they

are created to

produce motion, and their


excellence

is

judged

in rela-

tion to their conveyance of

motion.

Winsor McCay's

tured in the drawings in a

success was seen in his

way that could never be

ty to

ground. Similarlv, Gerald

achieved with photographs

swallow and

marked by

McBoing Boing redefined an

of a single bird. In Clock

weight of her jaws on

Cleaners, Disney's artists cap-

trunk.

combination of

tling

because

lorm

factors, including concept,

art

artwork, music, innovation,

because

quality of animation,

and dialogue.
to

It is

humor,

as difficult

compare the primitive but

charming

Gertie the Dinosaur

with the wacky Quasi


i^iiackadcro as

it is

to

at the

com-

pare the films of Charlie

in

broke

seven minutes

tured perspective and depth

ol its instant suc-

cess, critical
style

it

and popular,

ol field,

its

was copied by every

creating intricate

cities that

heightened the

studio. Steamboat Willie

comic

might not be the best of

lallincr feeling.

Disney's shorts, but


the

first

it

to use sound.

was

effect

of the almost-

Expert drawing

And

was used

Chuck Jones's The Dover

clfect in

are

more than just ink or paint

great? Usually they are

So what makes cartoons

Mama bird places

the

the main claim to greatness.

we can

artistry to

her wing over her chicks,

films, originality is

sic value,

it

producers and

The Old Mill

field.

example

similar cartoons;

can.

world

who moved

brought European

and

offbeat

animation,

madman

heaviness perfectly mirror

away from cartoonists and

combined with

test of rime.

It

of the character. In Quasi,


is a

seen and have stood the

originality.

of

these extraordinary films are

first

of a

with the distinct personality

mandate: to entertain. But

were loved when they were

more

fine art to the

mind

the audience into the

cartoons,

was Walt Disney who

ever attempted before, along

and with

many more

important than

type

animation no one had

asscmhlv-line system, under

straints,

and stylized paintings take

skilllul artistry is

it

total

movement

Heart, limited

them

new

manic energy to

exhaustion. In The Tell-Tale

ARTISTRY

of

budget and time con-

convey everything from

clever use of limited

artists

were produced within an

strict

wild, exaggerated drawings

place because

animation.

skill

apart. In the case of Gertie,


is

graphic style paved the

way for

wide enough to

set out to

and

charms, or

its

enthralled us with

Chaplin with those of

encompass them both. Both

unique bond. Each has

moved us with

a Cartoon Great?

ability

Coal Black, where

The

see Gertie

"feel" the
a tree

animators

Band

Concert

make

of

managed

The

to

tornado spin in time

to music, with musicians

and various inanimate


such

to very different

make us

abili-

as trees

objects,

and laundry,

joining in the frenzy. In


Brave

Little Tailor,

tinct types of

two

dis-

animation

shown: the

excellence are

Fuehrer's Face,

it is

Red Riding Hood,

the con-

dramatic action of Mickey

stant repetition of the swasti-

the top

sewing up the

ka theme, which appears in

suit of a beautiful

giant's sleeve

and

and the simple dialogue of

clouds, telephone poles,

Mickey

weathervanes. Several direc-

both

relating the tale are

The

riveting.

Planted Trees

Man Who

a tour

is

de

excess. In BcjJ

Luck

force of fluid animation, with

Tex Aven took

one scene flowing into

idea

another; although the design

dog's path

is

restricted, there are

no

cuts in this elaborate story.

until

ous:

it

Music

and expanded

Each time the

is

lous object
often an important

component of cartoons,
ranging from

(Corny

classical

Often

Duck turns

Daffy

jazz (Minnie

not

successful

when animators

are able to create the perfect

is

regarded

as purely a tale ol

attracts

reminding us

that there are often ideas

behind cartoons, that they


are not simply

random

gags.

Peace on Earth uses the medi-

um to present a strong anti-

sexual pursuit, and Betty

war message. One Froggy

Boop

Evening

hersell

was

sufficiently

profound

is a

ment about maris

Hays

state-

Commission decided she

to

needed to be censored.

nect with other humans.

UPA's A Unicom

And

into an

Bambi Meets Godzilla

Garden, based on ajames

all

Thurber story about

its ability

ried couple,

kind

it is

in the

mar-

makes another

of adult

its

concept;

image that captures the char-

The

genius

it's

to surprise us with

very simple idea in less

of the

cartoons in

PERSONALITY

this

Some

very different from others

cartoons convey the

book

are really not so

personality of their animated

made

funny because the

stars with astonishing force.

time; they use the

so wonderfully apt.

Perhaps none

techniques, styles, and even

acter's state of

mind.

at

about the same

same

images to match the

scene

music, the exact story that

image

brings the music into iocus.

Dialogue sometimes pro-

ful as

vides the fun, as in Jack

Amuck, which explores the

about them manages to do

Mercer's mumblings in

slightly schizophrenic per-

that

visual

HUMOR
Even

if

we

recognize and

admire the
cartoons,

artistry

it is

usually their

humor that we
Often

it is

the

behind

truly love.

humor

of the

is
is

in

Winn's

Opera, Doc? appearing

on

stage in Viking garb. In Der

Duck

he

attempts to cope with the

Trouble" sequence in Rabbit

crazy world Bugs


ates for

Seasoning.

Humor often

is

as

Bunny cre-

him; the cartoon

is

almost stream-of-conscious-

revolves

around adult themes. Tex

Elmer Fudd

Chuckjones's Duck

sonality of Daffy

Avery, of course,

ten,

as success-

Popcyc or Chuckjones's

dog of Feed

love with the ultra-cute kit-

is

immortal "Pronoun

unexpected: the grufl bullthe Kitty falling in

is

lies in

than two minutes.

statement.

Many

has found the one

inability

communicate and con-

random image;

dampen

us

the con-

ridicu-

When

Raue,

made

it is

blatant that the

image cap-

tures an entire scene.

cept behind the cartoon that

In

cases,

pops

on the dog's

a single

eyeball in Book

Moocher,

it

head.

and What's Opera, Doc?) to


the

by many

some

woman.

with sexual innuendo:

Bimbo's Initiation

CONCEPT
In

several Fleischer cartoons

filled

hilari-

cat

and more

tails

Concerto, The Skeleton Dance,

Rooty Toot Toot); cartoons are

by

of

Blackie,

achieved the

among

wolfs pur-

were preceded

in the 1940s,

normal

are

truth, these cartoons,

a black cat crossing a

out, a larger

MUSIC

humor

tors perfected the

on

fifty)

ness. The Big

famous

Smt brings us

ter,

But something

same thing much

putting the elements

together with
tic

bet-

integrity,

ingredients

of arris-

or adding

extra ingredient

much more

kind

of

the

some

or so

same

that they

another married couple

achieve that rare essence, the

wholeness that makes them

for bringincr sex into car-

whose

toons, basing a series of car-

so obviously a part of their

toons (two of which, Red

pcrsonalities,

Hot Riding Hood and Rural

nize their humanity.

*7

characters.

foibles

and bickering,

make us

recog-

truly great.

The

Fifty Greatest

Cartoons

rt&ct on Bnrth

Whats
Opera,

Doc?
WARNER BROS.,

1957

CREDITS
A Menu Mclodiu
Directed by

Cartoon

Chuck Jones

Story: Michael Maltese

Animation: Ken Hams,


Richard Thompson, Abe Levitow

Effects animation:

Layouts:

Harry Love

Maunce Noble

Backgrounds: Philip DeGuard


Film editor Treg

Brown

Voices Mel Blanc

Musical direction Milt Franklvn

W*mrr Broi.,

In,

n What's

Opera, Doc?,

to the top of a

Chuekjones compresses the


entire fourteen

tower.

"Return

resume

a six-

He man-

same

Fudd unleashes

lines

and

with

ments

begins,

in a stylized

to the audience

"What

cartoon

Elmer Fudd, hunting


costume

opera?

Wabbit"

Valkyries'

to the

and

asks,

you expect

in

ordinary.

It

rRETURN

Animators

Elmer:

Russes de Monte

Rhinemaiden

in love with him/her.

looney. Maurice
trived a

Elmer

Noble con-

dousing

in bright shades.

Moore developed

love,

wantyou always

ELMER: Love

like ours

must be

BUGS: Made

for

and for me

vou
.

Elmer and Bugs:

Return,

time cards, stealing time

won't vou return

from

For

a less

complicated

Obviously, they
the\'

all

knew

were working on

masterpiece.

my

my

love

love isyours.

[Thev dance some more]

Road Runner cartoon.

31

love,

beside me.

The

entire staff doctored their

[They dance]

BUGS: Return my

ing on the top of the tower

set-design materials.

my

inside me.

a tech-

in specialty

it.

Brunhilda, he

our loving burns deep

Ken

nique to highlight the meet-

by cutting holes

it,

ELMER: Return my

unique color scheme

for the cartoon,

know

can't help

ELMER:

love.

scene accurate as well as

Bnmbilda,

BUGS: Yes

Carlo to keep the ballet

dance, and Bugs runs

you're so lovely.

pored over lootage of the


Ballets

MY LOVE

contains 106

white pony, and Elmer

They

an

A happy ending?"

shots, a record.

Bugs transforms himself

falls

did

cartoon to transcend the

explains his mission to Bugs.

Bugs turns

Jones's vision caused this

as a

theme and

into a pigtailed

kills

As Fudd mourns

this tragic death,

Teutonic knight, sings "Kill

on

smog, and

As the

rabbits in

the

a lethal

the rabbit.

accents and speech impedi-

Valhalla.

his wrath,

conjuring up the north wind

time,

with Bugs and Elmer singing:

most of their

and they

been duped.

realizes he's

and Disney's

Fantasia at the

My Love,"

their dance until

Bugs's wig slips and Elmer

ages to skewer classic opera


traditions

sere-

with the melancholy

opera Dcr Ring des

minute cartoon.

dizzying

nades the sexy blond Bugs

hours of

Richard Wagner's four-

Nibdungcn cycle into

tall,

There Elmer

Lvrics by Michael Maltese

IL

nCHUCK

]ONES

Charles

Martin Jones, director of nine of the

Washington, in 1912 and grew up


trained at the

Chouinard Art

Don Graham and


joined

Warner

armed

He

stylized

w hat Bugs Bunnv

field in

services during

also directed

is,

was

an extra in

California Institute of the Arts)

bom

in

Spokane,

silent films as a child.

and with Disney

the early 1930s as a eel washer for the

World War
a

some of the

DL Jones, the

first

Uh

Jones

art instructor

Iwerks studio.

most

Bugs Bunny cartoons and was instrumental

intellectual of the

cartoon on the writings of Eisenstein

backgrounds and animation techniques, and

created Pepe Lepew,

He

and

his cartoons are

Warner crowd

was one

of the

first

noted for their highly

in creating

he quoted G. K.

cartoon directors to experi-

artistic

look and comic timing.

Marvin Martian, the Road Runner, and Coyote, and many memorable Bugs and Daffy cartoons, delving into

his characters' personalities

(now the

as

1938. His earliest films were slow -paced Disneyesque adventures featuring such characters as

Chesterton and George Santayana and based

ment with

Institute

entered the animation

Mouse and Two Curious Dogs. He

Private Snafu for the

great cartoons in this volume,

Bros, in 1933 and climbed through the ranks as inker, painter, in-betweener, animator,

finally director in

Sniffles the

fifty

Southern California, working

in

by drawing hundreds of poses

but with

who

he

is. I

w ant

for each. "I

m principally concerned with character," Jones says.

to get inside him, to feel

34

him from my viewpoint."

"Not with

What's Opera, Doc?

The
all

greatest cartoon of

rime?

The

point

remains debatable.
Nevertheless,

Chuck Jones's

rors, in significant

ways, several

of the attitudes central to

many

animation lovers* experience of

watching cartoons.

And it

pleasure of breaking

us to serve as

ters against the

largest

assemblage of animation

its

both

characters and remains joy-

universe.

With

its

charac-

bombast and

intimidation of the

exalts

Wagnerian

artful adroitness,

awesome

puny

lisping

general cartooniacs ever polled.

Toontown

of the boundaries between spec-

order to

The

our sense of the quasi-mythic

work of stunning

beauty, great

roots.

It

illustrates

nature of these characters, but

tacle
it

humor, and masterly execution

also provides a singular

only serves to make the choice

of why these characters are loved

seem eminently reasonable.

in the

Yet perhaps the reason that

What's Opera, Doc? has consigned

all

other cartoons to the

status of also-rans

is

that

it

mir-

first

place

example

because their

low

and spectator. High and

are here deliciously inter-

its

shadow of

Elmer Fudd, the

up pretensions only

we

do, the film, with

emphasis on spectacle, revels

in

mow them down.

Gloriously overbaked, the film


reveals that ultimately,

it

was

only cooking up fodder for

mixed.
Also, as

Fantasia-like figures

devolving into the

film piles

fact that this fabled film is a

its first

images, that of the would-be

What's Opera, Doc? blurs some

and

as

Wagnerians. From

ously aware of their lo wdown

fans, practitioners, critics,

this

bedizened

together a roster of seeming


film

and foremost, in

and Elmer Fudd

figures. Indeed, the film

almost invites

Doc? has emerged

The

first

mythic

coconspirators with

opposites.

Bugs Bunny

accomplishes this by bringing

as the clear,

sight

case, the casting of

splendiferous What's Opera,

sentimental favorite of the

down our

sense of the cold remoteness of

satire.

By reducing Wagner's Ring


a subtext for

into

an archetypal Bugs

actions and personalities,

in the richness available to ani-

and Elmer chase. What's Opera.

whether sassy or simpleminded,

mated filmmaking, yet takes

Doc? pulls

equal delectation in cartoon's

gling of reverence

pull us into intimate

touch with

them, and thereby provide the

tradition of razzing everything in

off a

darling minand

ridicule.

Steve Schneider

t is

one of a handful of American animation masterpieces, and

makes the most of his opportunity

likely the

for a definitive solo tour de force.

most cerebral of them.

It is at

once

laugh riot and an essay

by demonstration on the nature and condition of the animated film and the mechanics of film

Dafify

in general.

Richard Thompson, Film Comment, 1975

tand back, musketeers!


shall

sample

They

my blade,"

exclaims Daffy, dressed as

to the animator, but his

But

after a

suitable scenery.

few thrusts, he

notices he's out of back-

When he

ground scenery.

A character breaking the

scenery?"

paintbrush

appears and

farmyard

ending

setting,

the suitability of the muske-

He

teer costume.

into overalls

changes
o

and gets

a hoc,

now the

but

scenery
presents the

North

'Would

much

it

to ask

Pole.

be too

if

we could

make up our minds?

Hmmm?"
In

idea

Koko

Felix the

the

Duck Amuck, some-

swings, creatine:

was created

own worst

nightmare.

scenery, colors,

sound

and
and

effects are clearly in

the hands oi a fiend, and

although Daffy does his best


to adapt to the story suggest-

ed by each background, his

woes only

increase.

The

bewildered duck talks back

fre-

but

WARNER BROS.,

1953

to

it

mood

show of

cartoon

in a free-form,

stream-of-consciousness
style. Recalls Jones,

started out,

sat

started drawing,

"We

CREDITS

down and
and

came

up with the opening, and

was just the

it

he

idea that

runs out of background.

pened

that point
right

as such,

his

it

a hilarious,

The

desperation.

wrong, and Daffv finds him-

The

did

animated, one-man

We

send-up of all

Amuck

explore the limits of Daffy

thing has gone terribly

cartoon conventions

Duck

Cat and

Clown

quently in the 1920s

From

self in a surreal

new

Duck's schizophrenic

in a

tills

was not

fourth wall

Chuck jones used

"Where's the

asks,

cruel

caprice.

dashing swordsman and sur-

rounded by

met with

requests are

on

hap-

it

on the board.

didn't even have

we made one

story
after-

ward, but there wasn't one

we were making

at

the time

it.

The Bugs Bunny ending

was not
the last
out."

hit

upon

week

until

of lay-

Mcrric Melodies Cartoon

Directed bv Charles

Jones

Story: Michael Maltese

Animation Ben Washam, Ken Hams,


Llovd

Vaughan

Layouts; Maurice Noble

Backgrounds Philip DeGuard


Voices: Mel Blanc

Musical direction: Carl

W,

Stalling

"

Duck Amuck

r,DAFFY DUCK
Duck

Daffy

has a

split personality. In

the 1930s and 1940s the duck


total screwball.

was

Jumping, laughing,

and instigating mischief, he was

complete lunatic and public nuisance. In the 1950s

Daffy matured into an egotistical

Elmer Fudd. As the foolhardy hero

ol a

and 1960s,

Bugs Bunny and

foil for

dozen movie spoofs.

Daffy got laughs playing the self-centered, greedy slob most of

us are but are afraid to reveal.

Tex Avery's 1937 cartoon

First appearing in

Hunt, he became an immediate

between starring
{Daffy

star.

The

Porky

"Stand back, Musketeers ..."

Duck

character alternated

roles in the color Merrie Melodies series

Duck and Egghead, Daffy Duck

supporting roles in Porky Pig

Tunes cartoons (such

in

Hollvu'ood)

and lead

voijv

rt>e-if

otu Si&Qi.

black-and-white Looney

Doc and You Oughta Be

as T7>c Daffy

in

Pictures).

Mel Blanc, trying


Disney

to differentiate Daffy's voice

famed Donald Duck, chose to

roll his rs

from that of
and

lisp

not unlike the actual speaking voice of producer Leon


Schlesinger.

The

voice

was sped up

vester the cat has exactly the

By

the time

same

Duck Amuck was

to

The

using this character in

Shaw Biz Bugs (1957)

it

zanier. Syl-

it is

created, Daffy

transformed by Chuck Jones into his


trated egomaniac.

make

voice, but

had been

new persona

other directors had just as


a variety

not sped up.

as the frus-

much

of situations: Friz Freleng

cast Daffy as a

wanna-be

of his career: insurance salesman.

celebrity try-

ing to outwit superstar Bugs Bunny, and Robert


Fool Coverage (1952) put Daffy in the

(Layout drawing bv Chuck Jones)

fun

McKimson

most "dethpicable

role

HllHWIf I li

"Ob,

38

brother,

Buzz

Boy.

Duck Amuck

fee

Band

Concert

is a

perfectly realized cartoon that

storytelling into a seamless whole. I've always

Disney and his

staff to

felt

such incredible heights.

manages
that

It's

it

to blend music,

comedy, personality animation, dramatic action, and

was the natural drama of The William

certainly

one of their

finest

achievements

Tell Overture that inspired

Walt

a great, great cartoon.

Leonard Maltin

Thi Walt

4"

Deng Campon.

be

Band

Concert

was an

ments Mickev makes

his baton

Designed to be something

slides

special, the film fulfilled its

the

As

first

color

the next page of music

his five

is

Tell Overture,

The

darkens.

and the

responsive to every

plays in fine form until

Mickey hears snack vendor


Donald Duck hawking his
hot dogs and lemonade.

Donald

pulls out a

starts playing

Straw."

The

fife

and

"Turkey

in the

musicians

change tunes and join him.

Mickey breaks Donald's

fife,

but the duck produces more


of them through magic

D'orsi,

Cy Young.

Louis Schmttt

Dick Williams. Frenchy DeTrcmaudan

tricks

performed

for the

audience.

Mickey chases the duck


away, and the trombone
player shakes a dozen flutes

Hucmer

out of him, but Donald

Wolfgang Rcuherman. Archie Robin

always has another and

Huszti Horvaih. Les Clark. Dick

Roy Williams, Johnny Cannon

resumes

his melody.

Then

bee disturbs the perfor-

mance.

It

lands on Mickey's

head, Donald tosses a scoop

of ice cream

at

cream lands

in the

it,

the ice

trumpet

41

leaves begin

tornado

his

and the musicians

as thev spin, their

band reach

max

at

musical

cli-

the height of the


tall

back to

land in a tree, each loyally

performing his part

sucking up the scenerv.

his

band mem-

in

Mickey and

storm and then

finale.

his

in the

music stands remaining

enters the park, literally

Mickey and

of Mickey's baton

Delighted by the music,

Ugo

Soon

plaung

up

with Mickey waxing

front of them.

When Mickev turns to

swirling around, and the skv

move

Animation: Jack Kinney, Gerry Geronimi

of his

formance of "Selections

band

CREDITS

his back change

tempo and tune

"The Storm"

William

Direaedby Wilfred Jackson

it

park musicians on their per-

from Ilampa." Next

1935

down

as

band's music.

the film opens,

crowd cheers bandmaster

Mickey Mouse and

WALT DISNEY.

bers are swept

Mickey Mouse cartoon.

Concert

blown back

is

twister,

promise.

Band

mouth and

ideal

onto Mickey. The move-

vehicle for the

The

Mickev turns

of the

to take

bow, but the onlv

applause

is

from Donald.

The BiinJ Concert

has

comedv of detail, such

It

as the sleeve of

Mickey

oversized uniform continually slipping

baton;

it

down

to conceal his

has comedy of structure

band, against
turn;

it

its will,

has to

to the grandstand. In

has comedy of character

flashing details

nado

unmotivated

villainy of

has comedy of action

competing tune on

into the air

tune to which the

itself

during the

is

line of

wind, or caught on treetops,

the

tor-

the general

when

tornado twists the entire concert

there

comedy

many

Donald;

attempts to break up the concert

itself

no other

observed so

in the stern artistic devotion of

it

the flute

Mickey contrasted with the

based on the duck's persistent

by playing

picture have

that in the whirl-

dozens of separate episodes.

They

are miraculous

them, and even


the total effect

if

if

you catch

you do

not,

miraculous

is

all

the players continue to follow

and then reverses

screen seems to be animated by

still.

Gilbert Seldes,

The Saturday Review, 1961

their music, but there are

moments

and brings the players back

in this scene

w hen

the

42

TJk Wall Piino

Compjm

The Band Concert

DISNEY ANIMATION

The
ly

release of The

on course

full

Band

Concert

Each new

Silly

Symphony,

Walt Disney's

goal

life

classic

was

was

a subtle

studio

was now square-

this one,

were

now

in

experiment in story, design, technique, or animation; experi-

to have the best cartoons

Don Graham,

taught by

on the market, and,

Snow White and

the

Seven Dwarfs.

to that end, he established a private

a top instructor at the Chouinard Art Institute, were estab-

drawing, and analyze animation. Students

animation of Mickey dates back to

sequences and personality) went on to become

From

as well,

in the release of the studio's first feature-length film,

art classes

lished for students to study action, practice

Disney

The

and better things. The Mickey Mouse cartoons, beginning with

for bigger

school of animation. In 1932, nighttime

intuitive character

watershed in the history of Disney animation.

Technicolor, and the series would play an important part in the growth and maturity of Disney's an form.

ments which culminated

(whose

was

Stciimfiodt Willie,

like

The Band Concert animators Les Clark

1928) and Wolfgang Reitherman

(a specialist in

action

wo of the Nine Old Men, the elite team of artists who set the standards known as

animation.

the outset, Disney strove for realistic personality animation. "I definitely feel that

the real, unless

we

know

first

the real,

Walt

said.

"The

we cannot do

the fantastic things based

closer the cartoon characters behaved like us, the

on

more the humor and drama

could connect with the audience."

The Disney studio

not only conquered personality animation, but, in

its

quest for realism and

neering use of music and sound, depth and color, as well as action and special

effects.

maximum

entertainment,

The

[cartoon] in main outline would be very

little, if it

weren't for the way every incident, every foot of film,

is

given a solid basis in observation, so that natural action

is

caught and fixed in a typical gesture rendered laughable through exaggeration or through transference into the unfamiliar; and for the swift

way

all

the incidents pile up

so busy, proud, and

ping of hands in the

full

on one another.

No one

ever

saw

of troubles as this, from the virtuoso

flute

duet to the hard-pressed

air

band

swap

of the brass

section.

The

New

Otto Ferguson,

Republic,

1935

43

pio-

Disney's strides during the 1930s were followed

by most of his competitors, improving the quality through the entire industry and influencing animators around the world

fa,

made

DUCK DODGERS
in the

<ENTURY

uck Rogers, Captain Video,

Acme

and the various other space

between Martian and

cadets crisscrossing the

ling escalates until they ftnal-

intergalactic void

during the

ly

1950s were not alone: Also


aloft in a

The

conflict

blow the planet

bit,

spaceship were

Duck Dodgers

Co.

barely big

earth-

to a single

enough

tor

Daffy to stand on.

By 1953,

(Daffy Duck)

Daffy

Duck and

and his "eager young space

Pork)' Pig

cadet" (Porky Pig)

thoroughlv defined personal-

"No one knows his way


around outer space

Duck Dodgers

ities.

were

stars

with

Jones had taken

Daffy'

like

from his screwball origins

in the z^'/i*

and dev eloped him into an

centurv!" announces Daffv.

egotistical foil for

His mission: Find Planet X,

Bunny and Elmer Fudd.

source of "aludium fozdcx,

And

Porky,

Bugs

who now

the shaving-cream atom."

enjoved the status

With

the aid ot his loval

lar

cadet

(who

him "Your

calls

of a regu-

supporting plavcr. had

become

smarter,

more

Heroship"), he locates the

aware character, with tongue

comes

planted tirmlv in check. This

planet

(it

Planet

Y) and claims
until

Mamn

and claims
planet

right after

was the Martian's

and before Planet

it

it

lor

screen appearance (his

Earth

The

Bunnv

which only

enough

for

isn

in

1948

Hare and 1952

Maurice Noble could have


envisioned

s Haredcvil

Hasty

Hare).

Film producer George

t bis.

both of them, so

Lucas

is

particularlv fond ot

thev set about exchanging

this cartoon,

ultimatums and other

aters

unplcasantries,

first

two were opposite Bugs

Martian lands
as well.

third

making use

booked

and many theit

alongside his

movie Star Wars.

of various up-to-date products of the ever-present

44

WARNER BROS.,

1953

CREDITS
A

Mcrric Melodies Cartoon

Directed by Charles

Jones

Story: Michael Maltese

Animation: Llovd Vaughan. Ken Harris,

Ben

Wjshjm

Layouts Maurice Noble

Backgrounds Philip PcGuard


Effects

animation Harry Lo\e

Voices: Mel Blanc

Musical direction: Carl

Stalling

Duck Dodgers

in the

14

Ccmury

'/,

nPORKJ

PIG

A
Metric Melodic:

Porky further in

popular supporting player in


Daffy

Duck

Porky Pig was

Warner

Diggers of 49. The

in fact the biggest

Bros, cartoon star of the

1930s. Porky

w as

first

of Looney

Tex Avery developed

Tunes

in 1936:

acter s

Gold

Blow Out, and Plane Dipgv among others.

Mel Blanc began doing Porky's voice with


Hunt (Daffy Duck

seen in a

small part in Friz Freleng's 1935

Haven't Got a Hat.

a series

many

cartoons of the 1950s,

Porky's

Duck

debut film) in 1937. Blanc took the char-

annoying stutter and made

it

entertaining and comic,

without being offensive. Porky's popular signature line

"That

s all folks! "

Bros, cartoons.

L
s

always amazed

It

the

Warner

me

that

Bros, cartoons

could manage to he hoth


timeless and topical.
relied too heavily

II

they'd

on current

events and fads in the 1930s,


40s, and 50s, they might not

have survived, particularly as

entertainment for

kids.

But

if

they hadn't reflected the times in

which they were made, they

wouldn
for the

be quite so

much

fun

grownups. Duck Dodgers

was Warner's

principal entry in

the science-fiction sweepstakes


of the 1950s, and

daresay

great as any of the bigger,

it's

as

more

ambitious live-action films of the


period.

Leonard

Maltin

has since become the trademark of Warner

Duck Dodgers

l
/

in tie

'

Century

c
4.

J.

THE WARNER BROS. STUDIO

The

Warner

Bros, cartoon department began as an independent studio

Disney renegades

Hugh Harman and Rudolph

mators
its

own

like

home

Chuck Jones debuted

the

During World
effort.

War

II,

Warner

situations.

Road Runner (1949)

Bugs Bunny, formed the Warner Bros,

stable.

Warner

1930 and the

the studio in 1933,

Mel Blanc, gave the studio

Avery introduced Daffy Duck (1937), Clampett created Tweety

just a few of the cartoon superstars

who, along with the incomparable

By the 1940s, Warner Bros, cartoons were the most popular

Warner

Bros.

The

cartoon department

won

dumbest

its first

in

America.

soldier in the army, to the

Oscar

in

Academy awards under

1947 fotlwecbe
the 1950s and

Pic.

war

the

tirst

960s triumvi-

and Robert McKimson.

Bros, animation has continued to be an active division of the studio, producing

atrical shorts,

in

left

the studio in 1935, and along with fellow ani-

cartoonists contributed cartoons about Private Snafu, the

In 1944, Schlesinger sold his studio to

and Ising

Carl Stalling, and voice actor

cartoon to team Tweety and Sylvester, and the studio went on to win a total of six
rate of Chuck Jones, Friz Freleng,

When Harman

of funny cartoons.

This team knew how to develop funny characters and


(1942), and

1.

Tex Avery joined

Bob Clampett and Chuck Jones, musician

identity as the

Schlesinger and led by

Looney Tunes, starring Bosko, began

Ising.

miscellaneous musical series Merrie Melodies started in 193

Schlesinger promoted Friz Freleng to director.

owned by Leon

TV specials, feature films, occasional the-

TV commercials, public service spots, and merchandising artwork. Today, the studio produces the

Tiny Toon Adventures and "Batman, the Animated

Series,

among many

highly successful

others.

Jl

IL
47

ter night.

Hollywood cartoons ever

him, a policeman hears, and

made, One Froggy Evening,

when

has the simplicity of a para-

was

ble,

and

fame

its

is all

the

the cartoon

is

silent

(entertained

course). Released, he sees a

building about to be dedicat-

ed and puts the frog in the

Opening

cornerstone. Trie next scene

the dedicatory documents,

Building Disintegration Co.

dated April 16, 1892. Also

opens the cornerstone, finds

in the cornerstone

the frog, the frog sings for

greets the

is a

frog,

worker with

him, and

My
A singing

Much

a rendition of "Hello,

frog!

Imagining the wealth

soon

to be his, the

home.

sive

and

the frog (animators studied

New

Directed by Charles M. Jones

Story: Michael Maltese

Animation; Ken Harris. Abe Levitow.


Richard Thompson, Ben

Washam

Layouts: Robert Gribbrock

Backgrounds Philip DeGuard


Music: Milt Frjnklvn

Yorker cartoons before

cult film to do,"

it's

"but

ribbiting

This becomes painfully

scene viewed from outside


the agency's

uses his

life

windows

and

savings to rent

theater for a frog perfor-

mance

(he even offers free

beer to

fill

the house)

Rendered penniless by his


efforts,
a

the

man

park bench on

ends up on
a

tures,

takes the frog

to a theatrical agency

Canoon

animation of

company of others,

clear when he

the

from the expres-

man

the

humdrum

tell

story without dialogue, and

they started)

frog.

CREDITS

of the cartoon's

perform only for him; in

'

will

simply

Mcrrit Melodies

Jones's decision to

man

gets only frustration

Acme

humor comes from Chuck

financial ruin, for the frog

worker with the

Far from riches, the


1956

frog, of

construction worker finds

takes the frog

WARNER BROS.,

by the

takes place in A.D. 2056:

Ragtime Gal."

Evening

it

the building s cornerstone, a

who

Froggy

explains

story

begins with the demolition


of an old building.

man

the

his frog, he finds himself

except

The

for a singing frog.

frog sings for

in a psychiatric hospital

more remarkable because

One

The

ne of the most famous

cold win-

49

"It

he

think of all
I

like

it

was

a diffi-

said,

my pic-

best."

