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COMPRESSOR

Compressor is a mechanical device, which is used for increasing the


pressure/head of gaseous fluid
The process of compressing the fluid requires that work should be
expanded on it. Therefore the compressor must derive its motive power from
an external source, called its drive.
USES OF COMPRESSOR

To increase the pressure of various gases for process requirement.


To increase the pressure of refrigerant in refrigeration and air conditioning
system
To supply the compressed air in Gas Turbine for combustion of gases.
To compress air for various purpose like
-Boosting I. C. Engines
-Creating blast in Blast Furnace
-Paint spraying
-HVAC system
-Driving a wide variety of pneumatic tools and Mining M/c,etc

TYPES OF COMPRESSOR
C O M PR ESSO R S
P O S IT IV E D IS P L A C E M E N T
C O M P R E S S IN G F L U ID B Y R E D U C IN G V O L U M E O F C O M P R E S S IO N C H A M B E R
R E C IP R O C A T IN G
H E L IC A L S C R E W

R O TAR Y TYPE
S T R A IG H T L O B E

D Y N A M IC T Y P E
A C C E L E R A T IN G A N D D E C E L E R A T IN G O F F L U ID
C E N T IF U G A L C O M P R E S S O R

VANE BLO W ER

Types of centrifugal compressor


Horizontally split Compressor

Model Type MCL/2MCL/3MCL/DMCL


Where MCL stands for Meridiane Compressori Libro
Cast / Fabricated Casing
Pressure up to 40 ata
Services: Air/Ammonia/Propylene/Wet gas

Vertically Split Compressor

Model Types BCL/2BCL/DBCL/ BCLa/BCLb/BCLc/BCLd


Where BCL stands for Barrel Compressori Libro
Forged Casing ( Barrel)

A X IA L C O M P R E S S O R S

Pressure up to 700 ata


Service: Syn Gas, CO2 etc

Types of Centrifugal Compressor


PCL Compressor

Model Type: PCL


Suction & Delivery positioned sideways opposite each other
Pipeline Application

SRL Compressor

Model Type: SRL Shroudless


Low Pressure Services
Several Shafts with over hang impellers
Open Type Impellers
Impeller Inlet is Coaxial & Outlet is tangential
Very High Polytropic Efficiency

Type / Size Designation


Example:
2
BCL 30
6
a
-

2 BCL 306 a
Functional Feature (Compressor. Stages in series)
Constructional Feature (Barrel Type)
Nominal Dia of impeller (30 cms)
No. of Impellers ( 6 impellers on rotor)
Pr. Rating ( up to 200 ata)

Industrial Application of Centrifugal Compressor


Type of Plant
Fertilizers
Refineries
Petrochemical Plants
Metallurgical Plants

Gas Compressed
Syn Gas, NH3.Air, Co2, Nitrogen, Oxygen
Air, Wet Gas, Hydrogen
Propane, Propylene, ethylene
Oxygen, Air, Gas

PRINCIPLE OF CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR


Kinetic energy of the gas is increased by centrifugal action of impellers. This
kinetic energy is converted into pressure energy by a device called diffuser.
Modern practice is to design the compressor so that about half the pressure
rise occurs in the impeller and half in the diffuser.

ADVANTAGES OF CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Occupy less space.


Less maintenance cost.
Higher volumetric capacity.
Less noise.
Less initial investment.
Contamination
of
oil
negligible.

DISADVANTAGES

with

compressed

OF CENTRIFUGAL

gas

is

almost

COMPRESSOR

1. Minimum capacity limitation.


2. Operation becomes unstable below around 50% of the design capacity
at design speed. This phenomenon is called SURGE.
3. Developed head is less. Multi - stage compression is required
for higher pressure.

CURVE

% Head

CONSTANT SPEED
PERFORMANCE

Head

**

Efficiency

%HP

Efficiency

Horsepower

**

Volumetric flow

FOR
Discharge Press psia

SELECTION
CRITARIA
COMPRESSORS

Centrifugal
Reciprocating

DESIGN

Axial
flow

EQUATIONS

Inlet

flow, acfm

DESIGN

EQUATIONS

Q1 = W V1 = W / 1 = W z 1 R T / P1 144
Defines the volumetric flow under inlet conditions.
HP = Z m R T1 {K n P /(K - 1)} [{P2 / P1}
Polytropic Head Equation.

(K - 1) / K n

(1)

- 1]

(2)

G . HP = W HP / 3300 nP
Gas horsepower equation
Q1
W
V1
1
Z1
R
T1
P1
HP
Zm
K
P2
nP
G.HP

Inlet flow, cfm


Total mass thruput , lb / min
Specific volume at inlet condition, cft /lb
Density at inlet condition, lb / cft
Inlet compressibility factor
Universal gas constant
Inlet temperature, absolute ( F + 460)
Inlet pressure, psia
Polytropic head, ft - lb /lb
Mean compressibility factor
Specific heat ratio, CP / Cv
Discharge pressure, psia
Polytropic efficiency
Gas horse power

Decrease in inlet temperature will cause increase in discharge pressure,


density, mass flow and hence increase in horsepower, while other
conditions remain same.
Decrease in inlet pressure will cause decrease in discharge pressure,
density, and mass flow and hence decrease in horsepower, while other
conditions remain same.
Increase in MW will cause increase in discharge pressure, density, and
mass flow and hence increase in horsepower, while other conditions
remain same.
Decrease in K causes increase in discharge pressure.

MULTISTAGE

COMRESSION

Multistage compression is used in


centrifugal
compressors
to
develop a higher head at a high
efficiency/lower
power
requirement.
Interstage cooling is introduced to
increase efficiency by approaching
isothermal operation.

Pressure

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

(3)

Adiabatic
compression
Isothermal
compression

Volume

Interstage separator is
used after the cooler to remove moisture/
condensate, which may cause damage to the machine e.g. high vibration,
rotor unbalance, pitting, corrosion of impellers, and clogged
diffuser
passages, etc.
Better mechanical balance is achieved by back-to-back arrangement of
adjacent stages.
The shaded portion represents the work saved in multistage compression
with intercoolers.

COMPRESSOR CASING & BEARING

Two types of casings are in use for multistage centrifugal compressors.


Horizontally
split
(MCL
type): used
up to
40 ata.
Barrel type / vertically split (BCL): used above 40 ata.
The compressor rotor is subjected to an axial thrust towards the suction
due to differential pressure between suction and discharge. To minimize
this thrust a back-to-back arrangement of successive stages is provided
in case of multistage compressors.
A balance drum absorbs the thrust partially (about 90%). Rest is
absorbed by thrust bearing.
Journal bearing pads dampens the radial vibration of the rotor.

SEALS

Labyrinth seals are used to reduce as leakage, between stationary and


rotating parts.
Also to prevent reverse flow of gas between the stages and between
discharge and suction of each impeller, labyrinth seals are used.
They are also used in balancing drum to minimize the gas leakage
between the two faces.
A set of labyrinth seals are provided to prevent gas leakage between the
final discharge and intermediate stages. End seals are provided at both
ends of shaft to prevent gas leakage from inside of the compressor to the
surroundings.
If the gas is not expensive and non-hazardous labyrinth seals are
provided at both ends.
If the gas is expensive/toxic/poisonous/explosive oil seals are provided
along with labyrinth seals.
When oil seals are not advisable labyrinth seal is properly supplemented
by inert gas sealing.
Labyrinth seals are made up of corrosion-proof, light alloy relatively softer
than the material of shaft and impeller so to prevent any damage to the
later.