There

are only a few

enduring

silent-

screen comics
still

who

expands exponentially as his

dreamer who, unable to share

owner's mental

the brilliance of his dreams,

remaining cheer-

rates, the frog

have impact today, and

health deterio-

fully oblivious to his

The

owner's

The

cartoon

among them I d number

plight.

Chaplin, Keaton, Laurel and

voice and lithe

Hardy, and Michigan J. Frog.

directly

With

posed with his public persona,

stomach

that of a lumpen, limp-limbed

Gal" on

simplicity

and economy of

drawing, the frog


ol his

foils

the plans

would-be marketer with

increasing sophistication.
hat and cane give

way

wire act and then

demanding

aria;

frog

The

movements

whose only sound

The

is

an

is classical

in

from the

peripatetic zaniness of the typical

the frog's talent

Warner
paints

Bros, cartoon,

a familiar

to have

is

enduring enough

been imitated

in

Spacebalh (imitating Alien), in

which the

alien

pops out of a

to perform
a

"Ragtime

diner counter. Even

those in the audience

who had

never seen One Froggy Evening

"ribbit.

story

structure, a departure

vocally

are

and uproariously juxta-

impolite

to a high-

frog's cultured tenor

is

gradually destroyed by them.

and

scenario of the

laughed

at

the sheer ludicrous-

ness of it. Michigan J. Frog

is

timeless and eternal.

Jami Bernard

One Froggy Evening

as close as

any cartoon has ever come to perfection.

Time

magazine,

973

MICHIGAN ]. FROG

Chuck

Jones discussed his decision to

eschew dialogue

in

One Froggy Evening

an interview with Joe Adamson:

in

"I

decided that the picture would be funnier

if

that discipline

one thing,

You never knew when


sing, but

it

the son of

you always knew

that

had an explosive
a

was imposed. For

bitch frog

quality.

was going to

nobody was going

to hear

it

except the poor guy."

This

is

the only cartoon featuring the singing frog (later

dubbed Michigan J. Frog), who warbles eight tunes: "Hello,

My Ragtime Gal," "Come

Back to Erin," "I'm Just Wild

About Harry," "McCluskey's


to

My House,"

and

"Please

don

Fight,"
talk

"Won't You Come Over

about

me when

I'm gone,

Jones/Maltese/Franklyn original, "The Michigan Rag."

51

McCay is

major

extreme poses to be

fig-

subject, The Story of a

ure in the history of Amer-

Mosquito (1912), but

ican animated cartoons.

Gertie the Dinosaur that truly

system

McCay,

astounded his audiences.

toon studios adopted by the

insor

popular newspaper

cartoonist during the

Two

first

ville

talks."

it

Inspired bv Hip books,

McCay began,

in 1909. to

experiment with animating


his

comic

Little

was the

first

animated

McCay's

animated

first

And though

wrong,

Gertie is

car-

was Winsor

it

onlv because Gertie

is

audiences, which were used

first

true personality. Previous

his

most tamous

ation.

of

cre-

McCav followed

up that

cartoon character with

film animation,

"lightning sketches,"

with moving drawings

film with a

if

duced cartoons

ahead

until

one drawing

time, each

car-

then

at a

movement drawn
This process

character animation.

Gertie also thrilled audiences

by being the
a

most notablv

first

tive" cartoon.

to Gertie,

ed

"interac-

McCav talked

and she respond-

obeying

his

commands,

pumpkin thrown

by pioneers J. Stuart

catching a

Blackton and Emil Cobl,

by McCav, and even carrying

were essentially

the artist in her mouth!

"trick

films," presenting as novelty

more ambitious

were animated straight

of

the

to seeing cartoonists doing


static

Hollywood

allowed for the development

a mile-

stone in animation history,

later

he startled his vaudenllian

all

in succession.)

car-

both are

still

"in betweens" later

1930s. (Most mass-pro-

to Gertie the

toon and that

toon.

strip character

Nemo. Two years

by

Dinosaur over the years: that

appeared in vaude-

doing "chalk

was

falsehoods have

become attached

decade of the twentieth century, also

it

in

filled

the magic of moving drawings.

For

Gertie,

McCav developed
"The McCay

of

Split

John Canemaker,
McCay's biographer, wrote:

"Where McCav

differed

from his predecessors was

in

his ability to animate his

System," an early version

drawing with no

the process of animating

linear detail; the fluid

sacrifice of

motion, naturalistic timing,


feeling of weight,
tually,

and even-

the attempts to inject

individualistic personality
traits into his characters, are

qualities that

McCay first

brought to the animated film

medium."

5*

li

GERTIE"
MNOSAURUS

WONDERFULLY TRAINED

Gcrtk
the

Dinosaur

CREDITS
Written, dirccicd. animated, and

produced by \\ insor

Mea*d through BOX OFFICE ATTRACTION CO.


WILLIAM FOX,

PeesioofT.

EXCHANGES

IN

ALL PRINCIPAL CITIES.

53

McCay

Gertie ihc Dinosaur

insor McCay's

endearing
Gertie, the

petulant, childlike diplodocus

who
a

when admonished,

cries

is

masterpiece of personality ani-

mation created twenty years

Walt Disney

before the

studio

hit its stride.

Drawn

in

McCay's elaborate

close-line, realistic style, the ani-

mation of Gertie imparts an

illu-

sion of w eight through subtle

means:

When

Gertie drinks an

entire lake, her belly does not

bulge in
instead,

cartoonish manner;

pan

of the

cliff

on which

she stands gives way beneath her


feet.

Another weighty example:

When she
boulder

attempts to toss

at a

mischievous

mastodon, the rock

from her jaw's


Gertie
character

is

slips

twice

grip.

also a thinking

who

takes time to con-

sider her options.

She

is a

dimensional personality: shy and


also a

show

off,

headstrong and

defiant, yet sensitive

enough

to

be provoked to tears.
Gertie's tears are, in fact, a

baptism, consecrating a

new

kind of animation that led to

now-familiar cartoon pantheon


of personality kids, including
Felix,

Mickey, Bugs, Grumpy,

Dopey, Happy,

et al.

John Cancmakcr

i,jtj.K>-

'

RED HOT
RIDING HOOD
had

fait

56

ittlJkJ

nee upon a time,

Riding

Hood was

skipping

Wolf interrupts. "Aw,

on the

over! If you can't

way, bud,

do

lamp

variation of

of

Red

up, he

vows
he'll

babe."

When Red appears

onstage, the

makes

to

himself

kill

at

and

has done

singer.

way!"

this

his feet for the sexy

duces the characters. Trie

and animated Red,


ter so

a girl-crazy
is a

a charac-

immediately popular

spinster with a

neon sign on her downtown

"Grandma's

skyscraper:

Come up and

see

FOR THE BOYS

me

The Wolf

act, a lively

drives

him

crazy.

He

when we made

num-

Animation: Preston

Blair

Quimby

and others

roared.

promises of diamonds,

ington, to

of sidewall
off to

tires

He

soon

tries to

bit

the

MGM to plan

When the censor saw

and juggle and cut back.

some

It

got back to

it

Wash-

colonel or whatnot, that the censor had cut

from

us. Finally,

Red Hot Riding Hood cartoon


studio dug around, and

trapped by the sex-starved


granny.

the Red

Louis B. Mayer got a telegram

from the colonel saying that he wanted an uncut version of a

The Wolf

is

to trim

out quite a

set

and hurries

Grandma's.

pursues her but

new

first in

training films] spotted the thing and

drags

we had

the

Hot Riding Hood group

her out, but she resists his

and

thinking of the army

sergeant [stationed at

her to his table and invites

pearls, ermine,

we were

dually,

arrives at the nightclub to

catch Red's

Producer: Fred

Rural

were grabbed by cartoon

is

Little

Hood (1949).

that finished animation eels

nightclub

and Grandma

singer,

super sequel.

Preston Blair designed

reintro-

Wolf is now
Red

Wild

Tom's Cabana (1947), and in

his ghost

ber ("Hey, Daddy") that

Tex Avery

Cinderella (1945),

Riding

it

(1945), Swing

andWool[v (1945), Uncle

sometime."

Directed by

Shift.

Wolf blows

his brains out,

940s, in The Shooting of

stamp

Joint

MGM Carloon

them) appeared

Dan McGoo

another

some

(or

more times during the

emerges to whistle and

man-hungry

CREDITS

five

before

"look

the eye-popping

Hollywood Woll

lands

cartoon studio in Hollywood

playboy.

An

Red and

dives

an important point: "Every

So the narrator

1943

and

this a

quit!"

joins the protest and

MGM,

It's

story, over

window and
street

before they were shot.

or noth-

Hollywood and Vine. Fed

fed

that sissy stuff.

same old

new

stop

'Tm

department employees even

"Imagine

No Door!")

out the

he complains,

like

The Wolf finally

begins the narrator, but the

the

Hood

That,
ing.

up with

Riding

esque signs

through the woods." So

it!"

Re J Hot

Red

Little

gave him, but, man,

it

for his

don't

personnel overseas.

know how many

went over

prints they

great overseas.

Tex

escape

through doors, but finds

interviewed by Joe

brick walls (with Avery-

The

Avery,

Adamson
|

57

Haudjence reaction
1943, the manager of an
ater noticed that

In

ting whistles

was

Iselin,

New Jersey, the-

one of his short subjects was

get-

and wild applause, and when the short

over, the audience

manager wanted

shouted to see

it

again.

to oblige them, but also

ed to stick to his existing schedule

one of the other scheduled shorts

felt

so he cancelled

second

to clear time for a

as enthusi-

astic

during the second running, and instead of being

fied,

the audience

to see

it

again.

obligat-

running of Red Hot Riding Hood. Reaction was just

demanded

The

Though

satis-

a full

evening of features and other attractions was booked, the

manager screened the cartoon


1

cheer

on

it

yet again for

anyone

who

cared

50 fans stuck around long enough to whistle and

to stay;

for a third time.


]

Red Hoi Riding Hood

An

animation business

that

was working hard

stuff'

to be

during

branded "kid

diers,

and

sailors,

in this case,

with

less

and

whether the small

for

going to get

all

sol-

randy

less
fry

concern

were

tics

MGM

Who

cartoons

Early Bird

Dumb-Hounded, and The


Wolf: elaborate visuals;

anyone
he

a critic of the

to that
to

be

a distancing effect

same way, when the

Wolf interrupts

flow-

the flow of his

to that, babe?" the con-

trast is adroitly

consummate

abruptness and

ing animation by Irven Spence,

absurd in

Ed Love, and Preston

Blair in

the same time deadly accurate in

MGM "pro-

capturing the uncertainty of tone

the pseudo-Disney

duction value" style established

by Harman and

its

at

inherent in nearly everyone's

Ising; and,

tucked in Avery's briefcase the

day he

left

Wamer Bros., an

insistent, almost self-conscious

sense of humor that drew attention to the fact that

it

was

shat1

tering cartoon shibboleths.

Although
sets

it

this dates

apart

from the more

pared-down,

stylized, nearly

effortless effects
at his

Avery achieved

peak in the

allows for

Red Hot and

late 1

moments

940s,

it

of subtlety

and character illumination

less

possible in the later gag-fests and

more

striking in the overall pat-

tern of directorial intensity.

When the Wolf, who's sup-

familiar

foot in

with Avery's

lacks

its

it

way

into v\ith the other

We keep thinking "OK, we

him

in the brassy, insistent

get the joke already,

way

this film has of


its

own

hipness.

saves this cartoon today

indomitable

humor

40s

What
is

the

of its domi-

keeps one

simultaneously

foot.

rubbing your

it

ani-

and the sophisticated

adult world

and

and Red

Hot Riding Hood keeps reminding us that, as long as


sex

we think

something we're able to be

is

adult about,
its

on

backwoods "What's yer

answer

Blitz

off a trace

mated fantasy world

up

inflection.

In the

worn

nant contrast between the

style will find little to surprise

nose in

achieved with a single shading of

with

It,

full,

face,

suave Charles Boyer lovemaking

Killed

Dood

becomes

we had up

moment presumed him

stylistic characteris-

with Tex Avery's other early

Who?, The

effectively

achieved by

in the intervening years,

the hell planet are you

character in

the jokes or not.

these effects has

to

that unexpected

from?" expression on his

very film

Red Hot Riding Hood shares

many of its

him with

relations with the opposite sex.

The shock once

reacts instead to the

"What

postwar baby

boom) was being geared more


and more toward teenagers,

Hood,

gushy narrator by turning

to catch the dating

crowd (only

posed to pounce on Red Riding

it's

sleeve

got another joke

and

it's

probably

us.

Joe

Adamson

mm M IT* it

elcome to Wackyland.

It

can

happen here." Inspired by

needed.

ever

the backdrop and replace

bird.

Bob Clampett

to

some

ol

goon

his face

such diverse influences as

freed; a cross-eyed rabbit

that

in

and demands to be

sways on

swing sus-

own ears;

pended by

Porky

peacock with plaving-card

hunting the rare

is

its

dodo, believed to be extinct,

plumage; and

and worth so much that the

weirdo

its

don't

in a

lit

newspaper

sign)

headline.

bird

feet,

(his

three-headed

mama was

scared by a pawnbrokers

monetary value

zeros in

in front of

toonist Milt Gross. Aviator

Using

his

own

dis-

guises. Pork)' finally catches


is

the

truly a rare

dodo

but was

the last of

and arms that

CREDITS
Merrie Melodic! Girroon

dampen

Wacky

who holds

convict stripes

appear and retract as

Musical direction Carl

other

deused, paving homage to

banana

The

characters of the

Salvador Dalf and car-

it

brick wall for Pork)'

landscape include

the

lift

pnson window

The

Norman McCahe,

chooses and can

to crash into.

one, with a bird head,

Directed hv Robert

exit

zaniest denizens ever

artist

Animation:

it

with

\\ ackvland (as

home

land),

through when-

about an expedition to

Mncan

1938

door to

can draw

It

Africa in search of the rare

opposed to Alice's Wonder-

WARNER BROS..

uses wacky logic

decided to send Porkv Pig to

ckyland

It

to avoid capture:

Los Angeles Times article

dodo

Porky in

IP* ft

Ellis

Stalling

60

them

it

really

Porky

Wackyland

in

STAFF REACTION

orfcy in

1938.

Wachland was
The

Porfcv in

staff

screened for the entire Leon Schlesinger Studio on August

was routinely asked

to wTite their

Wackvland got some of the best reactions

comments on each new

picture

i,

and

ever:

he sign

As

far as

was
tops

I'm concerned,

swell.

One

it

the animation

is

better than from the

Frank

Keep

s best. It s

good story

this

up and we

11

all

T:

be

candidates for Wackyland.

Michael

wasn't done in color.

other units.

of Clampett

just too bad such a

stating, "It

can hap-

pen here," proved to be

Maltese

Clampett

Lee Larson

Tashlin

the begin-

at

ning of Wackyland,

mantra

Perhaps Clampett

his career.

wasn't just

artist

when Porky
into

for the rest of

with pencil

crossed that line

Wackyland, but

mate

as well.

By

his soul-

stretching

and squashing the characters

BOX
SCORE

in an exaggerated way, toy-

ing with space and time, and


altering the audience's rela-

rasas

tionship to the film,

Clampett and his team


ated a

OfflCIALM*

DEBATE

was unstoppable,

some studio
what

is

despite

resistance to

now

"Warner

P0RmSEARCH0;
DODO

called the

Style."

By

1938, with Avery,


Clampett. and others

heading their

BtUtVEO

style of

cartoon. Their enthusiasm

0,000,
p. s .000,00

MUStUWtf

wacky new

EXTINCT

units, the

own

new wave

was building up
.

fP*

...

totor'y

(<"

L.r,l

lh pir*

t*l

cre-

head

of steam. Everything

from the speeded up

f If

"Merry-go-round
broke down" theme
FV. P

music to Porky

Pig's

'
1

embarrassing stutter
proved nothing was sacred to
this

bunch.

Bob dampen.

62

Jr.

Porky

in

Wackylahd

BOB AND PORKY


the time he

than

a year

made Porky

By

for its

own

films,

including Porky 's Hero Agency (1937) and Porky's

drunken dog named Black Fury. In


sake, creating

characters and crazy gags, Joe's part

Parts'

this, his

what he knew would be


a

more

Gabby Goat,

eleventh cartoon, Clampett indulged in outrageous screwiness

masterpiece. Originally, Porky was accompanied

previous film, Injun Trouble, but

was eliminated.

for

(1938). His trade-

the pig in outrageous situations with equally outrageous costars, such as Daffy Duck,

Injun Joe, his adversary in

Wackyland, Bob Clampett had been doing black-and-white Porky Pig cartoons

and had made ten funny

mark was placing


and even

in

when

the storyboards

on

his

hunt by

became top-heavy with looney

J
63

'9St>.

64

Renewed tgpi Co

he story of "Gerald McCloy

The neighborhood

and the strange things that

don't

happened

of

to that

landmark

is a

animated

name "Gerald McBoing

in the history

films, for

Boing, the noisemaking

it

proved that the Disney

was not the only path


low.

and taunt him with the nick-

boy"

little

With such

boy."

style

to

Downhearted, Gerald

fol-

runs away from

cartoons as

Gerald McBoing Boing, the

about to board

"UPA

when

look" became the

new standard

lor

cartoons in

McBoing

to

When the infant Gerald

Boing

but declares,
lor this,

case."

"I've

can't

With

the

make

the sounds for his

boy

star of the

Sam Steelheart"

"Silent

His

distressed parents call a doc-

who examines

owner

needs someone

becomes the

speak works, but "goes

tor

He

is

shows, and soon Gerald

opens his mouth, he doesn't

'boinc* boina' instead."

home and

a freight train

a radio-station

appears.

the 1950s.

Gerald

children

want Gerald around

Seuss,

western showdown.

crowd

time, Gerald's

of

autograph seekers

any cartoon

Pigs has

admiring parents, he demon-

the sound effects for a classic

no cure

Little

occasioned such dancing in the


streets.

by making

since the days of

Disney's Three

western show. Before his

strates his talents

handle this

or.

tion

Based on

its

lies

a story

by Dr.

revolutionary distinc-

in

its

appeal to the adult

mentality and imagination.

Its

drawing

its

is

spare and clean,

backgrounds are mere rough

UPA, 95i

sound

repertoire increases,

including the noise of traffic

and

trains.

When

he makes

the sound of an explosion,

CREDITS
Columbia

Picturcs/jollv Frolics

Directed by Robert

Cannon

his father decides


for

him

to

it's

time

sketches and outlines. Color

ents outside the studio, and

applied loosely and suggestively,

the narrator ends the story,

not

"Now Gerald is

composed by

friends,

go to school, but

the teacher sends

awaits Gerald and his par-

him home.

is

well fed, cause he

Story:

richer in

Color

all

style:

Herb

music,

modern, completely

is

dar-

in

And this economy of

means has produced

humor and

picture far

spirit

than

the fussily detailed conven-

tional cartoons.

Dr Seuss

Pyle, [-rank

Backgrounds

ingly

The

Gail Kubik,

'boing boing' instead."

delight of this

Mclcndcz, Ruddy Larriva, Pat

Matthews, Willis

realistically.

keeping.

Production manager: Adrian Woolery

Bill

has

doesn't speak words, he goes

Supervising director: John Hubley

Adaptation

rich,

is

Not

little

the least

film

is

the

absence of cut animals. Even the

Smith

people are different.

lulcs Engcl

They look

cartoon characters, which,

IClynn. Jules Engel

like

Music: Gail Kubik

after

all, is

what they

are.

Arthur

Story told by: Marvin Miller

Knig/ir.

The Saturday Review. 1952

1950. RrnruiJ 1978

Celumhu

Piciuki InJutino. In.

65

All rijbtl

Gerald McBoing Boing

Gerald McBoing Boing

DR. SEUSS

Gerald's
ter

tale is told in

known

the distinctive

as Dr. Seuss. Geisel

rhyming lines ofTheodor

wrote the story and showed

Bosustow, UPA's cofounder and producer,

who saw

cle for his

innovative animators. Dr. Seuss,

who had

children's

phonograph

relied heavily

record,

on sound

effects,

was not convinced


could

it

it

Geisel, bet-

to

Stephen

as the perfect vehi-

written the story as a

that the tale,

which

work visually. But he was more than

pleased with the finished film. "It started a revolution in animation," he proudly declared

Supervising director John Hubley told the


a

New

York Times in 1952,

short can cut across the whole of the audience and can be

made

"We

later.

proved with Gerald that

attractive

and entertaining to

both adults and youngsters."

iSU PERFLEXM

poUtuxiiu ALAN LIVINGSTON MUr

VIRTUALLY UNBREAKABLE

67

BILLY

MAY

"KinG-SIZE
^^M#lT.

ing-Sizc

Canary opens

hungry

alley cat

itsell as

eat the canary,

but quickly

bird

and

leaps into the impossible


reveals

mouse recommends

like a

standard cartoon about

one of Tex

cat

is

about to

gate a refrigerator

Gro"

bulldog charges.

The

tosses sleeping pills

Canary

can of "Cat Food" contains

a live

that bottle, the car-

The

explo-

save vour

life!"

and grows even

all

dnnk

The

there's

none

left.

larger,

back

cat

and

until

"Ladies and

gentlemen," announces the

the

The

taller.

it

mouse keep drinking

bird, cat, bulldog,

is

stopped bv the

now

dog

mouse, "we're gonna have to


cat

tall.

The dog

but

is

good

bull-

thirty feet

chases the cat

soon scared

off bv the

now-giant mouse. (The cat

cause before this picture's


I

bottle

and gets

but

... if you're
.

after the

end

this picture.

We just ran
"

doom bv offering

me

Gro" and goes

wacky and begins an

chases the long-size canarv

aduce: "I've seen this car-

smart vou won't eat

life.")

another swig of "Jumbo-

then the cat swipes

larger with each sip.

mouse. The mouse

toon before, and

save your

toon departs the merely

potent mixture, growing

but

in a sardine tin,

I'd

mouse. The mouse gets the

nothing

The

947

MGM Canoon

Story:

"Jumbo-

and mouse

Directed by Tex Avery

Producer: Fred

hungry, the cat takes

ration of maniacal anima-

CREDITS
An

you

Still

tion.

over,

MGM

told

the refrigerator bare. There's

sidesteps

Size

cat

down

"I

Then the

plant food and gets an

With

and mouse shake paws:

but the poor

emaciated.

the dog s throat, but finds

King-

the cat

idea.

investi-

when

is

cat spots a bottle of

Avery's wildest creations.

The

Directed

TEX AVER>

Quimby

Heck Allen

Animation Robert Bcntlcy.


Walter Clinton. Ray Abrams
Music: Scott Bradley

68

out of the

The

pair

goodbye

stuff.

Goodnight.

embrace and wave


as the

camera pulls

back to reveal the monsters


standing atop
Earth.

a tiny

planet

69

not here to proclaim

I'm

character distortion the driving

allegory, Freudian phallic

force of the cartoon s plot.

not because

ous

simulacrum

isn't

it

critics, theorists,

have beat

me

because

deserves

its

it

own

to

terms: a

it),

(numer-

and French

issue cat,

MGM standard-

mouse, canary, and

bulldog exist only to distort,

and gloriously mutate

but mainly

tend,

our entertainment and amuse-

1947

MGM cat-

ment.

is

(i.e.,

in

which the

become

really, really

Numerous animators mined


this

premise as early as

McCay s 1921
one ever did
job

ot

it.

No

The

Pel,

that

biggest

is

if

and

heads remain puny and disproportionate.

but no

cartoon designs, they become

Not merely

scaled-up

freakish victims of poisoned

characters ever got

metabolisms suggesting very

big

is

funniest.

tively funniest

Tex Avery

funny, then

And Avery's

cartoons in the

industry.

human

In character animation, a

prime pleasure for the

artist

and

audience alike seems to be in the

and subsequent

dis-

at the core

ing.

of what makes King-

Thev function

as subversive

superimposed upon our

normal expectation of what

cartoon character should look


like:

the same dvnamic that

packed our grandparents into

shows and today racks up

freak

they've created and accepted,

ratings for

from Disney's subliminal squash

Geraldo.

gnarled hyperthvroid histrionics.

are

Size Canary so perversely appeal-

tortion of the cartoon character

to Clampett s

real

glandular disturbances.

These mean, funny drawings

graffiti

and stretch

legs,

Winsor

agenda was making the quantita-

definition

expand heav-

their salami torsos

more thorough

as big as Avery's, and

knew

their plight

singularly demented; while

enward, their hands,

very, very funny).

for

And the manner in which

Tom

and Jerry

dis-

comment on

Avery has delineated

characters

Avery's 1947

and-mouse cartoon not starring

big

is

King-Size Canary a cold-war

fantasy, or surrealist

But only in King-Size Canary

Oprah,

Sally,

Mark

and

Nciegarden

Kjng-Sizc Canary

TEX AVERY ON HIS


lot

HUMOR

of it

comes from those old

so forth to get impossible gags

squashed.

slapstick comedies.

Mack

We found out early that

if

You can

see

some of the things they contrived ith wires and

Sennett with his Ford that goes between two trolleys and comes out

you did something with

a character,

possibly be rigged up in live action, then you'd have a guaranteed laugh.


in animation; or

if it's

funny, a

human

could do

it

funnier.

bly happen, like a character getting stuck in a milk bottle.

71

You

whether animal or human, that couldn

If a

human

can do

it, it

isn't

always funny

We used any kind of distortion that couldn


couldn't get Chaplin in

milk bottle."

possi-

Three
little

Pigs
WALT DISNEY,

Be

Wdl(

Dunn

Compan;

WALT DISNEY
resents

1933

CREDITS
Directed by Bert Gillett

Animation Fred Moore. Dick Lundv.

An

Babbitt,

Norm

Ferguson. Jack King

Voices; Pinto Colvig. Billy Bletcher.

Man

Moder. Dorothy Compton

Be

7*

Wall Pi. 00 C*m(wr

car-

Churchill,

toons ever made. Three

Little

Pinto Colvig, became a

by the hair on

national anthem, hailed in

chin chin"

Time magazine as "the tune

ens,

Pigs

is

also historically signif-

icant as a milestone in the


art

by which 1933

of animation. Although

the

little

I'll

blow vour house

puff and
in."

little

pig

and then repeats the process

The two
house

uses sticks. The)' sing and

of the third pig:

The

bricks

dance to

hold.

is

breakthrough

in "personali-

ty animation."

Disney had

hard

When the third pig warns,


"I'll

Norm

sion, Three Little Pigs

bine

who

first

two

The

down

wolf then goes

the chimney, lands in

a boiling kettle,

and

howling into the


skulks
three

down

little

is

skv,

sent

then

the road as the

pigs reprise their

theme song.

squealing voices, sing,

"Who's Afraid

of the Big

Bad Wolf?"
Tattered and scraggly, the

wolf is indeed nearby. At the

com-

tale

comes

the stick house.

laugh, and with gleelullv

was Disney's

standard folk

the woli

to your door," the

for

drew the openingjig.

sincere effort to

be safe and vou'U be

sony when

Pluto) did the

77ircc Little Pigs

most

brick.

this film, Fred

specialized in dance anima-

height of the depres-

work building his

principal anima-

and in

work on

tion,

at

a third little pig,

house of stone and

to "cast" his anima-

woU, and Dick Lundy,

straw house,

with

when

the pig

music, gags, and bright col-

main song, "Who's

Americans: Economic survival

ors. Its

depends on building

Afraid of the Big Bad

sufficiency. It also gave

the wolf threat-

hull and

pigs flee to the brick

his

undermining national

my chinnv

hay; his violin-plaWng fnend

as well as their

Ferguson (best knovwi

threat of foreign forces intent

"Not

movements

tor of the pigs,

off the

in

That's just what he does,

A flute-plaring

pigs has a distinct

Moore was

house of bricks to ward

I'll

"I'll

him

at

tors,

strong

be

will

refuses to let

builds a house of straw and

begun

and

personality, seen in their

dialogue; the cartoon

provided a pertinent warning to

Sears,

remembered."

physically similar, each of

Released during the

Ted

ne of the most popular

Wolf?," written by Frank

on

self-

Ameri-

cans an affirmative theme song

with which to confront the wolf


of poverty and hunger scratching
at

the door:

"Who's

big bad wolf?"

$125,000

The

afraid of the

film earned

in the first years of its

release.

M. Thomas

Inge
C

73

TTw Wslt

Dunn Campjnt

he directors

were given

at

Warner

a great deal of

autonomy over

their produc-

As Chuck Jones

tions.

Elmer Fudd's endless

Bros,

they

made

for adults.

were made

for

Thev

music, and

of

had very sophisticated

made

Rabbit
of Seville

for

and the two confront

each other with larger and

Elmer

tempo with

Bugs

larger axes

gives

a close shave.

He

then

grows and

a fruit salad

on

mows

and guns

until

Bugs

offers flowers

ring.

He mames Fudd and

dumps him

and

into a cake.

Having finished with him,

it.

he

calls out,

"Next!"

beard on

Although
lond of classics
music, Jones was

aware

fullv

animated-film

of

1950

"Some music has

it.

CREDITS

all

in front of

the musical films

did, including Rabbit of

Senile the

Loonc\ Tunes Cdrtoon

In

vou put

if

something tunny

music

played straight.

Jones

comedy."

Animation Phil Monroe, Ben Washam. Lloyd

Thus

Rabbit of Seville

Vtugnan, Ken Hams, Emery Hawkins

always

is

It's

what the

makes

characters do that

Story Michael Maltese

it

the music in
is

the origi-

nal Rossini score forTfce

Layouts: Robert Gribbroek

Barber of Seville, hut the car-

Backgrounds: Philip DcGuard


Voices:

enough

rabbit,

hunter as

shines the hunter's pate,

comedic quality

Directed by Charles

is

faces off with the

as barber, with the

Long-Haired Hare, Baton Bun-

potential.

This

who

Fudd,

massages Fudd's bald scalp

and What's Opera, Doc?).

on

head that blossoms into

flowers.

for

hair

ing curtain reveals the rabbit

and tosses

nv,

his

ris-

musical spools (others are

cal

WARNER BROS-,

up

The

grow

Fertilizer" to

Hollywood Bowl just

the overture.

Bugs Bunnv

a series of

cement

mud-pack, and uses "Figaro

across the stage

his customer. In

taste,

not surprising that he

it's

Bugs

the rabbit

The Barber of Seville.

me." Since

Jones was fond

them

as the orchestra tunes

Nor were

for children.

of

takes

of the

said,

"These cartoons were never

made

hunt

him

his face, gives

toon shows respect for

Mel Blanc

absolutely nothing else.

Musical direction: Carl Stalling

HI

MICHAEL MALTESE
name

that appears over

Chuck Jones
less

said,

and over among

credits for great cartoons

is

that of

only the odd, the unusual, the hilariously peculiar interested him.

origins found their


stories for

storyman Michael Maltese, of whom

He

"The quirky brilliance of his ready wit was never, never neutral.

way

into the personalities of

Maltese's

many Warner characters. He was

What's Opera, Doc?. Rabbit Seasoning, Rabbit of Seville, Duck Dodgers

Et'cning, For Scentimenta/ Reasons,

and Fast and

74

Furry-ous.

among many

other

disdained facts as use-

Lower East Side-New York

responsible for writing the

in the 24'// Century.

hits.

One Froggy

12,

^RABBIT OF

SONG

SEVILLE
How

do

Welcome

to

my

shop

mop

Let

me

cut your

Lei

me

sfctf-uc^our crop

Daintily

daintily.

Hey, you

Don't look

so perplexed.

Why must you


Cant you

sec

he vexed

you

rc

next

Yes, you're next

You're so next

Haw

about a nice

close

Teach your whiskers

to

shave

behave

Lots of lather

Lots of soap

Please hold

Dont

still

be a dope

Now were

ready for the scraping

There's no use to trv escaping


Yell

and scream and

rant

and

rave
There's no use, you need a shave.