MINIMUM LABYRINTH CLEARENCE

Compressor efficiency increases when clearance in inter-stage labyrinth is


minimized. But when the rotor becomes slightly unbalanced or vibration
occurs from another source, the seals will wear rapidly.
So if clearance is increased, efficiency will decrease and allowing greater
leakage.
To prevent this, we specify that the minimum clearance is equal to the
sum of
o Bearing clearance.
o Rotor run out at the seal due to its weight.
o A given amount of mass unbalance.

LUBE OIL/SEAL OILSYSTM

Lube oil is supplied at journal and thrust bearings and couplings at a


definite pressure. Oil supply pressure may be increased in case of
increase in bearing temperature.
A lube oil accumulator is provided to maintain oil pressure during oil pump
changeover on auto.
Part of the lube oil is used as seal oil. Apart from preventing gas leakage
seal oil also serves the purpose of seal cooling.
Seal oil flows at the outer side of the labyrinth seal whose pressure is
always greater than the pressure of reference gas, which is at the inner
side.
A part of the seal oil, which mixes with the reference gas, is known as
sour oil. Sour oil is degassed before returning to the oil reservoir.
The system is provided with overhead lube oil tank to continue supply of
oil when both oil pumps (online and standby) has
stopped
working,
ensuring safety of machine parts.
A barring gear operated by oil pressure is provided to prevent sagging of
the shaft due to heating or cooling and also ensure uniform
heating/cooling, when the machine is not running.

WHAT CAUSES SURGE


Surging takes place due to sudden changes in process condition. These are
as follows:

Reduced molecular weight.


Higher suction temperature.
Lower suction pressure.
Higher discharge pressure.
Lower speed of machine for variable speed machine.

If molecular weight of a constant speed machine is suddenly reduced so


compressor must now deliver a greater Polytropic head to overcome same
backpressure at discharge with low-density gas, so it will pump less gas.
A compressor is said to be surging, when
there is a sudden reversal of flow through
the machine.

UNSTABLE

PRESSURE RATIO

The head developed by a compressor


depends on its speed. When the head or
pressure in the system increases beyond the
head developed by the compressor, the
compressor will not be able to deliver the
gas to the system. At this stage, the gas will
try to flow back into the impellers and
whereas the impellers try to blow the gas
out. This causes an unsteady condition. This
phenomenon is known as surge.

STABLE

100%
SPEED
90%
SURGE LINE

80%

INLET VOLUME

Trouble free operation can be expected if the compressor is operated at the


right side of surge line Of any compressor as shown in figure.
SURGE

AT
SPEED

CONSTANT
UNSTABLE
b

PRESSURE

Surge taking place due to


increase
of
delivery
pressure.
FIG ( 2 )

STABLE

a
d

*
c

110%

100% SPEED
90%

SURGE LINE

80%

FLOW (Q)

SURGE
CONSTANT
CONDITION

UNDER
PRESSURE

PRESSURE

Surge taking place when gas


flow is reduced, hence speed
also
reduced to maintain
system pressure

UNSTABLE

STABLE

b
*

*
d
*

* c

110%
100% SPEED
90%

SURGE LINE
FLOW (Q)

80%

WHAT

IS

SURGE

CYCLE

In fig (2) a is a normal operating point. When pressure increases, the


point will move along the line.
At point b compressor cannot overcome head and back flow starts and
no discharge.
System pressure falls and corresponds to point c .
Once pressure falls the compressor starts discharging and the point will
move to d on speed curve.
Again i will build up pressure to reach normal operating pointa. This is
one surge cycle.
Depending upon speed of compressor and its mechanical strength, it can
withstand 100 - 2000 surge before thrust bearing fails.