There you're nice and clean

Although your

face looks like

it

might have gone through a

IL
:.\\

75

.,

Bio.

In,

Rabbit of Seville

One

obvious distinc-

tion

between Rabbit
and other

of Seville

previous

Warner

forays into the

Jones
end,

s film,

is

music

to classical

is

that

from beginning to

anything but

that he applied to

Bugs Bunny films would


hold sway here, even in

much

da of its

One

own

all

work

musical agen-

that the character

must

be introduced in an envi-

and true Bugs Bunny/Elmer

ronment indigenous

Fudd hunting

cycle.

As

sonality specialist, Jones

a per-

made

certain that the different rules

and

"disciplines'

the peculiar

fell

swoop

the

deliniation of character attitude

working overtime:

hills,

and with

economy, pans from

effort-

left

to

pursued by Elmer,

available

the backstage of an
It

isn

mous

shot of Bugs's gloved hand oh-so

a close-up

casually flicking a switch to raise

outrightly provoked by an

the curtain, thus initiating the

76

Priceless

is

expression as the curtain

the orchestra strikes

heavy chord, and

it

its

dawns

anymore but caught on the

long before we get

is

first

is

toward the nearest

outdoor amphitheater.

kept in check until the character

rises,

expression

on Fudd

and another, that Bugs's enoranarchic energy must be

Elmer

facial

races into the foreground and

sanctuary

to rabbits,

at

era picks out flashes of gunfire in

right as Bugs,

Bunny

is

one

through

less

rule of thumb that Jones

first

in

in

rabbit s revenge. Jones's keen

beginning of the film as the cam-

the distant

as Rabbit of Seville.

pics

it is

both

his

still

the ongoing tradition of the tried

shot"; instead

antagonist. Jones accomplishes

ele-

chose to use for his Bugs

"one-

very

ments

and structural

with as intricate

realm of cartoon slapstick

synched

narrative

that he s not in

Kansas
fully

dressed set of an opera in


progress.

Greg

Ford

^BUGS BUNNY
ugs Bunny

is

one of the most popular

car-

toon characters because he does and says


things

we

all

wish we could get away with.

He's brash, smart, funny, heroic, and


clever

an underdog we can identify with,

intelligent

Bugs was developed over


the 1930s.

enough

to defy

a series of

Tex Avery's success with

any opponents.

cartoons made in the

screwball duck-hunting

cartoon {Porky's Duck Hunt) in 1937 prompted animators Ben

"Bugs" Hardaway and Cal Dalton to follow up with an even


screwier rabbit-hunting opus (Porky's Hare Hunt) in 1938.

The

"Bugs" Bunny character was brought back twice in 1939.

Chuck Jones modified him


Hardaway and Dalton
It

a bit in Preslo-Cbango,

revised

him

was Tex Avery's 1940 cartoon, A Wild Hare,

the personality

while

further in Hare-um Scare-um.


that solidified

we know today as Bugs Bunny. Mel

Blanc's

Brooklyn-Bronx accent, Arthur Q. Bryant's Elmer Fudd, and


the catch phrase "What's up, Doc?" became the trademarks

and the blueprint

for the direction of the series.

Bugs became the symbol

World War

II,

for the

American

spirit

and Bugs Bunny Nips

the

singing Irving Berlin's

Nips, as well as in a bond-selling trailer

"Any Bonds Today?"

A Bugs Bunny

short, Kjiigbty Kfligbt Bugs, directed by Friz Freleng,

Oscar

L
.

for Best

during

appearing in such cartoons as Hare Meets Herr

Animated Short

in iq<;8.

won

the

J
.

77

Tli

The

self-reliant personality of

bly recognized globally

ed

all

Mickey Mouse,

his smiling face,

more than any other image

of Plane Crazy to a story by

and jaunty

in history.

figure

According to

Walt Disney and animated Steamboat

she arrives

late.

Disney devised the cartoon

s great originality

and sound

effects is the

H'jfl

Dnntv Compjnv

of resourceful optimism that

is

proba-

Iwerks, he designed the original Mickey and animat-

from Les Clark, Johnny Cannon, and

a gallant riverboat pilot

who

cranes Minnie aboard

of having Mickey perform an unorthodox rendition of "Turkey in the

Straw" using cooking utensil drumbeats, duck quacks, and pig squeals.
logue,

Ub

Willie with help

Wilfred Jackson. Disney, influenced by fellow Missourian Mark Twain, cast Mickey as

when

made an image

The consonance

of cartoon personality on the screen with music,

dia-

key to the great success of Disney animation from then until now. Oh, yes: Walt also spoke for the parrot.

James Culhanc

78

oday's viewers of Steamboat

music

Willie delight at seeing

Mickey opens

Mickey

Minnie cranks

but

in his tender vouth,

earlier

thrilled

first

eaten by a goat.

combina-

notes that

Disnev used the new

mal's mouth.

was

offers

sweeping the nation to


duce his

new

Mickey

them

voice in the third short in a

Mouse

car-

is

when I had

put the

on

ishing touches

said Disney.

"My

silent

Mickey was

New York

soundtrack for

new Mickey Mouse


toon."

The

cartoon

and

iq 2 8

gleefully explores

all.

The

orgy of sound
Pete,

banishes Mickey to the

on Mickey,

mouse knocks

the bird
a

CREDITS
Directed hv V\

Animation:

caris

WALT DISNEV,

on the tune, and

out the porthole with

hurried to

ani-

boat

potato.

recorded

the

in,"

dead dodo.
.

from the

The

get the last laugh

came

spill

When Pete's parrot tries to

my first

talkies

Willie

galley to peel potatoes.

fin-

Mickey cartoon [Plane


Crazy] the

and

its tail,

ended by Captain

who

toons. "Ironically, in 1928,


just

Steamboat

other opportunities for

carrying

intro-

character with

series of Mickey

mouth,

Straw," including musical

tion of animation and sound.

"talkie" craze that

its

out comes "Turkev in the

audiences were

by the

is

Ub

alt

Disney

hvcrks, Lcs Clark.

Johnny Cannon. VVildrcd Jackson

paean to synchronized
sound, but, as noted by
teamboat Willie was

Russell Merritt andj. B.


|

first

(Mickey's
at

official

18,

1928

visual

birthday),

"We

As Disney

discovered

have just

amuse

we didn

we had

"it

was Disney's

and storytelling skills

that sustained Mickey's

extraordinary popularity."

said,

Mickey

first

appears

at

the

steamboat's helm, whistling,

cartoon toy to

children,

in WctJt in

Wonderland,

New York s Colony

Theater.

Kaufman

shown on

* November

tapping his foot, and thor-

unique medium that

oughly enjoying himself; the

delighted whole families.

boat moves to his rhythms.

We had an art form and an

Crank}' Captain Pete ends

im pressive

these diversions. Minnie's

illusion."
j

"Turkev

in the

Straw" sheet
17m

79

WUl

Dlifi( Li>niftjnt

1,
Old Mill was made

he

two reasons:
iment to see

It
if

leave the pond,

for

was an expereffects

bird

as

which

it

new

that added three-dimension-

As

rums away from

depth to the

The

stars; as

flat

is

the

world

of

cartoon has

storyman Dick

"Our

water

lilies

the mill at sunset.

in

eggs have hatched: Life goes

on within the

fireflies join in

era
signal

arrives,

and

the ancient mill machinerv

cam-

Cows

return from pasture, ducks

is

film

when her

new day

it

The

begins.

isney devised the

I multiplane cam-

bravura

And

doves

But beyond

tors

Bill

for use

Frank Thomas and

"Our
saw

punctuates

eyes popped

all

of The Old

when we
Mill's

men-

magnificent innovations

to

things

we had not even

dreamed of and did not

and inspire dread, The Old

Mill works as a vivid example of

understand.

The

entropy, of Nature's reclaiming

an Academy

Award

own from

Animated Short

an industrial

encroachment.

It is

on

Ollie Johnston recalled,

power

it

and

Snow White. Disney anima-

leavening of

its

era,

Garity built

measure of sur-

the prevailing tone of vast

her

dis-

began, just as

destined to ride

a startled frog, blissful-

ly oblivious

ends from the

endangered bv the

thrill

The

bluebird panics

by grace of its very appro-

comedy

cows

ducks return to the water.

tance where

is

as the

go out to pasture and the

The mother

nest

The cam

mill.

moves back

begins to move.

as the multiplane pictorial

sweep, retains

priateness.

bluebird's

Crickets and

Blowing leaves

toward

the cam-

The

era's prying.

con

and trogs come out to croak.

wind; a storm

moves

curl up,

the soundmaking.

wind and the

a distance, the

era slowly

evening grows, the bats

fly off,

orchestral scoring, as compelling

ace.

next morning the

night of terror with a safely

hatched nestful.

prise

The

inhabited by mice,

mill,

totter.

the endangered

momma bird
a

making it

tinue to coo, and the owl

From

out

ning strikes the old

bats return, the pigeons

windmill."

who knows

height of the storm, light-

seems aware of the intruder.

story

viewer

At the

a drver location.

doves, bats, and an owl that

of Disney's

a test

Rikard explained,

trie

is

turning gears; the owl seeks

multiplane camera, a device

no

OH Mill is splendid,

The

he joins his mate and

ence lor ten minutes, and

cartoons.

even for

into the mill.

alone could ensracre an audi-

al

The

a blue-

then explores the mill,

was

suspense in The

flies

and

camera follows the bluebird

anima-

music, and color design

tion,

h Disnty Company

and the studio

tremen-

Oscar

dous example of its category.

Michael H.

Price
The Wall Dimtf Cempai

80

for the

film

won

for Best

in 1937,

won an

camera

82

ike

all

of Tex Avery's best

wires, or in a

MGM films. Bad luck

pipe

cats

in this case, black

and bad luck

mates

it

begins with

The

Avery, duly adored

for his pliable

for

Bad tuck

Louis Schmidt) being terror-

when he

bulldog.

The

Blackie,

who

Blackic a bedrock

path.

The

meets

erpot

A man who would cheerfully


a piece in a galaxy three dis-

tant from the

one

in

which he

began lashed himself to

a device

which returned him again and


Rule:

A black cat

crosses your path, something

bad

will

after
still

happen

he narrows the parameter

something

further

on you

does Avery

imagination
lenged.

is

will

fall

him on

followed by the

recalled to ani-

"We
it

ting hit

by

flowerpot to the

kitchen sink, to
.

needed.

of

Finally,

we

amthing

a battleship

couldn't think

else to

drop on

How do vou end it?

him.

the kitten blows the whistle,

Well, you're obliged to

and Blackic instantly

back to the hero

appears, crosses the dog's

of the cartoon. So vou pull a

path, and another flowerpot

switch

bashes the dog.

nasty and laughs

end

alley,

come

An

the end

all

like

the

MGM

Cartoon

Directed by Tex Avery

Producer: Fred

the kitten turns

bulldog did

in a dead-

at

CREDITS

Quimbv

Story: Rich Hoj>an

Animation: Grant Simmons. Walter Clinton,

through the

Preston

picture."

Blair,

Louis Schmidt

Music: Scott Bradley

on high telephone

feel that his

sufficiently chal-

Then he makes

the cus-

tomary Averian transposition of


the sweet into the perverse and
the villainous into the victim.

And he

1949

in the air,

When the bulldog revives,

ble the situation

MGM,

but

went from the bulldog get-

No matter how impossi-

Only

to you.

is

it

luck,

built the picture so that

flow-

out. Blackie

blow whenever he

tosses

Tex Avery

gives the kitten a whistle to

Warners.

good

mator Nancy Beiman:

from the sky and

knocks the dog

the play-by-play structuralists

The

falls

lor

entire horse.

time Blackie

symmetry would have pleased

again to

the head

named

offers to help

first

Blackic

hvdrant,

a tire

four horseshoes hit

laughing

kitten

Luck

and

The dog carries

horseshoe

crosses the dog's path

end

cash register,

by former Disney animator

a sadistic,

its

each time, the dog

gets hit with a larger

by simply crossing the dog's

by accepting

And

a piano.

by

Bad

calls,

heavier object: a trunk, a

cute white kit-

premise whose formalist

at

path.

ani-

story

streetwise black cat

and

anarchy, hits

pitiless

his highest note

drain-

by crossing the dog's

ten (designed and animated

ized

Tex

and

life

beyond the realm of

the possible.

narrow

the kitten

Blackie appears and saves

Blackic takes a simple

premise

when

begins.

]ejf Miller

IP

83
\>l

v Great Piggy Bank Robbery'

ut

on the

CASTOON

HgQS.

and twists him into an "Eat

iarm, comic-book

maniac Daffy Duck

bv the

WASNtR

At Joe's"

elated

is

them down with

arrival of the latest

gun and

issue of Dicfc Tracy ("I love

that man!"), but

He

w ake up back on the farm

Twacv." Phone

kissing: a

looks

like a

calls arrive

1946

sow.

bank only

"I

to

love that

Daffy was the perfect star


for this cartoon.

is

His neurot-

behavior, from anxiouslv

missing. Magnifying glass in

ic

hand, detective Daffv takes

awaiting; the arrival of his

comic books in the mail to

Porky Pig in

walk-on role as conductor)

frantic allv

gunning down

to the gangster's hideout.

two dozen archcriminals,

There he encounters such

periectlv

characters as

WARNER BROS.,

his

kisses the

Mouse Man,

ter.

fits

his

zany charac-

Dick Tracy's characters,

Snake Eyes, 88 Teeth,

such

Hammer

Head, Pussycat

and

Puss, Bat

Man, Double

rations for Clampett.

as Pruneface, the

Flattop,

w ere

Brow,

ideal inspi-

An ear-

Header, Pickle Puss,

lier

Pumpkin Head, Neon

tured such evildoers as

version of the story fea-

Dandruff

Dome, Snow

Man, and Rubber Head.

Slot Face,

and the Nostril

Rubber Head

("You mugs stay here.

Daffy out.

"rub"

The duck then

tangles with

to blow!").

Neon Noodle

^DICK TRACY

The

popular Diet

Tracy comic
strip,

created in

193 1 by Chester Gould,

was

a perfect inspiration

for Clampett. Characters

such

as Pruneface, the

Brow, and Flattop were


perfect for parody
(Flattop's

head makes

brief appearance as an aircraft

runway). Sherlock

Holmes, the most famous

N oodle, Jukebox Jaw, Wolf


tries to

duck!" says the pig.

piggy bank

even

streetcar (with

Robbery

finds the piggy

and dreams he's "Duck

crime wave!")

Bank

machine

himself out in his excitement

("It

Great

mows

banks, including his own.

knocks

about stolen piggy banks

The

sign. Daffy

Coat,

got

fictional detective of

all

time, also appears in a

cameo gag
originally

that

was

planned to be a

running gag in which


Sherlock keeps bumping

CREDITS
A

(.oonev

Tuna

into Daffy throughout the

cartoon.

Cartoon

iZ

Directed bv Robert Clampett

Story

Warren

Foster

Animation Rod Scribner, Manny Gould.


C. Melendez,

I.

Ellis

Layouts and backgrounds:

Thomas

McKimson.

DeGuard

Philip

Voices: Mel Plane

Musical direction Carl

Stalling

84

85

The Grcal Piggy Bank Robbery

Robert

Frost said that

the poet s principal

mission

is

to

with words that stick

come up
to con-

jure those visions and constructions that,

people,

somehow,

stay with

making of ephemeral

lan-

guage something enduring and


strong, with the

change
ciple.

lives.

power

Applying

Bob Clampett's

to
this prin-

forever

And

then

highest cinematic poetry, for

along the ceiling.

prompting the

there are the bad guys them-

ity are a

film's

manic

hilar-

sequence of images that

selves, inspired

remain among the most indelible

Gould

by Chester

(creator of Dick Tracy),

and high

cartoon

one of the

that, courtesy of Clampett's

from Mouse Man, Jukebox Jaw,

ishables,

visionary brilliance, are well nigh

and 88 Teeth

animated

impossible to forget: Daffy doing

Hammer

Duck Twacy,

or agonizing over

his purloined bank, or

smacking

to Pickle Puss,

Head, and Pumpkin

ings.

it

masterwork, animation achieved

into Sherlock Holmes, or

sidestepping the trap door into

terror

the gangsters

Indeed, the film represents a rare

lair,

its

or stalking

86

films.

Puss. In the final minutes ot this

finest

melange of unhinged

and inspired

silliness.

don

spirits, this

and the one

after

Bank

mock-

is

Even

of the

clearly a

comedy. Realized with immense


wit, dash,

after

moments

and the

very apogee of classic character

incomparable cine-surrealism:

Scene

work

is

for hallucinatory visuals

but here transformed into

in cartoon history.

scene resonates with

priceless The Great Piggy

Robben

synthesis of animation's capacity

real cher-

that, of all

hold dearest.

innumerable view-

remains unbelieva

and

say this lightly

ble.

Steve Schneider

Tbc Great Piggy Bunk Robbcrv

One

weekend they ran

And then saw it,


I

best cartoon that


self

and

Bob Clampett
I

was

man had

floored.

cartoon, and
It

when

his

name came

was the Tbc Great Piggy Bank

ever produced.

on,

Robbcn',

There was Daffy Duck reading

thought, "Oh, he's the guy

and

it

was

who

my favorite.

does those old ones."


I

thought

it

was the

Dick Tracy comic book, and he manages to knock him-

out cold and have a dream about being "Duck Twacy." All the Chester Gould villains are there;

Duck was

instantly

it

was

totally surreal

and

bizarre.

And

Daffy

actually daffy.

]obn
87

Kricfalusi

Sindbad
result

cave and island

from the Fleischer

studio s use of three-

dimensional

sets.

The

tech-

nique involves constructing


miniature sets

on

Cwelve-

foot circular turntable

mounted

in front of

an

ani-

mation camera. Between


the camera and the turntable, eels are
ly

on

a glass plate

one frame
is

hung

vertical-

and shot

at a rime.

The

set

rotated incrementally,

frame by frame, so that

foreground props move


at different

speeds than

background elements,
giving a realistic sense of

dimension.

88

'

Popeye

Mickey Mouse's

greatest

and Wimpy. Sindbad spots

"Wreck

deserved to be showcased in

the

twice the running time of an


average cartoon
also the first
classic

wish

fulfillment:

It's
Somehow eating a can of
spinach miraculously gives

you the strength

to beat

your

burly opponents. Let's face

The
early

funniest

moments

Popeye cartoons

hilariously clever

knocks the
Bluto.
(or

are the

stuffing out of of

Those

action scenes

Kricfalusi calls

as John

them) are key to

Popeye Meets Sindbad.

more than

And

this

"Twister punches,"

arrives

was

The

a pair of lions

way, soon

island in

He

and smashes

use Fleischer s unique 3-D

Olive slavishly dancing to

backgrounds, and the

Sindbad's tune. Popeye

Max

first

nated for an Academy Award.

The

"Who's

the

and Boola, then goes

most

Sindbad,

finally

conquering

punch

fellow?" Sindbad the Sailor

that spins

him around

The

a "twister

like a

(Bluto) asks this question

propeller.

musically, singing his per-

mals declare him "the most

sonal theme song to himself

remarkable, extraordinary

strolls

around the
is

fellow''

Isle

home

island's ani-

and the

new

king

The

mayhem

Also on hand

produced two follow up

all

topped off by

Mercer's witty ad-libs make this

Jerry

Alfred ^Zukor Presents J

Max

Fleischer Cartoon

Directed by Dave Fleischer

from past adventures: the

specials, Popeye the Sailor

two-headed giant Boola and

Meets Ali Baba's Forty Thieves

George Germanctti, Edward Nolan

Rokh, an

and Aladdin and His Wonder-

Music and

On

the best Popeye ever.

are prizes

CREDITS

cartoon was so

popular that the studio

Technicolor,

of

the island.

dragons, apes, and snakes.

timed to patriotic

FLEISCHER, 1936

for his

him with

he

the Sailor

Rokh

of

remarkable, extraordinary

as

Sindbad

spinach and takes on

cartoon answers the

question:

Meets

stone wall to find

makes short work

Fleischer cartoon nomi-

the Sailor

outroars

generator arm muscles, violent

music, 3-D sets, and brilliant

bird

through

to a menagerie of beasts,

electric

on the

search of Olive.

Popeye cartoon

of Sindbad, which

usual:

this

me!"

to

in Technicolor, the first to

in the

ways Popeye

"funny beatings,"

film has

it:

woman

Wimpy along the

than

Popeye

that ship, but bring

obeys, but Popeye, saving

Seventeen

more

Oyl

v\ith Olive

them and commands Rokh,

ers decided the sailor

minutes long

singing his

own song,

the Fleischer broth-

a special film.

sailor,

he was

during the 1930s

rival

Popeye the

popularity soared

airplane-size bird.

boat out at sea

is

ful

Beck

AJl F
1

89

Lamp.

Animation Willard Bowslcy,

lyrics:

Sammy Timburg,

Bob RoihScrg. Simmy Lcrncx

Popcyc the Sailor Meets SinJhuJ

the Sailor

Popeye the Sailor Meets Sindbad the Sailor

POPEYE'S ORIGINS

Created in 1929 as

supporting player in

Thimble Theater, Popeye

E. C. Segar's

quickly stole the show, and by 1930 the

comic

strip

around the gruff one-eyed

was completely centered

sailor.

Max

Fleischer, a fan of the

comics, approached the King Features Syndicate about bring-

ing the character to the screen. Popeye was introduced in a


Betty

Boop cartoon

immediate
ly in

new

hit;

and was an

(Popeye the Sailor, 1933)

within

few months he was appearing month-

cartoons.

Matching

a voice to the gruff comic-strip

sailorman was

but the ultimate choice was inspired. Ironically,

difficult,

were not

for Cliff "Ukelele Ike'

Edwards

(later

if it

the voice of

know him

Jiminy Cricket) there would be no Popeye as we

Throughout the 1920s, Edwards (1895 1971) was

today.

major star of vaudeville, Broadwav, and records; he spawned

among them

number

of imitators,

Costello

(1898 1971), whose

Billy

earliest

"Red Pepper Sam

recordings featured scat

singing nearly identical to that of Edwards


records were miscredited to Ukelele Ike).

(at least

One

two of his

ingredient that

separated Costello from Edwards was the strange, guttural

bass that occasionally peppered his falsetto scat solos. This


voice

(known

as

"lower throat vocalization" to speech pathol-

had been employed on stage

ogists)

Gene Green (1877 1930). Music


recently recovered

for years

historian

by vaudevillian

Mike

recorded example of the "proto-Popeye

earliest

Kieffer

Green recording which appears

voice.

of the Popeye voice can be heard in Billy Costello's

"You

re

Gus

year, at

B'oop,

M.D.

(1932). Costello,

who

record

in the
also

the Gorilla, remained Popeye s voice for only one

which point studio

Mercer's zany sense of

artist

humor

fit

Jack Mercer took over.


the unique post-production

recording of cartoons; he added numerous


asides,

Traces

first

Nobody's Sweetheart Now," w hich was used

soundtrack of Betty
voiced

to be the

which

mumbles and

are cherished by fans today.

Will Ryan
I

91

he Skeleton
first of

Tnt

tion of animation

characters that Disney used

on

first

Mickev Mouse

leaves;

At the
bats

was thinking

him

life

dancing and doing other

mated actions
in a

dog

from

rises

its

a skele-

grave.

The

skeleton prowls around the

momentarily

graveyard,

is

frightened

by the

owl, and

is

then joined by three other

The

skeletons.

four dance,

obviously enjoying themselves

and exploiting their

articulated bones.
their

They

own music: One

tebrae as a xylophone,

another skeleton uses a cat


as a fiddle.

A rooster alerts the skele-

and

tons to the coming dawn. In

ani-

-A

more or less humorous

became very

belfry, a spi-

when

stop their spat

music

fitted to

and rhvthmic mood.

out of a

Two

skeleton uses another's ver-

figures, like skeletons, trees,

or flowers coming to

fly

moon.

inanimate

of

blowing branch.

the

adding animated action to


told

is fright-

at

black cats atop tombstones

make

reverse could be done:

"I

and Hying

stroke of midnight,

der drops by, and

gested to Disney that the

in a grave-

even an owl

ened by

pic-

musical composer) sug-

musical score.

spooky night

vard, full of wind

to

tures, Carl Stalling (Disney's


first

howls

ton

The Skeleton Dance opens

expand

underscore the action in the


the

and music

even further.

the horizons of cartoons.

Having added music

an oppor-

this as

push the combina-

tunity to

without leading

for experiments to

Dunty Company

Disney saw

Dance was the

the Silly Sxinphonies,

a series

VV'aft

He

panicky rush to get

back to their

coffins,

they smash into one

interested."

another, creating a sinle

four-skulled skele-

ton that dives into a

tomb.

1929, cartoons were usually just strings of gags held together

In

by

vaguely defined story: Skeleton Dance was an eerie musical

fantasy uith few real jokes.


in a graveyard

The image

sounds gruesome, but

Ub

ingenuous appeal that makes the most

and

playful.

They dance jauntily,

of four skeletons dancing

Iwerks's animation has an

grisly characters

seem benign

wriggle Like rubber Halloween toys,

and play tunes on each other's bones. (The corresponding .xylophone


figures in the score have led

many

Saint-Saens's Dansc Macabre;


film is

it's

writers to misidentify the music as

Grieg's

more sophisticated than most

that dives at the screen

March

of the Dwarfs.)

silent-era cartoons.

The

The
skeleton

and almost swallows the camera seems

like

an

ordinary visual today, but in 1929, only Otto Messmer's Felix the Cat

cartoons offered comparably imaginative touches.

Charles Solomon

C Trie

92

Walt

Dunn Company

The
Skeleton

Dance
WALT DISNEY,

1929

CREDITS
A

Sii/v

Svmpboru

Directed bv Wall Disney

Animation:

Music: Carl

93

Ub

W.

Iwerks

Stalling

Snow White

ho

the fairest in the land:

Wicked Queen

man, Roland (Doc)

time

pulls the dragon's

it's

visit

The Queen

"stepmaconsults

nil

Directed by Dave Fleischer

Animation: Roland C Crandall


Vocals:

Cab Callow

ay

Bimbo

tongue

and turns the creature inside


out,

and the

film

ends with

Crandall, over a six-month period. Crandall

had resisted the

urge to head west to the land of

the three heroes dancing in a

sunshine, palm trees, and

Bimbo and K0K0);

circle.

Disney,

is

agree

all

now the

Of Cab

fairest.

orders the

Bern'

Boop

Calloway's three
cartoons, Snaiv

knights to behead Bern',

White

w ho bemoans her

A quick run-down oi the

song ("Always

fate in a

in the

and makes them junk

Way")
their

is

probablv the best.

story reveals
less

how meaning-

conventional plot lines

which had

situation

stripped the Fleischer studio of

many

top people; perhaps this

solo gig
ing.

was

The

reward for

his

of the cartoon, along with the


attention to detail, support this

are in the usually surreal

supposition. Crandall

Bern- gets locked in an ice

Fleischer cartoons.

with

Callow ay said that the

coffin that slides into the

the Seven Dwarfs,

the Mvsterv Cave.

Queen shows up
and changes

Bimbo

The

coflm to

The

as a witch

K0K0 and

into frozen statues.

magic mirror explodes.

cartoons in

which he

appeared played in each city


a

week or two

live

prior to his

engagements.

With

show up

adroit

which

in the details of the

Wicked Queen

s castle

and the

mysterious cave of the Seven

Dwarfs. There,

long-legged

cartoon Calloway sings the

Betty as his "advance

mournful
Blues'

sales significantlv increased.

was

fairy tale settings,

woman" he found

ticket

stay-

consistency and beauty

axes and fake her grave.

who accompany the


c R

into a dragon.

the mirror again (as do

cottage ol

Paramount Canton

of

Bern', just arrived at

The Queen

said to have

been animated by one

that Betty

1933

is

Queen

ma."

PARAMOUNT.

White

K0K0, and transforming the

the castle to

White

Sncrw

her magic mirror, and this

asks the

Snow

thawing Bert}', Bimbo, and

"St.

James Infirmary

another

drugs, and rock

sings, Calloway's

ure transforms

tale

of sex,

roll.

As he

animated

itself to

fig-

describe

the lyrics, at one point into a

watch chain and


oo-ooze.

As

if

of boo-

a bottle

such dazzling

rotoscoped animation weren

enough,

background

macabre images

filled

with

slides steadily

by, fighting for attention with

the action in the foreground.

Here

is a

use of the

and

cartoon making

medium

model of the

ber hose

full

of animation,
classic "rub-

cartoon style

ol

the

early 1930s.

Leslie

Cabar^a

95

Snow White

96

Snow While

r^THE FLEISCHERS
ax Fleischer, cartoonist

and

inventor, pioneered animated


films with his invention of the

Rotoscope in 191 7. Using


unique device to trace

action film for creating

animation.

making

Max and

clever

animated

Disney's greatest

rival.

lifelike

Dave went into business

films, eventually

becoming Walt

In the 1920s, the Fleischer studio had

K0K0

great success with


"real"

his brother

this

live-

the Clown,

who

world through clever animation

cavorted in the

tricks.

The

Fleischers

introduced the sing-along cartoon, the famous "bouncing


ball,"

and were the

first

to

make sound cartoons

years ahead before Disney synchronized


tion.

Betty

With

the advent of sound, the studio

Boop and

licensed Popeye from

King

ishing his personality with a unique voice.


tion of the studio

(in 1924),

sound and anima-

came up w ith
Features, embell-

Another innova-

was three-dimensional backgrounds

that

gave the early Fleischer cartoons a feeling of depth that Dis-

ney would achieve years

The
two
to

later

feature films, Gulliver

Town

with his multiplane camera.

Fleischers released five extra-length cartoons


s

Travels (1943)

(1941), and were nominated

Superman (1941), the

first

for

and

and Mr. Bugs Goes

an Oscar for

in a series of realistically

drawn

adventure cartoons.
In a

move

still

controversial today.

Paramount Pictures

took control of the studio in 1942 and ousted the Fleischer


brothers.

Max

continued his role in animation with an asso-

ciation with the Jam

went

Pictures, Republic Pictures,

L
:

Handy industrial

film

company, Dave

to Hollywood, producing animation for

Columbia

and Universal Studios.

J
1.

98

his cartoon

opens with

ol

Cab

live-action clip of singer

Betty and

Calloway and his orchestra.


It

cave.

then goes to Betty Boop

seated

at

ghosts and goblins chase

room, Betty

the dinner table

"Why won't you eat your

"Home

all

was

became

packs her toothbrush, pens a

his

and

calls

her

who meets

beneath the window.

As it

scoped his movements.


Minnie

where they meet the

first

She

in a plausible setting:

Mae

Questal,

hers.

who

is

in the

provided the

This film would seem to bear

national treasure. His appearance seems at

Use

first

incongruous

until,

beautifully traced over (rotoscoped) into

of Calloway's

enigmas of cartoondom.

theme song, "Minnie,"

Was

of

is

one of the

the song's sordid subject matter

drug addiction, maybe even prostitution

acknowledged by

the

Fleischers?

Leslie

Mountain, both released

The

manner

classified a

great

Man

in 1933, were the others).

beginning of Minnie should be enough to have the film

animation.

(Snoxt>

Walrus dances

in front of an

Cabarga

99

CREDITS

Boop cartoons

Calloway

the

film at the

is

of three

Minnie the Moocher. The

young Calloway performing on

midcartoon, his dancing

Moocher was the

White and The Old

the sordid tale of

voice for Betty, always claimed the animators based the character's

her out. Just seeing the

the

who recalls

young girl, probably seventeen or nineteen, involved

mannerisms and personality on

bandleading was so

to feature

shown

inevitable parental conflict.

and

unique that Fleischer roto-

ever-changing cave wall of

is

1932

lyrics

his trademark,

Walrus (Cab Calloway)

bizarre images. All

PARAMOUNT,

a star.

swaying and strutting

style of

her

gets dark, the pair hide in a


cave,

Moocher

recording in 193

His "Hi-de-ho"

be sorry that

dog. Bimbo,

time, Betty

a hit

and made Calloway

they picked on me." She

farewell note,

Sweet Home."

"Minnie the Moocher"

run away, singing,

"They'll

first

the

torn up, leaving the words

to

Minnie

finds her

being berated by her parents:

the table in tears and decides

the

the

in her

farewell note mysteriously

hassen-ieffer?" Betty leaves

For

Bimbo from

Back home

film enjoyed a revival as

"head film"

in the 1960s.

MdX

Fleischer Presents

>>

Tdlkanoon

Paramount Pictures Release


Directed by Dave Fleischer

Animation: Willard Bowskv,


Ralph Sommcrvillc

Vocals Cab Calloway


Minnie

ibe

Xtoocbcr

IK

r,BETTY BOOP

The

most famous

Fleischer studio s

mator Grim Natwick, she

first

original character, Betty Boop,

appeared in Dizzv Dishes (193

began

1) as a

as a singing dog.

life

Designed by

ani-

canine crooner performing a parody of

novelty singer Helen Kane.


7

Originally, the studio, in

dog character named Bimbo

to feature a nondescript

doop" character
eventually, this character, Betty Boop,

stole

known

one of the

was starring

Helen Kane, herself a Paramount contract

need of a starring character to compete with Disney's Mickey Mouse, had begun

in the cartoons,

player, decided in

and Bimbo had supporting

1934

When

in a series of cartoons.

films, the Fleischers increasingly featured

to sue the studio

when

crooning "Boop-oop-a-

her in the Talkartoon series

roles.

the cartoon version

became more well

than her. Unfortunately for her, Paramount and the Fleischers were able to prove that her style of singing had been around

longer than her career.


Betty
studio.

Boop

This was

most interesting cartoons were produced during 1932 and 1933, during the heyday of inspired lunacy
also before the

These pre-Code cartoons were


erous villains

who

eccentric inventor,

years.

Only

will

Motion Picture Production Code took

pretty racy: from


s

Cab Calloway's soundtracks, which made

1934,

effectively "cleaning

in the last decade or so has

at

the Fleischer

up" Hollywood.

reference to drugs, alcohol, and sex, to lech-

"Boop-oop-a-doop" away.

effect, Betty's skirt

and Pudgy, her cute

effect in

was lowered

little

to her knees

and she began costarring

dog. Betty also starred in Fleischer

s first

in stories with the likes of Grampy, an

color cartoon. Poor Cinderella (1934).

studio retired Betty in 1939, but her popularity has lasted without the assistance of

(1988) and two recent

Office

threaten to take Betty

After the Code took

The Heischer

Hays

any

effort

been made to revive Betty's

career.

An appearance

new

in

cartoons for more than

Who

fifty

Framed Roger Rabbit?

TV specials (produced by Bill Melendez and Colossal Pictures) have kept her name alive, ensuring that Betty

boop well into the next century.

IOO

Minnie

tfcc

Moocbcr

^GRIM NATWICK

Menrion

must be made of Myron "Grim" Natwick, the

original designer of Betty Boop.

At

the time he

animated Dizzy Dishes, Natwick was already an animation veteran, having begun his career

After studying

Looking

for

at

the Chicago

more work, he joined

his fellow art school graduate,

Gregory La Cava,

Hearst's animation shop (producing films like Krazv Kflt and Bringing

After a brief stint in Vienna studying an, Natwick returned to


studio just as talkies were taking over the industry.

many Flip

the Frog and Willie

Whopper

cartoons.

He

left

in 1916.

An Institute, Natwick became a prolific illustrator of sheet music.

in

1931 to join

Ub

Up

who was

Father) in

in charge of

New York.

New York and joined

the Fleischer

Iwerks in Hollywood, where he designed and animated

He was soon working for Walt

Disney, primarily animating Snou White. Natwick


1

rejoined the Fleischers in the late 1930s, where he designed and animated Princess Glory for the feature film Gulliver's Travels.

Thereafter he was the preeminent specialist in animating the female form.

His

skill led

him

to

many

diverse assignments: animating

Woody Woodpecker for Walter Lantz,

toon, "Crusader Rabbit," doing commercials and theatrical shorts for

younger generation while working

for

UPA

creating

an

for the first

TV car-

(including Rooty Toot Toot), and teaching his craft to

Richard Williams (Raggedy Ann and Andy, The Thief and

the Cobbler).

Grim Natwick

died at age

one hundred in 1990.


I

102

his

rhyming parody

Snow While

Disney's

wartime themes,
jazz

telling

with

Queen), Vivian Dandridge

and

(So White), and

Zoot

Watson

Chawmin

sex,

begins with

work: Rub}' Dandridge (the

oi

mother

(Prince

her child the story of

Eddie Bealc and his band

The Wicked

augmented Carl Stalling

So White.

Queen

(a

hoarder of

score, particularly the

impressive trumpet acting

rationed goods) asks her

magic mirror

To

for a prince.

dunns the

kiss.

Prince Chawmin', the queen


"sure

a fright/

is

So White

Coal
Black

and dc
Scbbcn

dynomite!"

is

Murder,

Inc., called

Queenic

to "blackout

White," leaves the

Seven Dwarfs

Bob

by

at their

So

call

the

the

army

camp.

The Queen

with

poisoned apple that

puts So

White

his

arrives

to sleep.

The

awaken her with

"Rose-bud"

kiss,

but

dwarf succeeds with his special

hot kiss "that

is a

mili-

943

Black caricatures and


erences to

ref-

WWII date this

cartoon, but

its

animation,

musical score, and comic

CREDITS
A

Mtrrit MtlodUs Cartoon

Directed by Robert Clampett

Story:

Warren

Foster

Animation* Rod Scribner


Musical direction: Carl

Stalling

timing make

it

a classic.

Clampett took his animators


out to Holl) wood's black
,

nightclubs for inspiration,

and performers loaned their


voices

Disney

up

Coal Black and dc Scbbcn Dwarfs

his film So

White

Snow White. And

its cast.

Coal Black

is

but

and authenticated the

it

pokes fun only tangentially

are, they're

no more grotesque than,

and The Wise Quacking Duck.

because the idea for this cartoon was born


Ellington revue

Jump

Black, as animator Virgil

at

who make

not really about race, either; as outlandish as

men Clampett lampooned

the middle-aged white

Duke

of course, a

Clampett originally planned to

despite the caricatured blacks

most of the black characters

Draftee Daffy

is,

on the Grimms' stoiy

for joy in

Ross

recalled,

The

say,

in cartoons like

characters are black

when Clampett

saw the

1941. During work on Coal

"we went over

to the east side

of town, in the black district, to go through the nightclubs and the

dancing."

What

Clampett found in those black performers and

dancers was the real subject of his

tary secret!"

WARNER BROS.,

Clampett

twist

girl in

woods where she joins

Prince can't

Dwarfs

hut her gal

exuberance into animation whose

and has never been equaled

film: energy.

vitality

He

translated their

was unprecedented then

since.

Michael

Barrier

Coal Black and

dc

Sthbtn Dwarfs

COAL BLACK
SEBBEN

QOEENIE

DVJAfcF*

Of

104

PR\N)ce

Coal Black and dc Scbbcn Dwarfs

r,CONTROVERSIAL CARTOONS
who knows and

Everyone

certainly

sive to

among the

greatest cartoons ever made,

many people. Bob Clampett

example of a cartoon of its time, and

en age of animation,
that
is a

would be

it is

with

rife

it is

parents in Minnie

not an isolated case:

the

like

it

certainly

is

offen-

perhaps the ultimate

most cartoons from Hollywood

racist, sexist,

s gold-

and violent content, material

and

it is

difficult for

Among many other

most audiences

to see past

its

examples are Betty Boop's Jewish

Moocher and Native Americans in Tex Avery's Big Heeli.vatha.

is

banned from some

removed from movie

of racist stereotyping.

either:

it is

difficult to find a

There

prints,

is

libraries for its racial content, Stepin Fete hit s

and radio

no question

as to

(they are) or that they did do harm.

The

view and excluded from books such

as this one.

There

is

is

black

movie, play, or book before the 1960s in any but a menial position. Thus, today

Huckleberry Finn
roles are

and that

1942 masterpiece

Cartoons are not the only form of entertainment involved


person in

things: that Coal Black

unacceptable in cartoons produced today. Clampett's film

totally

particularly obvious example of racial parody,

stereotypes. But

knows two

loves cartoons

is a

growing inclination

to

company would not grant permission

Amos

are

remembered

as the epitome

whether or not some vintage cartoons

only question

do just

and Andy

supporting

that.

is if

are racist

these cartoons should be removed from

Disney no longer shows Song of the South; the

to use certain illustrations

from Der

Fuehrer's Face

Donald appears in Nazi uniform. Similarly, Birth of a Nation can no longer be viewed

at

because
the Library

of Congress except under special conditions.

No one

would suggest

indiscriminately
history and

make

believe these cartoons

trove of animated cartoons


reflected in

ments.

The

that cartoons depicting sexist or racist stereotypes should be

on Saturday morning children

is

and

shows. But

that era

it

shown

seems just as foolish to sanitize our

never existed.

One

of the values of the

the depiction of their times: every national event, trend, and fad

is

them, from the Depression to gas rationing, from censorship to the liberation movecartoons are racist because the country was

racist.

To remove

any material that

is

now

seen as objectionable would be to divorce the cartoons from their very identity, and to remove one
of the most important features of the genre as

l_
105

whole.

ehrc
f.

TITLE

PMEI9'J7.

Words and Music by

OLIVER WALLACE

SOUTHERN MUSIC
PUBLISHING CO^mc
ISI9

BROADWAY,

106

MW YORK

ne of four anti-Nad cartoons

his

the Disney studio released in

and-blue pajamas.

(the others

1943

Chicken

were

on the

Death, and Reason and


Emotion), this cartoon

written by Dick

and Joe Grant

wall,

was

Nightmare

Huemer

zen

for a series of

with

down. But Disney


and produced

be

film

ends

Euehrcr's Face

famous cartoons of the war


years and earned Disney his

parades

tenth Oscar. Jack Kinney

Donald

wrote of the film in his

munitions

plant to his usual "48-hour"

memoirs, "Prints were sent

day of labor. His job

all

and

is

clos-

appears. Forced to

faster

goes

and

faster,

mad and

He

work

age the troops.

Donald

it

awakens

its

pro-

in

don't think

CREDITS

was very popular with the

Nazis. In

hallucinates

finally

which used

paganda message to encour-

that the shells are attacking

him.

over the world, even to

Russia,

"heiling"

the Fuehrer's face whenever


it

fact,

we heard

that

Hitler

burned even' copy he

could

tind.

A Walt

Disney Donald Duck Cartoon

Directed by Jack Kinncv

We loved that."

Layouts;

Animation: John

Walt

Disney's most significant contribution to American propaganda in the Second

War

and

to the art of graphic satire

Nazi regime, and totalitarianism


Disney changed the
for that surrealistic

The

title

when

sequence

in

Donald Duck

in

Nutxiland,

peppery, spirited OUie Wallace (composer of the "Pink Elephants' music

Dumbo) w rote words and music

song

for a

"I built

called

"Der Fuehrer's Face."

that cartoon

around the song,

director Jack Kinney. In a masterpiece of satirical design, everything in Nuiziland, from the trees

hedges to the houses w hose chimneys seem to give the Nazi salute,
of Nazism.

World

Der Fuehrer's Face satirizes Adolph Hitler, Hitler's

in general. Originally called

song's basic structure was a "raspberry" or Bronx cheer.

caricature of Hitler's face glares

down on Donald

1943

New Year's

through Nutziland, whisks

ing shells

WALT DISNEY.

of Hitler

tomato thrown

Day 1943, Der

off to a

Face

a citi-

became one of the most

hand, playing "Der FuehrFace" as

The

Released on

cartoon.

it

Fuehrers

(rom the audience.

A German marching
er's

shadow

turns out

he hugs the

over,

a caricature

struck by

the lilm as a special Donald

Duck

it

Der

begins

United States of

ol the

America."

liked the idea

but

statue, grateful "to

shorts commissioned by the

it

He

to be his Statue of Liberty.

U.S. government, which

turned

in red-white-

to salute a "heiling"

Education for

Little,

bedroom,

as

is

shaped

like

said

and

the swastika, the symbol

he struggles to keep up w

ith

inhuman

quotas on making shells for Hitler's war machine. Les Clark animated the surrealistic depletion of oppression with panache.

John Culbant
107

Milt Neil,

Don DaGradi

Sihlcv, Bill Justice.

Andv Engman, Les

Clark,

Charles Nicholas. Robert Carlson

LITTLE RURAL

JGHOOD
OlAtCTtO BY

TX AVRY

hillbilly

Riding

version of Red

Hood

is

time on the country

gal.

Come

and

skipping

to the big city

show you

through the forest to

a real

I'll

Grandma's house, bringing

Hood!" The enclosed photo

her some nourishment,

of a sexy

ol

whiskey. Meanwhile,

Grandma's,
sion of the

jug

Wolf

(voiced

Red has the Wolfs

eyes popping out of his head.

at

When Rural Red

country ver-

bv

the

Wolf shoves

"Of course, I'm

her

lips

sup-

He

citv.

Hood

hollenn' for the citv

up, but

gonna do
do

is

and

it.

ain't a-

All I'm

gonna

kiss her

When

and hug her and

last,

all

He

but

and

Red

MGM,

1949

is

interrupted by the arrival of

telegram from his citv

cousin: "Quit wasting your

him

in tails, the

Wolf watches Red

country

arrives, the

only a cow.

catches her at

Hood

a baseball bat.

Decked out

Red

over the house, but succeeds

with

amorous Wolf chases her

in kissing

arrives, hootin'

cated citv cousin sedates

."
.

at

Riding Hood. His sophisti-

chase her and catch her

love her

Riding

off for the

posed to eat Red Riding


all

cow

the

and takes

Rural

my fool!"

demands, "Kiss me,

Pinto Colvig) informs us


that

little

Red Riding

perform her number ("Oh,


Wolfie!"
sical

a repeat of

mu-

sequence from Suing

and makes

Shift Cinderella]

such

the

with whistles,

a fuss

cat-calls,

the city

and eye-pops, that

Wolf knocks him

out again with


afraid this citv

much

"I'm

a mallet.
life is

for you,"

relative. "I shall

he

too

a bit

tells

his

motor you

back to the country."

Once
the city

there,

Wolf gets

the hillbilly

manv

look

gaga,

of his

mimic-

country

cousin's previous eye-pop-

ping takes.

The

country

Wolf happily takes

his

cousin hack to town.

108

CREDITS

at

Red Riding

Hood and goes


king

however,

An

MGM Cartoon

Directed by Tex Avery

Producer: Fred

Story: Rich

Quimby

Hogan.Jack Cosgriff

Animation Grant Simmons. Walter Clinton,

Bob Cannon, Michael Lah


Music Scott Bradley

Liulc Rural Riding

Hood

no

Liuh Rural Rijmg Hood

Tex

Avery's unerring

riming and
effect

effortless

hot pursuit of a country Red

suspenders by the city Wolf.

Riding Hood.

is

were not

2)

The country Wolf react-

wheeled away on

head

like a

He

his rotating

is

performing

reprise of her hit,

from Su ing

hand truck with

one wheel squeaking. This

sequence, she

"Oh, Wolfie!"

Shift Cinderella,

and

achieved without painstaking

ing to his city cousin's notice

craftsmanship. Veterans of his

that the

unit have claimed that Avery,

more

dismayed over the

he repairs on the instant, not

twenties Bray Srudios cartoon by

having any great success in keep-

Walter Lantz

ing his enthusiasm in check.

have seen in his adolescence

budget of an ordinary 1940s the-

and never forgotten.

atrical

fact that the

perception of his timing was


altered as a scene

moved from

the animators' pencil tests to the


final

inked-and-painted Tech-

nicolor photography,

would

3)

by

Red Riding Hoods

plentiful in the city,

are

where

The country Wolf taken

city's

version of a

Red Riding Hood and proceed-

negative of a completed scene.

ing with appropriate

Little

Rural Riding
its

Hood

comedy scenes serving


dation,

and each one

is

three big

as foun-

tour-de-

The

showman-

ship to provide the topper for

all

his previous reactions.

Wolf rushes

Director," a mid-

that

pell-

Tex must

massive master shot


first

of these

the animation (generally the

most expensive

and around

er

it

lands

ceiling,

is

slammed

a single

in

room, help-

doorways wherev-

on

the floor,

on the

next to the original door-

single element in

cartoon production)
repeat.

With

is

again a

the resources

remaining in the schedule and

short subject, Avery was

an extraordinary

able to create
film.

What appears on

sequences, in which one poor


victimized door

lessly creating

In the third of these scenes,

the country

Dog

that climaxes the

actually trim frames out of the

well constructed,

"Fido the

his cousin to a nightclub to

witness the

is

repeating a gag straight out of

as

the screen

manic energy, spinning out

of control in

all

directions at

once, off the screen and in the


audience's lap,
carefully built

was

in reality

up out

oi a multi-

mell toward the stage, accompa-

way, across the room

explosive, but immaculately

nied by a collage of bells and

retraced from Avery's 1945

fectly realized as a detail in a

timed animation:

percussion

Screwy Squirrel cartoon The

Persian rug.

force of ingenious, hyperbolic,

i)

The country Wolf racing

around

farmhouse in genuinely

effects,

only to be

When the

stopped before he can touch Red

Screuy Truant.

(and incur the wrath of the Hays

version of Miss Riding

Office) by a mallet strung in his

appears in the the third

III

tude ol small

is

city's

Hood

effects,

each as per-

Joe

Adamson

112

ased

on

short story by

ing of the man's heart grow-

Edgar Allan Poe and narrat-

Mason

ed by actor James

on the verge

a voice

The

zy.

one of the

first

to stop

The

was

over.

uses of the

still,

the eye

tell a

psychological horror

tale.

film uses

He had

was

animated cartoon to

The

strong for such an old man."

oi Ircn-

Heart

Tcll-Talc

modem,

esque images to create

free."

He

"Then

it.

was dead,

buned the

old

man

the floorboards in his room.

Dalf-

The police

UPA. 1953

arrive

scream

madman.

you say that

will

am

So begins the narrator,


goes on to explain

and

premises. But

all is

why
"

madman

who

insists

Then he

tea.

how he

it,

white blind eye

his hideous heart!"

of his older

madman

teel

was the beating

breaks

The

Columbia PictUfti Presents a

down and

the corpse.

moment
and on
"I

dreadfully nervous, but

you say that

the lateful night hid in the

will

old maris room. In the dark-

So ends the

ness, he could hear the beat-

within his prison

The

UPA

fellows have

why

am mad?"

madman Irom

with their extraordinary animated drawing based on Edgar

define

it

as an

You note we do not

animated cartoon, since that suggests humorous

ment, which this piece

comprehension, in
does and then

with

all

of work does not

fitful

images, of a

fatefully rues.

sorts of

modern

experiment in the

field

The

have.

madman

style

It is a

bizarre

is a

treat-

and

eerie

view of a murder he

and design resemble

overtones. This

highly

Dali's

commendable

of animation.

Nat- York
TI 3

Production

Ted Parmalee

Producer: Steven Bosustow

Design and

color: Paul luli.in

Bill Scott,

Fred Grahlc

Animation: Pat Matthews

Camera work

lack Eckes

Production manager: Herb KHvnn


Music: Bons kjcmcnliev

Narrator James Mason

cell.

gone ahead, breaking new ground

Allan Poe's "The Tell-Tale Heart.

UPA

Directed by

Story adaptation:

"True, I'm nervous, very

could

the earth turn"

CREDITS

ot

ing the floorboards to reveal

waited seven days for

the right

softly

confesses his crime, remov-

ol

the eye."

He

the

then louder and

at first,

housemate. "Of course," he

They

they stay for

hears

louder. "It

had to get nd

quite in

when

about to leave

are

was disturbed by the milky-

explains, "I

inspect the

order, nothing amiss.

"True, I'm nervous, very

mad r

Heart

beneath

neighbors had heard

dreadfully nervous, but

was

then carefully

dreamlike atmosphere per-

of murder by a

Tcll-Talc

it

was

heart

fectly suited to Poe's chilling


tale

The

ing louder and louder. "So

in

Times,

1953

The Tdl-Tale Heart

UNITED PRODUCTIONS OF AMERICA


WS

n 1944,

a trio 01

lormer IJisney animators

Steve

Bosustow, Dave Hilberman, and Zack

formed

Schwartz

Industrial Films

small film studio called

and Poster

Service.

Their

first

production, Hcll-Bent for Election (a pro-Roosevelt

campaign

film

sponsored by the United Auto

Workers), and subsequent films


Brotherhood

oj

Man and

(particularly

UA.Ws The

the Navy's Flat Hatting) explored the

other end of the cartoon world as previously defined by

Disney, using abstract

modern

art

Hilberman and Schwartz sold out to Bosustow


(the pair

soon began

ceeding in the

new

Tempo

field ot

Productions of America

renamed
al

in

Walt

and stylized graphics.

Productions in

New

1946

in

York, suc-

TVcommercials), while United

(as the

company was

officially

1945) continued to turn out innovative industri-

films with production

manager Adrian Woolery and

supervising director John Hubley.

UPA
and

signed a contract with Columbia Pictures in 1948,

for the next eleven years

toons that

won

turned out unique short

three Oscars, were critically praised, and

influenced animators from Hollywood to Zagreb.


created Mr.
Salkin;
ley's

car-

Magoo,

a caricature of

UPA

also

animator/storyman Leo

Magoo's personality was based on that of John Hub-

businessman

father. In

UPA, Bosustow had

studio that gave his artists tremendous freedom.


of subjects they tackled, from children s

created a

The

range

book adaptations

(Madeline) to jazz updates (Rootv Toot Toot) were given innovative spins

by

talented roster of directors: Robert

Cannon,

Art Babbit, William Hurtz, Ted Parmalee, and Pete Burness.


j

The Tdl-Talt Htan

"5

he film begins

in the

home

man

and

wyfe,

ing Scrabble.

who

The

While
a

sound

sawing from the

TV puts

wife has a

the

miss

war

the public that nuclear

has just broken out.

shakes them into the correct

housecat disconnects the

position.

tele\ision

up

power

is

to

all

Es.

The

wife gets

his

man

watch and discovers

time lor his favorite

show; he pulls out

his

for

some kind

jam

is

startled.

He

"Were you

mv letters?"

denies

it

man

look-

she asks.

and begins saw-

ing the table (and denies

doins that as welll

NATIONAL FILM BOARD


OF CANADA, 1985

CREDITS
National Film Board of Canada Cartoon

Story, direction, and animation

Richard Condie
Producers: Richard Condie. Michael Scott

Inking and backgrounds: Sharon Condie

Music: Patrick Godfrey-

Voices: Jay Brazeau. Ida Osier.

Guest

116

husband

happier days.

He

back into his

wife's

dion.

Expo
recalls

tries to get

good

by playing the

Their love

accor-

reisnites

them have been so con-

sumed by
its

of

When his wife

returns to the table, the

ins: at

saw

and tunes into "Sawing


Teens.'

it's

TV

traffic

wake the man, who won-

parade on?"
at

1957, the

and they embrace. Both of

cord.

ders, "Is there

looks

the couple taken at

graces

Screams from the neigh-

vacuum while she

Frustrated, the

The

by chewing on the

bors and a sudden

awaits his next move.

Bill

and both

of her eves straight, so she

tiles

Randy Woods.

to sleep,

Picking up a photo of

newscast informing

ensues, and the wife leaves


the table in tears.

of

removes her eyeballs and

he fumbles with Scrabble

man

hard time keeping the pupils

occupied with the game as

Snit

vacuums

are play-

Her husband's mind

The Big

his wife

the bathtub, the

of two unusual characters,

fight

the argument and

resolution that they don't

realize the

to an end.

world has come

"7

The Big Snii

'

fie

Big

Sni't s

comes from

ness in

humanity.
about

It is a

couple

house, watch

simple story

who do mundane

TV,

years, they are

still

with you long

after

the laughter because


the message

strong. The Big

is

Snit is a brilliant,

about the

fragility

recommended
ages

worthy

who may

film

of life and

is

for people of all


at

one time or

another have wasted precious


time being in a

snit.

many

deeply in love

what

As the film and world

all

they want to do
their

remains

for

about to happen in the outside

end.

film

clean

fight, loss,

also totally oblivious to

w orld.

The

rich-

humor and

and make up. Married

is

its

They play Scrabble,

things:

and

appeal

game.

is

finish

imagine anyone not seeing

Condie

a bit

is

from Manitoba,

of themselves and people they

Canada, where winters must

know

seem

in this couple.

The

laughs

Richard Condie

wonderful

come from

The

film

with romantic violins and


playing
silly

cabin fever

attention to

detail.

strange bass

music sets the

mood

opens
a

line.

tuba

The

for the

laughs to come. Another unexpected treat

is

the house

as the couple wanders

through their home, there

It is

always something

hard to

deserves

new

chuckle.

is

why Manitoba

has

produced some of the funniest


animators working today. In any
case,

and

toon
al

Condie has found the time

discipline to write great carscripts, to create exception-

soundtracks, and to beautifully

execute his visuals.

decor

to last forever; perhaps

is

that

K_arl

Cohen

The

Bis,

r,RICHARD CONDIE

Richard

Condie was twenty-seven when he decided to make

by grants from the Canada Council, Condie became


he completed his
could have

made

first

it

many international

Festival,

undercurrent

can

clips for

we were

Sesame

later films, Getting Started

Award

at

Annecy 85

films;

make and

"I tried to

what

recalls

Condie.

triggered this idea.

TVs Sesame Strut.

the Mississippi Bubble.

"It

was

Aided

In

1978

"We

quite a jump from thirty-

ten-minute story."

it

are well

known

received the Hiroshima

in France, a Silver Prize at the

and an Academy Award nomination.

recall

Board of Canada, John Lou and

lacking in experience,

Street to a

he cannot

filmmaker and found work on

(1980) and Pigbird (1981),

awards. The Big Snit took three years to

International Critics

World Film

film for the National Film

funnier, but

second non sequitur


His

Snn

Chicago Film

make

it

as

funny

for their

Aw ard

Festival, Best

as

at

humor and

have

won

the Hiroshima Festival, the

Short Film

at

the Montreal

could," says Condie. "Yet there s a serious

explain.

THE NATIONAL FILM BOARD OF CANADA

The

NFBC

was founded

in

1939 by an

act of Parliament, its official

purpose being "to

initiate

and promote the

production and distribution of films in the national interest and in particular ... to interpret Canada and

Canadians to other countries." Artist


the beginning,

artistic

experiment has led

Norman McLaren founded

freedom has been the trademark of the

NFBC

animators to produce

using every form of animation: from drawing on


sand, and eels. Four animated films from

NFBC

have

NFBC's animation

unit in 1941.

From

Independence to create and

wide range of films that entertain, inspire, and pioneer while

film, pixilation,

and computer graphics

won Academy Awards, and twenty

119

the

NFBC productions.

to pinscreen, clay,

others hav e been nominated.

20

he

tale

begins in a medieval

town abuzz with news


"the Giant
at

work

is at

kills

swarm
all

Busy

in his shop, Tailor

Mickey Mouse
by

large."

that

is

so he

seven by using two

you ever

kill a

giant?" the

throws open his win-

dow and

proudly exclaims,

killed seven with one

blow."

Directed by

Bill

Riley

Thomson,

Roberts

Bill

Tytla.

Otlie Johnston.

Fred Moore, Roy Williams, Les Clark,

Milt 5c naffer, Cornell

Wood, Frank

Follmer,

Archie Robin. Richard McDermott,

Don

Patterson, Jack Campbell

is

thrown

He

The

The

sword, dramatic all}'

talking about

flies,

He

is

but the

and has to climb up his

design and character animation.

Mickey uses

During the

ing

skill

to

his tailor-

sew up the

tor Fred

final scene,

Mickey and

kiss

on

The Disney
cized

Bnne

a carousel

Studio publi-

Little Tailor

as a

giving

him

give

most appealing

The

interplay of

Mickey an almost

sistible

charm:

to like him.

publicity.

his

proportions.

largely

The

Mickey Mouse Sunday comic


strip featured

him

Mickey's physical appearance,

mini-feature, with lavish pro-

appoints Mickey Royal High


Killer of Giants, offering

Moore redesigned

special cartoon, a virtual

motions and

mid-thirties, anima-

cir-

cular forms within that design

king hears only giants and

millions of "pazuzas"

cinematic career

stands out as a triumph of

tion

Minnie

wearing his scissors

high point in

Mickey Mouse's long

face.

powered by the Giant.

describes his ordeal:

atten-

Giant's sleeves, and in the

misunderstand-

This

into

escapes, but

and the king orders Mickey

like a

Animation: Frank Thomas,

Mickev

well,

ing spreads through town,

tailor,

CREDITS

When the Giant

in his path.

his stomach.

1938

Mickey Mouse Cartoon

worries, the Giant

drinks from an uprooted

to appear beiore him.

A Wah Disney

As he

he catches the Giant's

"I

WALT DISNEY,

delighted until the town's


gates shut behind him.

Giant. Just as one asks, "Say,


did

hand

s
is

locals are discussing the

tailor

Tailor

Mickev

appears, crushing every thing

Outside his shop three

Little

in marriage.

pestered

of flies,

flyswatters.

Brave

and Princess Minnie

an entire story

irre-

To look at him

The

fluid

is

animation,

done by Moore and

Frank Thomas,

is

perfectly

wed-

ded to the design. Strong poses

and

vivid expressions capture

continuity built around the

Mickey's thoughts and emo-

filming of this short.

tions

the cocky stance he

assumes balancing on his


sors, or the

way

his shoulder sag

his face

when

scis-

falls

and

he reluc-

tantly leaves to face the giant.


Bill

TytJa s animation of Willie

the Giant conveys the ponder-

ous weight of a great lumbering


oaf:

When Willie

sets his foot

down, the audience can


ponderous bulk

leel his

settling into

place.

Charles Solomon


Brave Link Tailor

MICKEY MOUSE
ickey

Mouse

is

more than just

the corporate symbol for the

Walt Disney Company. His


name has become
word and

image

his

household
is

an

internationally recognized

icon of good

will.

Walt Disney

created

back to California

"I killed

seven

Mickey on

after a disastrous

a fabled

1928

meeting in

train ride

New York.

Control of his then-current creation, Oswald the Lucky


Rabbit, and his entire animation staff was being taken over by
his producer
fast.

He

and

decided on

name, and

Ub

new

character

mouse. Mrs. Disney came up with the

lu erks

fully trying to sell

Walt needed

distributor.

worked up the

Mickey

in

design. After unsuccess-

two completed cartoons

(Plane

Crazy and Callopin' Gaucho), Walt decided to make one for


theaters that were wiring

up

for

Disney and Mickey on the map

Some
This

characters exist for

easily could

sound. Steamboat Willie put

and Walt

it.

have happened to Mickey throughout his

long career, especially as characters


Goofy, the Seven Dwarfs, and
able

never forgot

while and fade from view.

like

many

Donald Duck,

others in the Disney

became more popular. But Walt always kept Mickey

alive, fresh,

and

in front ot the audience.

Mickey starred

in short subjects

though 1952.

Mickey Mouse short won an Oscar (Lend

many were nominated.


him

FiinwsicJ

Walt entered

youngsters.

television,

as the Sorcerer's

(1940) and as Jack of the

Beanstalk in Mickev and

was created

One

Paw, 1942) and

Occasionally, Disney would cast

in special cartoons

Apprentice in

the

Beanstalk (1947).