EFFECT

OF

SURGE

When a machine is operated under surge conditions for a long time, The
pressure force can damage the internals of machine.
It absorbs approximately 10% more powe. Excess power is converted into
heat, causes excessive temp. rise inside the compressor, if conditions are
severe enough, can damage shaft & balance piston labyrinth. This will affect
the rotor balancing and overload thrust bearing. If thrust
bearing
fails
the rotor will shift axially and impeller will rub against stationary
parts of casing causing severe damage.
STONE

WALL

EFFECT

The upper limit of capacity is determined by the phenomenon of STONE


WALL.
Stonewall occurs when the velocity of the gas approaches its sonic
velocity somewhere in compressor.
Sonic barrier is generally reached at the eye of the compressor.
Shock waves result which restrict the flow,causing a choking effect, rapid
fall off in the discharge pressure for a
slight increase in volume
throughput.
Stonewall is usually not a problem when compressing air and lighter
gases, however in compressing gases heavier than air, problem become
more prevalent.

PERFORMANCE
OF
VARIABLE SPEED

CENTRIFUGAL

COMPRESSORS

WITH

The performance of centrifugal compressors, at speed other then design,


are such that the capacity will vary directly as speed, the head developed

as square of the speed, and the required horse power as the cube of
speed.
With variable speed, the compressor easily can deliver constant capacity
at variable pressure, variable capacity at constant pressure, or a
combination of variable capacity and variable pressure.
By varying speed, the centrifugal compressors will meet any load and
pressure demanded by the process within the operating limits of the
compressor and the driver.

The type of control used depends


first on compressor driver. For
turbine driven compressors, normal
control is accomplished by varying
the speed.
Speed control is more efficient than
throttling the flow at constant
compressor
speed
since,
by
artificially creating resistance, an
unrecoverable loss of power results.
For motor driven compressors, the
control can become more intricate.
Common methods are:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Speed control.
Inlet throttling.
Adjustable inlet guide vanes.
Antisurge control

CRITICAL

Percent 100%
horsepower

FACTORS AFFECTING DECISION OF CONTROL

Unthrottled
Suction throttling

Surge
limit
line

Adjustable
guidevane
Speed control

Percent inlet capacity

100%

SPEED

Every compressor/turbine shaft has a particular length, diameter weight,


volume, contour of shaft or configuration of the shaft, material of
construction and mountings.
For the above factors the compressor/turbine shaft itself has particular
frequency one or more than one, called the natural frequency of the shaft.
For practical reasons mass centre of the shaft never coincides with the
geometric axis. As a result, when the shaft rotates by any driving force,
then there will be a transverse force whose direction of rotation at the
same speed as the shaft with a particular frequency. This frequency is
called rotor frequency or shaft frequency.
At a particular RPM when the natural frequency of the rotor or shaft,
coincides with the rotor or shaft frequency, then there will be a resonance,
causing excessive vibration and hence tending to deflect the shaft. That
RPM or speed is known as critical speed.

There may be one or more than one critical speed.


Operating speed must be beyond the range of critical speeds.

ANTISURGE CONTROL
Safety
on

Hp * Ps

Purpose of antisurge control is to


maintain a minimum flow through
the compressor so as to avoid
conditions leading to surge.
This can be achieved by providing
at the discharge
1. A bleed valve (for cheap/non
- toxic gases)
2. A
recycle
valve
(for
costly/toxic gases)

RT

SO

Ps = Suction pressure

Surge limit line represents the locus of all points where flow is minimum
and pressure is maximum.
Control action starts at a point located at the design margin of safety from
the surge limit line. Locus of all such points is called surge control line.
Distance of operating point from the SCL is known as deviation. It has a
positive value at the right side of the SCL, negative at the left side.
If the combined PID response of the controller is not able to maintain a
minimum margin of safety, the open loop Recycle Trip response opens the
antisurge valve in rapid, repetitive steps.

If
unanticipated
circumstances
do
produce a surge, Safety On response
redefines the surge limits to stop the
surge after a single cycle.

RT output

Flow input

Margin of
safety

Suction pressure
Discharge pressure
F low through the machine
Speed of rotation

Hp = Polytropic head

Recycle trip
line

Surge control
line

The parameters taken into account


for antisurge control are:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Surge
limit
line

Slow closing

Quick
opening

Time