When

"The Mickey Mouse Club

to reintroduce his star to a

new generation of

Brave Link Tailor

Goofy goes

cleaning a giant clock atop a

large

chime on the ledge out-

and lands on

side.

Singing away, he dusts

about to give out. Mickey

skyscraper.

the

Mickey mops

numbers by

riding the

unable to see the mechanical


Father

the teeth of gears while

once, sounding the hour and

Donald becomes

giving

mainspring.

Mickev

prisoner

A stork is

on one of the

tries to force

gears.

it

away,

but the stork turns the


tables,

and soon Mickey

ladder

under

and then a

which Mickey

his feet.

through

bounces on

spots her about to

place but ends

up fighting

battle

coil.

a flagpole,

Mickev and Goofy

and

is

fly

clock's innards,

off

Donald's just-

Dazed, he walks around the

repaired mainspring.

clock tower, unaware he

trio

is

falls

sent straight to Mickey.

bouncing

torch.

Goofy

gets

broken rung,

through the

Donald mes pounding

is

dazed, Goofv continues

on the head with her

The

land in the balance

inches from dropping to his

wheel, their heads and back-

doom.

sides wiggling in rime to the

verba

clock's ricking beat.

with the stubborn

1937

which pushes

him onto

a balance

wheel, making his


head, legs, and hat do
a tick-tock wiggle.

CREDITS
Disney Mickey Mouse Cartoon

Directed by Ben Sharpsleen

Roberts.

Al Eugster. Wolfgang Rcitherrnan.

Frenchy DcTremaudan
Lavouts

He

rope which

walking unconsciously onto


a

adding
o to his confu-

Still

ring again, but gets beaned

spring,

Bill

headache.

mechanical Lady Liberty

sion.

from the ledge

scaffold trapeze to his rescue.

a rope.

The duck has

Animation Chuck Couch.

raps

hanging out the window by

with the spring's end

A Uj/l

who

Goofv continues dusting

te

the mainspring back into

WALT DISNEY,

inside the bell,

rings,
is

Goofy

figure

falls

spots his pal and sends a

the bell from the inside,

Time

Goofy

the

clockw orks. Goofy brushes

sleeping

Cleaners

to

second hand. Inside the

oi the

Clock

work on

kkey. Donald, and Goofy are

Ken O'Connor

Music: Paul Smith. Oliver Wallace

Voices Walt Disnev. Clarence Nash.

124

1 27
Clock

Cleaners crosscuts

clock's colossal digits,

Mr.

confronts the mechanical

Fix-its at their

the separate snits that each

better

man-

work himself into. What

way

uettes that

ing out to

Disney's by-now well-rounded

like

and

back

identifiable characters

Mickey, Goofy, and Donald

than to have the star

smartly animated scene by

clickety-clack-

Donald

New

weight and

gravity, inertia,

momentum. The

Yorker Al Eugster.
Future Disney director

stat-

the hour, while

Duck an argument

to stress the flesh-

itself

come

toll

and Goofy

the big mainspring gives

and-blood personalities of

Duck

dutifully polishes the

between three clurzy

three different posts, chronicling

ages to

Mickey

and

sequence,

staged over stunningly executed,

Woolie Reitherman impressively

perspective background art,

animated Goofy's stuporous

evokes past silent Harold Lloyd

tightrope walk at the climax of

masterworks

Clock Cleaners,

getting

uncoiled, rearing up cobra-

dibly

like Sii/ctv Last

reminds us that

when

and

live-action

comedies of the decade had

and insolently talking

adapting

resorted to the non-stop talk of

basic physi-

screwball farce, Disney's car-

boingingly mimicking

Donald

squawk

in a

cal principles like

toons were there to pick up the


slapstick slack.

trio

Greg Ford

cope with the impertinent


impersonality of a big machine?

!25

126

ike

all

come

the

arts,

cartoons

and the

in genres,

genre here

ping double takes. That

Avery, and this

num

opus.

is

his

Finallv capuired, the

mag-

At Alka-Fizz

could have been more than

He then

heads north

it

more extreme,
where

it

got

to the point

The

new

abstract and ultimately a

form. This,

truth

fear,

itself in a

ate

it.

think,

is

essential

humor. You take

to great

that

fresh, different,

and

Hounded

Now;

You're

super speed to a cabin in the

swallows the key

dozen

only to

Bill

it.

Plympton

cliches" in

But

The Wolf

and quite

An

MOM Cartoon

Directed bv Tex Avcrv

Producer: Fred

Story:

Quimbv

Heck Allen

Animation: Wall Clinton, Ed Love,

Blair

Music: Scott Rr.idlo

inside a snowball; driving a

ater; in a lion's

humor was

original

CREDITS

Ray Abrams, Preston

swimming underwater;

movie

modern anima-

"eye-popping" to audiences.

eagle's egg;

oi a

the

in 1946, Avery's

ot visual

new and

runs or hides he finds


an

are

have become "Tex Avery

brand

Everywhere the Wolf

is

loony, exaggerated takes that

McPoodle

in the easy chair,

its

The humor is based

tion.

in

and the "takes"

on tunny drawing

be shocked to find

on the screen

hit

MGM. North-

Hounded, but the pace

wilder.

at

cab, co-piloting an airplane;

the master at

he had

premise Irom Dumb-

faster

Sgt.

runs

makes truth

laugh.

Police,

his stride at

and surprising.

And that makes people


And Tex was

exagger-

1943; by the

west Hounded Police takes

McPoodle:

which manifests

scream

And

art

in

a series of road

He

1946

made Northwest

warned by

"Don't Look

MGM,

Dumb-

linds himself

reading the Sunday funnies.

became completely

ol

Wolf soon

doors shut behind him, and

it

hundreds

cartoon,

Hounded,

mountains, slams

often, but each time

first

time he

(Droopy) to

Hounded

wolf 's screaming. Tex would use

think, brother?"

Mc Poodle

best about Northwest

the

do you

the top sergeant assigns Sgt.

McPoodle."

is

ol

Police

Avery made Droopy'

headquarters,

Being Followed; By

Police

guys."

Droopys responds, "What

Use Your Noodle;

remember

little

chorus

"Mounty County."

signs:

those

o(

in his cell,

bring in the convict.

part

one

effects his

it,

At police

The

there

"if

and

opens

into

Wolf wonders

door

draws

Northwest

Hounded

McPoodle.)

Prison, the Wolf, a prisoner,

escape.

and ends up

turns out to be

tor, too,

was Tex

genre's maestro

face

with McPoodle's. (The doc-

wild, eye-pop-

is

new

get a

the-

stomach.

goes to plastic

surgeon Dr. Puttv Puss to

127

Northwest Hounded Police

nDROOPY

Tex

Avery developed Daffy Duck and Bugs Bunny while

at

Warner

Bros., but during his

MGM years his pen-

chant for funny gags and outrageous situations outweighed his desire to create enduring characters. Droopy

was

his

most successful attempt. Droopy

portrayed by

Bill

Thompson on

the radio

voice his stone-faced basset hound.

more than

newfound

personality and voice were based

on Wallace Wimple,

show "Fibber McGee and Molly," and Avery

Droopy debuted

in

hired

Dumb-Hounded (1943) and went on

a character

Thompson

to

to leading roles in

twenty-five theatrical cartoons, but the character never achieved stardom during Avery's lifetime.

Television showings of Droopy cartoons and his appearance in

him

Who

Framed Roger Rabbit? and

celebrity.

IL"

I2C

later

Roger Rabbit shorts have given

Northwest Hounded Police

Whistle
fcBi

The Walt

Dunev Company

y 1953, Disney was facing


competition from

UPA,

Tool Wlnstlc, Plunk and Boom,

ani-

which has highly

liberated graph-

and whimsical,

sophisticated

themes

designs.

The

Oscars with stylized films

uralistic

Gerald McBoing Boing.

designs offer an irrever-

to concert hall.

Ward

Kimball,

one of Disney's legendary Nine

Old
full

Men

and

past master of

"personality animation

Pinoccbio,

Dumho,

(in

Fantasia, etc.),

feathered students the histo-

demonstrating

came 3-D.

In

May

began with

first

Adventures

Professor

Owl

in

Music

cal lecture

which

of

and his stu-

cavemen and evolved

caveman's whistling through

ly

jumped

styles that literal-

3-D was only

sax-

ophone; tooting through an

a passing

however, and Disney

animal

WWII propaganda films by

next turned to CinemaScope,

Hollywood Animation

process that projects

blade of grass eventually

became the modern jazz

off the screen.

horn

led to today's

brass instruments; plunking

CREDITS

rhythmically on a primitive

a pic-

ture over a wider area than

bow was the

the normal motion-picture

today's string instruments;

basis for

and booming on
belly

was the

Wait Disney

The

Animation:

made

big

Ward

and

critics alike,

toon

Academy

Animated

Short, the studio's eleventh

Oscar

TTk Wall D..n(v

Company

130

Xavicr Atcncio

and Disney

the 1953

for Best

for a short cartoon.

Kimball

Huemer

Marc Davis, Henry Tanous. Art Stevens,

Character styling:

UPA when the car-

won

Award

Ward
Story: Dick

Kimball, Julius Svendscn,

impression on moviegoers

topped

Music

C August Nichols and

form of

earliest

cartoon

Prrstnti Adventures in

Directed by

his biz

percussion sound.

953

shows how each

which

are visualized in bold,

musi-

into today's instruments:

modem-art

WALT DISNEY,

these sounds began with

the

lad,

John Canemakcr

The

dents recite stories to music,

animation used extensively in

including Disney.

how each

a toot, whistle,

plunk, or boom.

1953 Disney released the

short. Melody, in

Boom

teaching his

changing the movie screen.

championed the use of minimal

studios,

Owl

ry of musical instruments,

First

ent "history of music' from cave

cartoon presents

Professor

Disney fought back by

graphics that depart

Plunk
and

Disney's usual naturalistic

ing attention and \vinrting

like

Whistle,

stylized

graphics that depart from

of

UPAs cartoons were attract-

from Disney's usual nat-

CinemaScope cartoon,

1943 by former Disney

The

Toot,

Melody, Disney released the

the

first

ic style

stylized

after

cartoon studio founded in

mators.

Fresh and funny

months

screen. Six

Tom

Orcb

Music: Joseph Dubin

An

direction:

Kendall

O'Connor

Assistant: Victor

Color

styling:

Habousb

Eyvind Earlc

Songs: Sonny Burke, Charles Elliott

3
here are lettered signs in the

Daffy.

woods:

Bugs

fun;

looking for

"If you're

You don't need

All you need

is

a reason;

gun;

Elmer

indeed

tour

signs lead to hundreds of

a rabbit,

and
but

impatient, Daffy

is

and Bugs has

excitable,

It's

Those

rabbit season."

rabbit season,

It's

is

is

Seasoning

way with words. So Daffy


gets blasted twice.

Then

others announcing "rabbit

Elmer's basic urges

season" and pointing to the

take over. "I'm sorry, fellas,"

home

he

is

Bugs.

oi the rabbit

It

the duck Daffy who's nail-

ing up the signs. "Awfully

unsporting of me,

know,"

he confides, "but, hey,

some

fun.

besides,

really

duck

it's

I've

And

got to have

sea-

is

soon blasting

away down Bugs's

when Bugs

and

himself appears,

the tiny cast

hole,

duck, rabbit,

engage in

of verbal duels.
able question

is

The

a series
invari-

who'll get

inevitable

answer

can't wait

He

of them.

They hide

hole, but

shoots

at

WARNER BROS.,

1952

any

both

in Bugs's

Bugs decides

to

resolve the issue solo.

Dressed in

Lana Turner

sweater, high-heeled
easily

pumps,

wins

much

ofi

Bugs's wig, exposing the

rabbit.

"Now's your chance,

Hawkeye," Daffy

calls to

Elmer. "Shoot him! Shoot

him!" But Daffy gets the


final blast

CREDITS

to the

duck's disgust. Daffy tears

shot by the overeager Elmer,

and the

longer."

Elmer's love,

congenial hunter

Elmer Fudd

hunter

says, "but

and wig, he

son."

The

Rabbit

from Elmer's gun.

A Mcmc

Melodies Cartoon

Directed by Charles

Animation: Ben Washam,


Lloyd Vaughan, Ken

Backgrounds: Philip DeGuard

Musical direction: Carl

!33

Hams

Layouts: Maurice Noble

Voices:

is

M. Jones

Story: Michael Maltese

Mel Blanc

Stalling

Rabbit Seasoning

rPRONOUN TROUBLE
BUGS: Its

true.

Doc,

BUGS: You keep outia


DAFFY: He does
Daf/T:

Let's

Vm

He

this.

have

so

to

you

shoot

like to

me now

or

wait

till

you get borne?

now.

doesn't have to sboot you

shoot

like to

me now. [To Elmer]

demand

that you shoot

mc now.

BANG!

shoot

mc now

or

wait

till

you get home?

Shoot him now. Sboot bim now.

He

BUGS: You keep outta

this.

DAFFY: Ha! That's

Hold

Would

run through that again.

BUGS: Okay. Would you

DafH:

a rabbit alright.

now! Shoot him now!

DAfFV': Shoot him

hoot

it!

mc now." Well,

it

doesn't hare to shoot you

[To

right there.

now.

tbc audience]

say be does have to shoot

Pronoun

[To Bugs] Its not "he doesn't have

trouble.

me now! [To Elmer] So

shoot

me now!

to

shoot you

now."

It's

"he doesn't have to

BANG!

RABBIT SEASONING
n our

even

stuff

esting,

the talkiest things, like the

and you could

drawings, and then

truly

tell

d time

it,

what was happening.


but

related to the drawings. Because


fit

the dialogue,

it

if

stuff

even

never recorded a film until

if

when

I'd finished, I'd

go back and

you turned the sound

d completely

always wrote the dialogue right on the drawings

out the whole thing visually, and then

draw ings

Bugs Bunny Daffy Duck

laid

it

didn't write

out.

it

it

and then you

was

inter-

d just make the

as a script.

d type the dialogue off the drawings, so

the writer wrote the dialogue and then you recorded

was bound

off, it

tried to

worked

it

always

make

the

to suffer.

Chuck
r

34

]oncs


Rabbit Seasoning

Rabbit Seasoning
second

is

can have with

the

in a series of

three cartoons in

which Bugs and

Dafly, the

intended victims of Elmer Fudd's

hunting ambitions,

stall

him

flummox him

is

moment, and

into doing nothing

but shooting Dafly point-blank


in the

(Duck!

third cartoon, with

little

is

head from time to time

Hardy comedies.

two, except that

which were sometimes run

When

together as a featurette).

Rabbit Seasoning with

of snow

.)

it

takes place in

All three pic-

single gag

head. Noble's autumnal colors


are virtually
this

all

Daffy Duck?, in

which Daffy

gets both

hungry

"Duck

Fire,

the

first

in

the series: the same basic situation

explored,

is

same gags

some

reappear,

Opens."

This

the most famous

constitute the only

would

Bugs Bunny

Bugs bulldozes Elmer


a

disguise distinguished by noth-

ing so

much

as its obviousness,

Dairy can take

it

no

first

of the trilogy

He

longer.

er a deathless line, but can

as the

in

female

turns to the camera as

if

to deliv-

sum-

appeared. Since Carl Stalling

mon

wrote the scores, there are now

cluck of his tired tongue, which

published pieces of music enti-

emerges, in the 50s understated

"Rabbit Season," "Duck

Season," "Elmer Season,

'

and

"Pronoun Trouble."

The

stick that

and

slap-

rebound, highlight,

up nothing more than

comedy

style of Jack

George Gobel,
gust.

levels of irony, role-

playing, role-reversal,

It is

shaded

With

or

as a sputter of dis-

one of the most

finely

one-reel cartoon.

animators

like

Ken

Ben Washam, and Uoyd

Vaughan

little

Benny

bits of acting ever to

appear in

Harris,

of the

and

subject of endless analysis.

out for praise by Boxoffice as

of American studio animation,


and, assembled together,

was an element singled

these cartoons have been the

soon

tled
is

Tit For Tut,

toons, savored by connoisseurs

by

game warden and

and

dialogue in these car-

for years,

Elmer and

fox off his trail

authentic trilogy in the history

that distinguish

from Rabbit

The

from Art Davis's

What Makes

Season Over" and "Fox Season

beak on the wrong side of his

and ricochet

off each other in all three of

Hills

more damage

his

overlap, intensify,

Laurel and

dressing as a

humiliating him by positioning

anomaly on

(an

Them Thar

to dis-

posting a pair of notices

duck than

comedy

the order of the two matching

tinguish that one from the other

and, from the evidence, doing no


to the

two-reel

of the

tures are apparently inspired by a

debate over which one of them


in season at the

this.

title

a foot

with an extended filibustering

Duck!

the

Rabbit.

already

on board, the

transpires to indicate a twist or

Jones crew was about the only

development on the concept of

group in the shrinking short-

the previous cartoon. In

subject business capable of turn-

fact,

there's

no development whatso-

acknowledgment

ever^

just the

by Jones and Maltese that this

ing out the fine realization of the


clever concept inherent in a pic-

ture like

is

Seasoning.

too good to drop after seven

minutes, there s more fun

Riibfiit

we

135

Joe

Adamson

.t

DAFFY DUCK

.n

ijnipcniii'Ki'l

ts title is a

takeoff on the

role), a

1934 costume drama The


Scarlet Pimpernel: It

has been

(Porky Pig as Claude Rains)

cartoon story people, the genre

parody of The

an animated tribute to

director of a series of swash-

The Chamberlain sets

bucklers starring Errol

for "that

Flynn, and

announcing the betrothal

acters.

its

cast of thou-

Wamer Bros,

It

stars Daffy

The

an epic

L.

killing
J.

it

Duck.

'J.

L."

Warner), "You're
telling you,

L, vou're typecasting

to death.

me

Comedy, always

a trap

stinker"

and has just the

story,

written by Daffy

Dumas

Duck. The hero

is

Scarlet

at

"King

bv Elmer

Nostril's Inn" (run

Fudd) before crashing the

Pumpernickel

(Daffy,

time.

Still,

its

Jones's character

Back

is

at

spotted by the Duke, and

ish

is

fight that

only the

never more extraordinary.

man-

gled grandiloquence never lets

the inn, he

the daring escapade climaxes

sword

and Mel Blanc's line-reading

Maltese's keen ear for

wedding: and rescuing


Melissa.

as the
fin-

first of

down, nor does the


knowing, acute

writer's very

sensitivity to the

desperate hyperbole of a frazzled,


frantic

pitchman

Duck)

as

over,

(e.g.

Daffy

he piled on one voiced-

cooked-up crescendo

after

series of dramatic climaxes

another (dams bursting, vol-

(including skyrocketing

canos erupting, and cavalries

prices of kosher food).

charging

the

of course, in an Errol

something of an anomaly in

for 1950,

and Michael Maltese's dialogue

studio boss pleads for the

role

ot

was unusual

poses have never been sharper,

prove himself in

1950

nickel

(Svlvester as Basil Rathbone).

in a

serious

Pumper-

by

Duke

comcdv." Daffy wants to


a

Scarlet

among

Cleverly disguised, the

Pumpernickel stops

cartoon begins with

me! I'm

masked

Melissa to the Grand

char-

and

Daffy pleading with

Qack

WARNER BROS.,

parody" ranks

Michael Curtiz, the iamous

lamiliar

Pumpernickel

Miladv Melissa; his enemv,

high as a format of choice

sands includes a host of

Scarlet

today the

idea of "genre

love,

the Lord High Chamberlain

called

The

While

dashing masked

highwa\Tnan; his lady

Fhnn

"There were

a lot of in-

drang) that

so
all

much sturm and


boils

down

to the

house jokes in that cartoon,

inspired bathos of overpriced

mostly in casting," said

kreplach.

Chuckjones.
the

"We put in

Genre parody notwithstand-

Mother Bear from the

earlv

Three Bears cartoons,

and 'Henery'

Hawk

appeared as

messenger.

was an
acters

epic,

had

so

all

to be in

It

my charit.

Everybody appreciated

it

except Jack Warner, and

don't think he ever realized

we were

talking about

in the cartoon."

136

him

ing, what's funniest

about 77k

Scarlet Pumpernickel is precisely

Daffy's character

and the vast

chasm

between

that exists

Daffy's inflated perception of

himself and highly flawed

"little

black duck

is.

that he really

Greg Ford

38

house on

his

Johnson

is

a hill,

at the door,

in a

left

his spirit returns to the

interrupted from

his tuba practice

ten

Mr.

by

knock

and finds

tains

it

baby basket on

inside

and enter-

and

retrieves his

mat

"welcome"

is

bit of

think of

The music and

that

The

you

color styling are

timing

are completely in sync

by piece.

road scene

And the

is a classic.

Came Back stands up


viewings;
a

first

Then you want

all

to see

it

the gags.

it

it's

few

so

funny. After that you keep

watching

it,

just because.

him

as vic-

his destruction ol

Finally, the

Linda Simensky

his

dynamite and

and

ing the century-old folk song

CREDITS

"The Cat Came Back."

house with

kills

cal

amount

film,

of time

him, but

more than

premiered

at

it

won

gious awards.

Film Board of Canada

Executive producer: Chcs

three

Cat Came Back

where

Yctman

Producers: Richard Condie. Cordell Parker

years. The

the 8th

\.;;i tijI

Directed by Cordell Barker

weekends and

Festival of Films in

The

on the

working eight hours

evenings for
it.

lights the fuse.

explosion

to modify his plan

day, plus

crazed Mr.

fills

a perfect

NFBC asked

Barker spent an astronomi-

returns to the house to

The

to repeated

to see

more times because

rail-

The Cat

you need

few times to catch

In true cartoon tradition,

Johnson

with the cat as he shreds the


sofa piece

tie

Mr. Johnson ends up

resume

so good

is

air

(which he

work with them on animat-

to

tim each time, and the cat

incorporated into the gags.

perfect.

balloon, and

to a train track.

and

him

about an

a cat

conflict), the

drown him, drop him from


hot

for a film

man and

considered to be

can't

cat survives

in this classic tale of

humor one can

slapstick

Film Board of Canada with

no matter what

revenge works. Every


sort of twisted irony

approached the National

old

The

NATIONAL FILM BOARD OF


CANADA, 1988

mator Cordell Barker

an idea

and Johnson

afterlife.

When Winnipeg ani-

cat outside

Mr. Johnson's attempts

Absolutely

into the

comes back again and

he does.

everything

the

streak of bad luck the cat

again

Back

who

chase the terrified Johnson

but in a hilarious

get rid of it

Came

body

lifeless

ating nine ghostly cats

promptly destroys.

Johnson puts the

The Cat

haunt and taunt

Unfortunately,

crushing the kitten and cre-

which

old baby rattle


kitten

to

cat.

crashes back to earth

with his eighty-year-

it

the

Johnson's

a kit-

his front step. Johnson

brings

house

Story, animation,

Cordell Barker

World

Zagreb,

three presti-

and backgrounds:

Music arrangements: John McCulloch

Sung

by:

John McCulloch. Ed Ledson. Richard


Condie. Cordell Barker

Character voice Richard Condie

MAX FLEISCHER CARTOON

TECHNICOLOR

he story has become

a part

of American folklore: Planet

Krypton, the "man of steel"

Boop. Paramount allotted

who moves

almost $100,000 for the

taster

than

of an average Popeye

Plana. In the cartoon. Super-

short

arrival

on

series ot

paintings, lol-

still

lowed by

new

a thrilling

were modeled

by

deadly

and mild-mannered

Kent stepping into


closet to

cape.

emerge

Will the

in

city

hand}'

mask and
be saved?

Will Superman rescue Lois?


1941

In

1940 Paramount

secured the screen rights


to

Superman

the era's

most popular hero

and

and Shuster's design.

on simple

toons they strove for a


tic

Directed by Dave Fleischer

Story

Seymour

Kneitel. Isidore Sparher

Animation Steve Muffati. Frank Fndres


Musical arrangement

Sammy Timburg

realis-

"pulp magazine" look

and deuscd

many

animation

Siegel

and Joe

and

teenagers Jerry

first

Sinister,

appeared in

Bud

man became

Collvcr,

Superman's

was the

nominated

lor

voice for

which was

an Oscar.

The Superman

series con-

more

adventures which stand out

their staff was

created by

of Action Comics. Super-

used lor

and

uperman was

became industry standards.

tinued with sixteen

stories,

June 1938 on the cover

Animation had never been


adventure

SUPER BIRTH

techniques that later

effects

this first cartoon,

realistic

'

circular designs,

but lor the Superman car-

studio about producing

The

previ-

ously based their characters

radio voice,

cartoons.

had

Fleischers' artists

Fleischers were hesitant:

Max Flaicha

alter Siegel

approached the Fleischer

Superman

Superman Cartoon

all

production, and

the characters and story

scientist threatening

chair,

CREDITS

studio.

Great care was given to


ot

in

the

mad

ray, a helpless Lois tied to a

Picturri Pristnts a

1940

Miami

Fleischers'

at

episode, complete with a

total destruction

Paramount

and work began

the winter of

phases

first

four times the budget

film

Lois Lane, and the Daily

Earth are recounted in a

PARAMOUNT,

speeding bullet, Clark Kent,

man's birth and

Superman

used to the exaggerated proportions of Popeye and Betty

as

unique

for their period.

tion,

a sensa-

spawning

a radio

show and newspaper


strip.

He

first

appeared in

live

action

comic

in 1948.

George Reeves

played

Superman

1950s

TV series, and

in a

Christopher Reeve portrayed

him

in big-bud-

get films in the 1980s.

The comic book

charac-

ter

was

in

1992. Dean Cain

'officially killed'

portrays

him

nineties

TV version

in a

Superman

THIS

MUST BE A JOB FOR SUPERMAN

Many
up

of the

in the

and

now-famous phrases associated with Superman


sky it's

"faster

than

a bird

no,

it's

speeding bullet"

plane

were

first

by the Fleischers. Other than those legendary


kept to a

minimum. With

of the cartoons in the


film s

worth of a action and

fantastic ideas.

The

less

reflected

in the first series of nine cartoons.

more

realistic

World War

II

it's

Superman!"

brought to the screen

cliches, dialogue

was

than ten minutes of screen time, each

Paramount Superman

Bulleteers, the

Magnetic Telescope, and the Arctic Giant are just some of the
produced

no,

"Look

series

packs a feature

Mechanical Monsters, the


fantastic perils the Fleischer studio

The remaining eight, produced by Famous

Studios,

themes, such as in Secret Agent and Eleventh Hour.

142

Superman

r,ANIMATING SUPERMAN

WWhen

first

asked by Paramount to produce

Superman cartoons, Dave

Fleischer worried

about the cost of animating


action,

and

in order to dissuade

realistic

human

Paramount without summarily

rejecting the project, he requested a budget of almost

$100,000

almost four times the going

rate.

But Paramount

approved the budget, and the Fleischers used the opportunity to


turn out some of the best animation ever drawn. Model sheets

were devised by using square shapes and cubes as the basis


the figure drawings.

The

for

blocks aided the artists in achieving

the proper perspective for their realistic animation.


Fleischers were striving for realism

and

The

to that effect

employed

Max's original invention, the rotoscope, for the simplest scenes,


while relying on their best draftsmen to animate more sophisticated

L
From

the very beginning

of film, efforts were

made

such

More

efforts failed

often than not,

because the

allows for things not possible

in the three-dimensional

of reality.

came

world

When animation

along,

it

and

of dimensionality, and by craftsil-

two-dimensional world of comic


art

to design

color than to achieving the effect

to translate

comic-strip characters to the

ver screen.

more attention

proved to be a

ing tightly-knit plots that could

be resolved satisfactorily in minutes,

each film came close to

reproducing the experience of


reading a comic-book story.

Art Deco

The

settings, the flat char-

acter designs,

ors to create

and the use of col-

mood combine

to

middle ground between the

elevate the films to a level of pure

comics and film and made

artistry

for

easier adaptation.

The one

adaptation that

remained closest to the original

was the

series of Superman films

released by Fleischer studios

from 1941 to 1943. By paying

seldom found in anima-

tion outside Fantasia of the year


before.

Nothing

else the

Fleischers did quite

matched the

Superman cartoons

for

power,

charm, and enduring pleasure.

Thomas

Inge

43

movements.

J
1,

YOU OUGHT
TO BE IN

PICTURES'
^^V^H\4
llg/A^'r,

Sup e

I.Frelenc

->-*

144

8'.. Irv

he Warner Bros, cartoon


staff had access to a

movie camera

cartoon studio, pictures of

35mm

they used

it

Duck and

come

alive.

set

but

is

thrown out by

A stampede on

stage hand.

Pork)' Pig

the set of a western con-

Daffy convinces

to shoot live action for refer-

Porkv to quit cartoons and

vinces Porkv to get his old

ence and to make

go into feature

job back. Meanwhile, Daffy

a eag;

film

films. In pro-

every Christmas. Friz

ducer Leon Schlesinger's

Freleng decided to use the

office

camera,
to

and studio

staff,

make

Schlesingcr gives

cartoon since the pig's 1935

The

result

is a

is

that the pig will

in,

performing ior

Schlesinger

his

he wants

Porky's job. Porky gives

aware

Daffy

drubbing and goes

back to work

soon be

Schlesinger

Haven't Got a Hat.

back. Porkv drives to the lea-

has not torn up his contract.

ture lot (Daffy, Porkv, and

Bandaged Daffv asks

Porky's car are the only ani-

job "opposite Greta Garbo"

mated parts of the

and gets

combination

action and anima-

ol live

tion

Porky asks to have

contract canceled, and

lot

his first Pork)' Pig

debut in

You
Ought
to Be in

Daffy

unique cartoon

thrown out by

film),

but

hit

lor a

with a tomato.

and one of the most popular

is

creations of the Termite

(played

Terrace.

Disguised as Oliver Hardv,

Chiniquv and others appear

Porkv sneaks onto

in small parts (except for

During lunchtimc

at

the

guard

In addition to Schlesinger

by Michael Malt ese

and Maltese, animator Gerrv

a stage

Schlesinger's,

their voices

all

were done bv Mel Blanc),


and the film uses stock

Pictures

footage from

Warner Bros,

films (77ic Great Zicgfield


California Mail)

WARNER BROS.,

and shots

from Christmas gag

940

This

and

film has

films.

been

credit-

ed with inspiring Steven


Spielberg's

Who

Framed

Roger Rabbit?

CREDITS
A

Looncy Tunes Cartoon

Directed by

[.

Frelcng

You

Animation: Norman Cohen

Stalling

to

Be

are animated,

us on

wonderful, novel film experience in which Porky, Daffy, and a car

in Pictures is a

and the

more ambitious than

Story: Jack Miller

Musical direction: Carl

Ought

rest of the visuals are either live-action


earlier

works

behind-the-scenes tour of both

that

Warner

combine

Bros, and

appeal to anyone fascinated with the magic of Hollvwood;

and

Leon Schlesinger
it

it

Porky

is

great

is

Porky's acting

ability,

still

photographs. Far

action and animation, the images used take


studios, providing special

includes Michael Maltese as a studio guard,

handshake between Daffy Duck and Leon Schlesinger. These

makes

live

images or

treats

make

the film fun. but what

Friz Freleng's ability to direct his star, and Jack Miller's script.

not just another funny animal, hut a

real actor in this film, displacing a

wide range of emotions in

convincing manner.

145

Karl Cohen

You Oughi

Be

to

in Pictures

FRIZ FRELENG
Freleng entered the animation world

'Friz

Isadore
u hen he went
Kansas

City'

to

Film

work

Ad

Disney had already


their Alice
called
to join

at

Walt and Roy

company

the

to continue

oCeon ScMeSinqet

Hollywood, and shortly

in

upon Harman and

his partner,

Rudolf Ising,

Uiome. O,

wmm

them; Freleng followed in 1927.

Freleng worked on Disney

and

in the 1920s.

left

comedies

Hugh Harman

for

HarmanTsing

later rejoined

new

for their

Oswald the Rabbit

series of

in

1930

Looney Tunes

for

as

series,

head animator

Warner

Bros, and

producer Leon Schlesinger. Freleng became invaluable to

W arner Bros., particularly when Harman and Ising

left

the

studio, taking their star character, Bosko, with them.

Promoted

to director in 1933, Freleng concentrated

the color Merrie Melodies,

becoming

musical synchronized animation.


first

cartoon.

Yosemite

sonal

life.

directed Porky Pig's

to

Sylvester.

Be

in Pictures parallels

Friz Freleng's per-

MGM lured him away from Warner


When his MGM contract
flattering

In 1937.

Bros, with

offer.

expired, he realized that he missed the

new

on

master of timing and

Haven't Got a Hat, 1935, and created both

Sam and

You Ought

He

characters and returned to

freedom to develop

Warner

Bros.

and

set

about creating his greatest works. Freleng was a major force


at

Warner

Bros, from

doors in 1962.

He

its first

days in 1930 until

Bugs Bunny, Daffy Duck, and Porky


entire Tweet)'

it

closed

its

directed dozens of cartoons featuring

and Sylvester

winning cartoons: Tweetie

series,

Pig, as well as the

including four Oscar-

Pic (1947), Speedy Gonzales

(1955), Birds Anonymous (1957), and Knighty Kjtight,

Bugs (1958).
After

Warner

founded his
ing

own

Bros, animation studio closed, Freleng

studio (Depatie-Freleng Enterprises), creat-

TV series and theatrical shorts, commercials, and the

Oscar-winning Pink Panther. He returned


in

1980

to direct

to

Warner

Bros,

TV specials and compilation features.

146

You Qugbl

to

Be

in Pictures

bugs Bun

Baba
Bunny

'Xlf

A
1

' '

\m

Tint

Curni

ticmncptoR'

ugs and Daffy

like

Hope

and Crosbv or Laurel and


Hard\

are a

comedy team.

Whether they're

rival quar-

blasted

bv Elmer Fudd

in

such Chuckjones cartoons

Rabbn

as

Fire

and Rabbit

is

Baba Bunnv,

Melodies Cartoon

Chuck Jones

Slory: Michael Maltese

ion Richard

Levicow, Ben

Effects animation:

in

which

brought into hilarious sharp

Bugs

finds.

mine! Mine! Mine! I'm

happy miser!"

addition to being perhaps

Chuckjones had

tocus bv the glitter oi gold.

his

own

The

pair believe thev're

explanation tor this cartoon s

their

way to Pismo Beach

popularitv: "People love

the clams

("and

all

eat!"),

but

we can

uTong left turn

Albuquerque lands them

full

Baghdad and

cool,
"It's

of Arabian treasure.
his ageless

but Daffy goes wild.


mine! Mine! Mine!" he

exults. "I'm rich!

I'm

Daffv in Ali Baba

Bunm

In

the cleanest delineation of


the 1950s Daffy

Duck per-

sona, Ali Baha Bunny finds

Michael Maltese seemingly writ-

because they realize thev're

ing for posterity. Never was the

he

essence of greedy, self-doubting,

as greedy as

Daffy's

one

of

is.

the

think

most

attractive characters in

the lexicon.

He

something we
don't

wealthy!" But there's a giant

want

black-duckness better expressed:


all

simplv

exhibits his greed

full face,

all feel

to admit.

but

"Consequences, schmonsequences, as long as I'm rich;


"I'm socially secure, I'm socially

"Red

secure;"

cap, call

me

boy, and be quick about


a

heavy ripper!"

When

it

a cab.

I'm

added to

the slow-brained hatchet-man

Hassahn
an

Harry Love

..

"Open, septuagenari-

uhh, open, saddle soap,

and the immortal "Hassahn

CHOP!"

Backgrounds Philip DeGuard

whose

Brown

gives

Voices: Mel Blanc

Daffv appears and goes

"It's

Layouts Maurice Noble

Musical direction Carl

that

made out

after a pearl that

W'asham

Film editor: Tre$>

Bugs on the beach,

crazv duck ever

Thompson. Ken Hams.

Abe

next scene

musing about "how

their different characters are

Bugs maintains

Merm

The

tall

cave

Directed by

lamp, angering a very

m ain' reaches new heights

in ancient

per-

but then

with the genie.' One-inch-

at

CREDITS

humor

lamp and

tricks,

Daffy "desecrates the spirit"


ol a

Bored and Shov.

forming rope

just by being together. Their

on

1957

even pretending to

finds

in A.!

WARNER BROS.

leathers,

rivals in Friz Frelens. films

Biz Bugs, they create

Baba
Bunny

does his best to save his pal's

real genie.

A Star

Bugs

to deal with.

Seasoning, or show-business

Like

Ali

Hassahn

be a genie in

disputing who'll get

ries

named

ogre of a guard

the result

is a

lie

to the idea that cartoons

need be considered kid

Stalling.

Milt Franklyn

148

film

verbal richness forever

stuff.

Steic Schneider

49

5o

n the Warner Bros, world of


cann\

rabbits

and ducks, dogs don't

always

come

down

all

batter with cookie cutters.

this

When the cookies are baked

Marc Anthony

cuteness.

Chuck

dog watches her cut up the

for a nap.

Vanquished by

him one

decides to adopt the kitten.

she

Jones made no bones about

He

shaped! In

this: "I feel a lot different

the ladv of the house (seen

animated pathos, he places

about dogs than most people

onlv from the waist down)

the cookie on his back, just

warns him not

where the

do.

don't

off well.

feel

dogs are par-

ticularly trustworthy.

most dogs

brings

it

more thing

think

home, where

to "bring

Marc Anthony's

are protessionals;

one

efforts to

conceal the kitten include

them

pretending

to play."

Such

senti-

and

tbc

it's

powder

batter,

The

dear

lady

little

masterful use of pantomime,

kitten

into the flour,

and

Anthony

posing, and

the bawling and heartbroken

of his pet.

it's

facial

one of the

est cartoons

expressions,

falls

kitten once rode.

kitten

if

you want

to," savs the ladv of the

make

more remarkable.

kitten

scene of true

"You can keep that

decides to

kitty

and the cartoon ends

happilv.

wind-up toy

puff.

offers

But the kitten escaped the

into this house."

they play the part you ask

ments onlv make Feed

Feed the

settling

or at least -any

house

cookies, the

as

long as Marc

agrees to take care

studio's funni-

and

also has

heart.

Kitty

Confronted by
bulldog Marc

assumes

WARNER BROS.,

a kitten,

Anthony

his professional

stance as a ferocious barking


1952

The

cruard do;.
ever,

knows no

kitten,
fear

how-

and

steps through the dog's gap-

ingjaws to climb up onto


its

back, where

it

purrs and

kneads the dog's fur belore

CREDITS
A Mtme MeUiia
Directed by

ne of a group of tremendously accomplished cartoons. Feed

Cartoon

Chuck Jones

Story: Michael Maltese

O:
I

illustration of Jones's

play of Jones's use of the emotive

Backgrounds: Philip DcGuard

remember

notion that an animator

contains

a hilarious series

is

"an actor with

a pencil,"

and

power of drawing. Presented with such screen charisma,

that the entire spectacle reduces to a rippling of graphite

on

It

s a

wonderful

convincing

it

Sin
Thai 's

Stalling

51

dis-

s difficult to

paper.

Brown

Film editor: Trcg

Kjm

of grimaces, pouts, strains, shudders, sweats, smirks, smiles, and angelic grins.

Animation Robert Gribbrock

Musical direction: Carl

the

All, Folks!

The Art of Warner

Bros.

Schneider

Animation

hen sound

films

became

popular in 1929,

Max

Imps

the

a talking doe.

named Bimbo.

Bimbo never

achiev ed a

The

particularly for

his

[to

whim. Bettv

Dishes, a 19:50

in

ing plaver. Bimbo's Initiation

escapes. Betty

hole

smack

the symbology

man-

Betty

into a surreal

calls

Big Boy,' and

down

corridor, as

with

slash

to the

down

lone vaginal

huge blades
... in

expression

of his castration fears."

member?
again,

"Wanna

Perhaps that's

why

the Fleischers never devel-

oped Bimbo

"they ask again

CREDITS

further.

and each time

says

no and

McU

suffers

Fleischer Present! a Talktiiloon

Directed by Dave FleischcT

it

drawn and neatly painted

for a Fleischer

employs. In this rare cartoon,

floor or falls

down

a chute, a

many

cartoon of this period.

an emotional response that

is

the

Initiation

might as well be

of the background scenes are as animated

it

a catalog of the occult

as the cartoon characters.

When

blending of layers takes places that defies the usual two-dimensional cartoon environ-

ment. Filled with enough dream imagery to keep an analyst w orking overtime.
also provides

in.

Boop

bad dream, wonderfully portrayed in an unusual cartoon that holds the cartoon format upside down and shakes

heartily. Especially well

and

members

Bimbo, but he

Whew

Bimbo

mov ing

ani-

heads and two-bv-fours

and

wrote

melted candles on their

be

sexual invitation, following

a strange cartoon.

behind their backs.

Bimbo runs along

fraternity'

'Come

last lead

fraternity of characters

all

''

Bimbo responds

down

is

Langer in Film Comment.

"The

falls

sexual

member]

torture

Bimbo

for

took over as Fleischer's lead-

It's

its

mation historian Mark

car-

parts.

is a

become

toon, and she eventually

was one of the dog s

1931

"Bimbo's refusal

sexual identity7

Dizzy

Bimbo

PARAMOUNT.

refusal to recognize his

(also originally a dog)

w as discovered

Bimbo's Initiation

cartoon has been the

cartoon to cartoon at the


s

Initiation

finally

subject of much analysis,

ov ertones.

animator

Bimbo

says yes.

appearance changed from

Boop

Bimbo's

who performs

surprisingly.

ducing Talkartoons, starring

and

meets

finally

him the usual question. Not

and began pro-

forceful presence,

Bimbo

an erotic dance and asks

star oi his Inkwell

series,

it.

Bettv Boop,

K0K0

Fleischer dropped

Clown,

for

mark of great

Initiation

captures the distinct personality of the Fleischer style

art.

52

Leslie

Cabarga

r 54

lthough simply' drawn in

Adriana

black and white and only

of Disney's

one and one-half minutes

while attending the innova-

long, this cartoon has

had

tive

audiences laus-hincr ior more

than twenty-five years.

opens on

of a

young deer looking

for

of

opening

was

film.

the Art Center.

of

went on

When

failed to get a crucial

sunrise for a

made Bambi Meets

was the

first

at

Newland

to found Inter-

national Rocketship Limited


in Vancouver, B.C., a lead-

shot

ing producer of quality

action

live

it

animated film produced

short, he switched gears and

credits sequence,

are told the film

the semester;

Los Angeles in

969, studying

he

During an extended

food.

we

drawing

a line

in

two weeks of

in the final

Snow White,

Art Center College

Design

The

film

Caselotti, the voice

animation.

Godzilla

writ-

ten and choreographed by

Bambi

Marv Newland,

that Bambi's

wardrobe was produced by

Man' Newland, and

Meets
Godzilla
AN INTERNATIONAL
ROCKETSHIP CARTOON, 1969

Man

that

Newland himself was

Rockelship Limited

Written and directed by Man' Newland


Music: Gioaccbino Rossini,

from the William

Tell Overture

one-note joke, the joke has

up wonderfully

after

but the archetypal Disney creation with

Godzilla's foot appears and

comes with

crushes the harmless fawn.

taste,

The

quick stomping on the deer by Godzilla

what

The

its title
is

film delivers

promises, and

on us

what

up

to

levels.

Marv Newland made


Bambi Meets Godzilla in

it

house he was renting from

is

many

why

it

holds

gentle, reas-

and including the end


is

that the

the emotion baggage that

all

credits

Then

is

serenity interruptus.

it

masterful

should have

Meet Frankenstein, the

more alarming than


carnage.

The

title

title

if

level of the

is

pratfalls or

moWes
itself

a false

the reality being that

Meets Godzilla

all

is a

quickly.

that tasteful

sci-fi

B movies, has just run

Disney

stuff.

On

third level,

Bambi

warning, both funny and profound, showingjust

where irreverence was heading

in the area of pop culture

pendent cartooning. Killing

Bambi

off

guilty joy of uttering

your

ken, and anything

possible.

is

tirst

and inde-

carries the sell-conscious, hall-

curse word;

now

all

the rules are bro-

fami

!55

w hen

Another

that Godzilla, representative of jerk)', stop-

motion animation and low-class,

roughshod over

Abbott iind

sense of security and

monster meet, the monster wins, and


is

like

suggests nothing

double takes, certainly not any actual

has lulled us into

humor

funny on several

the viewer had been

formation

removed us from any concept of reality


fawn and

The

the pacing of the cartoon

of the cartoon did not tip us off to the

title

nature of its punchline, as

Costcllo

deer in the forest,

family values, children s entertainment, quality, good

the middle class world order.

One

little

thinking more carefully. After growing up on

The

repeated viewings.

Newland. At that point

End.

which

suring music and pronounced lack of action establishes Bambi as an


icon rather than a character, not just a cute

more were we expecting?

CREDITS

repercussions for the cartoon lover

produced by Mr. and Mrs.

the joke

Distributed by International

lthough essentially

Bernard

56

39
aking fun of Mother Goose

and the Brothers

was standard

Grimm

Bunny added
tale

was

to

we've come to expect in a Bugs

bed, and

screen with the Three Bears,

bunny

Jack and his beanstalk, even

HAVE,"

so

Hood and

Riding
Rabbit
1941

Granny's

one of

Red

the Wolf.

Bunny

arrives

the

you

classic: a wolf, stair

fairy-tale spoofs, a

song-and-dance gag, and, of

TA

course,

Wolf goes

all

the

toon sound

for

comments about

think about

ears,

big nose

and Busts takes

care of the Wolf.

He

and

a little

Bugs. Red makes the usual

and

Warner Bros,

got everything

It's

door gags,

brought

rabbit for

Warner Bros,

effects. It's

"Silly, Isn't

He?

even got

sign.

Warner

car-

tend to

Bros, car-

toons in terms of their quotabi-

imitates

how many

liry

you can

lines

and how

a stool pigeon, whistling

Red Riding Hood

pointing to various rabbit

many people you know who can

hiding places (he's actually

quote from the cartoon, or rec-

appears singing

is

first

"The

Five

in

one of them) and

ing the

sing "Put

the 1940s).

The obnoxious

and

distract-

Wolf by making him

O'Clock Whistle" (made


popular by Glenn Miller in

on Your Old Grey

Bonnet." But

it's

truly annoying,

Red who

and

in the

is

remember and

repeat,

ognize what you are quoting

from

it.

Little

Red Riding Rabbit

has a high degree of quotabiliry.


All fans

know

have" and

the phrases "ta

do

"I'll

it,

but

I'll

end Bugs locates her to

probably hate myself in the

where

morning."

she'll

some and

WARNER BROS..

essential

These were the 1940s,

bobby- soxer and

Red

in

working

and screams "Hey,

Little

is

is

when Red

Grandma!

Riding

is

the quint-

The Woll

fairy

on

Red Riding Rabbit

some ways

cartoon.

years the

toons, he takes

in

Granny hersell

any

this,

Little

house;

the swing shift at Lockheed.

Bugs's most memorable car-

little

Grandma s

famous rabbit shared the

Hiawatha. In

taking Bugs

is

Warner

a surefire hit, so

the

to

Red

Bugs

tare at

Bros, in the 1940s.

teenage

be

less bother-

shares a carrot

with the Wolf.

found

I've

anywhere and

sing,

o'clock whistle

and

find

is

can go

"The

five

on the blink

someone

will finish

it

with Red's chorus of "da-da-dada-da-da."

CREDITS
A

Merrie Mclodia Cartoon

Directed by

i.

Freleng

Story: Michael Maltese

Animation: Manuel Perez


Voices: Mel Blanc

Musical direction: Carl

Stalling

Linda Simensky

ecice

on Earth

anv standard:

war parable

senous

anti-

told in cartoon

form through the eyes of a


famih' of cute, fuzzy squirrels. It

was

hailed for

lor

Award and

Academv

Nobel Peace

most antiwar

Prize. Like

messages,

an

it

seems sadlv

dated and tinged with a certain futility.


its

WWII was into

month when

fourth

was

story takes place at

Christmas near

church overlooking an old

A trio of squirrels

battlefield.

sing "Hark!

this

rel's

the

Herald

grandchildren ask him

earth,

good

will to

men,"

Gran'pa

tells

they destroyed each other.

The

forest creatures build

from the discarded

implements of war.

The

for

man.

them the

story

bright sunrise.
Peace on Earth

duced by

was pro-

Hugh Harman,

former Disney collaborator

ing eves and snouts (gas

who

masks) earning guns tipped

approach to animation.

who

argued and

strove for a cinematic

shouldn't have

made

it

Earth

it

Harman

interview.

it

"We
as a

it

we should have

tried to stop

ing

made

about three to

reels," said

1973

me

five

in a

"They
from mak-

was too

But Harman

serious."

believ

ed in ani-

mation's potential bevond


1939

comedv and wanted


films to

cry

T
'

CREDITS
MGM Cartoon

Produced by Hugh Harman


Story Jack Cosgrilt.

of huge monsters with flash-

Peace on

An

film

ends with the words "Peace

one-reeler,

MGM.

and

left,

on Earth supenmposed on

they have never seen

men were

Peaceville

squir-

meaning of "Peace on

with knives

released.

The

fought continuously until

only two

ruined

Angels Sing." Gran'pa

its

unique antiwar message and

nominated

The

unusual by

is

Hugh Harman.
Charles McGurl

Animarion: Carl L'rbano, Arnold Gillespie.


Jerry Brewer. In Spencc

Voices: Mel Blanc. Bernice Hansen,

bombing

he technique
tasy in a

toon

is

arresting for

it

combines realism and

way which throws overboard

craft.

all

fan-

traditions of car-

Scenes of marching soldiers, rumbling tanks,

airplanes, ruined cathedrals,

and no-man s-land

impression of aquatints or photogravures.

The

give the soft

outlines of the cartoon

characters also blend into the lovely backgrounds of the fantasy, and
there

is

an easy flow of motion which emphasizes naturalness. Sound

technique

is

borrowed from the realism of feature

films,

exquisite musical score, creates a definitely emotional

Sara Bcrner

158

and with the

mood.
Parents magazine

his

make audiences

and

think.

i59

i6o

omething completely new:"

Frankie stands accused of

That's what reviewers

shooting her man, Johnny,

thought

and

when

of Rootv Tool Toot

was

it

first

released,

suited

and the cause

of their excite-

ment

UPA's

is clear.

Ely (who admits she was

cre-

with Johnny, but onlv to

expanded the boundaries

rehearse) testify that Frankie

ballet,

mation to

of

tell

"shot her man, rootv toot

music, and ani-

toot, right in the snoot."

the tragic

Honest John then addresses

story of Frankie and Johnny.


Scott

Bill

first

suggested the

Hublcy ran with

jilted

ballerina

it,

dance

specialist

(the first black musi-

vows

cian to

compose

her

scene

is

so con

innocence that he

Moore

for the

to

marry

but when

Frankie sees Nellie

studios) to

The

a musical in

is

vinced of Frankie's

key scenes, and Phil

is

Frankie

at

shooter instead.

Honest John

Art Babbit

dancing with Honest John,

car-

which

the lines are sung, and

Johnny

killed the

choreograph, animation

toon

Jolly Frolics

hiring

Olga Lunick to

Hollwood

CREDITS

story": that a wildly rico-

cheting bullet shot by the

arrange the music.

Columbia Picturts presents a

the jury, explaining the "true

cartoon; director John

for

UPA, 1952

Honest John. The

ations caused sensations and

bining

Toot

defended by white-

bartender and singer Nellie

animation, in this case com-

Rooty
Toot

is

all

courtroom, where

A"
and

she grabs "Exhibit

murder weapon

its

the

shoots him rooty


toot toot.

Cartoon

Directed by John Hubley

Executive producer: Stephen Bosustovv

Lyrics:

Alan Arch

'

Twenty-five

Music: Phil Moore

Vocals: Annette

Warren

Choreography; Olga Lunick

Written by John Hublcy,


:

Bill

Scon

Animation: Art Babbit, Pat Matthews.

Tom

first

junk

McDonald. Grim Natwick

Color and design: Paul lulian

his

or thirty years ago

Disney
that

picture.

It

we remembered

was such

departure from the old

had been unloaded on the screen

new technique became

sensation.

seeing our

for years that

We had the same feeling the

other night ... as a result of this Rootv Toot Toot.

It 's

thing completely new, wonderfully entertaining, with

gem, somea beautiful

background handling that brought applause from the big theater


audience.

W.

Production manager: Herb Klynn

The Ho/lyii ood

Technical supervision: Shcrm Glas

161

R.

Wilkenon,

Reporter,

1952

95 1

Rinm 1 d

t)-S Columbia Ti

will mm Hnrm
JOSEPH 'IflflBERA

GM searched for a winning

the pair

was asked

cartoon star throughout the

ue their

efforts.

1930s. Disney had Donald

for the next fifteen years,

Duck, Fleischer had Popeye,

Tom and Jerry became


MGM's cartoon stars.

and Warner Bros, had Porkv


Pig,

MGM stood emptv-

but

handed.

Hugh Harman and

Rudolph

Ising did their best

with

a series of beautiful

Happy Harmonies, but


lethargic

their

Bamev Bear went

nowhere. In 1937,

MGM's

to contin-

They

and

The Cat Concerto, one of


the best of the

Tom

Concerto

and

Jerry series, begins with

Tom

Cat walking onstage,

sitting at a piano,

No.

2.

His playing awakens

Jerry Mouse, asleep within


the instrument. Jerry climbs

cartoons, but these were

out of the piano, sees

poorlv received.

the keyboard, and begins

Tom

off a battle

man Joseph

the pair. Their chase and

in

1939

to direct a

cat-and-mouse cartoon. Puss


Gets

the Boot,

was expected.

nothing

film received critical

ular acclaim

much

When the
and pop-

and an Acad-

at

"conducting" him, setting

William Hanna and story-

teamed

1947

ning the Hungarian Rhapsody

the Captain and the Kids

Barbera were

MGM,

and begin-

cartoon dinsion tried with

Thus, when animator

The
Cat

did so

of wits between

CREDITS

struggle take place both


inside
all

and outside the piano,

An

the while Jem' continu-

Directed by William

ing his performance, at one

Producer: Fred

his feet.

is

in a tuxedo,

the piano for

viewer assumes

is

Tom

Editing: Fred

Music: Scott Bradley

play-

realistic,

modeled on performances of
musician Scott Bradley. The

Cat Concerto

won

Academy Award
Animated Short

an
for Best

Subject.

17
-

McAlpin

Photography: Jack Stevens

the

human

Tom's piano

remarkably

Irven Spence

Backgrounds: Bob Gentle

he per-

Dressed

ing

Ed Barge,

"human."

forms

audience.

the

is

cartoon in which

treated as

at

Quimby

Animation: Kenneth Muse,

The Cat Concerto


first

Hanna and

Joseph Barbera

point forced to do so with

emy Award nomination

MGM Tom and Jerry Cartoon

HANNA-BARBERA
I

New Mexico, in

in Melrose,

Born

course

1931.

when

He worked

his

way up

Joseph Barbera, born


Irving Trust
finally

York's

Van Buren

"I started

"Within the
Fred]

studio,

there the
first

and

later

for

MGM,
The

in 1957,

finally

his

let

each

recalls

Hanna.

"I

studied journalism and engineering in college.

washer and

MGM's The

office assistant at

knack

we
I

and

after

full

to the

magazines until he

time. After beginning his animation career at

West

coast in

1937 and joined

MGM as

New-

storyman.

gravitated together." Barbera also recalls the now-historic pairing.

suggested

Why don't we do a picture on our own?';

[producer

stop us."

MGM cartoon have


said, "I

its

own

don't want to put


in their first film.

story

all

and characters, unlike every other

studio,

where

star characters

our eggs in one basket," in reference to the appealing cat and mouse

But when theater owners demanded more

assigned to do nothing else for the next sixteen years.

The

series

Tom and Jerry cartoons,

won

seven

MGM Tom and Jerry cartoons, however, are only one part of an amazing career. When MGM closed
Hanna and

Barbera were suddenly thrust into a world that no longer required their unique talents.

for television,
five

movements and
a

"Ruff and Reddy,

Academy Awards

and sold

it

to

its

cartoon department

They

quickly created a

Columbia Pictures (Screen Gems). They went from

minutes of animation; from pantomime comedy

to dialogue-heavy pictures;

from complex

lavish
full

$45,000

animation to

sparse settings.

medium hungry

Quick Draw McGraw, the

for their

kind of entertainment. "Ruff and Reddy" was followed by Huckleberry Hound, Yogi

Flintstones, the Jetsons,

TV generation. After many years of "putting

made more

He changed

Ising s studio in

graduation went to work for the

for drawing, contributed cartoons to various

moved

think

Harman and

Captain and the Kids cartoons in 1937.

in 1905, studied accounting

ended up in the same room.

Hanna and Barbera were

But they tapped

the

did,

so desperate he didn

content to

budgets to $3,000 for

Bear,

York City

eel

remarkable achievement denoting the consistent level of high quality.

low-budget pilot

limited

on

to director

New

joining Terrytoons, Barbera

same day Joe

Hanna and Barbera came up with

within a year

in

Company. Barbera, with

were being developed. Quimby once


characters

Hanna

decided to quit banking and become a cartoonist

two years we

Quimby was

Quimby was

1911, William

he entered the animation industry as a

diverse animation than

all

and Jonny Quest. Hanna-Barbera became the brand name

their eggs in

one basket,

any other American studio.

164

this

team unleashed more cartoon

for

animation in

star characters

and


The Cat Concerto

f all the

Hollywood

cartoon series, the

Tom and Jerry cycle

got the most out of the least,

wringing over one hundred genout of

erally excellent episodes

the minute, three-word plot


description: Cat chases

While

mouse.

the formula itself

remained the same,

different

aspects of the equation were

occasionally altered to distin-

it.

guish the individual one-reelers

from each other, which usually


entailed the setting or the intro-

duction of a character. In The

Cat Concerto, the extra element

is

the music (Liszt's Hungarian

Rhapsody No.

2),

which func-

tions as the dominating element

of both the background setting

and the foreground

two protagonists

new

action.

The

revel in the

opportunities for comic vio-

lence found in the

mechanisms

of the music-making process

parodying not only the hoitytoity

manner of the concert

vir-

tuoso but the hammers and


strings of the piano

itself.

Will

Friedwald

165

ne

oi

the classic screwball

cartoons of the 1940s, The


Barber of Seville

was James

Culhane's

Woody

first

Woodpecker cartoon
director of the

as

new

Walter Lane

Culhane had read

studio.

Film Technique, a

hook by

Russian director V.

I.

Pu-

dovkin, and applied the theo-

adding

ries to this cartoon,

around
ror.

in front of the mir-

A Native American mis-

Woody for the barber;


Woody puts hot towels over

Dash
it's

Woody

what he had,

what he was

hyphen between the audience


and the screen,

him so much

overheating

what

did, it's

takes

his customer's headdress,

is

at first a

Technicolor shock H ave, here

that bread toasts in his

Technicolor synapse between

mouth and

shadow and substance, between

the headdress

shrinks, then uses the

ourselves and our

springlike barber chair to

geous

catapult his

customer out of

fantasies.

actions are

still

more

outra-

His impossible
a cartoonist's

scenes and speeding up the

the shop and onto the front

convenience, but in Culhane's

pace with rapid cutting.

of a cigar store.

hands

As

the cartoon begins,

Woodv Woodpecker
admires the hairstyles
played in the
Scxillc

window

dis-

the

Barber Shop (Tony

Figaro, proprietor)

Next,

works."

for "the

blowtorch

and begins singing "Largo

Factorum" from

and

whole

Woody removes his

hard hat with

77ic

Woody destroys

on one

construction

worker asks

ol

level

himself

only to re-create

himself on another.

We can

still

ask the logical questions, but


rather than just evade them,

el

Barber

Woody in

The Barber of Seville

is

transcending them, making him-

decides to be patriotic and

of Seville as he lathers

get a Victor)' Haircut.

exposed

("How

worker's shoes. Swinging

one, and one of the greatest

the razor while singing

cartoon characters of Hollywood

can

lose with a

victory?") Finding a note

reading

"Gone

physical.

Woodv

to take

my

Back soon,"

realizes

for the duration

Tom'
and

is

out

tools

self

all

parts, including the

high-speed version

"Figaro,"

Woodv raises the


smashes his cus-

tomer's head against the

He

completes the

ceil-

hair-

raising haircut in record

time.

The woodpecker heck-

les his client outside,


irate

and the

customer throws him

through the window back


into the shop.

Woody gets

bopped with

supply of

shaving

mugs and

ends up stuck inside


the revolving barber
pole.

il

never quite an explicable

animation

of

chair and

ing.

ty,

an understandable personali-

if

he was

all

golden age, even


cartoon and no

character.

Joe

Adamson

CREDITS
A

Walter Liiniz

Woody Woodpecker Cartunt


Directed by James Culbane

Storv:

Ben Hardaway, Milt Schaffer

Animation: LaVcrnc Harding. Lcs Kline


Music: Darrell Calker

Animation

layout: Art

Hcincman

Backgrounds Philip DeGuard

rederic Back,
talents,

L^gJ

bom

in Saarbriicken,

Germany,

he worked on several educational television series

ed stained-glass artworl

foi

Place-des-arts

the

French Network's animation section. His


(1970), which uses cut-outs to

His other films include


frosted acetate;
.

and

rocking chair. The

Crac.'

in 1924, has lived in Montreal,

(198

Man Who

1),

tell

Illusion?

first

animated

the story of a

in

won Back

his

168

of

many

in

first

[967

In

[968 he joined the

creat-

CBC

w ith Graeme Ross, was Abracadabra

who

rescue the sun from an

evil

magician

film using the technique of colored pencil

on

century of change told (rom the point of view of the family

second Academy Award.

L_

Montreal

and her friends

(1975); All Nothing (1979), his


a

A man

Radio-Canada during the 1950s and 1960s and

film, a collaboration

little girl

an Academy Award-winning film about

Planted Trees

for

subwaj station

Canada, since 1948.

when

hen iilmmaker Frederic Back


first

encountered the story of

Elzeard Bouffier in a maga-

leam

When he felt
five

Man Who

The

result,

Trees, is a

men.

Planted

testament to the

indomitable
It is

spirits oi

flowing

wash

of pencil sketches with


"real"

tor

sounds and

seems

able to

its

The

eminently

suit-

Executive producer: Hubert Tison

Story: Jean

Giono

beech.

Years
the

Music:

first

later, after

WWI,

returns to the

site.

plantings are

now

His fascination with the


leads

him

man

to return time

The

and

and he sees the wind-

Man Who

Planted

Trees represents the

fusion of art and belief


into a seamless masterpiece.

The

young man hiking through

transformed into green

a lonely traveler

barren and windy terrain

fields,

French Alps.

encounters

him

He

shepherd

night,

water, a meal, and

he observes the shep-

man

He

when he has one hun-

dred. Intrigued, the

thriving villages, and

prosperous farmland, the

who

young

follows the shepherd

result ol Bouflier's forest.

observes that

"Men

as effective as

God in

1935
est"

ernment protection. Bouffier

1947

at

As

w orks

his ecological

miracle, the animation, music,

and narration blossom with the


land.

By

screen

the end of the film, the

is filled

with the vibrant

colors of an impressionist can-

Man Who

the narrator

represents the culmination ot

he plants the acorns. This

states,

be trulv wondcrlul.'

"A man

Bouffier

vas.

was Elzeard

rudimentary forms of life. But as

the age of

eighty-nine.

and

tasks

Bouflier's "natural for-

the next day and watches as

Bouffier,

could be

was placed under gov-

died in

wandering in

world of grays and browns; the


desolate earth can support only

He

other than destruction." In

destiny can

The

Planted Trees

Back's righteous posturing that


spoils

many "message"

films.

Understated and imbued with

profound dignity,

Gagnon

77>c

Man

VVlio

Planted Trees shines as an exam-

Normand Roger

ple of the art of

Narrator: Phillippc Noiret (French version)

Narrator: Christopher

man

The

Scenario and animation: Frederick Back

Assistant: Lina

of thou-

cartoon opens with an image of

stops

Directed and produced by Frederic Back

He planted and

a forest

sands of oak trees as well as

again,

subject.

storv begins with a

herd counting acorns.

Socitu Radio-Canada Production

state

ten years old and impressive.

a narra-

lodging for the night. That

nurtured

remedy the

swept, lorsaken landscape

offers

CREDITS

oi affairs."

his opin-

and he had

for lack of trees,

resolved to

both

also a rare work,

for its style

in the

SOCIETE RADIO-CANADA, 1987

was

for

three years. "It

prepared, he devoted

Trees

been planting acorns

ion that the land was dying

to

years to the project, and the

Planted

and had

knew he had much

about him.

Man
Who

fifty-five

zine in the early 1970s, he

before undertaking a film

The

voung man met

the

him he was

animation in the

truest sense of the term.

Plummcr

(English version)

169

Charles Solomon

ook and magazine covers

Voice in the Wilderness (Frank

then gets into

came

Sinatra) drives the

of Little Red Riding Hood,

to

so often during

liie

the 1930s that the device

considered

genre

which

piece both

audiences
all

this master-

thor-

Modem

book

references

and celebntv caricatures, but


mar-

this cartoon

remains

vel of comic

timing and

In

night, a

bookstore

Young

at

mid-

Man with

Horn (Ham- James) comes

Book
Rcvuc

alive to

solo;

Sea

perform

trumpet

The Wbistlcr and The

Wolf leer

Strip;

at

Cherokee

The Complete Works of

Shakespeare pops a spring;

Henry

WARNER BROS..

1946

the Eighth

runs

Whistler's Mother,

home

to The Aldricb Family; The

Toms

and Mother

Dorsey), Drums Along

Pie-Eyed Piper

clcr

have

Gazette
the

The

the

calls

Law

Police

The Long Arm of

to bring the wolf

before The judge. Sentenced

Krupa), The

(Benny

Goodman), and

to

the Arkansas

the wolf manages to

Life,

Escape, but he trips

Jimmv

a jam session.

Durante's So Big

nose and

Duck who

Rcnv right into Dante's

steps off the

cover of The Loonev Tunes

Meme

to complain.
suit

Infemo.

dance

Melodies Comics

He

gets a zoot

to

tates

Danny

Dannv Kavc

celebratorv jitterbug,

sillies."

Boy, and imi-

"Saratoga in the

with

The book characters

which the wolf responds,

vou

Saratoga Trunk, stands in


front of

along Skid

slides

"Stop that dancing up there,

and wig out of the

singing

Morning"

Russian accent.

nTWO

He

TOP TALENTS

Rod

Scribner's animated reaction of

Daffy to the Big Bad

turning

Wolf

into a giant eyeball for six frames

CREDITS
A

one of the
history.

Loonev Tunis Cartoon

for his

Directed hv Robert Clampctt

Story

lalion

W arren

w arning

Foster

Gould.

C Melender

It is

Cornett

I/O

is

in cartoon

frantically

Red Riding Hood of the Wolf. Warren Foster

Danny Kaye-esque

skat

song sung

worth noting that Danny Kaye

children's album.

Stalling

moments

performance of Daffy

Tat" (cowritten by Alan Foster and

Wood

Voices: Mel Blanc

Musical direction Carl

classic

Mel Blanc deserved an award

later

Foster's original songs, the hit tune "I

Layouts and backgrounds

Tbomas McKimson,

Little

wrote the

Robert McKimson. Rod Scnbner.

Manny

on

Their music bothers Daffv

and

is

Cahin, and finally The

Petrified Forest.

(Tommy

Mohawk (Gene

replay

Hopalong Cassidy to Uncle

Girls'

Dormitory, Ladv in the Dark,

Trai

funny animation.

The

a lively

chased on pogo sticks in

crazy; also falling for

are Freckles,

Goose. Brass

mav not under-

the

Women
him

mocks and

oughly outdoes.

stand

is

cartoon

Little

in that scene.

recorded one of

Tawt Taw A Puddv

Billy

May)

for a

i7i

Book

Rauc

The

apotheosis of the

early

Warner

Bros,

cartoons: Warner's

hook

life

covers

coming

the fact that this

despite

cartoon was

its

cascading cross-cul-

tural references necessarily

to

the technical brilliance and

less

punch than they

pack

did at the

explosive exuberance that

time of the film's release. Filled

defined the studio in the 1940s,

with spectacularly

supplanted by
Daffy

Duck

that

performance by
is,

the books. Director

well,

one

for

Bob

ment

after

florid,

even

power

to engage us

than even

And there
great

gift for

is

more: Clampett's

conjuring phantas-

all

ability to

evoke character.

world of frenetically moving

that

director's virtuoso

stronger

the churning activi-

admired, but Book Revue also

shows the

far

surrounds him. In

graphics. Daffy

moves

is

the graphic

us.

When all this is melded to


the cartoon s

immense humor,

the production seems to have

from his Looney Tunes comic

toony manipulation of the

run out of money, or something,

book, the cartoon

medium, and almost savage

Daffy

Duck emerges

is

immediately

The duck

taken to another

astonishment in this

film

but bursts

virtually seizes the screen,

compendium

yet thanks to Clamplett

all

seams;

at the
s

remark

ably disciplined use of excess, the

cartoon

America's imaginative landscape

feels

verve and deftness that

ty that

magorias has been widely

concluding dance), the

of 1940s

ence as something

When

and transforming fragments of

with

its

baroque, animation (although

popular culture, appropriating

comes

deeply.

for the

Clampett brings us astonish-

breathless

this

completed nearly 50 years ago

and that

quintessential 1930s story


line

remain breathtaking

and

instantly

we

and

film's cen-

feel his pres-

lessness, the result

tion of

reck-

summa-

to offer us. If any

work

of genius, Boofc

is it.

172

film's

one animated short can be con-

Revue

From

is a

car-

what the Golden Age of

Animation has

sidered a

anchored, earned,
utterly credible.

becomes the

ter of gravity;

anarchic energy

level:

stunning staging, gloriously

Steve Schneider

Book Revue

BOB ClAMPETT

Bob

Clampett (1913-1984) was one of the

pioneers in American animation.


still

in his teens,

Mickey Mouse
joined the

While

he helped design the

doll;

Harman Ising studios and

mated scenes

first

shortly thereafter, he

for the very first

ani-

Merrie

Melodies cartoon, Lady, Play Your Mandolin. In 1935,

Clampett was assigned animator and key gagman to director

Tex Avery and

his

team

at

Clampett led the studio in


irreverent

humor

that

"Termite Terrace." Avery and


a

new

direction, displaying a wild,

became known

as the

Warner

Clampett was promoted to director in 1937, and

style.

for the next

nine years directed some of the funniest, wildest, and most

memorable cartoons

in

animation history

(five

of

them

appear in this book: Porky in Wackyland, The Great Piggy

Bank

Robbery, Coal Black

and Corny

and dc Scbbcn

Dwarfs,,

Book Revue,

Concerto).

Clampett was also instrumental in the creation and

development of Porky

Pig, Daffy

Duck, and Bugs Bunny. He

introduced Tweety Bird, patterned on his


picture.

He

left

Wamer in

1946, opened his

and created the popular Beany and

173

own nude baby

Cecil.

own

studio.

!74

4
Holes," which offer peeks

love to look at pictures ol

people working," remarks

the past. Here Anita and

Quasi, lying in bed, eating

Rollo rid themselves ol

chocolate cake, and watch-

Quasi: She drops

ing TV. Anita arrives with

cake over
a helpful

Rollo, Quasi tumbles back

trip to

amusement park whose

attractions include the "Hall

of Time Mirrors

self at every age,"

and

Two guards later

notice a

new addition to the

where

Back

"Think-O-Blink,"

college

are

her film
tures:

which

Quackadero. Like Bob

stream of consciousness.

is full

of strange crea-

house

talks, a

clock

has arms and legs that move,

bound back and

objects

time

and

Dream Today,"

in Sally Cruikshank's

all

forth in

to a fine sound-

track.

As J. Hoberman

"Sally

Cruikshank has

put
all

After lunch

they

an animated

reveals

visit

at

Porky' s Diner

"9 Lives 2 Live,"

where Quasi

is

rooked into

seeing his former

lives.

Finally they visit the

1972. She wrote, designed,

"Time

style

totally

Its

mixture of funk)'

its rolling,

folding per-

spective

and soundtrack

sighs,

enthralls

ers

CREDITS

dash of Sam Flax, and

with

it

some

of

view-

and leaves others cold

the traits of a true "cult

A Cartoon

b\ Sa/Ii Cruikibank

Directed by Sally Cruikshank

Music: Bob Armstrong, Al Dodge

Ink and paint: Kathcrvn Lcnthan

Special art assistant:

Sound engineer:

it,

but

Special thanks

to:

Kim Deitch

Steve Halbert

E E Gregg Snazelle.

Rose S Cruikshank. Diana Pellcgnm

band

her own."

as authentic an

it

is

with

music or situation comedy

and made

experienced studio.

and 1960s R. Crumb comics

as jug

on her

1930s Van Beuren cartoons

Depression-era 'funny animal'

American idiom

and animated Quasi

own, without the help of a


large,

single-handedly resurrected the

cartoon

and joined San

at the Qiiackadcro

shocking) and "See Last

in

Francisco's Snazelle Films in

directed,

which paints pictures of

Night's

Cruikshank began

Sally

making cartoons while

crank machine that

your thoughts (Quasi' s

Quackadero

reptile.

turns skyscrapers into grassy


hills;

at the

CRUIKSHANK, 1975

Time Hole:

Quasi being chased by

See your-

as skeletons; "Roll

rolling

in time.

Quasi, Anita, and Rollo see

Time,"

push Irom

prehistoric

themselves as youngsters

Porky in Wackyland,

chocolate

and with

remind him of their

delic

dampen s

Quasi

her wheeled friend Rollo to

the Quackadero, a psyche-

Anything can happen

a railing,

at

Karl Cohen

175

Quasi

ai ihc

Quackadtro

r,INDEPENDENT ANIMATION
handful of the
this

fifty'

cartoons in

volume, such as Quasi at

the

Quackadero and Bambi Meets,


Godzilla, are representative of the

work

of independent animators.

While

the traditional Hollywood

studios are factories of popular animation, independent film-

makers have the unique opportunity


enjoy

freedom in

style,

artists

experiment and

concepts, and techniques that often

influence the arrform and expand

Solo

to

its

potential.

have been making their films independently

since animation began (in

fact,

Winsor McCay

could be

considered the father of independent animation). Usually

working alone, sometimes taking years


film,

to

produce

a short

the works of independent animatots are celebrated in

touring animation festivals such as

in

Annecy, France, and Ottawa,

Canada. Lone Reiniger, Oskar


Fischinger,

Norman McLaren,

John and Faith Hubley, George


Griffin,

Carolyn

Plympton

Leaf,

are just a

and

Bill

few of the

animators whose independent

works have influenced the


entire

field.

J
I7 6

Quasi

177

at the

Quackadtra

CORNY CONCERTO

omv-Gee
Fudd

as

monies,

Hall," with

"Blue Danube," which

Elmer

master of cereis

recounts the

the setting for an

of

Elmer

introduces

duck

the

as 4-F.

The

duck uses "cartoon

to rescue the family and does

praising the "whis-

whythym
as

comes out

in the

here!"

and his dog

(a

unto

polite to point."

es Bugs, but

gets his

The

all tall

satisfied

Pig,

Porkv chas-

his

and

when

ther directors imitated or


a

made fun

knew

bow

compositions.

first

saw the rough

could have

ments

own

but with

in

made

it

CREDITS

in the

paid

identity. Corny Concerto

a sly

grin

on

Directed by Robert Clampett

Story:

Frank Tashlin

Animation: Robert

adjust-

them
makes

its face.

Mike

178

Melodies Cartoon

Musical direction: Carl

timing ..."

Bob Clampett

A Mcmc

by

beautiful, almost perfect,

of the Disney cartoons; only

to Fantasia

to ani-

making some minor

the

debt even as he asserted his

deep and genuinely respectful

me

cut with the music track

shot.

up

is

up. Doc?" with Strauss. But

rab-

dog and pirou-

next piece

was

Imagine mixing 'Eh, what's

ettes into the horizon.

The

"It

and our characters

classical

to the ground.

Porky and

it.

s\nchronizarion with such

an angrv squir-

ties

with

mate Bugs Bunny, Porkv

gun and shoots

Bugs eventually

classic

but Bob

experiment, for

"It ain't

Bugs pretending to be

is a

considerable departure, an

who

pig, dog,

itself,

MERRJE MELODIES, 1943

Clampett wasn't completelv

tale

Thev

reminds the dog,

bit

The

and

pointer) out

rabbit.

encounter Bugs,

them.

wood concerns Porky

hunting

rel

license"

vulture.

Corny Concerto

wolls

awound and awound


it

away with the

of the

it

Concerto

black

"A Tale of the Vienna

woodwinds,

homage, acknowledging

A vulture

Woods,"
pering

Corny

kidnaps the swans but reject

Disnev's Fantasia.

first

of an ugly

tries to join a

family of swans.

affectionate but scathing

send-up

tale

duckling who

Barrier

McKimson

Stalling

79

i8o

Unicom

The

Garden, an

in the

adaptation of humorist

moral: "Don't count your

James Thurber's short


begins,

"Once upon

morning" with

story,

sunny

hen-pecked

Thurber's work, but

roses in his backyard, he

funding lor such an erudite

rushes to

project proved difficult he

his sleeping

asked director William

Hurt to

"A unicorn

mythical beast."

look

a closer

beast.

He

feeds

it

a lily

tell

human

and

Duck

The man

Bunny

as the stars of animated shorts,

must have been

the characters of James

coming

to

life.

it

startling to see

Thurber

Since that time,

it, it

was

Academy Award

atrist,

and suggests

jacket be called

for.

this

morning."

The

and put the

now

a fact of

her.

animation history,

and one of the many feathers

in

their collective cap.

As

Leonard Maltin

if

unicorn.

"Of course
a

ever did. Using color both-

he told his wile about see-

ing

He

not.

mythical beast."

ered

me

thought

at first,
il

around to

replies,

unicorn

William Hurtz

"studied even' drawing he

husband

is

would do
long as

181

CREDITS

it

but

it

Columbia Pictures Cartoon

he probably
this

way

Hum

James Thurber

Design: Robert Dranko

Animation Phil Monroe. Rudv Lamva.

Tom McDonald
Backgrounds: Robert Dranko
Music: David Raskin

Production manager Herbert Klynn

he ever got
it

Directed by William T.

Story:

animate Thurber's

faithfully,

on

they take her away,

the doctor asks the

To

crude line-drawing stvie

doctor

straitjacket

vehicle for

Mr. Magoo.

unicorn

and police exchange glances

is

considera-

and reluctantly changed

more commercial

studio's sec-

and tone of Thurber's

for

his feature-film plans for a

to retain the

work. That they succeeded

tion

it

a strait-

The

spirit

refused to enter

When

ond challenge was

revolutionary.

but Bosustow was

reportedly disappointed.

psychi-

"My husband saw a

UPA tried

acclaimed

gone. Meanwhile, his wife


a

ani-

continued

critically

He

they arrive she announces,

a familiar one,

series,

returns to the

work has become

when

UPA's

have you

the idea of adapting illustrators'

but

The Kim

are a booby,

the police and

UPA

traditional to

garden but finds the unicorn

calls

featured

and

Hollywood cartoons.

put in the booby hatch!"

Donald

or Bugs

"You

am going to

UPA, 1953

in the

it

characters,

mal subjects

Garden

Hurt

short.

was trying to avoid the

and

in the

Thurber

Garden" because

at

her, but she rudely

replies,

Unicom

chose "A

then awakens his wife again


to

adapt

subject as

goes into the

the cute and affectionate

to

when

him

garden for

audiences accus-

based on

wife the news. She dismisses


curtly with

Unicorn

had long wanted to produce

Spotting a unicorn eating

The man

tomed

hatched." Stephen Bosustow

a feature film

is a

To

boobies until they're

husband eating breakfast.

tell

films ends with a

as

was strongly linear."

'

"'jflc

DOVER BOYS
ii

PIMENTO UNIVERSITY"
-no RIYAtS or

ROUDEFORT HALL"

he

full

on-screen

cartoon

is 77ic

this

title oi

Dover Boys

at

Dora Standpipe, who

rolls

along the screen as

on

It is a

parody of the 1890s dime-

wheels.

store novel melodramas,

Dan

film with

it's

in

as a

watershed in animation

his-

tory. Until this film, Holly-

wood animators
Jones

True

oldtimer

who keeps popping

Chuck Jones
he almost got

claims that

fired

from

they hadn't been block-

intentionally unrealistic

booking

movements.

w ould have withheld

known

as

simply

"Good Old

U."

are the

Dover Bovs

after

me

out."

and

it

Wamer
ot

the

and lunnier.

spoof of the Rover Boys


dime-store novels

cartoon to contain

sly, intelligent

humor com-

bined with highly stylized

human

characters and equally

stylized

movements. (For the

most

part, this style

until the advent of

and

caught on, and

and those
became

is a

was not

explored further for several years,

other studios
taster

it

But the

Tlx Dover Bovs,

cartoons

it,

theaters, they

new style

also

Pimento U., or
P.

Bros, tor this car-

"They hated

Dover Boys

first

such

toon.

thrown

The

major milestone, the

up unexpectedly.

with stvlized settings and

story takes place at

com-

pany of an oddly-dressed

The Den er Bovs was devised

The

to

Dover Boys rescue

Warner

The most popular students


1942

Backslide kidnaps her

ism with their characters.

Pimento University,

WARNER BROS..

bullying cad

her, but she prefers the

including

tried to achieve real-

if

and takes her to his moun-

form, the

artistic

and which stands

The

tain cabin hideout.

also the

which Chuck

Jones besran taking


risks

Boys

who plav

Rivals of Roquefort Hall.

cartoons, hut

Diwer

caricatures

hide and seek with Dainty

Pimento University; or The

which was nothing new

Be

human

1948, and the

UPA

series of

Kimball cartoons

at

in

Ward

Disney in

1953.) Even a half-century

later.

The Dover Boys stands as one of


the most elegant examples of the
principle that the less literal the

character design, the

more inno-

vative the animation can be

Tom,

without losing

believability.

Dick, and Larry, exaggerated

Milt Gray

CREDITS
A Mtmt

VI

lo

I'

Slory:

Cartoon

[ones

Ted

Pierce

Directed hv Charles

Animation Robert Cannon


usical direction

Carl

VV

Stalling

hese scenes from

TJie

Dwer

Boys are three actual successive frames from the film, demonstrating

the innovative use of limited animation throughout the picture. Characters pop from pose to

pose with a frame of "smear

182

animation between them.

LL HAVE TO
SACRIFICE MY
I

ART AND CO
IN THE MOVIES.

i8 4

he

cartoon characters

store, sells

across a silent screen;

hands

moved

most became

extinct before

the advent of sound.

tures as

The

such sapient

lineage ol

named
toon

Felix

the

a cat

first car-

star to originate within

medium

the

crea-

Mickey Mouse and

Bugs Bunny leads to

Most

itself

his contemporaries

ol

were

Holh'wood,

WINKLER,

1923

career at Static Studio,

he asks the boss

Ouo Messmcr

after

ly accurate

impression of Charlie

Chaplin's walk

by the

Little

Felix

Tramp

my stuff!

is

accused

himself of

"stealing

help and linds Douglas

sequence was an in-joke inserted

This

brief

Fairbanks being attacked by

by Otto Messmer,

and chief animator, who, in

Mutt and Jeff) or were

gun from William

designed with

Felix

(K0K0

little

indnidu-

the Clown,

Farmer Alfalfa).

Felix

and

was

A thinker, he

different:

tions appropriate to his envi-

the animated

shoots two

Felix

to a contract.

was the

first

lor a trip to

Hollywood (he

actor

money

Hollywood.

Felix

Soon the vwnole


town vwas gam-

med

one

known

reached the apex of

The

influ-

enced the personality and move-

first

baby

oil,

and even

of cigars.

still

produced by Pat Sullivan.

merchandise, including

than seventy years

actor)

an animated series of Chaplin

ments of Felix the Cat w hen he

appearance (19 19), Felix

sends him out to find

cartoon

pan-

character licensed lor use on

was

work

expressions

films

him

own brand

in

for

facial

This thorough research

signs

Within

as popular as Charlie

1916, studied Chaplin

tomime and

delights Cecil B. DeMille,

dolls,

few years of his

Hart,

them,

his duel with the third

world ruled by lunacy.


a

S.

ol

Felix's creator

who

played the pet of an out-of-

Animation:

emotingjoy and

his acting,

the cat performs an astonishing-

sorrow. Felix hears a cry lor

his popularity in 192.3, the

CREDITS

and demonstrates

memorable encounter

giant mosquitoes. Swiping a

year of Felix

Winkler Pratnts a Pal Sullnan Comic

where

(a carica-

screen. In a particularly

(Krazy Kat,

Felix

j.

human

ture ol censor Will Hays)


lor a job

of the gods and goddesses of the

on popular

strips

Chaplin and Buster Keaton.

own

mingles with caricatures

comic

ronment

M.J.

Felix ditches the

Felix barges into a

Hollywood studio and

owner $500. In

actor to pursue his

solved problems v\ith solu-

Hollywood

his

Feisty

out the shop, and

either based

ality

Felix in

discovers a bankrupt shoe

earliest ancestors of

today

up.

185

ol

cats.

More

later,

America

his

he's

s best-

appeared in 1919.

John Cancmakcr

Other Great Cartoons


There
more

are. of course,

than

fifty

many

great car-

Although our

toons.

bal-

Mother Goose Goes Hollywood

Van Beuren

(Wilfred Jackson/Silly

The Sunshine Makers

S\Tnphomes/ 1938)

(Burt Gillett,

some

there were
sions.

Toward

(Charles

Ted Eshbaugh/

Melodies/

Pig, Sylvester

Moving Day

A Talc

(Ben Sharpstein/A Mickey Mouse

(Robert Clamperr/Meme

o/Tuo

Kitties

list,

Warner

surprising omis-

Bros. Studios

Cartoon/1938); Mickey Mouse.


the end of the

M. Jones/Meme

1948) Porky

Rainbow Parade/1935)

loting process resulted in a remark-

ably well-rounded and diverse

Scaredy Cat

Studios

Melodies/ig42);Tweety
Baseball Bugs

list,

Donald Duck, Goofy


the point spread

was minute;

some

one or two votes

cases, only

separated cartoons that

in

made

(I.

the

Freleng/Looney Tunes/ 1946);

Bugs Bunnv

Music Lund

(I.

from those that didn

SMnphony/ 1 93 3)

(Robert Clampett/Loonev Tunes/

In another time, in another place,

these cartoons

mav have been

included. Following are

toons that

number

receiv

ed

ot votes

all

(Walt Disney/ 1 928); Mickey

Mouse
a

Bugs

Gets the Bold (Robert

Clampett/Meme Melodies/ 1942)

substantial

from our panel.

Bunm

is a classic.

Note:

The

toons, with the exception


Dinosaur, are

Some

ol

Mouse
(Charles

greatest car-

all

Cartoon/ 1 939)

the silent and indepen-

dently produced cartoons that

appear on the following

list

list

are

does not

Averv/Meme

(Fred

Melodies/

1940); Bugs Bunnv, Elmer

Fudd

MGM Studios
The Bill: Wolf

Three Bears

M. Jones/Meme

(Tex Avery/ 1942)

Melodies/1948)

Mouse Cleaning
Thru

ihc

Mirror
Fust

and Fum-ous

(Daud Hand/A Mickey Mouse


(Charles

Cartoon/ 1 9 36)
1

paper-animated This

the

ol Gertie

eel-animated

A Wild Hare

The Pointer
(Clyde Geronimi/A Mickey

fifty

Fudd

appearance; silent film

s first

Bugs Bunny and

Each

the

car-

1946). Bugs Bunnv. Elmer

Plane Crazy

Freleng/Merrie

Melodies/ 1947); Tweety, Sylvester

(Wilfred Jackson/Silly

The Big Snooze


top-fifty list

Twectit Pie

(Hanna-Barbera/1948);

M. Jones/Loonev Tunes/

949) Road Runner and Wile


;

Tom

and Jem

E.

Screwball Squirrel

Who

Killed

Cock Robin (David

Coyote
(Tex Aver)'/ 1 944)

Hand/Silly SMnphonv/1935)

My

Gorilla

include computer-animated or pup-

Dreams
Droopy

Serior

(Robert Mcfximson/Looney

pet-animated films

Fleischer Studio

Tunes/1948); Bugs Bunnv

(Tex Avery/ 1 949) Droopy


;

Kpko's Earlh Control

Swing

Winsor McCay
Lmlc

Nemo

(igi

i)

(Charles

Mechanical Monsters

Disney Studios
Education

for

(194 1 ), Superman

The Old

Man

of the Mountain

(1933); Betty Boop, with


Ferdinand

pick

the Bull

M. Jones/Loonev

Tunes/ 1 946); Bugs Bunnv

Death

(Clyde Geronimi/Special/ 1943)

Lotc

to

(Tex Avery/Meme

(Pete

Kpmered
Flebus

(Robert Clampett/Loonev Tunes/


(Ernest Pintoff/1957)
1

Trees
first

color Silly

Symphony;

Academy Award winner

Popcye the Sailor Meets

Ah

Pig, Sylvester

The Old Grey Hare

Independents

(Robert Clampett/Meme

Allegretto

Baha's

Forty Thieves

(Popeve Special/ 1937)


(Burt Gillett/A Mickey

946) Porky

short in color

Lonesome Ghosts

Melodies/ 1 944); Bugs Bunny,

(Oskar Fischinger/ 1 98 1

Elmer Fudd
The Box

Mouse

Cartoon/1937): Mickey Mouse.

Donald Duck, Goofy

Ub

Iwerks Studio

Rhapsody

Bulloonland (aka The Pincushion

(I.

(I.

Cartoon/1935): Mickey Mouse,

Donald Duck, Goofy

Freleng/Merrie

(aka The Cracked Nut) (Walter


1

First

The Crunch Bird


Melodies/ 1 947); Bugs

Woody Woodpecker

Woody

Woodpecker cartoon

Crac
(Frederic Back/ 1 981)

Rafchit

Walter Lantz Studios

Lane/ 1 94
Trailer

(Murakami-Wolf Films/

Rivets

Man) (1935)

Mickey's Sen ice Station

(Ben Sharpstein/A Mickey Mouse

Freleng/Merrie Melodies/ 1 941)

Rhapsody

Mickey 's

lea

Terrytoons
Kitty

Poor Cinderella

(Burt Gilktt/Sillv S\-mphonies/


first

Bumess/1955); Mr. Magoo

Mclodics/1936)

(Color Classic/1934); Betty Boop;

1932);

UPA
When MaGoo

Singa

Cab

Rickard/Special/ 1938);

and

(Tex Averv/1945)

Calloway

Academy Award winner


Flowers

Shift Cinderella

Fluir-Ruismg Hare

(Inkwell Imps/ 1 928)

Bunny
(Maxell-Petok-Petrovich

Producrions/1971)

Rahhn Hood
(Charles

M. Jones/Meme
ErsaK

Melodies/ 1 9 50) Bugs

(Ben Sharpstein/A Mickey Mouse

Cartoon/1938); Mickey Mouse,

Bunny
(Zagreb Studios/ 1961)
Frank Film

Donald Duck, Goofy

(Frank Mouris/1973)

186

967)

Wackyland, Page 60:

and

The Funcs

Porfcv in

(Sarah Petty/ 1976)

rvboard sketches. Page 61: story-

Page 102:

board sketch; limited edition

Page 103: storyboard

Lupo

sto-

eel

C0.1! Black

You Ought

de Scbben Dwarfs,

and background.

eel

144:
All

and background. Page 62,

Page 104: model sheet. Page 105:

top:

(Danny Antennucd/1987)
storyboard sketch; bottom:

storyboard

Be in

Page

Pictures,

illustrations.

Butcher

the

to

photograph.

still

Baba Bunnv, Page 148: sketch

bv Chuekjones. Page 149, top:

illustration.

sketch by Chuekjones; bottom:

production background. Page 63:

Moonbird

Dcr

(The Huhlev Studios/ 1959)

storyboard sketch.

The

Gerald McBoing Being, Page 64:

Fuehrer's Face.

music

Street

color key by

(Carolyn Leaf/ 1976)

Herb Klynn and

Engel. Page 65: production

Your Face

The

illustration.

ride

song

Fuehrer's Face

|ules

CONTRIBUTOR CREDITS

more than

hit, selling

1.5 mil-

lion copies.

duction

r:

Little Pigs,

The

Page 72, top:

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eel

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11: ani-

Bamhi Meets Godzilla, Page

origi-

art.

Page 114: Steven

drawings.

115: production art

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Rabbit of Seville, Pages 74-75: lim-

The Big

Pages

54:

Red Riding Rabbit. Page 156.

Little

top:

Snil,

Page 155: produc-

art.

art.

Busustow and Ted Parmalee. Page

16-1

19: pro-

production

eel;

bottom: pro-

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Bottom:

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Page 76: background. Page 77:

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Rootv Toot Toot, Page 160: produc-

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Little Tailor,

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Page 153:

Leslie Cabarga,

Page 112: pro-

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Tell-Tale Heart,

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Page 73: animation

poster.

layout sketches

model

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Rural Riding Hood. Page

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model sheet drawings; bottom:

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ground. Page 3

Three

Initiation,

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animation drawings. Page

sheet.

Bimho's

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What's Opera, Doc?, Page 30: pro-

50:

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Little

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ILLUSTRATIONS AND

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ol

Feed

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Page 106: sheet

Steamboat WiBie, Page 78, top:

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concept sketch.

Duck Amuck, Page


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Page 121: publicity

by Les Clark. Page 79: animation

publicity

drawing by Les Clark.

background.

art.

Page 122:

36: re-created

and background. Page 38, cen-

art.

Page 123:

eel

and

The Cat Concerto, Page 162: animation drawings. Page 163: back-

Chuck

layout drawing by

ground painting trom The Cat


The Old Mill, Page 80: model

Jones.

Clock Cleaners, Page

24: poster;
Concerto, with eel

sheet;

The Band Concert, Pages 4041:

production

eels

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Ugo D'Orsi study

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production

a rclcrenec

Tom

cel.

animation drawings.

and backgrounds.

model
Page 42: production

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ol the mill.

Page 8 1
Northwest Hounded

and backstorybook

ground. Page 43: animation draw

Police,

Page
The Barber

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and Boom,

Toot, Whistle, Plunlc

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Century, Page 44: production eels.

Page 45: production

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The
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lilm.

Riihhit Seasoning,

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Book Revue, Page 172: model sheet.


Popeye tlx Sailor Meets Stndbad

Page 47: layout

drawing.

Sailor,

eel

eels.

the

Page 86: poster. Pages

88-89: production

One Froggy

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168-69: production

producnon
production

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The Great Piggy Bank Robbery, Page

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Pages

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Duck Dodgers

from another

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Quasi

The

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Quackadcro, Pages

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7-: production eels

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Gertie the Dmosiiiir,

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cel.

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187

So:

How
Most

oi

Find

to

the

fifty

greatest

cartoons can he seen

on

hroadcast television,
cable television, or

home video

50

the

Gerald McBoing Boing

Popeye the Sailor Meets Sindbad

Brave

TV: "Weinemllc'

the Sailor

TV: "Mickey's Mouse Tracks"

or "Cartoon

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272 East Deerpath

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189

P C.

20009

35

Index
Adamson.Joe.

51, 57. 59. Ill, 135.

166

Bugs Bunny and

the Three Bears.

4~- 55- 59' 65. 7i 7 2 80-81. 83,

186

Adiennircs of Pent -W ou. The, 20

Bugs Bunn\/Road Runner Movie, The. 20

Aesop's Film Fables.

Bugs Bunny Gets

Ali

1S6

Allegretto,

American

Show The", 20

"Bullwinklc

Allen. Robert. 129

Pete. 24,

Cabarga.

Leslie, 94.

25

.Alex, 19,

"Animaniacs

"Astro Bov", 19. 20

46-4-. j

15. 16. 38.

-7
.

59. 62.

68. 70-71, 77, 83. 111,127, 12 9-

J 73-

186

Babbit. Art, rS. 22-24, 2 9-

"Do-Do

"Calvin and the Lolonel

Donald Duck.

*4

Lannon, Robert,

14

Cannon, |ohnnv,

20-21

Data

Droopy.

138-39
162-5

Bambi Meets Godzilla, 154-55. 176

Charlie Dog, 22

Bond

Chimquv, Gerry, 145

40-43
166-167

Concert. The, 28.

Barber of Seville, The.

Barbera. Joseph, 16. 18, 20, 24-25. 129,

Barker. Cordelk
Bill.

128

24

in the

Green. Gene, 91

Grocning. Matt. 25

Gullna

130

bn imi-

<

Elmer Fudd,

Clampett, Bob, 15-16, 18-20. 22-24.47.

Ike".

Hardawav. Ben "Bugs". 24, 77

74,76. 133-36. 148. 1-8

186

Lcs. 43, 78.

Clock Cleaners, 28,

Hams. Ken, 135


Heckle and Jccklc, 17
Hilbcrman. Dave.

107

"Famous Adventures of Mr Magoo, The' 20

124-25

"Clutch Cargo", 20

Fjhuisiu, 23. 31, 35, 122, 130, 143,

Farmer Alfalfa, 13

the Beast. 2

Cohen. Karl 118. 145,175

Feed

Cohl. Emd.

Feline Follies, 1 3

2.

52

Reiman. Nancy, S3

Collvcr. Bud. 140

Benedict. Ed. 20

Colonel Fieeza Liar.

Bernard, [ami. 50. 155

"Colonel Bleep

Bcttv Boop. 14. 22-23.

9+

97> 99-100. 15-.

186
Big

Sflit,

Columbia

Pictures. 14. 16.

113-14, 160, 164, 181

The. 29,

116-19

Bimbo. 23. 94. 99-100, 152


Brnita's Initiation, 29,

132-53

Comv

Figaro,

18-19

Concerto. 29, 173,

185

Tonv,

Fischingcr,

178-79

Fichus,

Holmes. Sherlock, 84, 86-87

Hublev.John, 18-20. 24,67, 176, 114, 161


Hublcv Studios. 18"Hucklcbcrrv Hound", 20. 22, 164

Hurd.

146

Costello, Billv

Birth of a Nation,

105

"Courageous Cat and Minute Mouse

66

Fiaien't

Loxe

Oskar 176, 186

187

Fleischer, Dave, 97,

Black Fun'. 63

Crac, 168, 186

Blackton.J. Stuart, 10, 12, 52

Crandall. Roland (Doc).

20

Fleischer.

MeL

Blanc.

15, 18. 24, 38. 46. 47, 77, 136,

Bha Wolf, The, 59,187


Bluth.

Cruikshank.

Crunch

145- 170

Don, 20

Bluio. 89

[75

Bosko. 14, 47, 146,

Posustou Stephen.
.

Bouffier

9.

6-. 114, 181

Culhane, James (Shamus), 19, 22, 78. 166

Foghorn Leghorn,

Culhanc. |ohn. 107

For Scenumentd/ Reasons, 22,

Ub, 13-14.

Foster. Alan,

Daffy Duck. 15. 18. 22. 24. 29. 34. 36-38.

Foster.

145-46. 148. 170. 172-73

Box.Thc, 187

Dd/fy Doodles. 17

"Bozo the Clown", 20

Dalton. Carl. 24.

Bradicv. Scott, 162

Dandndgc. Vivian, 103

Little Tailor,

Bray.

J.

28.

120-123

164

186

Trees, 13, 15,

Ddflv Doc, The. 38

Jimmy

77

the

Cricket.

[ones. Charles

74

170

Frank Film, 187

Katzcnjammcr Kids. The.

Fred Flintstone 23

Kaufrnan, J.

Frclcng. Friz 20. 22-23, 2 5- I 7 -J 8. 38. 47.

Kicffcr,

77. 145-48,

187

Mike. 91

Ward.

Kimball.

130. 182

Kinnc\

Buckev and Pepito. 20

"Deputy Dawg", 20

Funcs, The,

Kj'tv Komcrcd,

Bugs Bunny,

Dcr Fuehrers

16-18, 21-22. 24, 29. 31,

Face, 29,

87

105-07

1 3, 1

-9

P.,

Fntz the Cat, 20

13.

lack,

68-71

107
186

Knight, Arthur. 65

3+35. 37-38.44,55.7+76-77. "8


6 H*- 157. r 73- 1 7%>
33 *35-

Dick Tracv, 20, 84, 87

Gallopm' Goucho.Thc, 14, 122

Kpight\ h^night Bugs. 18. 22.

Dictch. Gene, 20

Gerald McBomgBoing, 18-19. 2 8- >7>

kpko

kSx, 185, 186

Disney Studios. 14-17. 31. 34. 38,40-43.

64-67, 130

190

164

Kane. Helen, 23, too

Dcpatic-Frclcng Entcrpnscs, 19. 23. 146

77

33-35. 37-38. 44-

187

Kjng-Sizc Cdndrv,

Bryant. Arthur Q., 16.

''Jonnv Quest". 19-20, 22.

Fncdwald, Will. 165

15

47. 49, 51. 74, 76, 134-36, 148, 151,

Davis, Art, 135

R., 12. 13, 14,

"Chuck". 16-18, 21. 22,

Crcu. The. 16

Foxy, 14

Dandndge. Rubv, 103

164

24-23. 28-29,

182.

18. 22.

186

Johnston. Ollic. 80

170

Warren.

box and

23, 78. 92. tot,

Jackson. Wilfred. 78. 186

Ford, Greg, 76, 125, 136

44. 46-47. 63. 84. 86-87. I2 8,

73, 143

14, 18, 4T. 59. 146. 162.

"Jetsons. The". 19-20. 22.

Fion as and

Hxard. 169

Braic

101

Flintstones", 18-20. 22.

"Crusader Rabbit". 17, 19, 101

"BoingBoingShow. The". 19-20


Book Raut, 29, 170-73

Flip the Frog. 14,

"The

187

145-46

164, 173

9~. 99-101. 140, 142-3, 152. 162

Sally,

Bird. The,

Thomas,

Rudolph,

Fleischer Bros Studios, 15-16. 23. 29, 88.

Cnppcn. Fred. 20

Preston. 37. 59

46,

Iwcrks.
Blair.

Fiat, 15, 23.

Max, 12-13, 22 89. 91. 97. 143.

186

94

Got a

Smga. 18-

to

143
Ising,

Earl, 12. 13

Hurtz. William. 114, 181

Ingc,

"Red Pepper Sam". 91

Birds Anonymous,

Christmas", ig, 21

Huemer. Dick. 10-

Norm. -3

Ferguson. Otto, 43

Colng. Pinto. 73, 108


Condic, Richard,

184-85

186

the Bull,

Ferguson.

17,65,97,

14

Hublcv. Faith, 1-6

Fiolhnood, 22-23,

Fadinand

173

Felix the Cat. 13, 16. 37, 55. 92,

20

Honevmoon Hotel.
"How the Gnnch Stole

150-51

the Kitty, 29,

Felix in

178

186

Fast and Furrvous, 17, 74,

102-05. '73
19-20. 22

Hoberman.

Coal Black and de Sehbcn Duarfs. 28.

77
14. 18. 4-. 59, 46. 158, 162,

164. tji

Eshbaugh. Ted. 186

"Batman: The Animated Scncs". 4~

"Bcanv and Cecil

Fiarc,

Harman. Hugh.

Beaky Buzzard. 16
Bcalc. Eddie. 103

Hare Meets

186

Kent, 140

Gark.

19-20, 24-25. 129,

16. 18.

Happy Harmonics, 15
91

16. 22. 24, 29, 31. 35. 38, 44,

Eugster. Al 125

Gark
178

101

186

162. 164

Edwards. Giff"Ukclele

Churchill, Frank. 73

1-5. 1-8, 187

Barrier. Michael, 103,

Traicls. 12. 9-.

Hdir-Ruijing Hare,

Gampett. Bob, Jr.. 62

Bane, RaouL 15

Beuutv and

Gnfnn, George. 1-6

Cenrurv, 11.

'/i*

Education for Death, 107, 186

39

14

Baseball Bugs.

Great Piggy Bdnk Robben. The. 84-87. 173

16, 107,

Ersatz.

Barnacle

182-83

67

Hanna. William,

60, 62-3. 70. 84. 86-7. 103. 172-3,

164

43

34,

Grant. Joe, 10-

Hand, David. 186


I.Ji>i

162.

Gray. Milt, 182

Duck! Rabbit' Duck!, 135

Dumbo.

"Charlie Brouti Christmas. A", 19. 21

Gould. Chester, 84, 86-87

Graham. Graham.

Chaplin. Charles, 28. 50, 185

Bdtn6i, 16

29

Gracie Films. 25

44-47. 74
Duck Amuck, 29, 36-39

Back. The.

Cat Concerto, The.

41-42.

Dreams. 187

22

16. 18. 22, 127,

Duck Dodgers

Adnana. 155

Mv

Gontla

A", 20

Special,

Boys. The, 28,

"Captain Kangaroo Show, The". 20

Came

',

14. 15, 16. 17, 23, 38,

the Line, The,

Dr. Scuss, 65,

Champion. Ken. 18

186

Balloonland.

"Dooncsburv
Dot and

~8

19.

Cat

82-83

185

Captain Pete. -9

Caselotti.

Gordon. George.

the Kid from Outer Space

105, 107, 122, 124-25. 162. 181

52. 55. 118. 130.

Backus. Jim. 24

Bakshi, Ralph.

20

Canemakcr, lohn.

Casper 14, 17, 18

Blackic. 29.

"Goliath rr, 18

Goofy. 122. 124-5

100-101, 152

Dishes. 14,

Calloway, Cab, 94. 99-100. 186

Back. Frederic. 168. 169, 187

Bad Luck

Dizzx

52

Cambria Studio, 20

Antennucci, Dannv, 187

Averv.Tex.

186

Goojv Gophers, 22

Disney, Rov. 146


99.

55

"Gigantor". 20

58,

78-79, 114, 122. 146

14

Talc. .An, 21

Aficbon Auagh, 16

Anderson.

Gillett. Bert,

Disney, Walt, 13, 16, 18-19, 2I 2 3-4-43-

Bumess.

86

121-22, 124-25, 130. 155.


161-62, 178, 182, 186

1S7

the Boid,

Geronimi. Gvde. 21.

Gertie the Dinosaur, 22. 28. 12. 15. 52.

"Bugs Bunnv Show, The". 20

Baba Bunny, 148-49

92

94, 97. 100-101, 103, 105, 107.

the Clerun,

,85

3.

146

22. 23, 37. 94, 97, 152.

814

Kpko's Earth Control 186

Mouse Owning, 187

Rabbit of Seville,

Krazy Kat,

Moving Day,

Raggedy

15, 101,

1 3,

85

86

Talc of Two Kitties, A.

Ann and Andy.

20. 14, 101

186

Tasblin, Frank, 16. 18. 23, 62

Red Hot Riding Hood, 18, 22, 29, 16, 56-59

Tasmanian

Murakami -Wolf Films, 187

Reiniger, Lone. 14,

Tcll-Talc Heart, The, 19, 28,

LaCava, Gregory, 13, 101

Music Lund. 186

Tempo

Lady Play Your Mandolin, 14, 173

Mutt and Jeff,

Reithcrman, Wolfgang, 43, 125


"Ren and Stimpv Show, The", 21, 25

Ladv and

Muvbndge, Edward, 10

Republic Pictures, 97

Tcmtoons. 17-18, 19, 20,


Thomas. Frank. 80. 121
Thompson. Bill, 128

Mr. Magoo, 18, 20,

Kricfalusijohn, 25. 87, 89

Tramp, 14

the

24. 114, 181

185

12, 15,

Langer, Mark, 152


Lantz, Walter. 14, 16, 20, 22. 24, 101, III,

166-67. 186

Leaf. Carolyn, 176,

Rhapsodv

116, 139

Natwick,

187

Mvron "Grim",

Under, 21

Rn cts, 1 86

in

Thru

Road Runner.

Rocky and Bulhwnklc,

47

Rural Riding Hood, 29, 57,

Rabbit,

1
55
"Newly-weds, The", 12

Little

"Roger Ramjet

108-111
Watchman,

Night.

Nemo, 12-13, 22 5 2, *86


-

Northwest Hounded

'.

"Ruff and Ready".


126, 129

Lois Lane, 140

160-161

1 8.

Loonev Tunes,

OfdGrcy
46-47, 146. 170,

Old

Man

Hare, The,

186

Old MM, Ik, 15, 28, 80-83


One

Lucas. George.

Oswald the Lucky

44

Froggy Eiening, 29, 48-51.

Out of the

73

Inkwell,

74

the Butcher.

Paramount, 16, 19. 94. 9-, 99-100, 140,

142-43, 152
Parmalee. Ted.

Maltese, Michael 18, 20, 31.51, 62. 74,

Planted Trees, The. 29.

Marvin Martian, 22.

168-69

34,

Oozy,

Plane
B.,

57

McCay, Winsor,
55, 70.

10, 12, 13, 15, 22. 28. 52,

73
Plvmpton.

78-79, 122, 186

14,

Robert, 17, 38,47. 187


Pointer. The,

Melody,

21,

89. 186

Memtt,

14, 15, 17, 23, 38, 46, 146,

78

Messmcr, Otto,

79
18. 20. 22, 19,

22-23,

Pig, 18.

Porfcy in Wacfcyfand.

Porky 's

14-17. 57. 59, 68, 70, 85. 108, 127,

129, 146, 159, 162, 164, 187

Mickev Mouse, 22-23, 2 9> 4 I- 43- 5578-79, 89, 92, 100, 121-23, 124-25,

Duck Hunt,

Badume

Pncc, Michael

Miller, Jeff,

the

38, 46,

Story.

Owl

77

80

47

130

Pudgy, 23, 100

Pudovkm,

V.I.,

Moocher, 29,98-101, 105

Moore, Fred, -3, 121


Phil,

Warner. Jack,

186

140

Simensky, Linda, 139, 157

Who
Who

"Simpsons, the

Wicked Queen,

Symphonies.

",

Sinkm

14, 43, 92,

186

25

2,1,

Skeleton Dance, The, 14, 29,

and

nite,

Much for

So

Little,

28.

94, 103

W. R,

Willie

161

Whopper, 101

Willie the Giant,

Wist

169

\\ impv, 89

Winkler, M.J

22

Socictc Radio-Canada,

Cock Robin, 186

Williams, Richard, 101

92-93

the Seven Dwarfs,


43
94-97. 99, COI, 123, 155
Snvder Ken, 20

Snow

Killed

Wilkcrson,

Sinking of the Lusitania. 13

Sneru VVbitt

Framed Roger RabbiC, zi. 100.

Wild Hare, A, 16, 187


Wile E Covote, 20-21, 34

Bathtub, 14

in the

136

18,

\\ asham. Ben. 135

What's Opera. Doc?, 29, 30-36, 74


When Magoo Flew, 24, 1S6

185

Hen, The, 23

Little

Solomon, Charles, 92, 121, 169

"Wizards,", 20

Song of the South, 105


"Space Angel". 20

Wolf. The, 5-, 59, 108. 127. 157, 170


"\\ oodv \\ oodpeckcr Show The", 20

Speedy Gonzales. 22, 146

Woody W oodpecker. 14

Spielberg. Steven, 21,

166
Stalling, Carl, 15,

16. 17. 22, 24.

iox, 166, 186

145

18.47.92, 103, 135

Woolen

Adrian,

1
1

Stanford. Lcland. 10

83

Moonhird, 187

Moore,

46

145

Minnie Mouse, 78-79. 121


Minnie

5,

Private Snafu, 16, 34,

Professor

186

60-63, *73* *75

Duck Hunt,

Mickey's Service Station, 186

Miller, jack

140

Siegel, Jerry,

So
Party's
Parley's

Mickty'sTrailer,

Sinister, Joe,

Port's Hare Hunt, 16

Michigan J Frog, 22, 50-51

173 185

22-24, 38, 44, 46, 60, 62-63,

84, 136, 145-46, 162, 173, 178

185

MGM,

148, 151, 157, 162, 170, 172, 173, 182,

186, 187

88-91
Porkv

Russell,

the Sailor, 15,

3^. 37- 47- 49-

Seven Dwarfs, 55, 94, 122

Singer Sam, 20

Popeve the Sailor Meets Sindbad

3+

Senor Droopy, 187

Silly

Popcvc 14. 22-23, 2 9- 89. 9 1 97. 162


Popne uSe Sailor Meets Alt Safin's Forty Thieves,

100

3*

50, 60, 74, 128, 133, 136, 145, 146,

42

186

30

173.

Wardjav. 19-20. 25
\\ amcr Bros.. 16-25,

23

186

\\ alms. 99

Poor Cinderella, 100, 186

Mercer, Jack, 29. 89, 91

Memc Melodies,

Studios. 13.

Wallace, Ollie, 107

Show Biz Bugs. 38. 148

Mechanical Monsters, 186


Bill.

Sharpstcin, Ben.

127, 176, 187

Bill,

187

16, 18, 22, 1 11

Ted, 73
ofNimh, The, 20

Segar,

Poe, Edgar Allan, 113

McLaren, Norman, 119, 176

Melcndcz.

\ aughan. Llovd, 135

Pluto,

187

McfGmson,

130, 161, 181-2,

Van Beurcn

Seldes, Gilbert,

170

[United Production Artists), 14-15,

14

Scnbner. Rod, 18

187

harden. A, 19. 29. 180-81

in the

17, 18-20, 24, 29, 65. 67, 101, 113,

Pinocchio, 130
Pintoff. Ernest,

173

121

Universal Studios, 97

UPA

Screwy Squirrel,

Phink, The, 19, 22, 25

16, 18, 22. 24,48, 146,

Screwball Squirrel, 187

Secret

Pmk

17, zz. 4-, 146, r.87

Scrappy, 14

Scars.

44

Scott, Bill, 161

Pink Panther, 18, 22, 25, 146

MaxeU-Petok-Petrovich Productions, 187


Billy,

158-59

Pcpc LePcw, 17, 18, 22, 34


Petty. Sarah. 187

Mason, James, 113

Mayer, Louis

14

Peace on Earth, 29,

135-36, 145, 148


Maltin, Leonard, 12, 40, 46, 181

May,

147

20

Bill,

Unicom

Schwartz, Hack,

187

Plunk and Boom, 14.

136-37

Schneider, Steve, 35, 86. 148, 151, 172

Magoo's Puddle jumper, 24

Man Who

Tula,

Schmidt, Louis, 83

4""

20

ferry, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22, 24, 70,

Pic,

Twcctv,

14

Schlesinger, Leon, 24, 38, 47, 62, 145. 146.

Rabbit, 14, 22, 122

Lunick, Olga, 161

Lupo

Scaredy Cat. 186

Schlch. lack, 20

Love. Ed, 59

Lund}', Dick,

and

"Top Cat

Scarlet Pumpernickel, The,

OvL 89

Olive

Lord of the Rings, 12

72-73

186

130-31

164

Rvan. Will, 9

Salkin. Leo,

187

of the Mountain, The, 99,

65,

164, r86

162, 164, 165

Twtait

14, 23, 38,

112-115

14

Toon Adventures

Toot, Whistle,

20,

Lonesome Ghosts, 186


Long-Hatred Hare, 84

Tin-Tin, 21

Tom

20

Ross, Virgil, 18. 22, 103

Police. 11,

Little Pigs, 1 5,

the Mirror,

"Tom Terrific",

Rooty Toor Toot, 29, 101, 114,

The, 16

Noble. Maunce. 135

Lloyd, Harold, 125

Productions,

Paul 13. 16, 18

"Tinv

20, 25

Newland. Marv,

156-57

Red Riding

Thurber. [ames. 181

17, 18, 22, 25, 31, 34,

"Rocky and His Fncnds", 18

Little

Devil,

101

Newgarden, Mark, 70

Utile

em

Three

Packard, Dick, 186


Rikard. Dick, 80

23, 100,

"New Casper Cartoon Show, The". 20

Lend a Paw, 122

Rhapsodv Rabbit, 186

Nash, Garence, 23
National Film Board of Canada, The, 19,

Lane, Grace, 24
Laurel and Hardy, 155, 148

Levirow, Abe,

Down

Rescuers

176

Quasi

at the

Quackadcro, 28.

174-77

99
Quick Draw McGraw,

Quimby.

Fred, 129.

Steamnoat Wiilt, 13. 14, 28, 78-79, 122


Yellow Submarine,

Questal, Mae, 23.

Story of a Mosquito, The.

20.

164

164

Street.

The,

Sullivan. Pat,

Mother Goose Goes Hollywood, 186

Rabbit

Mouris, Frank, 187

Rabbit Hood. 187

Mouse o/Tomorrou>. 16

Rabbit Seasoning, 29, 74,

Fire,

Simsbmt Makers,

135. 148

Su ing
1

32-35. 148

52

100

the.

28. 97.

You Ought

140-43

186

Shift Cinderella, 5-,

108.

1 [,

20

Bear, 20, 22, 25, 164

Vosemitc Sam.
2,1,

Sylvester, 17. 22. 24,

191

2,

15-16. 23, 185

Superman, 16. 19.

161

187

to

17,

Be in

146
Pictures, }8,

Your Face, 187

186

58.47. 136. 146

Zagreb Studios. 18-19. *86

144- 14-

145

Acknowledgments
Putting this book together has been a
Mike

Dean

Jones,

Mark

Barrier,

Citters, Leslie Cabarga,

Manoogian, and Nancy Johnson

who lent us

the collectors

Deena

Lurte,

is

and

Stein

all.

Worth and Lew Stude

art directors

Emerson. Martv Moore, and Bee Edmunds Espv made

Ita

of

thank the contributors

who shared comments,

Golzman

King Features; Lucie Bourgoinoin

ot

Vintage Animation

Walsh and Karen Smith,

Michael

special cllorts, above

eel restoration, John

and bevond the

call ol

editors

King ofComedv and Bugs Bunny:

) ears

Fiji\

John and Dawn Altyn:

Leslie Cabarga:

ilm cntic lor the

Author

ol

John Canemaker: Author


and designer

The

ot

Fleischer Story;

Director of

Karl Cohen: President

of

1A animanon

John Culhane Writer

ol

commencal

on animation

at

New York

Making

of

and director

of

eek,

Nav

\ ork

Times,

and other

periodicals,

Looncv 7imcs and

of

Meme

Melodies;

Inge: Blackwcll Professor

ol

Humanities

at

The Animation

Pixcelation:

Greg Dundis: pp

Randolph-Macon

College,

80 bottom, 90, 9 r,

Garbage
Bill

Pail

"Entertainment Tonight "; author

ol

The Houston Chronicle.

pp. 32, 33,

12,

14,

17

p.

Enterprises: pp 74, 73, 149.


pp.

Filmart: pp. 72, 73 top, 120 bottom, izt, 122, 163 bottom.

49 top and

director;

coauthor

Will Ryan: Voice

ol several

artist

historian; cocrcator ot

The

center, 50 top and center, 51 top,

for

The Fort Worth Star-Telegram; film

books
for

Disney and

Don

Bluth; archivist tor

Elmo Aardvark.
Steve Schneider: Journalist; playwright; author
of the

Unda

Museum

of

Modem

Simcnsky: Director

of ASIFA.

of

Art

Warner

ol That's

All Folks

and guest curator

Bros. show.

animation development

lor

of Enchanted

Greg Martin/MacPhee Group:

Drou rngs.

bottom

left,

nght.

p. 30.

second from nght;

1 1

top,

109

top,

no,

11,

pp.

2-3

page spread

title

Martin, Cel-ebration: pp. 125, 148 bottom.

Museum

7.

of Modem Art Film


left,

Stills

Collection: pp. 10 top, 12, 13 bottom,

16 top.
1

19; 138, 139.

Mark Newgarden: pp 4 left, 3 67, 92 bottom.


Marv Nevvland, International Rocketship: pp
1

Greg Nunnally:

p.

80

5 nght,

54,

55.

top.

Cheryl Schatz Petrozelli: pp 19 nght top and bottom, 132,


by Carl Petrozelli.
Steve Schneider: pp. 4 second from

Nickelodeon. President

New York.

Charles Solomon: Book

pp

National Film Board of Canada: pp. 116,

director (Your Face).

and songwriter

Galleries:

Peter Merolo: pp. 40, 41, 96,

animanon

enne and cartoonist

160, 161, 180.

left.

Aaron Lakcn,

14 top

Price: Film

52 top, 54, 55, 64, 66, 67, 73 bottom,

5,

George Kurz:

Kids.

Plympton: Acclaimed animation

Michael H.

42.

Heller: p 59 nght.

Lhuckjones

Pam
for

p.

126, 131.

Of Mice and Magic.


Illustrator, designer,

60, 61, 62, 63; 85, 87; 102,

167, 178 top right

Mike and Jeanne Glad:

Kncfalusi: Creator of Ren and Stimpv.


for

left,

77

Howard Lowery

Leonard Maltin: Film correspondent

left.

Source: pp. 124, 162, 163 top,

second from

pp. 5

Heidi Leigh, Antmazing Gallery:

enne

Beck

156 bottom

top and center, 87, 100, 143

Comics as Culture.

Mark New garden:

The

Jerry

center, 81,

editor ot the University' of Mississippi's Studies in Popular Culture; 3uthor of

Jeff Miller: Film

Kellock.

Cruickshank: pp 1-4, 177.

Mark
animation, author of Cartoon Animation;

ol

left,

Harvey Entertainment;

producer of

Introduction to a Career.

John

Yammer; Susan

Cohen, House of Collectibles:

Sally

Bunnv

compilanons of vintage music.


Milt Gray: Produccr/director/vvnter

M. Thomas

pp 5

Steve Ferzoco: p.

Bros, shorts, including TIk Diaorcist and Blooper

Will Friedwald: Coauthor

Etti

Hvams; and Alan

103, 104, 105; 170-73, 178-79.


Joel

TIk

historian; coproducer of The Carl Stalling Project; cowriter

Warner

Erie Marshall. lav

164 bottom.

Francisco; animation historian specializing

and censorship
hJewsu

pp 48. 144
Animation: pp r 9

Bob Gampett Productions:

Bob Gampett Productions.

an Animate: J Film.

Greg Ford: Animanon

Canadian Broadcasnng System;

Cham Yammer;

Barrier:

&"

Bob Casino,

I 'niversitv

author of several books on Disney including Walt Disney's Fantasia and Aladdin;
l~hc

ol

Sammis,

John Canemaker: p 5^

artist.

history; producer, director,

animanon program

ASIFA San

lor

and wisdom with us and

Canadian Broadcasting System: pp. 168, 169.

)ork Post, author of First Films.

four books

of

Leslie Cabarga:

animation

Ncu

animation, head

ol

Bob Gampett, Jr.:

in early

Funnvworld; author of several volumes on comic books,

awaited history

insights,

pp. 21, 56.

Mike

[ami Bernard:

Lowery, Linda

duty, to improve the book.

documentaries

much

their

Kathv Buttler and Walton Rawls. _odic Spain, Lauren

Pat Ballew: pp. 43, 78, 79.

ol 3

and

text, time,

Lederer, Cheryl Chase,

O'Grady, Nancv Reiman, Karl Cohen, Antran

Lorri

and Onh One Grev Hare; award-winng director/wnter/editor of television

and

AndrewJ.

ILLUSTRATION CREDITS

ol Fc\ Avery:

ol

contributed artwork,

Wendv Horowitz, Raymond Spurn, Howard

Kiefcr,

and Corv Kazaks; Jacob and Rebecca Cherry;

or,

CONTRIBUTORS

Michael Barrier: Creator

who

Lorn Bond, Kathie Helppic, and Charles Gaitz of VVamer Bros Animation; Rob Gampett,

The Walt Disnev Company;

and Alvssa Miskofl; Dvlan, Trev

Stein; Michelle Stein; Jared

Mike

Ruth Gampett,

Catalog,

I'd like to especially

Mav oi Turner Entertainmcnt/MGM,


oi

of mv personal friends

all

below).

National Film Board ot Canada; Steve

Joe Adamson: Author

Lon

Steve Schneider, Paul Mular, Jcrc Guldin, Will Ryan, Linda Simcnsky,

Doug Rannev of Tnc Whole Toon

listed

Turner Publishing, including Michael Reagan,

staff at

efforts of project editor

dedicated to you

Howard Green and David Smith

The

at

book

this

artwork [both groups are

Addinonal thanks are due to Dick


Margaret Adamic,
|ohn Sirabella

thanks to the

Kausler, Leonard Maltin, John Kncfalusi, Steve Segal, Will Fnedwald,

V an

Diaz, Darrvl

ball,

Chuck Jones, Mike and Jeanne Glad,

specialized knowledge:

left,

65

top,

photography

nght, 34, 35 top, 38 center, 69, 76, 84

bottom, 150, 157 bottom.


Silverstone Galleries: pp. 52 bottom, 140 bottom, 142 top, 143 top/bottom nght.

critic for

the ios Angeles Tones; animation histonan; author

Richie Singer: pp. 44

left,

Andrew Weinstein: pp

47,
1

57

top.

bottom, ^5 bottom, 44 nght, 45, 46 bottom, 132;

photography by Evan Austin.

World's Greatest Posters:


by Aden
Steve

192

pp. 72 bottom,

88 nght,

Keith.

Worth, Vintage Animation:

pp. 65,

:o.

20 top,

30 top; photography

Jerry Beck has been involved in the animation industry


for

more than twenty

and numerous

Beck
and

years.

The author

on the subject of animation,

articles

also serves as consultant to

member

is a

of two books

The Cartoon Network

of the board of directors of ASIFA,

the international association of animators. Recently he

has been working on video discs of classic cartoons for

MGM,

Warner

Disney, and

new animation and

Also
The

Bros., as well as

lecturing in the

from Turner Publishing,

available

Flintstones:

producing

field.

Inc.:

Modern Stone Age Phenomenom,

by T. R. Adams

My

Life in 'toons,

by Joseph Barbera

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all

related indicia arc

copvnghts and trademarks of Warner Bros

1994

All rights reserved.

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all

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and trademarks of DC Comics.

1994

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all

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